GRASS (Geographic Resources Analysis Support System) is a Geographic
Information System (GIS) used for geospatial data management and
analysis, image processing, graphics/maps production, spatial
modeling, and visualization. GRASS is currently used in academic and
commercial settings around the world, as well as by many governmental
agencies and environmental consulting companies.
cairodriver.1grass The Cairo driver generates PNG, BMP, PPM, PS, PDF or SVG images by GRASS display commands, using the Cairo graphics library. The image format is selected from... database.1grass Geographic Resources Analysis Support System, commonly referred to as GRASS, is a Geographic Information System (GIS) used for geospatial data management and... databaseintro.1grass Attribute management in general GRASS can be linked to one or many database management systems (DBMS). The db.* set of commands provides basic SQL support for... d.barscale.1grass d.barscale displays a barscale on the graphics monitor at the given screen coordinates. If no coordinates are given it will draw the barscale in the bottom left... db.columns.1grass db.columns lists all columns for a give table. Connection to databases are supported through dbf, shp, odbc and pg drivers. db.connect.1grass db.connect allows the user to set database connection parameters. These parameters are then taken as default values by modules so that the user does not need to... db.copy.1grass db.copy allows the user to copy a table between two databases. Databases can be connected through different drivers (see examples below). db.createdb.1grass db.createdb allows the user to create a new empty database through different drivers. A working database connection needs to be established, see db.login... db.databases.1grass db.databases lists all databases for a given driver and optionally location. db.describe.1grass db.describe displays table information. If parameter -c is used only column names instead of full column descriptions is given. db.dropcolumn.1grass db.dropcolumn drops a column from an attribute table. If the -f force flag is not given then nothing is removed, instead a preview of the action to be taken is... db.dropdb.1grass db.dropdb removes an existing database using given database driver. Currently only SQLite and PostgreSQL database drivers are supported. db.droptable.1grass db.droptable drops an attribute table. If the -f force flag is not given then nothing is removed, instead a preview of the action to be taken is printed. db.in.ogr.1grass db.in.ogr imports attribute tables in various formats as supported by the OGR library on the local system (DBF, CSV, PostgreSQL, SQLite, MySQL, ODBC, etc.)... db.login.1grass db.login sets login parameters such an user name and optionally also a password, a hostname or a port for the connection to the selected database through the DB... db.out.ogr.1grass db.out.ogr exports GRASS GIS attribute tables into various formats as supported by the OGR driver on the local system (CSV, DBF, PostgreSQL, SQLite, MySQL... db.select.1grass db.select prints result of selection from database based on SQL statement read from input file or from standard input to standard output. db.test.1grass db.test tests database driver and database server running set of SQL queries. Database must exist and connection must be set by db.connect. db.univar.1grass db.univar calculates basic univariate statistics for numeric attributes in a data table. It will calculate minimum, maximum, range, mean, standard deviation... d.colorlist.1grass d.colorlist report the available color names. The list contains all available display colors with a configurable separator (default is comma). d.colortable.1grass d.colortable is used to display the color table associated with a raster map in the active frame on the graphics monitor. The map name should be an available... d.correlate.1grass d.correlate displays graphically the results of a r.stats analysis run on two raster map layers. This module highlights the correlation (or lack of it) among... d.erase.1grass d.erase erases the contents of the active graphics frame, and replaces it with the color black (by default) or by whatever color is specified by the user. d.font.1grass d.font allows the user to select use of a specific text font for display of text on the graphics monitor. If the user does not specify a font when using other... d.fontlist.1grass d.fontlist outputs a list of available fonts for use with GRASS display commands. d.geodesic.1grass d.geodesic displays a geodesic line in the active frame on the user’s graphics monitor. This is also known as the great circle line and traces the shortest... d.graph.1grass d.graph draws graphics that are described either from standard input (default), or within a file (if an input file name is identified on the command line). If... d.grid.1grass d.grid overlays a grid of user-defined size and color in the active display frame on the graphics monitor. The grid can be created as a standard rectangular... d.his.1grass HIS stands for hue, intensity, and saturation. This program produces a raster map layer providing a visually pleasing combination of hue, intensity, and... d.histogram.1grass d.histogram displays the category-value distribution for a user-specified raster map layer, in the form of a bar chart or a pie chart. The display will be... d.info.1grass d.info displays information about the active display monitor. Display monitors are maintained by d.mon. display.1grass Geographic Resources Analysis Support System, commonly referred to as GRASS, is a Geographic Information System (GIS) used for geospatial data management and... displaydrivers.1grass The current command line rendering mechanism is direct rendering into a file. The driver is selected by setting the GRASS_RENDER_IMMEDIATE variable or by... d.labels.1grass d.labels displays a paint label file in the active display frame on the graphics monitor. Each label has components which determine the text, the location of... d.legend.1grass d.legend displays a legend for a user-specified raster map or 3D raster map layer in the active frame on the graphics monitor. The legend’s default size is... d.linegraph.1grass d.linegraph is a primitive program to draw simple x,y line graphs based on numerical data contained in separate files. Data file format The X and Y data files... d.mon.1grass d.mon allows the user to start, select, list, release, and stop available graphics monitors.Starting a monitor In order to display on-screen GRASS graphics, the... d.northarrow.1grass d.northarrow displays a north arrow symbol the graphics monitor at the given screen coordinates. If no coordinates are given it will draw the north arrow in the... d.out.file.1grass d.out.file saves the content of the currently selected monitor into graphic file. The active monitor can be selected with d.mon. d.out.file can be run from GUI... d.path.1grass d.path enables shortest path vector networking. Costs may be either line lengths, or attributes saved in a database table. Supported are cost assignments for... d.polar.1grass d.polar calculates and displays a polar diagram of an angle raster map such as aspect, wind direction, or flow. The input angle map orientation must be... d.rast.1grass d.rast displays the specified raster map in the active display frame on the graphics monitor. d.rast.arrow.1grass d.rast.arrow is designed to help users better visualize surface water flow direction, as indicated in an aspect raster map layer. There are two ways to specify... d.rast.edit.1grass The d.rast.edit program allows users to interactively edit cell category values in a raster map layer displayed to the graphics monitor using a mouse cursor. d.rast.leg.1grass d.rast.leg shows a raster map along with its legend. It first clears the entire screen, then divides it into a main (left) and a minor (right) frames, and... d.rast.num.1grass d.rast.num overlays cell category values onto a raster map layer displayed on the user’s graphics monitor. Category values will be displayed in the text color... d.redraw.1grass d.redraw redraws the content of the currently selected monitor. The active monitor can be selected with d.mon. d.rgb.1grass RGB stands for red, green, and blue. d.rgb visually combines three raster maps to form a color image. For each map, the corresponding component from the layer’s... d.rhumbline.1grass A rhumbline (loxodrome) is a line following a constant angle of the compass (i.e., a line of constant direction). It crosses all meridians at the same angle... d.shade.1grass d.shade will drape a color raster map over a shaded relief map. In place of shaded relief, any raster map can be used including aspect or slope. The color... d.text.1grass d.text draws text in the active display frame on the graphics monitor. Text can be provided through standard input or redirected from a file (using the UNIX... d.title.1grass d.title generates to standard output a string which can be used by d.text to draw a TITLE for the raster map layer name in the active display frame on the... d.to.rast.1grass d.to.rast saves the content of the currently selected monitor into a raster map. The active monitor can be selected with d.mon. d.to.rast can be run from GUI... d.vect.1grass d.vect displays vector maps in the active frame on the graphics monitor. d.vect.chart.1grass d.vect.chart displays charts for GRASS vector data in the active frame on the graphics monitor. d.vect.thematic.1grass d.vect.thematic draws thematic choropleth vector maps based on an attribute column or an expression involving several columns. It takes a list of class breaks... d.what.rast.1grass d.what.rast d.what.rast outputs the category value(s) associated with user-specified location(s) in user-specified raster map layer(s). The active monitor can... d.what.vect.1grass d.what.vect d.what.vect outputs the category value(s) associated with user-specified location(s) in user-specified vector map layer(s). The active monitor can... d.where.1grass d.where is an interactive program that allows the user, using the pointing device (mouse), to identify the geographic coordinates associated with point... full_index.1grass Geographic Resources Analysis Support System, commonly referred to as GRASS, is a Geographic Information System (GIS) used for geospatial data management and... g.access.1grass This program allows the user to control access to the current mapset. Normally, any user can read data from any GRASS mapset. But sometimes it is desirable to... g.cairocomp.1grass g.cairocomp isn’t meant for end users. g.cairocomp is similar to g.pnmcomp, except that it works with X Pixmaps instead of PNM files. g.copy.1grass A user may access data stored under the other mapsets listed in their mapset search path. However, the user may only modify data stored under their own current... g.dirseps.1grass g.dirseps is an internal tool only. It copies input string to stdout, changing directory separator characters as specified by flags. It is used for... general.1grass Geographic Resources Analysis Support System, commonly referred to as GRASS, is a Geographic Information System (GIS) used for geospatial data management and... g.extension.1grass g.extension downloads and installs, removes or updates extensions (addons) from the official GRASS GIS Addons repository or user-specified source into the local... g.extension.all.1grass g.extension.rebuild.all reinstalls and updates all locally installed GRASS Addons extensions in local GRASS installation. The extensions can be installed by... g.filename.1grass g.filename is designed for Bourne shell scripts that need to know the full file name, including it’s path, for mapset elements, like raster, vector and site... g.findetc.1grass g.findetc is designed for Bourne shell scripts that need to search for support data, programs and subfoldrs in any number of directories as specified in... g.findfile.1grass g.findfile is designed for Bourne shell or Python scripts that need to search for mapset elements, including: raster, vector maps, region definitions and... g.gisenv.1grass When a user runs GRASS, certain variables are set specifying the GRASS data base, location, mapset, peripheral device drivers, etc., being used in the current... g.gui.1grass The g.gui module allows user to start the Graphical User Interface (GUI) from the command line prompt or to change the default User Interface (UI) settings... g.gui.animation.1grass The Animation Tool is a wxGUI component for animating series of GRASS raster or vector maps or space time datasets (created by t.* modules). g.gui.dbmgr.1grass The Attribute Table Manager is a wxGUI compoment to query, edit, and manage attribute data for vector maps. The attribute table manager can be launched by... g.gui.gcp.1grass The GCP Manager is a wxGUI extension which allows the user to create, edit, and manage Ground Control Points. It is available from the menu "File | Manage... g.gui.gmodeler.1grass The Graphical Modeler is a wxGUI component which allows the user to create, edit, and manage complex models using easy-to-use interface. When performing... g.gui.iclass.1grass Supervised Classification Tool (wxIClass) is a wxGUI compoment which allows the user to create training areas and generate spectral signatures. The resulting... g.gui.mapswipe.1grass The Map Swipe is a wxGUI component which allows the user to interactively compare two raster maps of the same area by revealing different parts of the raster... g.gui.psmap.1grass wxGUI Cartographic Composer also called wx.psmap is a wxGUI extension which allows the user to create interactively hardcopy map outputs. This tool generates... g.gui.rlisetup.1grass The g.gui.rlisetup is a wxGUI component which allows the user to create a configuration file for the analytical r.li modules. For a general introduction, see... g.gui.timeline.1grass The Timeline Tool is a wxGUI component which allows the user to compare the extents of temporal datasets (strds, stvds, str3ds) in a plot. g.gui.tplot.1grass The Temporal Plot Tool is a wxGUI component which allows the user to see in a plot the values of one or more temporal datasets (strds, stvds, str3ds) for a... g.gui.vdigit.1grass The vector digitizer is a wxGUI component intended for interactive editing and digitizing vector maps (see v.edit for non-interactive vector editing GRASS... g.list.1grass g.list searches for data files matching a pattern given by wildcards or POSIX Extended Regular Expressions. g.manual.1grass g.manual display the manual pages of GRASS in HTML and MAN format. g.mapset.1grass g.mapset changes the current working MAPSET, LOCATION, or GISDBASE. This is a fairly radical maneuver to run mid-session, take care when running the GUI at the... g.mapsets.1grass For basic information about GRASS mapset, location and data base refer to GRASS Quickstart. A mapset holds a distinct set of data layers, each relevant to the... g.message.1grass This program is to be used in Shell/Perl/Python scripts, so the author does not need to use the echo program. The advantage of g.message is that it formats... g.mkfontcap.1grass g.mkfontcap is a utilty to generate a GRASS font configuration file ("fontcap") containing details of the fonts available on the current system. If Freetype is... g.parser.1grass The g.parser module provides full parser support for GRASS scripts, including an auto-generated GUI interface, help page template, and command line option... g.pnmcomp.1grass g.pnmcomp isn’t meant for end users. It’s an internal tool for use by wxGUI. In essence, g.pnmcomp generates a PPM image by overlaying a series of PPM/PGM pairs... g.ppmtopng.1grass g.ppmtopng isn’t meant for end users. It’s a utility to convert between PPM/PGM and PNG image formats. g.proj.1grass g.proj provides a means of converting a co-ordinate system description (i.e. projection information) between various formats. grass7.1grass This command is used to launch GRASS GIS. It will parse the command line arguments and then initialize GRASS for the user. Since GRASS modules require a... grass-mesql.1grass MySQL database driver in GRASS enables GRASS to store vector attributes in MySQL embedded database without necessity to run MySQL server. grass-mysql.1grass MySQL database driver enables GRASS to store vector attributes in MySQL server. Because vector attribute tables are created automatically when a new vector is... grass-odbc.1grass Communication between GRASS and ODBC database for attribute management: grass-pg.1grass PostgreSQL database driver enables GRASS to store vector attributes in PostgreSQL server. g.region.1grass The g.region module allows the user to manage the settings of the current geographic region. These regional boundaries can be set by the user directly and/or... g.remove.1grass g.remove removes data files matching a pattern given by wildcards or POSIX Extended Regular Expressions. If the -f force flag is not given then nothing is... g.rename.1grass g.rename allows the user to rename data base element files in the user’s current mapset. The user can specify all necessary information to g.rename on the... g.search.modules.1grass g.search.module searches for given keyword in GRASS modules name, description, keywords and optionally manpages too. g.tempfile.1grass g.tempfile is designed for shell scripts that need to use large temporary files. GRASS provides a mechanism for temporary files that does not depend on /tmp... g.version.1grass g.version prints to standard output the GRASS version number, date, the GRASS GIS copyright (-c flag), and GRASS build information (-b flag). helptext.1grass GRASS GIS, commonly referred to as GRASS (Geographic Resources Analysis Support System), is a free Geographic Information System (GIS) software used for... htmldriver.1grass The HTML driver allows the generation of HTML image maps for area vector data. HTML image maps are used in conjunction with images to provide unique URL targets... i.albedo.1grass i.albedo calculates the albedo, that is the Shortwave surface reflectance in the range of 0.3-3 micro-meters. It takes as input individual bands of surface... i.aster.toar.1grass i.aster.toar calculates the Top Of Atmosphere (TOA) reflectance for Terra-Aster L1B in the visible, NIR and SWIR bands (9+1 bands) and brigthness temperature... i.atcorr.1grass i.atcorr performs atmospheric correction on the input raster map using the 6S algorithm (Second Simulation of Satellite Signal in the Solar Spectrum). A... i.biomass.1grass i.biomass calculates the biomass growth for a day after . i.cca.1grass i.cca is an image processing program that takes from two to eight (raster) band files and a signature file, and outputs the same number of raster band files... i.cluster.1grass i.cluster performs the first pass in the two-pass unsupervised classification of imagery, while the GRASS module i.maxlik executes the second pass. Both... i.colors.enhance.1grass i.colors.enhance auto-balances and enhances the color channels of a RGB image (e.g. from Landsat) to provide a more natural color mixture. Only the color table... i.eb.eta.1grass i.eb.eta calculates the actual evapotranspiration (ETa ; mm/d) for diurnal period after , implemented in . It takes input of Diurnal Net Radiation (see... i.eb.evapfr.1grass i.eb.evapfr calculates the evaporative fraction after . Main implementation in . It takes input of Net Radiation (see r.sun, i.eb.netrad), soil heat flux... i.eb.hsebal01.1grass i.eb.hsebal01 will calculate the sensible heat flux map (h0), given both maps of Net Radiation and soil Heat flux (Rn, g0) at instantaneous time, the surface... i.eb.netrad.1grass i.eb.netrad calculates the net radiation at the time of satellite overpass, the way it is in the SEBAL model of Bastiaanssen (1995). It takes input of Albedo... i.eb.soilheatflux.1grass i.eb.soilheatflux calculates the soil heat flux approximation (g0) after Bastiaanssen (1995). The main reference for implementation is Alexandridis, 2009. It... i.emissivity.1grass i.emissivity calculates the emissivity in the longwave radiation spectrum, according to the semi-empirical equation related to NDVI by Caselles and Colles... i.evapo.mh.1grass i.evapo.mh calculates the reference evapotranspiration (ET) after Hargreaves et al. (1985), Hargreaves and Samani (1985) and the Modified Hargreaves version... i.evapo.pm.1grass i.evapo.pm, given the vegetation height (hc), humidity (RU), wind speed at two meters height (WS), temperature (T), digital terrain model (DEM), and net... i.evapo.pt.1grass i.evapo.pt Calculates the diurnal evapotranspiration after Prestley and Taylor (1972). The Priestley-Taylor model (Priestley and Taylor, 1972) is a modification... i.evapo.time.1grass i.evapo.time (i.evapo.time_integration) integrates ETa in time following a reference ET (typically) from a set of meteorological stations dataset. i.fft.1grass i.fft is an image processing program based on the FFT algorithm given by Frigo et al. (1998), that processes a single input raster map layer (input) and... i.gensig.1grass i.gensig is a non-interactive method for generating input into i.maxlik. It can be used as the first pass in the GRASS two-pass classification process (instead... i.gensigset.1grass i.gensigset is a non-interactive method for generating input into i.smap. It is used as the first pass in the a two-pass classification process. It reads a... i.group.1grass i.group allows the user to collect raster map layers in an imagery group by assigning them to user-named subgroups or other groups. This enables the user to run... i.his.rgb.1grass i.his.rgb is an image processing program that processes three input raster map layers as hue, intensity and saturation components and produces three output... i.ifft.1grass i.ifft is an image processing program based on the algorithm given by Frigo et al. (1998), that converts real and imaginary frequency space images (produced by... i.image.mosaic.1grass i.image.mosaic mosaics several images or raster maps using the GRASS GIS map calculator, and extends the colormap to the range of all images. i.in.spotvgt.1grass i.in.spotvgt imports SPOT Vegetation (1km, global) NDVI data sets. After import the digital numbers (DN) are remapped to VEGETATION NDVI values and the NDVI... i.landsat.acca.1grass i.landsat.acca implements the Automated Cloud-Cover Assessment (ACCA) Algorithm from Irish (2000) with the constant values for pass filter one from Irish et al... i.landsat.toar.1grass i.landsat.toar is used to transform the calibrated digital number of Landsat imagery products to top-of-atmosphere radiance or top-of-atmosphere reflectance and... imagery.1grass Geographic Resources Analysis Support System, commonly referred to as GRASS, is a Geographic Information System (GIS) used for geospatial data management and... imageryintro.1grass Image processing in general Digital numbers and physical values (reflection/radiance-at-sensor): Satellite imagery is commonly stored in Digital Numbers (DN)... i.maxlik.1grass i.maxlik is a maximum-likelihood discriminant analysis classifier. It can be used to perform the second step in either an unsupervised or a supervised image... i.modis.qc.1grass i.modis.qc extracts Requested Quality Assessment flags from the following MODIS products: MOD09A1, MOD09Q1, MOD11A1, MOD11A2, MOD13A2, MCD43B2. This does... index.1grass Geographic Resources Analysis Support System, commonly referred to as GRASS, is a Geographic Information System (GIS) used for geospatial data management and... i.oif.1grass i.oif calculates the Optimum Index Factor for multi-spectral satellite imagery. The Optimum Index Factor (OIF) determines the three-band combination that... i.ortho.camera.1grass i.ortho.camera creates or modifies entries in a camera reference file. For ortho-photo rectification, a camera reference file is required for computation of... i.ortho.rectify.1grass i.photo.rectify rectifies an image by using the image to photo coordinate transformation matrix created by i.photo.2image and the rectification parameters... i.pansharpen.1grass i.pansharpen uses a high resolution panchromatic band from a multispectral image to sharpen 3 lower resolution bands. The 3 lower resolution bands can then be... i.pca.1grass i.pca is an image processing program based on the algorithm provided by Vali (1990), that processes n (n >= 2) input raster map layers and produces n output... i.rectify.1grass i.rectify uses the control points included in the source data or identified with the Ground Control Points Manager to calculate a transformation matrix and then... i.rgb.his.1grass i.rgb.his is an image processing program that processes three input raster map layers as red, green, and blue components and produces three output raster map... i.segment.1grass Image segmentation or object recognition is the process of grouping similar pixels into unique segments, also refered to as objects. Boundary and region based... i.smap.1grass The i.smap program is used to segment multispectral images using a spectral class model known as a Gaussian mixture distribution. Since Gaussian mixture... i.spectral.1grass i.spectral displays spectral response at user specified locations in images. i.target.1grass i.target targets an imagery group to a GRASS data base location name and mapset. A location name and mapset are required for the i.rectify imagery module, into... i.tasscap.1grass i.tasscap calculates Tasseled Cap (Kauth Thomas, TC) transformation for Landsat TM data (TM4, TM5, ETM7) and MODIS data. The tasseled cap transformation is... i.topo.corr.1grass i.topo.corr is used to topographically correct reflectance from imagery files, e.g. obtained with i.landsat.toar, using a sun illumination terrain model. This... i.vi.1grass i.vi calculates vegetation indices based on biophysical parameters. i.zc.1grass i.zc is an image processing program used for edge detection. The raster map produced shows the location of "boundaries" on the input map. Boundaries tend to be... lrs.1grass A Linear Referencing System (LRS) is a system where features (points or segments) are localized by a measure along a linear element. The LRS can be used to... m.cogo.1grass m.cogo converts data points between bearing and distance and X,Y coordinates. Only simple bearing/distance or coordinate pairs are handled. It assumes a... misc.1grass Geographic Resources Analysis Support System, commonly referred to as GRASS, is a Geographic Information System (GIS) used for geospatial data management and... m.measure.1grass m.measure provides the user with a way to measure the lengths and areas of lines and polygons. Areas can be stated in acres, hectares, square miles, square... m.nviz.image.1grass m.nviz.image allows users to realistically render multiple surfaces (raster data) in a 3D space, optionally using thematic coloring, draping 2D vector data over... m.nviz.script.1grass The m.nviz.script program allows the user to easily create a script that can be run in NVIZ to fly through a terrain. The NVIZ flight path can be chosen... m.proj.1grass This program allows a user to convert coordinates from one projection to another. Coordinates can be read from one file, converted, and results written to... m.transform.1grass m.transform is an utility to compute transformation based upon GCPs and output error measurements. pngdriver.1grass The PNG driver generates PNG, PPM, or BMP images from GRASS display commands. Per default PNG files are written with this driver. This driver is used by default... postscript.1grass Geographic Resources Analysis Support System, commonly referred to as GRASS, is a Geographic Information System (GIS) used for geospatial data management and... projectionintro.1grass Introduction A GRASS location is referenced with a single projection and coordinate system (or unreferenced as XY location). When creating a new location from... psdriver.1grass The PS driver generates a PostScript file from GRASS display commands. ps.map.1grass ps.map is a cartographic mapping program for producing high quality hardcopy maps in PostScript format. Output can include a raster map, any number of vector... r3.colors.1grass r3.colors has exactly the same functionality as r.colors but for 3D raster maps. Please refer to r.colors. r3.colors.out.1grass r3.colors.out allows the user to export the color table for a 3D raste map to a file which is suitable as input to r3.colors. r3.cross.rast.1grass This module creates a cross section 2D map from one 3D raster volume map based on a 2D elevation map. It checks if the value of the elevation map is located in... r3.gwflow.1grass This numerical module calculates implicit transient and steady state, confined groundwater flow in three dimensions based on volume maps and the current 3D... r3.in.ascii.1grass r3.in.ascii allows a user to create a (binary) GRASS 3D raster map layer from a 3D ASCII raster input file. The tiledimension parameter defines the dimension of... r3.in.bin.1grass r3.in.bin allows a user to create a GRASS 3D raster map from a variety of binary 3D raster data formats. The top, bottom, north, south, east, and west field... r3.in.v5d.1grass r3.in.v5d imports 3-dimensional files (i.e. the V5D file with one variable and one time step). Otherwise, only first variable and timestep from 4/5D V5D file... r3.in.xyz.1grass r3.in.xyz imports sparse XYZ data from an ASCII file into a 3D raster map (voxels). It does this by running the r.in.xyz module multiple times for different... r3.mapcalc.1grass r3.mapcalc performs arithmetic on raster map layers. New raster map layers can be created which are arithmetic expressions involving existing raster map layers... r3.mask.1grass File map is used as reference file. Cells in the mask are marked as "mask out" if the corresponding cell in map contains a value in the range specified with... r3.mkdspf.1grass Creates a display file from an existing grid3 file according to specified threshold levels. The display file is a display list of polygons that represent... r3.neighbors.1grass r3.neighbors looks at each voxel in a 3D raster input map layer, and examines the values assigned to the voxel in a user-defined "neighborhood" around it. It... r3.out.ascii.1grass r3.out.ascii exports a 3D raster map in ASCII format. The input parameter is a valid 3D raster map in the current mapset search path. The output parameter is... r3.out.bin.1grass The r3.out.bin program exports a GRASS 3D raster map to a binary array file. Optionally, output can be send to standard output (stdout) for direct input (pipe)... r3.out.netcdf.1grass The module r3.out.netcdf exports a 3D raster map as netCDF file. Maps are valid 3D raster maps in the current mapset search path. The output parameter is the... r3.out.v5d.1grass Exports 3D raster maps to V5D format. The map parameter is a valid 3D raster map in the current mapset search path. The output parameter is the name of a V5D... r3.out.vtk.1grass The module r3.out.vtk outputs 3D raster maps into VTK-ASCII format. Maps are valid 3D raster maps in the current mapset search path. The output parameter is the... r3.retile.1grass r3.retile writes a copy of an existing 3D raster map with a user defined number of tiles in x, y and z direction. The precision and the type of the original 3D... r3.stats.1grass r3.stats calculates volume statistics for 3D raster maps. Volumes are created on base of value subranges or groups of equal values. The default number of... r3.support.1grass r3.support allows the user to create and/or edit raster3d map support information. Editing of raster3d map units, history, description and title is supported. r3.timestamp.1grass This command has 2 modes of operation. If no date argument is supplied, then the current timestamp for the 3D raster map is printed. If a date argument is... r3.to.rast.1grass Converts one 3D raster map into several 2D raster maps (depends on depths). If the 2D and 3D region settings are different, the 3D resolution will be adjusted... r3.univar.1grass r3.univar calculates the univariate statistics for a 3D raster map. This includes the number of cells counted, minimum and maximum cell values, range... raster.1grass Geographic Resources Analysis Support System, commonly referred to as GRASS, is a Geographic Information System (GIS) used for geospatial data management and... raster3d.1grass Geographic Resources Analysis Support System, commonly referred to as GRASS, is a Geographic Information System (GIS) used for geospatial data management and... raster3dintro.1grass 3D raster maps in general GRASS GIS is one of the few GIS software packages with 3D raster data support. Data are stored as a 3D raster with 3D cells of a given... rasterintro.1grass Raster maps in general A "raster map" is a data layer consisting of a gridded array of cells. It has a certain number of rows and columns, with a data point (or... r.basins.fill.1grass r.basins.fill generates a raster map layer depicting subbasins, based on input raster map layers for the coded stream network (where each channel segment has... r.blend.1grass r.blend blends color components of 2 raster maps by a specificed percentage of the first map. r.buffer.1grass r.buffer creates a new raster map showing buffer (a.k.a. "distance" or "proximity") zones around all cells that contain non-NULL category values in an existing... r.buffer.lowmem.1grass r.buffer.lowmem creates a new raster map showing buffer (a.k.a. "distance" or "proximity") zones around all cells that contain non-NULL category values in an... r.carve.1grass r.carve accepts vector stream data as input, transforms them to raster, and subtracts a default-depth + additional-depth from a DEM. If the given width is more... r.category.1grass r.category prints the category values and labels for the raster map layer specified by map=name to standard output. You can also use it to set category labels... r.circle.1grass This module creates an output raster map centered on the x,y values specified with the coordinate parameter, out to the edge of the current region. The output... r.clump.1grass r.clump finds all areas of contiguous cell category values in the input raster map. NULL values in the input are ignored. It assigns a unique category value to... r.coin.1grass r.coin tabulates the mutual occurrence of two raster map layers’ categories with respect to one another. This analysis program respects the current geographic... r.colors.1grass r.colors allows the user to create and/or modify the color table for a raster map or several raster maps at once. The raster maps (specified on the command line... r.colors.out.1grass r.colors.out allows the user to export the color table for a raster map to a file which is suitable as input to r.colors. r.colors.stddev.1grass r.colors.stddev set raster map color rules based on standard deviations from a map’s mean value, either as a continuous color gradient or in color bands per... r.composite.1grass This program combines three raster maps to form a composite RGB map. For each input map layer, the corresponding component from the map’s color table is used... r.compress.1grass r.compress can be used to compress and decompress raster map layers. Additionally, it prints information about the map compression and data type of the input... r.contour.1grass r.contour produces a vector map of specified contours from input raster map. Contours can be produced using a comma-separated list of values in levels, or at... r.cost.1grass r.cost determines the cumulative cost of moving to each cell on a cost surface (the input raster map) from other user-specified cell(s) whose locations are... r.covar.1grass r.covar outputs a covariance/correlation matrix for user-specified raster map layer(s). The output can be printed, or saved by redirecting output into a file... r.cross.1grass r.cross creates an output raster map layer representing all unique combinations of category values in the raster input layers (input=name,name,name, ...). At... r.describe.1grass r.describe prints a terse listing of category values found in a user-specified raster map layer. r.describe ignores the current geographic region and mask, and... r.distance.1grass r.distance locates the closest points between "objects" in two raster maps. An "object" is defined as all the grid cells that have the same category number, and... r.drain.1grass r.drain traces a flow through a least-cost path in an elevation model or cost surface. For cost surfaces, a movement direction map must be specified with the... r.external.1grass r.external allows a user to link a GDAL supported raster file to a binary raster map layer, from any GDAL supported raster map format, with an optional title... r.external.out.1grass r.external.out instructs GRASS to write raster maps as data files (e.g. GeoTIFF) using GDAL. r.fill.dir.1grass r.fill.dir filters and generates a depressionless elevation map and a flow direction map from a given raster elevation map. r.fillnulls.1grass r.fillnulls fills NULL pixels (no data areas) in input raster map and stores filled data to a new output raster map. The fill areas are interpolated from the no... r.flow.1grass r.flow generates flowlines using a combined raster-vector approach (see Mitasova and Hofierka 1993 and Mitasova et al. 1995) from an input elevation raster map... r.grow.1grass r.grow adds cells around the perimeters of all areas in a user-specified raster map layer and stores the output in a new raster map layer. The user can use it... r.grow.distance.1grass r.grow.distance generates raster maps representing the distance to the nearest non-null cell in the input map and/or the value of the nearest non-null cell. r.gwflow.1grass This numerical program calculates implicit transient, confined and unconfined groundwater flow in two dimensions based on raster maps and the current region... r.his.1grass HIS stands for hue, intensity, and saturation. This program produces red, green and blue raster map layers providing a visually pleasing combination of hue... r.horizon.1grass r.horizon computes the angular height of terrain horizon in radians. r.import.1grass r.import imports a map or selected bands from a GDAL raster datasource into the current location and mapset. If the projection of the input does not match the... r.in.ascii.1grass r.in.ascii allows a user to create a (binary) GRASS raster map layer from an ASCII raster input file with (optional) TITLE. The GRASS ASCII input file has a... r.in.aster.1grass r.in.aster rectifies, georeferences, and imports Terra-ASTER imagery to current location using gdalwarp, hdf 4, and r.in.gdal, using projection parameters from... r.in.bin.1grass r.in.bin allows a user to create a (binary) GRASS raster map layer from a variety of binary raster data formats. The -s flag is used for importing... r.info.1grass r.info reports some basic information about a user-specified raster map layer. This map layer must exist in the user’s current mapset search path. Information... r.in.gdal.1grass r.in.gdal allows a user to create a (binary) GRASS raster map layer, or imagery group, from any GDAL supported raster map format, with an optional title. The... r.in.gridatb.1grass r.in.gridatb imports GRIDATB.FOR map file (TOPMODEL) into GRASS raster map. r.in.lidar.1grass The r.in.lidar module loads and bins LAS LiDAR point clouds into a new raster map. The user may choose from a variety of statistical methods in creating the new... r.in.mat.1grass r.in.mat will import a GRASS raster map from a Version 4 MAT-File which was created with Matlab or Octave. Attributes such as map title and bounds will also be... r.in.poly.1grass r.in.poly allows the creation of GRASS binary raster maps from ASCII files in the current directory containing polygon, linear, and point features. The input... r.in.srtm.1grass r.in.srtm imports SRTM hgt files into GRASS. SRTM Version 1 and improved Version 2 data sets can be downloaded from NASA at this site... r.in.wms.1grass r.in.wms handles all of downloading and importing raster data from an OGC WMS and OGC WMTS web mapping servers. It only needs be told the desired data to... r.in.xyz.1grass The r.in.xyz module will load and bin ungridded x,y,z ASCII data into a new raster map. The user may choose from a variety of statistical methods in creating... r.kappa.1grass r.kappa tabulates the error matrix of classification result by crossing classified map layer with respect to reference map layer. Both overall kappa... r.lake.1grass The module fills a lake to a target water level from a given start point. The user can think of it as r.grow with additional checks for elevation. The resulting... r.latlong.1grass r.latlong creates a latitude (degree decimal) map, or longitude if the -l flag is used, from any map in any projection using PROJ.4 library. This is an input to... r.li.1grass The r.li suite is a toolset for multiscale analysis of landscape structure. It aims at implementing metrics as found in external software for quantitative... r.li.cwed.1grass Calculates contrast weighted edge density index on a raster map r.li.daemon.1grass This documentation is focused on scientists and developers who wants to implement a new landscape index computation. Refer to the r.li modules overview and... r.li.mps.1grass Calculates mean patch size index on a raster map, using a 4 neighbour algorithm r.li.patchnum.1grass r.li.patchnum calculates the "patch number index" as: f(sample_area)= Patch_Number This index is calculated using a 4 neighbour algorithm, diagonal cells are... r.mapcalc.1grass r.mapcalc performs arithmetic on raster map layers. New raster map layers can be created which are arithmetic expressions involving existing raster map layers... r.mask.1grass r.mask - Facilitates creation of a raster "MASK" map to control raster operations. The MASK is only applied when reading an existing GRASS raster map, for... r.mfilter.1grass r.mfilter filters the raster input to produce the raster output according to the matrix filter designed by the user (see Filters below). The filter is applied... r.mode.1grass r.mode calculates the most frequently occurring value (i. e., mode) of data contained in a cover raster map layer for areas assigned the same category value in... r.neighbors.1grass r.neighbors looks at each cell in a raster input file, and examines the values assigned to the cells in some user-defined "neighborhood" around it. It outputs a... r.null.1grass The function of r.null is to explicitly create the NULL-value bitmap file. The intended usage is to fix "old" maps that don’t have a NULL-value bitmap file... r.out.ascii.1grass r.out.ascii converts a user-specified raster map layer (input=name) into an ASCII grid in a text file (output=name) suitable for export to other computer... r.out.bin.1grass The r.out.bin program exports a GRASS raster map to a binary array file. Optionally, output can be sent to standard output (stdout) for direct input (pipe) into... r.out.gdal.1grass r.out.gdal allows a user to export a GRASS raster map layer into any GDAL supported raster map format. If a GRASS raster map is exported for a particular... r.out.mat.1grass r.out.mat will export a GRASS raster map to a MAT-File which can be loaded into Matlab or Octave for plotting or further analysis. Attributes such as map title... r.out.mpeg.1grass r.out.mpeg is a tool for combining a series of GRASS raster maps into a single MPEG-1 (Motion Pictures Experts Group) format file. MPEG-1 is a "lossy" video... r.out.png.1grass r.out.png exports a GRASS raster map in non-georeferenced PNG image format, respecting the current region resolution and bounds. Optionally the user can choose... r.out.pov.1grass r.out.pov converts a user-specified raster map layer (map==name) into a height-field file for POVray (tga==name). The hftype==value option (where value is... r.out.ppm.1grass r.out.ppm converts a GRASS raster map into a PPM image at the pixel resolution of the CURRENTLY DEFINED REGION. r.out.ppm3.1grass r.out.ppm3 converts 3 GRASS raster layers (R,G,B) to a PPM image file, using the current region. This program converts a GRASS raster map to a PPM image file... r.out.vrml.1grass This module exports a GRASS raster map to the Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML) format for 3D visualization. This version only outputs raster maps in... r.out.vtk.1grass Outputs raster maps in VTK-ASCII format. Map’s are valid raster map’s in the current mapset. output is the name of an VTK-ASCII file which will be written in... r.out.xyz.1grass The r.out.xyz module exports a raster map as a list of x,y,z values into an ASCII text file. r.pack.1grass r.pack collects raster map elements and support files and compressed them using gzip algorithm for copying. The resulting packed file can be afterwards unpacked... r.param.scale.1grass r.param.scale extracts terrain parameters from a digital elevation model. Uses a multi-scale approach by fitting a bivariate quadratic polynomial to a given... r.patch.1grass The GRASS program r.patch allows the user to build a new raster map the size and resolution of the current region by assigning known data values from input... r.plane.1grass r.plane creates a tilted plane raster map given user-specified parameters for inclination, azimuth, and the geographic location of a point on the plane. The... r.profile.1grass This program outputs two or four column (with -g) data to stdout or an ASCII file. The default two column output consists of cumulative profile length and... r.proj.1grass r.proj projects a raster map in a specified mapset of a specified location from the projection of the input location to a raster map in the current location... r.quant.1grass r.quant produces the quantization file for a floating-point map. The map parameter defines the map for which the rules are to be created. If more than one map... r.quantile.1grass r.quantile computes quantiles in a manner suitable for use with large amounts of data. It is using two passes. r.random.1grass The program r.random allows the user to create a raster map layer and/or a vector points map containing coordinates of points whose locations have been randomly... r.random.cells.1grass r.random.cells generates a random sets of raster cells that are at least distance apart. The cells are numbered from 1 to the numbers of cells generated, all... r.random.surface.1grass r.random.surface generates a spatially dependent random surface. The random surface is composed of values representing the deviation from the mean of the... r.reclass.1grass r.reclass creates an output map layer based on an input integer raster map layer. The output map layer will be a reclassification of the input map layer based... r.reclass.area.1grass r.reclass.area reclasses a raster map greater or less than a user specified area size (in hectares). If the -c flag is used, r.reclass.area will skip the... r.recode.1grass r.recode creates an output raster map by recoding input raster map based on recode rules. A title for the output raster map may be (optionally) specified by the... r.region.1grass The r.region program allows the user to manage the boundaries of a raster map. These boundaries can be set by the user directly and/or set from a region... r.regression.line.1grass r.regression.line calculates a linear regression from two raster maps, according to the formula r.regression.multi.1grass r.regression.multi calculates a multiple linear regression from raster maps, according to the formula r.relief.1grass r.relief creates a raster shaded relief map based on current resolution settings and on sun altitude, azimuth, and z-exaggeration values entered by the user. If... r.report.1grass r.report allows the user to set up a series of report parameters to be applied to a raster map, and creates a report. The report will print out to the standard... r.resamp.bspline.1grass r.resamp.bspline performs a bilinear/bicubic spline interpolation with Tykhonov regularization. The input is a raster surface map, e.g. elevation, temperature... r.resamp.filter.1grass r.resamp.filter resamples an input raster, filtering the input with an analytic kernel. Each output cell is typically calculated based upon a small subset of... r.resamp.interp.1grass r.resamp.interp resamples an input raster map by interpolating between the neighboring cells via a selectable resampling algorithm. All cells present in the... r.resample.1grass r.resample resamples the data values in a user-specified raster input map layer name (bounded by the current geographic region and masked by the current mask)... r.resamp.rst.1grass r.resamp.rst reinterpolates the values a from given raster map (named input) to a new raster map (named elev). This module is intended for reinterpolation of... r.resamp.stats.1grass r.resamp.stats fills a grid cell (raster) matrix with aggregated values generated from a set of input layer data points. Without the -w switch, the aggregate is... r.rescale.1grass The r.rescale program rescales the range of category values appearing in a raster map layer. A new raster map layer, and an appropriate category file and color... r.rescale.eq.1grass The r.rescale.eq program rescales the range of category values appearing in a raster map layer with equalized histogram. A new raster map layer, and an... r.rgb.1grass r.rgb generates separate red, green and blue maps from a raster map and its associated color table (grey255). r.ros.1grass r.ros is part of the wildfire simulation toolset. Preparational steps for the fire simulation are the calculation of the rate of spread (ROS) with r.ros, and... r.series.1grass r.series makes each output cell value a function of the values assigned to the corresponding cells in the input raster map layers. r.series.accumulate.1grass r.series.accumulate calculates (accumulated) raster value using growing degree days (GDDs)/Winkler indices’s, Biologically Effective Degree Days (BEDD), Huglin... r.series.interp.1grass r.series.interp interpolates new raster maps located temporal or spatial in between existing raster maps. The interpolation is performed at specific sampling... r.shade.1grass r.shade will drape a color raster map over a shaded relief map. In place of shaded relief, any raster map can be used including aspect or slope. The color... r.sim.sediment.1grass r.sim.sediment is a landscape scale, simulation model of soil erosion, sediment transport and deposition caused by flowing water designed for spatially variable... r.sim.water.1grass r.sim.water is a landscape scale simulation model of overland flow designed for spatially variable terrain, soil, cover and rainfall excess conditions. A 2D... r.slope.aspect.1grass r.slope.aspect generates raster maps of slope, aspect, curvatures and first and second order partial derivatives from a raster map of true elevation values. The... r.solute.transport.1grass This numerical program calculates numerical implicit transient and steady state solute transport in porous media in the saturated zone of an aquifer. The... r.spread.1grass r.spread is part of the wildfire simulation toolset. Preparational steps for the fire simulation are the calculation of the rate of spread (ROS) with r.ros, and... r.spreadpath.1grass r.spreadpath is part of the wildfire simulation toolset. Preparational steps for the fire simulation are the calculation of the rate of spread (ROS) with r.ros... r.statistics.1grass r.statistics is a tool to analyse exploratory statistics of a "cover layer" according to how it intersects with objects in a "base layer". A variety of standard... r.stats.1grass r.stats calculates the area present in each of the categories or floating-point intervals of user-selected input raster map. Area statistics are given in units... r.stats.quantile.1grass r.stats.quantile is intended to be a partial replacement for r.statistics, with support for floating-point cover maps. It provides quantile calculations, which... r.stats.zonal.1grass r.stats.zonal is intended to be a partial replacement for r.statistics, with support for floating-point cover maps at the expense of not support quantiles. r.stream.extract.1grass r.stream.extract extracts streams in both raster and vector format from a required input elevation map and optional input accumulation map. r.sun.1grass r.sun computes beam (direct), diffuse and ground reflected solar irradiation raster maps for given day, latitude, surface and atmospheric conditions. Solar... r.sunhours.1grass r.sunhours calculates sun elevation and sun azimuth angles for the given time of day and each grid cell in the current region. Additionally, the photoperiod... r.sunmask.1grass r.sunmask creates an output map layer based on an input elevation raster map layer and the sun position. The output map layer contains the cast shadow areas... r.support.1grass r.support allows the user to create and/or edit raster map support information. Editing of raster map color tables, category labels, header, history, and title... r.surf.area.1grass r.surf.area calculates area of regular 3D triangulated points (centers of cells) in current region by adding areas of triangles. Therefore, area of a flat... r.surf.contour.1grass r.surf.contour creates a raster elevation map from a rasterized contour map. Elevation values are determined using procedures similar to a manual methods. To... r.surf.fractal.1grass r.surf.fractal creates a fractal surface of a given fractal dimension. It uses the spectral synthesis method. The module can create intermediate layers showing... r.surf.gauss.1grass r.surf.gauss produces a raster map of Gaussian deviates whose mean and standard deviation can be expressed by the user. It uses a Gaussian random number... r.surf.idw.1grass r.surf.idw fills a grid cell (raster) matrix with interpolated values generated from input raster data points. It uses a numerical approximation technique based... r.surf.random.1grass r.surf.random produces a raster map layer of uniform random deviates whose range can be expressed by the user. It is essentialy the same as r.surf.gauss, but... r.terraflow.1grass r.terraflow takes as input a raster digital elevation model (DEM) and computes the flow direction raster and the flow accumulation raster, as well as the... r.texture.1grass r.texture creates raster maps with textural features from a user-specified raster map layer. The module calculates textural features based on spatial dependence... r.thin.1grass r.thin scans the named input raster map layer and thins non-NULL cells that denote linear features into linear features having a single cell width. Raster lines... r.tile.1grass r.tile retiles an existing raster map with user defined x and y tile size. r.tileset.1grass r.tileset generates sets of tiles in another projection that cover a region in this projection with adequate resolution. By default the current region and its... r.timestamp.1grass This command has 2 modes of operation. If no date argument is supplied, then the current timestamp for the raster map is printed. If a date argument is... r.topidx.1grass r.topidx creates topographic index (wetness index), ln(a/tan(beta)), map from elevation map where a: the area of the hillslope per unit contour length that... r.topmodel.1grass r.topmodel simulates TOPMODEL which is a physically based hydrologic model.Parameters description r.to.rast3.1grass Converts 2D raster map(s) into one raster3D map. It is important to properly set the 3D region settings, especially number or layers and depth of layers. If the... r.to.rast3elev.1grass Creates a 3D volume map based on 2D elevation and value raster maps. If the 2d and 3d region settings are different, the 2d resolution will be adjust to the 3d... r.to.vect.1grass r.to.vect scans the named input raster map layer, extracts points, lines or area edge features from it, converts data to GRASS vector format.Point conversion... r.transect.1grass This program outputs, in ASCII, the values in a raster map which lie along one or more user-defined transect lines. The transects are described by their... r.univar.1grass r.univar calculates the univariate statistics of one or several raster map(s). This includes the number of cells counted, minimum and maximum cell values... r.uslek.1grass r.uslek calculates the USLE K factor, that is the Soil Erodibility Factor. It takes input of soil texture classes (sand, clay, silt) and organic matter, all in... r.usler.1grass r.usler calculates USLE R factor for Rainfall erosivity. It enables several empirical equations: Roosle (1975), Morgan (1974), Foster(1981) and El-Swaify... r.viewshed.1grass r.viewshed is a module that computes the viewshed of a point on a raster terrain. That is, given an elevation raster, and the location of an observer, it... r.volume.1grass r.volume is a tool for summing cell values within clumps and calculating volumes and centroids of patches or clumps. r.volume generates a table containing the... r.walk.1grass r.walk computes anisotropic cumulative cost of moving between different geographic locations on an input elevation raster map whose cell category values... r.water.outlet.1grass r.water.outlet generates a watershed basin from a drainage direction map and a set of coordinates representing the outlet point of watershed. Input drainage... r.watershed.1grass r.watershed generates a set of maps indicating: 1) flow accumulation, drainage direction, the location of streams and watershed basins, and 2) the LS and S... r.what.1grass r.what outputs the category values and (optionally) the category labels associated with user-specified locations on raster input map(s). Locations are specified... r.what.color.1grass r.what.color outputs the color associated with user-specified category values in a raster input map. Values may be specified either using the values= option, or... sql.1grass Vector points, lines and areas usually have attribute data that are stored in DBMS. The attributes are linked to each vector object using a category number... t.connect.1grass t.connect allows the user to set the temporal database connection. The default setting is that the temporal database of type sqlite3 is located in the current... t.create.1grass t.create is used to create space time datasets of type raster (STRDS), 3D raster (STR3DS) and vector (STVDS). Space time datasets represent spatio-temporal... temporal.1grass Geographic Resources Analysis Support System, commonly referred to as GRASS, is a Geographic Information System (GIS) used for geospatial data management and... temporalintro.1grass The temporal enabled GRASS introduces three new datatypes that are designed to handle time series data: t.info.1grass t.info reports information about any dataset that is registered in the temporal database in human readable or shell script style. Datasets are raster, 3D raster... t.list.1grass t.list lists any dataset that is registered in the temporal database. Datasets are raster, 3D raster and vector maps as well as their corresponding space time... t.merge.1grass This module is designed to register the maps of several input space time datasets in a single output dataset. The datasets to merge can be either space time... topic_edges.1grass Note: see also the corresponding keyword edges for additional references. topic_fire.1grass Note: see also the corresponding keyword fire for additional references. topic_GUI.1grass Note: see also the corresponding keyword GUI for additional references. topic_LIDAR.1grass Note: see also the corresponding keyword LIDAR for additional references. topic_mask.1grass Note: see also the corresponding keyword mask for additional references. topic_merge.1grass Note: see also the corresponding keyword merge for additional references. topic_RGB.1grass Note: see also the corresponding keyword RGB for additional references. topic_shift.1grass Note: see also the corresponding keyword shift for additional references. topic_solar.1grass Note: see also the corresponding keyword solar for additional references. topic_voxel.1grass Note: see also the corresponding keyword voxel for additional references. t.rast3d.extract.1grass t.rast3d.extract is used to extract a subset of a space time 3D raster dataset and to store that subset in a different space time 3D raster dataset. It has... t.rast3d.list.1grass t.rast3d.list provides the same functionality as t.rast.list, the only difference is the 3D raster map layer metadata. Please refer to the manual page of... t.rast3d.mapcalc.1grass t.rast3d.mapcalc provides exact the same functionality as t.rast.mapcalc, but for space time 3D raster datasets. Please refer to t.rast.mapcalc for... t.rast3d.univar.1grass t.rast3d.univar provides the same functionality as t.rast.univar, the only difference is the 3D raster map layer metadata. Please refer to the manual page of... t.rast.accdetect.1grass t.rast.accdetect is designed to detect accumulation pattern in temporally accumulated space time raster datasets created by t.rast.accumulate. This module... t.rast.accumulate.1grass t.rast.accumulate is designed to perform temporal accumulations of space time raster datasets. This module expects a space time raster dataset as input that... t.rast.aggregate.1grass t.rast.aggregate temporally aggregates space time raster datasets by a specific temporal granularity. This module support absolute and relative time. The... t.rast.aggregate.ds.1grass t.rast.aggregate.ds works like t.rast.aggregate but instead of defining a fixed granularity for temporal aggregation the time intervals of all maps registered... t.rast.colors.1grass t.rast.colors computes a color table based on all registered maps of a space time raster dataset and to assign this color table to each map. Hence the created... t.rast.export.1grass t.rast.export exports a space time raster dataset (strds) as a tar archive. The archive contains the raster maps either as GeoTIFF files or as GRASS binary... t.rast.extract.1grass The purpose of t.rast.extract is to extract a subset of a space time raster dataset and to store that subset in a different space time raster dataset. The where... t.rast.gapfill.1grass t.rast.gapfill fills temporal gaps in space time raster datasets using linear interpolation. Temporal all gaps will be detected in the input space time raster... t.rast.import.1grass t.rast.import imports a space time raster dataset archive that was exported with t.rast.export. t.rast.list.1grass List time stamped raster map layers that are registered in a space time raster dataset. t.rast.list provides several options to list map layers and their... t.rast.mapcalc.1grass t.rast.mapcalc performs spatio-temporal mapcalc expressions on maps of temporally sampled space time raster datasets (STRDS). Spatial and temporal operators and... t.rast.neighbors.1grass t.rast.neighbors performs r.neighbors computations on the maps of a space time raster dataset (STRDS). This module supports a subset of options that are... t.rast.out.vtk.1grass This module exports all maps registered in a space time raster datasets as VTK legacy files using a numerical numbering scheme. The VTK files can be visualized... t.rast.series.1grass t.rast.series is a simple wrapper for the raster module r.series. It supports a subset of the aggregation methods of r.series. The input of this module is a... t.rast.to.rast3.1grass t.rast.to.rast3 is designed to convert a space time raster dataset (STRDS) into a space time voxel cube. A space time voxel cube is a 3 dimensional raster map... t.rast.univar.1grass t.rast.univar calculates univariate statistics from the non-null cells for each registered raster map of a space time raster dataset. By default it returns the... t.register.1grass The module t.register is designed to register raster, 3D raster and vector maps in the temporal database and in specific space time datasets. This module must... t.remove.1grass The module t.remove removes space time datasets (STRDS, STR3DS, STVDS) from the temporal database. In other words, by default it deletes the relevant database... t.rename.1grass This module renames space time datasets of different types (STRDS, STVDS, STR3DS) and updates the space time dataset register entries of the registered maps. t.sample.1grass The purpose of this module is to compute and to show spatio-temporal relations between space time datasets of different type. Several input space time datasets... t.select.1grass t.select performs selection of maps that are registered in space time datasets using temporal algebra.Program Use The module expects an expression as input... t.shift.1grass t.shift is designed to temporally shift all registered maps in a space time dataset with a user defined granularity. Raster, 3D raster and vector space time... t.snap.1grass t.snap is designed to convert time instances of maps into time intervals or to create valid temporal topologies for space time datasets. Raster, 3D raster and... t.support.1grass This module is dedicated to modify and update the metadata of a space time dataset. The title, description and the semantic type can be modified. The flag -u... t.topology.1grass The module t.topology lists temporal relations of the maps in a space time dataset. t.unregister.1grass This module is designed to unregister raster, 3D raster and vector map layers from space time datasets and the temporal database. Map layer that should be... t.vect.db.select.1grass The module t.vect.db.select prints attributes of vector maps registered in a space time vector dataset. t.vect.export.1grass t.vect.export exports a space time vector dataset (stvds) to a tar archive as either GML (using v.out.ogr) or GRASS pack files. In addition to the pack or GML... t.vect.extract.1grass The purpose of t.vect.extract is to extract a subset of a space time vector dataset and to store that subset in a different space time vector dataset. t.vect.import.1grass t.vect.import imports a space time vector dataset archive that was exported with t.vect.export. t.vect.list.1grass This module provides the same functionality as t.rast.list, the only difference is the vector map layer metadata. t.vect.observe.strds.1grass The module t.vect.observe.strds is used to observe specific locations in a space time raster dataset over a period of time using vector points. The first input... t.vect.univar.1grass The module t.vect.univar computes univariate statistics of a space time vector dataset based on a single attribute row. t.vect.what.strds.1grass The module t.vect.what.strds samples a space time raster dataset at spatio-temporal locations of a space time vector dataset. v.buffer.1grass v.buffer creates a buffer around features of given type, which have a category in the given layer. The tolerance controls the number of vector segments being... v.build.1grass v.build builds support files for GRASS vector maps. These support files supply topology and category information including spatial index that are needed by... v.build.polylines.1grass v.build.polylines builds polylines from the lines or boundaries in a vector map. A line is defined by one start node, one end node and any number of vertices... v.category.1grass v.category attaches, copies, deletes or reports categories of vector geometry objects. Further on, v.category adds a number given by the cat option to... v.centroids.1grass GRASS defines vector areas as composite entities consisting of a set of closed boundaries and a centroid. The attribute information associated with that area is... v.class.1grass v.class classifies vector attribute data into classes, for example for thematic mapping. Classification can be on a column or on an expression including several... v.clean.1grass v.clean allows the user to automatically fix topology of vector maps. Several tools may be listed to be executed sequentially. In this case, also the threshold... v.colors.1grass v.colors allows creating or modifying color table associated with a vector map similarly to r.colors for raster maps. Color rules are built from features... v.colors.out.1grass v.colors.out allows the user to export the color table for a vector map to a file which is suitable as input to v.colors. v.db.addcolumn.1grass v.db.addcolumn adds one or more column(s) to the attribute table connected to a given vector map. It automatically checks the connection for the specified... v.db.addtable.1grass v.db.addtable creates and adds a new attribute table to a given vector map. It links the table to the specified layer of the vector map. If the vector map is... v.db.connect.1grass v.db.connect prints or sets database connection for a vector map. The user can add or remove link to attribute table on the certain layer. v.db.dropcolumn.1grass v.db.dropcolumn drops a column from the attribute table connected to a given vector map. It automatically checks the connection for the specified layer... v.db.droprow.1grass v.db.droprow removes vector object(s) (point, line, area, face etc.) from a vector map through attribute selection in the table connected to the given vector... v.db.droptable.1grass v.db.droptable removes an existing attribute table from a given vector map linked at given layer. If the -f force flag is not given then nothing is removed. v.db.join.1grass v.db.join joins the content of another table into the connected attribute table of a vector map. v.db.reconnect.all.1grass v.db.reconnect.all changes database connection of all layers of all vector maps in the current mapset from the source (old_database) to the target... v.db.renamecolumn.1grass v.db.renamecolumn renames a column in the attribute table connected to a given vector map. It automatically checks the connection for the specified layer. v.db.select.1grass v.db.select prints attributes of a vector map from one or several user selected attribute table columns. v.db.univar.1grass v.db.univar calculates basic univariate statistics for numeric attributes in a vector attribute table. It will calculate minimum, maximum, range, mean, standard... v.db.update.1grass v.db.update assigns a new value to a column in the attribute table connected to a given map. The value parameter allows updating with a literal value... v.delaunay.1grass v.delaunay uses an existing vector points map (input) to create a Delaunay triangulation vector map (output). v.dissolve.1grass The v.dissolve module is used to merge adjacent areas in a vector map which share the same category value. The resulting merged area(s) retains this category... v.distance.1grass v.distance finds the nearest element in vector map (to) for elements in vector map (from). Various information about the vectors’ relationships (distance... v.drape.1grass v.drape converts 2D/3D vector data into 3D vector format via sampling of an elevation surface. Three sampling algorithms adapted from v.sample were incorporated... vector.1grass Geographic Resources Analysis Support System, commonly referred to as GRASS, is a Geographic Information System (GIS) used for geospatial data management and... vectorascii.1grass A vector map in GRASS native vector format may contain a mix of primitives including points, lines, boundaries, centroids, areas, faces, and kernels. The GRASS... vectorintro.1grass Vector maps in general A "vector map" is a data layer consisting of a number of sparse features in geographic space. These might be data points (drill sites)... v.edit.1grass The module v.edit allows the user to edit a vector map via command line interface. v.edit supports only "simple" vector features: points, centroids, lines and... v.external.1grass v.external creates new vector map as a link to external OGR layer or PostGIS feature table. OGR (Simple Features Library) is part of the GDAL library, so you... v.external.out.1grass v.external.out instructs GRASS to write vector maps in external data format (e.g. ESRI Shapefile, Mapinfo, and others) using OGR library. PostGIS data can be... v.extract.1grass v.extract allows a user to select vector objects from an existing vector map and creates a new map containing only the selected objects. Database tables can be... v.extrude.1grass v.extrude creates faces, kernels or 3D lines based on input 2D vector features. Points are converted to 3D vertical lines, lines to faces and areas to volumes... v.generalize.1grass v.generalize is a module for the generalization of GRASS vector maps. This module consists of algorithms for line simplification, line smoothing, network... v.hull.1grass v.hull computes the convex hull of a vector map and outputs the convex hull polygon as a vector area map. The convex hull, or convex envelope, for an object or... v.import.1grass v.import imports selected layers from a OGR vector datasource into the current location and mapset. If the projection of the input does not match the projection... v.in.ascii.1grass v.in.ascii converts a vector map in GRASS ASCII vector format to a vector map in binary format. v.in.db.1grass v.in.db creates a new vector point map from database table or file containing coordinates. v.in.dxf.1grass v.in.dxf converts DXF format CAD files to GRASS vector format. v.in.e00.1grass v.in.e00 imports ASCII and binary E00 vector maps into GRASS. v.info.1grass v.info reports some basic information (metadata) about a user-specified vector map and its topology status. If topology info is not available (i.e., vector map... v.in.geonames.1grass v.in.geonames imports Geonames.org country files (Gazetteer data) into a GRASS vector points map. The country files can be downloaded from the GeoNames Data... v.in.lidar.1grass v.in.lidar converts LiDAR point clouds in LAS format to a GRASS vector, using the libLAS library. The created vector is true 3D with x, y, z coordinates. For... v.in.lines.1grass Imports a stream of ASCII x,y[,z] coordinates as a line or series of lines. v.in.mapgen.1grass v.in.mapgen allows the user to import Mapgen or Matlab vector maps into GRASS. v.in.ogr.1grass v.in.ogr imports vector data using OGR library to GRASS vector map. OGR (Simple Features Library) is part of the GDAL library, so you need to install GDAL to... v.in.region.1grass v.in.region creates a new vector map from current region extent. If the output of v.in.region is to be used for raster reprojection, the -d flag should be used... v.in.wfs.1grass v.in.wfs imports OGC WFS maps (Web Feature Service) from external servers. v.kcv.1grass v.kcv randomly divides a points lists into k sets of test/train data (for npartitions-fold cross validation). Test partitions are mutually exclusive. That is, a... v.kernel.1grass v.kernel generates a raster density map from vector points data using a moving kernel. Available kernel density functions are uniform, triangular, epanechnikov... v.krige.1grass v.krige allows performing Kriging operations in GRASS GIS environment, using R software functions in background. v.label.1grass v.label makes a label-file from a GRASS vector map with labels created from attributes in the attached table. If no label file name is given, the name of the... v.lidar.correction.1grass v.lidar.correction is the last of three steps to filter LiDAR data. The filter aims to recognize and extract attached and detached object (such as buildings... v.lidar.edgedetection.1grass v.lidar.edgedetection is the first of three steps to filter LiDAR data. The filter aims to recognize and extract attached and detached object (such as... v.lidar.growing.1grass v.lidar.growing is the second of three steps to filter LiDAR data. The filter aims to recognize and extract attached and detached object (such as buildings... v.lrs.create.1grass v.lrs.create generates a LRS (Linear Reference System) from vector line and point data. It is highly recommended to work with polylines instead of segmented... v.lrs.label.1grass v.lrs.label generates LRS labels for pretty-printing of a LRS. This example is written for the Spearfish dataset (it continues the example from v.lrs.create). v.lrs.segment.1grass v.lrs.segment creates points/segments from input lines, linear reference system and positions read from standard in or a file. v.lrs.where.1grass v.lrs.where identifies line id and real milepost+offset for points in vector map using linear reference system. v.mkgrid.1grass v.mkgrid creates a vector map representation of a regular coordinate grid. Point, line, and area vector grids can be created. v.neighbors.1grass Makes each cell value a function of the attribute values assigned to the vector points or centroids around it, and stores new cell values in an output raster... v.net.1grass v.net is used for network preparation and maintenance. Its main use is to create a vector network from vector lines (arcs ) and points (nodes) by creating nodes... v.net.alloc.1grass v.net.alloc allocates subnets for nearest centers (direction from center). center nodes must be opened (costs >= 0). Costs of center nodes are used in the... v.net.allpairs.1grass v.net.allpairs computes the shortest path between each selected node and all other selected nodes. The output is a vector with the selected nodes and the... v.net.centrality.1grass v.net.centrality computes degree, closeness, betweenness and eigenvector centrality measures. v.net.connectivity.1grass v.net.connectivity computes vertex connectivity between two sets, i.e. the minimum number of vertices whose removal would separate two given sets. v.net.flow.1grass v.net.flow computes the maximum flow and minimum cut between two sets of nodes. v.net.iso.1grass v.net.iso splits a network into bands between cost isolines (distance from center). Center nodes must be opened (costs >= 0). The costs of center nodes are used... v.net.path.1grass v.net.path determines least costly, e.g. shortest or fastest path(s) on a vector network. Costs may be either line lengths, or attributes saved in a database... v.net.salesman.1grass v.net.salesman calculates the optimal route to visit nodes on a vector network. Costs may be either line lengths, or attributes saved in a database table. These... v.net.steiner.1grass v.net.steiner calculates the optimal connection of nodes on a vector network. A Steiner tree is used to calculate the minimum-cost vector network connecting... v.net.timetable.1grass v.net.timetable finds the shortest path between two points using timetables. v.net.timetable reads input, one query per line, from the standard input and writes... v.net.visibility.1grass v.net.visibility computes the visibility graph of a vector map containing lines, areas (boundaries) and points. The visibility graph is the graph where the... v.out.ascii.1grass v.out.ascii converts a GRASS vector map in binary format to a GRASS vector map in ASCII format. Using flag -o v.out.ascii output will be in old (version 4)... v.out.dxf.1grass The GRASS program v.out.dxf conversion program generates an ASCII DXF (AutoCAD) file from a GRASS vector. The output file is placed in the user’s current... v.outlier.1grass v.outlier removes outliers in a 3D point cloud. By default, the outlier identification is done by a bicubic spline interpolation of the observation with a high... v.out.ogr.1grass v.out.ogr converts GRASS vector map layer to any of the supported OGR vector formats (like a Esri Shapefile, SpatiaLite or GML). OGR (Simple Features Library)... v.out.postgis.1grass v.out.postgis exports an existing GRASS vector map layer to PostGIS feature table. Features without category are skipped. By default GRASS GIS topological... v.out.pov.1grass v.out.pov converts GRASS vector data to POV-Ray format (www.povray.com) v.out.svg.1grass v.out.svg converts GRASS vector data to SVG (Scalable Vector Graphics) code notation. In particular, it v.out.vtk.1grass v.out.vtk converts a GRASS vector map in binary format to the VTK ASCII output. If the output parameter is not given, the output will be send to stdout. v.overlay.1grass v.overlay allows the user to overlay two vector maps. Features in ainput can be lines or areas and are cut with areas in binput. Simple clipping can be... v.pack.1grass v.pack collects (packs) vector map elements and support files in GRASS Database and creates an compressed file using gzip algorithm. This file can be used to... v.parallel.1grass v.parallel creates parallel lines to the input vector lines which can be used as half-buffers. v.patch.1grass v.patch allows the user to combine any number of vector maps together to create one composite vector map. If the table structures are identical, attributes are... v.perturb.1grass v.perturb reads a vector map of points and writes the same points but perturbs the eastings and northings by adding either a uniform or normal delta value... v.proj.1grass v.proj allows a user to convert a vector map in a specified mapset of a specified location (different from current) with projection of input location to the... v.qcount.1grass v.qcount chooses nquadradius ants circular quadrats of radius radius such that they are completely within the bounds of the current region and no two quadrats... v.random.1grass v.random randomly generates vector points within the current region using the selected random number generator. v.random can generate also 3D vector points or... v.rast.stats.1grass v.rast.stats calculates basic univariate statistics from a raster map only for the parts covered by the specified vector map. The vector map will be rasterized... v.reclass.1grass v.reclass allows user to create a new vector map based on the reclassification of an existing vector map. It also allows the user to change the key column away... v.rectify.1grass v.rectify uses control points to calculate a 2D or 3D transformation matrix based on a first, second, or third order polynomial and then converts x,y(, z)... v.report.1grass v.report generates a table showing the area present in each of the categories of a user-selected data layer. Area is given in hectares, square meters, and... v.sample.1grass v.sample samples a GRASS raster map at the point locations in the input file by either cubic convolution interpolation, bilinear interpolation, or nearest... v.segment.1grass v.segment generates segments or points from input lines and from positions read from a text file or ’stdin’. It includes the creation of parallel lines or... v.select.1grass v.select allows the user to select features from a vector map by features from another one. v.split.1grass v.split splits vector lines into shorter segments using a maximal distance between nodes. The resulting length of all segments is expected to be equal and not... v.surf.bspline.1grass v.surf.bspline performs a bilinear/bicubic spline interpolation with Tykhonov regularization. The input is a 2D or 3D vector points map. Values to interpolate... v.surf.idw.1grass v.surf.idw fills a raster matrix with interpolated values generated from a set of irregularly spaced vector data points using numerical approximation (weighted... v.surf.rst.1grass v.surf.rst program performs spatial approximation based on z-values (input vector map is 3D and zcolumn parameter is not given), categories (input vector map is... v.timestamp.1grass This command has 2 modes of operation. If no date argument is supplied, then the current timestamp for the vector map is printed. If a date argument is... v.to.3d.1grass The v.to.3d module is used to transform 2D vector features to 3D. Height (z-coordinate) of 3D vector features can be specified by height parameter as fixed... v.to.db.1grass v.to.db loads vector map features or metrics into a database table, or prints them (or the SQL queries used to obtain them) in a form of a human-readable... v.to.lines.1grass v.to.lines converts vector polygons (boundaries) to lines as well as vector points to lines via triangulations. v.to.points.1grass v.to.points creates points along input 2D or 3D lines, boundaries and faces. Point features including centroids and kernels are copied from input vector map to... v.to.rast.1grass v.to.rast transforms GRASS vector map layers into GRASS raster map layer format. Optionally, attributes can be converted into raster category labels. v.to.rast3.1grass v.to.rast3 converts a GRASS 3D vector point map to a GRASS 3D raster map. v.transform.1grass v.transform performs an affine transformation (translate and rotate) of a vector map. An affine transform includes one or several linear transformations... v.univar.1grass v.univar calculates univariate statistics of vector map features. This includes the number of features counted, minimum, maximum values, and range. Variance and... v.vect.stats.1grass v.vect.stats counts the number of points in vector map points falling into each area in vector map areas. Optionally statistics on point attributes in points... v.vol.rst.1grass v.vol.rst interpolates values to a 3-dimensional raster map from 3-dimensional point data (e.g. temperature, rainfall data from climatic stations... v.voronoi.1grass v.voronoi creates a Voronoi diagram (Thiessen polygons) from points or centroids. The bounds of the output map are limited by the current region (see g.region)... v.what.1grass v.what outputs the category number value(s) associated with user-specified location(s) in user-specified vector map layer(s). This module was derived from the... v.what.rast.1grass v.what.rast retrieves raster value from a given raster map for each point or centroid stored in a given vector map. It can update a column in the linked vector... v.what.rast3.1grass v.what.rast3 reads 3D raster value for each point in the vector and updates col column in vector attribute table by this value. The column should be type... v.what.strds.1grass v.what.strds retrieves raster values from a given space-time raster datasets (STRDS) using a point vector map. v.what.vect.1grass v.what.vect transfers attributes from the query_map’s map attribute table into the attribute table of points present in the map map. The script is based on... wxGUI.1grass wxGUI is a native Graphical User Interface (GUI) for GRASS GIS. Its main features include displaying geographical data in 2D and 3D, calling GRASS GIS modules... wxGUI.animation.1grass The Animation Tool is a wxGUI component for animating series of GRASS raster or vector maps or space time datasets (created by t.* modules). wxGUI.dbmgr.1grass The Attribute Table Manager is a wxGUI compoment to query, edit, and manage attribute data for vector maps. The attribute table manager can be launched by... wxGUI.gcp.1grass The GCP Manager is a wxGUI extension which allows the user to create, edit, and manage Ground Control Points. It is available from the menu "File | Manage... wxGUI.gmodeler.1grass The Graphical Modeler is a wxGUI component which allows the user to create, edit, and manage complex models using easy-to-use interface. When performing... wxGUI.iclass.1grass Supervised Classification Tool (wxIClass) is a wxGUI compoment which allows the user to create training areas and generate spectral signatures. The resulting... wxGUI.iscatt.1grass Interactive Scatter Plot Tool allows analyzing group of raster maps. The tool is integrated into Supervised Classification Tool (see the screen shot below)... wxGUI.mapswipe.1grass The Map Swipe is a wxGUI component which allows the user to interactively compare two raster maps of the same area by revealing different parts of the raster... wxGUI.nviz.1grass Note: wxNviz is currently under development. Not all planned functionality is already implemented. wxNviz is a wxGUI 3D view mode which allows users to... wxGUI.psmap.1grass wxGUI Cartographic Composer also called wx.psmap is a wxGUI extension which allows the user to create interactively hardcopy map outputs. This tool generates... wxGUI.rlisetup.1grass The g.gui.rlisetup is a wxGUI component which allows the user to create a configuration file for the analytical r.li modules. For a general introduction, see... wxGUI.timeline.1grass The Timeline Tool is a wxGUI component which allows the user to compare the extents of temporal datasets (strds, stvds, str3ds) in a plot. wxGUI.tplot.1grass The Temporal Plot Tool is a wxGUI component which allows the user to see in a plot the values of one or more temporal datasets (strds, stvds, str3ds) for a... wxGUI.vdigit.1grass The vector digitizer is a wxGUI component intended for interactive editing and digitizing vector maps (see v.edit for non-interactive vector editing GRASS... wxGUI.vnet.1grass Vector Network Analysis Tool is graphical front-end for v.net* modules. It allows perform network analysis directly in wxGUI without need to use command line... wximgview.1grass wximgview is a simple wxWidgets image viewer for 32-bpp BMP images, as can be created with the PNG and cairo drivers. The display is continually refreshed. wxpyimgview.1grass wxpyimgview is a simple wxWidgets image viewer for 32-bpp BMP images, as can be created with the PNG and cairo drivers. The display is continually refreshed. ximgview.1grass ximgview is a simple X11 image viewer for 32-bpp BMP images, as can be created with the PNG and cairo drivers. The display is continually refreshed.