math_geometry man page
math::geometry — Geometrical computations
Synopsis
package require Tcl ?8.3?
package require math::geometry ?1.1.3?
::math::geometry::+ point1 point2
::math::geometry:: point1 point2
::math::geometry::p x y
::math::geometry::distance point1 point2
::math::geometry::length point
::math::geometry::s* factor point
::math::geometry::direction angle
::math::geometry::h length
::math::geometry::v length
::math::geometry::between point1 point2 s
::math::geometry::octant point
::math::geometry::rect nw se
::math::geometry::nwse rect
::math::geometry::angle line
::math::geometry::calculateDistanceToLine P line
::math::geometry::calculateDistanceToLineSegment P linesegment
::math::geometry::calculateDistanceToPolyline P polyline
::math::geometry::calculateDistanceToPolygon P polygon
::math::geometry::findClosestPointOnLine P line
::math::geometry::findClosestPointOnLineSegment P linesegment
::math::geometry::findClosestPointOnPolyline P polyline
::math::geometry::lengthOfPolyline polyline
::math::geometry::movePointInDirection P direction dist
::math::geometry::lineSegmentsIntersect linesegment1 linesegment2
::math::geometry::findLineSegmentIntersection linesegment1 linesegment2
::math::geometry::findLineIntersection line1 line2
::math::geometry::polylinesIntersect polyline1 polyline2
::math::geometry::polylinesBoundingIntersect polyline1 polyline2 granularity
::math::geometry::intervalsOverlap y1 y2 y3 y4 strict
::math::geometry::rectanglesOverlap P1 P2 Q1 Q2 strict
::math::geometry::bbox polyline
::math::geometry::pointInsidePolygon P polyline
::math::geometry::rectangleInsidePolygon P1 P2 polyline
::math::geometry::areaPolygon polygon
Description
The math::geometry package is a collection of functions for computations and manipulations on twodimensional geometrical objects, such as points, lines and polygons.
The geometrical objects are implemented as plain lists of coordinates. For instance a line is defined by a list of four numbers, the x and ycoordinate of a first point and the x and ycoordinates of a second point on the line.
The various types of object are recognised by the number of coordinate pairs and the context in which they are used: a list of four elements can be regarded as an infinite line, a finite line segment but also as a polyline of one segment and a point set of two points.
Currently the following types of objects are distinguished:
 point  a list of two coordinates representing the x and ycoordinates respectively.
 line  a list of four coordinates, interpreted as the x and ycoordinates of two distinct points on the line.
 line segment  a list of four coordinates, interpreted as the x and ycoordinates of the first and the last points on the line segment.
 polyline  a list of an even number of coordinates, interpreted as the x and ycoordinates of an ordered set of points.
 polygon  like a polyline, but the implicit assumption is that the polyline is closed (if the first and last points do not coincide, the missing segment is automatically added).
 point set  again a list of an even number of coordinates, but the points are regarded without any ordering.
Procedures
The package defines the following public procedures:
 ::math::geometry::+ point1 point2
Compute the sum of the two vectors given as points and return it. The result is a vector as well.
 ::math::geometry:: point1 point2
Compute the difference (point1  point2) of the two vectors given as points and return it. The result is a vector as well.
 ::math::geometry::p x y
Construct a point from its coordinates and return it as the result of the command.
 ::math::geometry::distance point1 point2

Compute the distance between the two points and return it as the result of the command. This is in essence the same as
math::geometry::length [math::geomtry:: point1 point2]
 ::math::geometry::length point
Compute the length of the vector and return it as the result of the command.
 ::math::geometry::s* factor point
Scale the vector by the factor and return it as the result of the command. This is a vector as well.
 ::math::geometry::direction angle
Given the angle in degrees this command computes and returns the unit vector pointing into this direction. The vector for angle == 0 points to the right (up), and for angle == 90 up (north).
 ::math::geometry::h length
Returns a horizontal vector on the Xaxis of the specified length. Positive lengths point to the right (east).
 ::math::geometry::v length
Returns a vertical vector on the Yaxis of the specified length. Positive lengths point down (south).
 ::math::geometry::between point1 point2 s
Compute the point which is at relative distance s between the two points and return it as the result of the command. A relative distance of 0 returns point1, the distance 1 returns point2. Distances < 0 or > 1 extrapolate along the line between the two point.
 ::math::geometry::octant point

Compute the octant of the circle the point is in and return it as the result of the command. The possible results are
 [1]
east
 [2]
northeast
 [3]
north
 [4]
northwest
 [5]
west
 [6]
southwest
 [7]
south
 [8]
southeast
Each octant is the arc of the circle +/ 22.5 degrees from the cardinal direction the octant is named for.
 ::math::geometry::rect nw se
Construct a rectangle from its northwest and southeast corners and return it as the result of the command.
 ::math::geometry::nwse rect
Extract the northwest and southeast corners of the rectangle and return them as the result of the command (a 2element list containing the points, in the named order).
 ::math::geometry::angle line

Calculate the angle from the positive xaxis to a given line (in two dimensions only).
 list line
Coordinates of the line
 ::math::geometry::calculateDistanceToLine P line

Calculate the distance of point P to the (infinite) line and return the result
 list P
List of two numbers, the coordinates of the point
 list line
List of four numbers, the coordinates of two points on the line
 ::math::geometry::calculateDistanceToLineSegment P linesegment

Calculate the distance of point P to the (finite) line segment and return the result.
 list P
List of two numbers, the coordinates of the point
 list linesegment
List of four numbers, the coordinates of the first and last points of the line segment
 ::math::geometry::calculateDistanceToPolyline P polyline

Calculate the distance of point P to the polyline and return the result. Note that a polyline needs not to be closed.
 list P
List of two numbers, the coordinates of the point
 list polyline
List of numbers, the coordinates of the vertices of the polyline
 ::math::geometry::calculateDistanceToPolygon P polygon

Calculate the distance of point P to the polygon and return the result. If the list of coordinates is not closed (first and last points differ), it is automatically closed.
 list P
List of two numbers, the coordinates of the point
 list polygon
List of numbers, the coordinates of the vertices of the polygon
 ::math::geometry::findClosestPointOnLine P line

Return the point on a line which is closest to a given point.
 list P
List of two numbers, the coordinates of the point
 list line
List of four numbers, the coordinates of two points on the line
 ::math::geometry::findClosestPointOnLineSegment P linesegment

Return the point on a line segment which is closest to a given point.
 list P
List of two numbers, the coordinates of the point
 list linesegment
List of four numbers, the first and last points on the line segment
 ::math::geometry::findClosestPointOnPolyline P polyline

Return the point on a polyline which is closest to a given point.
 list P
List of two numbers, the coordinates of the point
 list polyline
List of numbers, the vertices of the polyline
 ::math::geometry::lengthOfPolyline polyline

Return the length of the polyline (note: it not regarded as a polygon)
 list polyline
List of numbers, the vertices of the polyline
 ::math::geometry::movePointInDirection P direction dist

Move a point over a given distance in a given direction and return the new coordinates (in two dimensions only).
 list P
Coordinates of the point to be moved
 double direction
Direction (in degrees; 0 is to the right, 90 upwards)
 list dist
Distance over which to move the point
 ::math::geometry::lineSegmentsIntersect linesegment1 linesegment2

Check if two line segments intersect or coincide. Returns 1 if that is the case, 0 otherwise (in two dimensions only). If an endpoint of one segment lies on the other segment (or is very close to the segment), they are considered to intersect
 list linesegment1
First line segment
 list linesegment2
Second line segment
 ::math::geometry::findLineSegmentIntersection linesegment1 linesegment2

Find the intersection point of two line segments. Return the coordinates or the keywords "coincident" or "none" if the line segments coincide or have no points in common (in two dimensions only).
 list linesegment1
First line segment
 list linesegment2
Second line segment
 ::math::geometry::findLineIntersection line1 line2

Find the intersection point of two (infinite) lines. Return the coordinates or the keywords "coincident" or "none" if the lines coincide or have no points in common (in two dimensions only).
 list line1
First line
 list line2
Second line
See section References for details on the algorithm and math behind it.
 ::math::geometry::polylinesIntersect polyline1 polyline2

Check if two polylines intersect or not (in two dimensions only).
 list polyline1
First polyline
 list polyline2
Second polyline
 ::math::geometry::polylinesBoundingIntersect polyline1 polyline2 granularity

Check whether two polylines intersect, but reduce the correctness of the result to the given granularity. Use this for faster, but weaker, intersection checking.
How it works:
Each polyline is split into a number of smaller polylines, consisting of granularity points each. If a pair of those smaller lines' bounding boxes intersect, then this procedure returns 1, otherwise it returns 0.
 list polyline1
First polyline
 list polyline2
Second polyline
 int granularity
Number of points in each part (<=1 means check every edge)
 ::math::geometry::intervalsOverlap y1 y2 y3 y4 strict

Check if two intervals overlap.
 double y1,y2
Begin and end of first interval
 double y3,y4
Begin and end of second interval
 logical strict
Check for strict or nonstrict overlap
 ::math::geometry::rectanglesOverlap P1 P2 Q1 Q2 strict

Check if two rectangles overlap.
 list P1
upperleft corner of the first rectangle
 list P2
lowerright corner of the first rectangle
 list Q1
upperleft corner of the second rectangle
 list Q2
lowerright corner of the second rectangle
 list strict
choosing strict or nonstrict interpretation
 ::math::geometry::bbox polyline

Calculate the bounding box of a polyline. Returns a list of four coordinates: the upperleft and the lowerright corner of the box.
 list polyline
The polyline to be examined
 ::math::geometry::pointInsidePolygon P polyline

Determine if a point is completely inside a polygon. If the point touches the polygon, then the point is not completely inside the polygon.
 list P
Coordinates of the point
 list polyline
The polyline to be examined
 ::math::geometry::rectangleInsidePolygon P1 P2 polyline

Determine if a rectangle is completely inside a polygon. If polygon touches the rectangle, then the rectangle is not complete inside the polygon.
 list P1
Upperleft corner of the rectangle
 list P2
Lowerright corner of the rectangle
 list polygon
The polygon in question
 ::math::geometry::areaPolygon polygon

Calculate the area of a polygon.
 list polygon
The polygon in question
References
 [1]
Polygon Intersection [http:/wiki.tcl.tk/12070]
 [2]
 [3]
Bugs, Ideas, Feedback
This document, and the package it describes, will undoubtedly contain bugs and other problems. Please report such in the category math :: geometry of the Tcllib Trackers [http://core.tcl.tk/tcllib/reportlist]. Please also report any ideas for enhancements you may have for either package and/or documentation.
Keywords
angle, distance, line, math, plane geometry, point
Category
Mathematics
Copyright
Copyright (c) 2001 by Ideogramic ApS and other parties Copyright (c) 2004 by Arjen Markus Copyright (c) 2010 by Andreas Kupries Copyright (c) 2010 by Kevin Kenny