menubar man page

iwidgets::menubar — Create and manipulate menubar menu widgets

Synopsis

iwidgets::menubar pathName ?options?

Inheritance

itk::Widget <- iwidgets::Menubar

Standard Options

activeBackground      activeBorderWidth     activeForeground
anchor                background            borderWidth
cursor                disabledForeground    font
foreground            highlightBackground   hightlightColor 
highligthThickness    justify               relief
padX                  padY                  wrapLength

See the "options" manual entry for details on the standard options.

Widget-Specific Options

Name:helpVariable
Class:HelpVariable
Command-Line Switch:-helpvariable
Specifies the global variable to update whenever the mouse is in motion over a menu entry. This global variable is updated with the current value of the active menu entry's helpStr. Other widgets can "watch" this variable with the trace command, or as is the case with entry or label widgets, they can set their textVariable to the same global variable. This allows for a simple implementation of a help status bar. Whenever the mouse leaves a menu entry, the helpVariable is set to the empty string {}. The mainwindow(1) associates its helpstatus and its menubar in this fashion.
Name:menuButtons
Class:MenuButtons
Command-Line Switch:-menubuttons
The menuButton option is a string which specifies the arrangement of menubuttons on the menubar frame. Each menubutton entry is delimited by the newline character.
iwidgets::menubar .mb -menubuttons {
	menubutton file -text File
	menubutton edit -text Edit
	menubutton options -text Options
}

specifies that three menubuttons will be added to the menubar (file, edit, options). Each entry is translated into an add command call.

The menuButtons option can accept embedded variables, commands, and backslash quoting. Embedded variables and commands must be enclosed in curly braces ({}) to ensure proper parsing of the substituted values.

Description

The iwidgets::menubar command creates a new window (given by the pathName argument) and makes it into a menubar menu widget. Additional options, described above may be specified on the command line or in the option database to configure aspects of the menubar such as its colors and font. The iwidgets::menubar command returns its pathName argument. At the time this command is invoked, there must not exist a window named pathName, but pathName's parent must exist.

A menubar is a widget that simplifies the task of creating menu hierarchies. It encapsulates a frame widget, as well as menubuttons, menus, and menu entries. The menubar allows menus to be specified and referenced in a more consistent manner than using Tk to build menus directly.

Menubar allows a menu tree to be expressed in a hierachical "language". The menubar accepts a menuButtons option that allows a list of menubuttons to be added to the menubar. In turn, each menubutton accepts a menu option that specifies a list of menu entries to be added to the menubutton's menu. Cascade entries also accept the menu option for specifying a list of menu entries to be added to the cascade's menu.

Additionally, the menubar allows each component of the menubar system to be referenced by a simple menuPathName syntax. The menubar also extends the set of options for menu entries to include a helpStr option.

Widget-Specific Methods

The iwidgets::menubar command creates a new Tcl command whose name is pathName. This command may be used to invoke various operations on the widget. It has the following general form: pathName option ?arg arg ...? option and the args determine the exact behavior of the command.

In addition, many of the widget commands for menubar take as one argument a path name to a menu component. These path names are called menuPathNames. See the discussion on MENUBAR PATH NAMES above.

The following commands are possible for menubar widgets:

pathName add type menuPathName ?option value option value?

Adds either a menu to the menu bar or a menu entry to a menu pane.

If additional arguments are present, they specify options available to component type entry. See the man pages for menu(1) in the section on ENTRIES.

If type is one of cascade, checkbutton, command, radiobutton, or separator it adds a new entry to the bottom of the menu denoted by the prefix of menuPathName. If additonal arguments are present, they specify options available to menu entry widgets. In addition, the helpStr option is added by the menubar widget to all components of type entry.

-helpstr value
Specifes the string to associate with the entry. When the mouse moves over the associated entry, the variable denoted by helpVariable is set. Another widget can bind to the helpVariable and thus display status help.

If the type of the component added is menubutton or cascade, a menubutton or cascade is added to the menubar. If additional arguments are present, they specify options available to menubutton or cascade widgets. In addition, the menu option is added by the menubar widget to all menubutton and cascade widgets.

-menu menuSpec

This is only valid for menuPathNames of type menubutton or cascade. Specifes an option set and/or a set of entries to place on a menu and associate with the menubutton or cascade. The option keyword allows the menu widget to be configured. Each item in the menuSpec is treated as add commands (each with the possibility of having other -menu options). In this way a menu can be recursively built.

The last segment of menuPathName cannot be one of the keywords last, menu, end. Additionally, it may not be a number. However the menuPathName may be referenced in this manner (see discussion of COMPONENT PATH NAMES).

Note that the same curly brace quoting rules apply to -menu option strings as did to -menubuttons option strings. See the earlier discussion on umenubuttons in the "Widget-Specific Options" section.

pathName cget option
Returns the current value of the configuration option given by option.
pathName configure ?options value option value?
Query or modify the configuration options of the widget. If no option is specified, returns a list describing all of the available options for pathName (see Tk_ConfigureInfo for information on the format of this list). If option is specified with no value, then the command returns a list describing the one named option (this list will be identical to the corresponding sublist of the value returned if no option is specified). If one or more option-value pairs are specified, then the command modifies the given widget option(s) to have the given value(s); in this case the command returns an empty string.
pathName delete menuPathName ?menuPathName2?

If menuPathName is of component type Menubutton or Menu, delete operates on menus. If menuPathName is of component type Entry, delete operates on menu entries.

This command deletes all components between menuPathName and menuPathName2 inclusive. If menuPathName2 is omitted then it defaults to menuPathName. Returns an empty string.

If menuPathName is of type menubar, then all menus and the menu bar frame will be destroyed. In this case menuPathName2 is ignored.

pathName index menuPathName

If menuPathName is of type menubutton or menu, it returns the position of the menu/menubutton on the menubar frame.

If menuPathName is of type command, separator, radiobutton, checkbutton, or cascade, it returns the menu widget's numerical index for the entry corresponding to menuPathName. If path is not found or the path is equal to ".", a value of -1 is returned.

pathName insert menuPathName type name ?option value?

Insert a new component named name before the component specified by menuPathName.

If menuPathName is of type Menubutton or Menu, the new component inserted is of type Menu and given the name name. In this case valid option value pairs are those accepted by menubuttons.

If menuPathName is of type Entry, the new component inserted is of type entry and given the name name. In this case, valid option value pairs are those accepted by menu entries. Name cannot be one of the keywords last, menu, end. Additionally, it may not be a number. However the menuPathName may be referenced in this manner (see discussion of COMPONENT PATH NAMES).

pathName invoke menuPathName

Invoke the action of the menu entry denoted by menuPathName. See the sections on the individual entries in the menu(1) man pages. If the menu entry is disabled then nothing happens. If the entry has a command associated with it then the result of that command is returned as the result of the invoke widget command. Otherwise the result is an empty string.

If menuPathName is not a menu entry, an error is issued.

pathName menucget menuPathName option
Returns the current value of the configuration option given by option. The component type of menuPathName determines the valid available options.
pathName menuconfigure menuPathName ?option value?
Query or modify the configuration options of the componet of the menubar specified by menuPathName. If no option is specified, returns a list describing all of the available options for menuPathName (see Tk_ConfigureInfo for information on the format of this list). If option is specified with no value, then the command returns a list describing the one named option (this list will be identical to the corresponding sublist of the value returned if no option is specified). If one or more option-value pairs are specified, then the command modifies the given widget option(s) to have the given value(s); in this case the command returns an empty string. The component type of menuPathName determines the valid available options.
pathName path ?mode? pattern

Returns a fully formed menuPathName that matches pattern. If no match is found it returns -1. The mode argument indicates how the search is to be matched against pattern and it must have one of the following values:

-glob
Pattern is a glob-style pattern which is matched against each component path using the same rules as the string match command.
-regexp
Pattern is treated as a regular expression and matched against each component of the menuPathName using the same rules as the regexp command. The default mode is -glob.
pathName type menuPathName
Returns the type of the component specified by menuPathName. For menu entries, this is the type argument passed to the add/insert widget command when the entry was created, such as command or separator. Othewise it is either a menubutton or a menu.
pathName yposition menuPathName
Returns a decimal string giving the y-coordinate within the menu window of the topmost pixel in the entry specified by menuPathName. If the menuPathName is not an entry, an error is issued.

Example One: Using Grammar

The following example creates a menubar with "File", "Edit", "Options" menubuttons. Each of these menubuttons has an associated menu. In turn the File menu has menu entries, as well as the Edit menu and the Options menu. The Options menu is a tearoff menu with selectColor (for radiobuttons) set to blue. In addition, the Options menu has a cascade titled More, with several menu entries attached to it as well. An entry widget is provided to display help status. package require Iwidgets 4.0 iwidgets::menubar .mb -helpvariable helpVar -menubuttons {
menubutton file -text File -menu {
options -tearoff false
command new -label New \
-helpstr "Open new document" \
-command {puts NEW}
command close -label Close \
-helpstr "Close current document" \
-command {puts CLOSE}
separator sep1
command exit -label Exit -command {exit} \
-helpstr "Exit application"
}
menubutton edit -text Edit -menu {
options -tearoff false
command undo -label Undo -underline 0 \
-helpstr "Undo last command" \
-command {puts UNDO}
separator sep2
command cut -label Cut -underline 1 \
-helpstr "Cut selection to clipboard" \
-command {puts CUT}
command copy -label Copy -underline 1 \
-helpstr "Copy selection to clipboard" \
-command {puts COPY}
command paste -label Paste -underline 0 \
-helpstr "Paste clipboard contents" \
-command {puts PASTE}
}
menubutton options -text Options -menu {
options -tearoff false -selectcolor blue
radiobutton byName -variable viewMode \
-value NAME -label "by Name" \
-helpstr "View files by name order" \
-command {puts NAME}
radiobutton byDate -variable viewMode \
-value DATE -label "by Date" \
-helpstr "View files by date order" \
-command {puts DATE}
cascade prefs -label Preferences -menu {
command colors -label Colors... \
-helpstr "Change text colors" \
-command {puts COLORS}
command fonts -label Fonts... \
-helpstr "Change text font" \
-command {puts FONT}
}
}

}

frame .fr -width 300 -height 300
entry .ef -textvariable helpVar
pack .mb -anchor nw -fill x -expand yes
pack .fr -fill both -expand yes
pack .ef -anchor sw -fill x -expand yes

Example Two: Using Methods

Alternatively the same menu could be created by using the add and configure methods:

 package require Iwidgets 4.0
 iwidgets::menubar .mb
 .mb configure -menubuttons {
	menubutton file -text File -menu {
		command new -label New
		command close -label Close
		separator sep1
		command 	quit -label Quit
	}
	menubutton edit -text Edit
 }

 .mb add command .edit.undo -label Undo -underline 0
 .mb add separator .edit.sep2
 .mb add command .edit.cut -label Cut -underline 1
 .mb add command .edit.copy -label Copy -underline 1
 .mb add command .edit.paste -label Paste -underline 0

 .mb add menubutton .options -text Options -menu {
	radiobutton byName -variable viewMode \
		 -value NAME -label "by Name"
	radiobutton byDate -variable viewMode \
		 -value DATE -label "by Date"
}

 .mb add cascade .options.prefs -label Preferences -menu {
		command colors -label Colors...
		command fonts -label Fonts...
 }
 pack .mb -side left -anchor nw -fill x -expand yes

Caveats

The -menubuttons option as well as the -menu option is evaluated by menubar with the subst command. The positive side of this is that the option string may contain variables, commands, and/or backslash substitutions. However, substitutions might expand into more than a single word. These expansions can be protected by enclosing candidate substitutions in curly braces ({}). This ensures, for example, a value for an option will still be treated as a single value and not multiple values. The following example illustrates this case:

set fileMenuName "File Menu"
set var {}
iwidgets::menubar .mb -menubuttons {
	menubutton file -text {$fileMenuName}
	menubutton edit -text Edit -menu {
		checkbutton check \
			-label Check \
			-variable {[scope var]} \
			-onvalue 1 \
			-offvalue 0
	}
	menubutton options -text Options
}
The variable fileMenuName will expand to "File Menu" when the subst command is used on the menubutton specification. In addition, the [scope...] command will expand to @scope :: var. By enclosing these inside {} they stay as a single value. Note that only {} work for this. [list...], "" etc. will not protect these from the subst command.

Acknowledgments

Bret Schumaker

1994 - Early work on a menubar widget.

Mark Ulferts, Mark Harrison, John Sigler

Invaluable feedback on grammar and usability of the menubar widget

Author

Bill W. Scott

Keywords

frame, menu, menubutton, entries, help

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