oscap man page

oscap — OpenSCAP command line tool

Synopsis

oscap [general-options] module operation [operation-options-and-arguments]

Description

oscap is Security Content Automation Protocol (SCAP) toolkit based on OpenSCAP library. It provides various functions for different SCAP specifications (modules).

OpenSCAP tool claims to provide capabilities of Authenticated Configuration Scanner and Authenticated Vulnerability Scanner as defined by The National Institute of Standards and Technology.

General Options

-V, --version
Print supported SCAP specification, location of schema files, schematron files, CPE files, probes and supported OVAL objects. Displays a list of inbuilt CPE names.
-h, --help
Help screen.

Modules

info
Determine type and print information about a file.
xccdf
The eXtensible Configuration Checklist Description Format.
oval
Open Vulnerability and Assessment Language.
ds
SCAP Data Stream
cpe
Common Platform Enumeration.
cvss
Common Vulnerability Scoring System
cve
Common Vulnerabilities and Exposures

Info Operations

[options] any-scap-file.xml

This module prints information about SCAP content in a file specified on a command line. It determines SCAP content type, specification version, date of creation, date of import and so on. Info module doesn't require any additional opperation switch.

For XCCDF or Datastream files, info module prints out IDs of incorporated profiles, components, and datastreams. These IDs can be used to specify the target for evaluation. Use options --profile, --xccdf-id (or --oval-id), and --datastream-id respectively.

--fetch-remote-resources
Allow download of remote components referenced from Datastream.

Xccdf Operations

eval [options] INPUT_FILE [oval-definitions-files]

Perform evaluation of XCCDF document file given as INPUT_FILE. Print result of each rule to standard output, including rule title, rule id and security identifier(CVE, CCE). Optionally you can give a source datastream as the INPUT_FILE instead of an XCCDF file (see --datastream-id).

oscap returns 0 if all rules pass. If there is an error during evaluation, the return code is 1. If there is at least one rule with either fail or unknown result, oscap-scan finishes with return code 2.

Unless --skip-valid is used, the INPUT_FILE is validated using XSD schemas (depending on document type of INPUT_FILE) and rejected if invalid.

You may specify OVAL Definition files as the last parameter, XCCDF evaluation will then proceed only with those specified files. Otherwise, when oval-definitions-files parameter is missing, oscap tool will try to load all OVAL Definition files referenced from XCCDF automatically (search in the same path as XCCDF).

--profile PROFILE
Select a particular profile from XCCDF document.
--tailoring-file TAILORING_FILE
Use given file for XCCDF tailoring. If both --tailoring-file and --tailoring-id are specified, --tailoring-file takes priority!
--tailoring-id COMPONENT_ID
Use component of given ID (in input source datastream) for XCCDF tailoring. If both --tailoring-file and --tailoring-id are specified, --tailoring files takes priority!
--cpe CPE_FILE
Use given CPE dictionary or language (auto-detected) for applicability checks. (Some CPE names are provided by openscap, see oscap --version for Inbuilt CPE names)
--results FILE
Write XCCDF results into FILE.
--results-arf FILE
Writes results to a given FILE in Asset Reporting Format. It is recommended to use this option instead of --results when dealing with datastreams.
--report FILE
Write HTML report into FILE. You also have to specify --results for this feature to work. Please see --oval-results to enable additional information in the report.
--oval-results
Generate OVAL Result file for each OVAL session used for evaluation. File with name 'original-oval-definitions-filename.result.xml' will be generated for each referenced OVAL file in current working directory. This option (in conjunction with the --report option) also enables inclusion of additional OVAL information in the XCCDF report. To change the directory where OVAL files are generated change the CWD using the `cd` command.
--check-engine-results
After evaluation is finished, each loaded check engine plugin is asked to export its results. The export itself is plugin specific, please refer to documentation of the plugin for more details.
--export-variables
Generate OVAL Variables documents which contain external variables' values that were provided to the OVAL checking engine during evaluation. The filename format is 'original-oval-definitions-filename-session-index.variables-variables-index.xml'.
--datastream-id ID
Uses a datastream with that particular ID from the given datastream collection. If not given the first datastream is used. Only applies if you give source datastream in place of an XCCDF file.
--xccdf-id ID
Takes component ref with given ID from checklists. This allows to select a particular XCCDF component even in cases where there are 2 XCCDFs in one datastream. If none is given, the first component from the checklists element is used.
--benchmark-id ID
Selects a component ref from any datastream that references a component with XCCDF Benchmark such that its @id attribute matches given string exactly. Please note that this is not the recommended way of selecting a component-ref. You are advised to use --xccdf-id AND/OR --datastream-id for more precision. --benchmark-id is only used when both --xccdf-id and --datastream-id are not present on the command line!
--skip-valid
Do not validate input/output files.
--fetch-remote-resources
Allow download of remote OVAL content referenced from XCCDF by check-content-ref/@href.
--remediate
Execute XCCDF remediation in the process of XCCDF evaluation. This option automatically executes content of XCCDF fix elements for failed rules, and thus this shall be avoided unless for trusted content. Use of this option is always at your own risk.
--verbose VERBOSITY_LEVEL
Turn on verbose mode at specified verbosity level. VERBOSITY_LEVEL is one of: DEVEL, INFO, WARNING, ERROR.
--verbose-log-file FILE
Set filename to write additional information.
remediate [options] INPUT_FILE [oval-definitions-files]

This module provides post-scan remediation. It assumes that the INPUT_FILE is result of `oscap xccdf eval` operation. The input file must contain TestResult element. This module executes XCCDF fix elements for failed rule-result contained in the given TestResult. Use of this option is always at your own risk and it shall be avoided unless for trusted content.

--result-id ID
ID of the XCCDF TestResult element which shall be remedied. If this option is missing the last TestResult (in top-down processing) will be remedied.
--skip-valid
Do not validate input/output files.
--fetch-remote-resources
Allow download of remote OVAL content referenced from XCCDF by check-content-ref/@href.
--cpe CPE_FILE
Use given CPE dictionary or language (auto-detected) for applicability checks.
--results FILE
Write XCCDF results into FILE.
--results-arf FILE
Writes results to a given FILE in Asset Reporting Format. It is recommended to use this option instead of --results when dealing with datastreams.
--report FILE
Write HTML report into FILE. You also have to specify --results for this feature to work.
--oval-results
Generate OVAL Result file for each OVAL session used for evaluation. File with name 'original-oval-definitions-filename.result.xml' will be generated for each referenced OVAL file. This option (with conjunction with the --report option) also enables inclusion of additional OVAL information in the XCCDF report.
--check-engine-results
After evaluation is finished, each loaded check engine plugin is asked to export its results. The export itself is plugin specific, please refer to documentation of the plugin for more details.
--export-variables
Generate OVAL Variables documents which contain external variables' values that were provided to the OVAL checking engine during evaluation. The filename format is 'original-oval-definitions-filename-session-index.variables-variables-index.xml'.
resolve -o output-file xccdf-file

Resolve an XCCDF file as described in the XCCDF specification. It will flatten inheritance hierarchy of XCCDF profiles, groups, rules, and values. Result is another XCCDF document, which will be written to output-file.

--force
Force resolving XCCDF document even if it is already marked as resolved.
validate [options] xccdf-file

Validate given XCCDF file against a XML schema. Every found error is printed to the standard error. Return code is 0 if validation succeeds, 1 if validation could not be performed due to some error, 2 if the XCCDF document is not valid.

--schematron
Turn on Schematron-based validation. It is able to find more errors and inconsistencies but is much slower. Schematron is available only for XCCDF version 1.2.
export-oval-variables [options] xccdf-file [oval-definitions-files]

Collect all the XCCDF values that would be used by OVAL during evaluation of a certain profile and export them as OVAL external-variables document(s). The filename format is 'original-oval-definitions-filename-session-index.variables-variables-index.xml'.

--profile PROFILE
Select a particular profile from XCCDF document.
--fetch-remote-resources
Allow download of remote OVAL content referenced from XCCDF by check-content-ref/@href.
--skip-valid
Do not validate input/output files.
--datastream-id ID
Uses a datastream with that particular ID from the given datastream collection. If not given the first datastream is used. Only applies if you give source datastream in place of an XCCDF file.
--xccdf-id ID
Takes component ref with given ID from checklists. This allows to select a particular XCCDF component even in cases where there are 2 XCCDFs in one datastream.
--cpe CPE_FILE
Use given CPE dictionary or language (auto-detected) for applicability checks. The variables documents are created only for xccdf:Rules which are applicable.
generate [options] <submodule> [submodule-specific-options]

Generate another document form an XCCDF file such as security guide or result report.

--profile ID
Apply profile with given ID to the Benchmark before further processing takes place.
Available submodules:
guide [options] xccdf-file

Generate a formatted document containing a security guide from a XCCDF Benchmark. Unless the --output option is specified it will be written to the standard output. Without profile being set only groups (not rules) will be included in the output.

--output FILE
Write the guide to this file instead of standard output.
--hide-profile-info
Information on chosen profile (e.g. rules selected by the profile) will be excluded from the document.
report [options] xccdf-file

Generate a document containing results of a XCCDF Benchmark execution. Unless the --output option is specified it will be written to the standard output. ID of the TestResult element to visualise defaults to the most recent result (according to the end-time attribute).

--output FILE
Write the report to this file instead of standard output.
--result-id ID
ID of the XCCDF TestResult from which the report will be generated.
--show what
Specify what result types shall be displayed in the result report. The default is to show everything except for rules with results notselected and notapplicable. The what part is a comma-separated list of result types to display in addition to the default. If result type is prefixed by a dash '-', it will be excluded from the results. If what is prefixed by an equality sign '=', a following list specifies exactly what rule types to include in the report. Result types are: pass, fixed, notchecked, notapplicable, notselected, informational, unknown, error, fail.
--oval-template template-string
To use the ability to include additional information from OVAL in xccdf result file, a template which will be used to obtain OVAL result file names has to be specified. The template can be either a filename or a string containing wildcard character (percent sign '%'). Wildcard will be replaced by the original OVAL definition file name as referenced from the XCCDF file. This way it is possible to obtain OVAL information even from XCCDF documents referencing several OVAL files. To use this option with results from an XCCDF evaluation, specify %.result.xml as a OVAL file name template.
--sce-template template-string
To use the ability to include additional information from SCE in XCCDF result file, a template which will be used to obtain SCE result file names has to be specified. The template can be either a filename or a string containing wildcard character (percent sign '%'). Wildcard will be replaced by the original SCE script file name as referenced from the XCCDF file. This way it is possible to obtain SCE information even from XCCDF documents referencing several SCE files. To use this option with results from an XCCDF evaluation, specify %.result.xml as a SCE file name template.
fix [options] xccdf-file

Generate a script that shall bring the system to a state of compliance with given XCCDF Benchmark.

--output FILE
Write the report to this file instead of standard output.
--result-id ID
Fixes will be generated for failed rule-results of the specified TestResult.
--template ID|FILE
Template to be used to generate the script. If it contains a dot '.' it is interpreted as a location of a file with the template definition. Otherwise it identifies a template from standard set which currently includes: bash (default if no --template switch present). Brief explanation of the process of writing your own templates is in the XSL file xsl/legacy-fix.xsl in the openscap data directory. You can also take a look at the default template xsl/legacy-fixtpl-bash.xml.
custom --stylesheet xslt-file [options] xccdf-file

Generate a custom output (depending on given XSLT file) from an XCCDF file.

--stylesheet FILE
Specify an absolute path to a custom stylesheet to format the output.
--output FILE
Write the document into file.

Oval Operations

eval [options] INPUT_FILE

Probe the system and evaluate all definitions from OVAL Definition file. Print result of each definition to standard output. The return code is 0 after a successful evaluation. On error, value 1 is returned.

INPUT_FILE can be either OVAL Definition File or SCAP Source Datastream, it depends on used options.

Unless --skip-valid is used, the INPUT_FILE is validated using XSD schemas (depending on document type of INPUT_FILE) and rejected if invalid.

--id DEFINITION-ID
Evaluate ONLY specified OVAL Definition from OVAL Definition File.
--variables FILE
Provide external variables expected by OVAL Definition File.
--directives FILE
Use OVAL Directives content to specify desired results content.
--without-syschar
Don't provide system characteristics in result file.
--results FILE
Write OVAL Results into file.
--report FILE
Create human readable (HTML) report from OVAL Results.
--datastream-id ID
Uses a datastream with that particular ID from the given datastream collection. If not given the first datastream is used. Only applies if you give source datastream in place of an OVAL file.
--oval-id ID
Takes component ref with given ID from checks. This allows to select a particular OVAL component even in cases where there are 2 OVALs in one datastream.
--skip-valid
Do not validate input/output files.

--fetch-remote-resources Allow download of remote components referenced from Datastream.

--verbose VERBOSITY_LEVEL
Turn on verbose mode at specified verbosity level. VERBOSITY_LEVEL is one of: DEVEL, INFO, WARNING, ERROR.
--verbose-log-file FILE
Set filename to write additional information.
collect [options] definitions-file

Probe the system and gather system characteristics for all objects in OVAL Definition file.

--id OBJECT-ID
Collect system characteristics ONLY for specified OVAL Object.
--variables FILE
Provide external variables expected by OVAL Definitions.
--syschar FILE
Write OVAL System Characteristic into file.
--skip-valid
Do not validate input/output files.
--verbose VERBOSITY_LEVEL
Turn on verbose mode at specified verbosity level. VERBOSITY_LEVEL is one of: DEVEL, INFO, WARNING, ERROR.
--verbose-log-file FILE
Set filename to write additional information.
analyse [options] --results FILE definitions-file syschar-file

In this mode, the oscap tool does not perform data collection on the local system, but relies upon the input file, which may have been generated on another system. The output (OVAL Results) is printed to file specified by --results parameter.

--variables FILE
Provide external variables expected by OVAL Definitions.
--directives FILE
Use OVAL Directives content to specify desired results content.
--skip-valid
Do not validate input/output files.
--verbose VERBOSITY_LEVEL
Turn on verbose mode at specified verbosity level. VERBOSITY_LEVEL is one of: DEVEL, INFO, WARNING, ERROR.
--verbose-log-file FILE
Set filename to write additional information.
validate [options] oval-file

Validate given OVAL file against a XML schema. Every found error is printed to the standard error. Return code is 0 if validation succeeds, 1 if validation could not be performed due to some error, 2 if the OVAL document is not valid.

--definitions, --variables, --syschar, --results --directives
Type of the OVAL document is automatically detected by default. If you want enforce certain document type, you can use one of these options.
--schematron
Turn on Schematron-based validation. It is able to find more errors and inconsistencies but is much slower.
generate <submodule> [submodule-specific-options]

Generate another document form an OVAL file.

Available submodules:
report [options] oval-results-file

Generate a formatted HTML page containing visualisation of an OVAL results file. Unless the --output option is specified it will be written to the standard output.

--output FILE
Write the report to this file instead of standard output.
list-probes [options]

List supported object types (i.e. probes)

--static
List all probes defined in the internal tables.
--dynamic
List all probes supported on the current system (this is default behavior).
--verbose
Be verbose.

Cpe Operations

check name
Check whether name is in correct CPE format.

match name dictionary.xml

Find an exact match of CPE name in the dictionary.

validate cpe-dict-file

Validate given CPE dictionary file against a XML schema. Every found error is printed to the standard error. Return code is 0 if validation succeeds, 1 if validation could not be performed due to some error, 2 if the XCCDF document is not valid.

Cvss Operations

score cvss_vector
Calculate score from a CVSS vector. Prints base score for base CVSS vector, base and temporal score for temporal CVSS vector, base and temporal and environmental score for environmental CVSS vector.
describe cvss_vector
Describe individual components of a CVSS vector in a human-readable format and print partial scores.
CVSS vector consists of several slash-separated components specified as key-value pairs. Each key can be specified at most once. Valid CVSS vector has to contain at least base CVSS metrics, i.e. AV, AC, AU, C, I, and A. Following table summarizes the components and possible values (second column is metric category: B for base, T for temporal, E for environmental):

AV:[L|A|N] B Access vector: Local, Adjacent network, Network

AC:[H|M|L] B Access complexity: High, Medium, Low

AU:[M|S|N] B Required authentication: Multiple instances, Single instance, None

C:[N|P|C] B Confidentiality impact: None, Partial, Complete

I:[N|P|C] B Integrity impact: None, Partial, Complete

A:[N|P|C] B Availability impact: None, Partial, Complete

E:[ND|U|POC|F|H] T Exploitability: Not Defined, Unproven, Proof of Concept, Functional, High

RL:[ND|OF|TF|W|U] T Remediation Level: Not Defined, Official Fix, Temporary Fix, Workaround, Unavailable

RC:[ND|UC|UR|C] T Report Confidence: Not Defined, Unconfirmed, Uncorroborated, Confirmed

CDP:[ND|N|L|LM|MH|H] E Collateral Damage Potential: Not Defined, None, Low, Low-Medium, Medium-High, High

TD:[ND|N|L|M|H] E Target Distribution: Not Defined, None, Low, Medium, High

CR:[ND|L|M|H] E Confidentiality requirement: Not Defined, Low, Medium, High

IR:[ND|L|M|H] E Integrity requirement: Not Defined, Low, Medium, High

AR:[ND|L|M|H] E Availability requirement: Not Defined, Low, Medium, High

Ds Operations

sds-compose [options] SOURCE_XCCDF TARGET_SDS

Creates a source datastream from the XCCDF file given in SOURCE_XCCDF and stores the result in TARGET_SDS. Dependencies like OVAL files are automatically detected and bundled in target source datastream.

--skip-valid
Do not validate input/output files.
sds-add [options] NEW_COMPONENT EXISTING_SDS

Adds given NEW_COMPONENT file to the existing source datastream (EXISTING_SDS). Component file might be OVAL, XCCDF or CPE Dictionary file. Dependencies like OVAL files are automatically detected an bundled in target source datastream.

--datastream-id DATASTREAM_ID
Uses a datastream with that particular ID from the given datastream collection. If not given the first datastream is used.
--skip-valid
Do not validate input/output files.
sds-split [options] SOURCE_DS TARGET_DIR

Splits given source datastream into multiple files and stores all the files in TARGET_DIR.

--datastream-id DATASTREAM_ID
Uses a datastream with that particular ID from the given datastream collection. If not given the first datastream is used.
--xccdf-id XCCDF_ID
Takes component ref with given ID from checklists. This allows to select a particular XCCDF component even in cases where there are 2 XCCDFs in one datastream.
--skip-valid
Do not validate input/output files.
--fetch-remote-resources
Allow download of remote components referenced from Datastream.
sds-validate SOURCE_DS
Validate given source datastream file against a XML schema. Every found error is printed to the standard error. Return code is 0 if validation succeeds, 1 if validation could not be performed due to some error, 2 if the source datastream is not valid.
rds-create [options] SDS TARGET_ARF XCCDF_RESULTS [OVAL_RESULTS [OVAL_RESULTS ..]]

Takes given source datastream, XCCDF and OVAL results and creates a result datastream (in Asset Reporting Format) and saves it to file given in TARGET_ARF.

--skip-valid
Do not validate input/output files.
rds-split [options] [--report-id REPORT_ID] RDS TARGET_DIR

Takes given result datastream (also called ARF = asset reporting format) and splits given report and its respective report-request to given target directory. If no report-id is given, we assume user wants the first applicable report in top-down order in the file.

--skip-valid
Do not validate input/output files.
rds-validate SOURCE_RDS
Validate given result datastream file against a XML schema. Every found error is printed to the standard error. Return code is 0 if validation succeeds, 1 if validation could not be performed due to some error, 2 if the result datastream is not valid.

Cve Operations

validate cve-nvd-feed.xml
Validate given CVE data feed.
find CVE cve-nvd-feed.xml
Find given CVE in data feed and report base score, vector string and vulnerable software list.

Exit Status

Normally, the exit status is 0 when operation finished successfully and 1 otherwise. In cases when oscap performs evaluation of the system it may return 2 indicating success of the operation but incompliance of the assessed system.

Examples

Evaluate XCCDF content using CPE dictionary and produce html report. In this case we use United States Government Configuration Baseline (USGCB) for Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5 Desktop.

oscap xccdf eval --fetch-remote-resources --oval-results \
        --profile united_states_government_configuration_baseline \
        --report usgcb-rhel5desktop.report.html \
        --results usgcb-rhel5desktop-xccdf.xml.result.xml \
        --cpe usgcb-rhel5desktop-cpe-dictionary.xml \
        usgcb-rhel5desktop-xccdf.xml

Content

National Vulnerability Database - http://web.nvd.nist.gov/view/ncp/reposi…

Red Hat content repository - http://www.redhat.com/security/data/ova…

Reporting Bugs

Please report bugs using https://github.com/OpenSCAP/openscap/issues
Make sure you include the full output of `oscap --v` in the bug report.

Authors

Peter Vrabec <pvrabec@redhat.com>
Šimon Lukašík
Martin Preisler <mpreisle@redhat.com>

Referenced By

oscap-chroot(8), oscap-docker(8), oscap-ssh(8), oscap-vm(8), scap-workbench(8).

Jan 2016 Red Hat System Administration Utilities