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makemap.sendmail - Man Page

create database maps for sendmail


makemap [-C file] [-N] [-c cachesize] [-d] [-D commentchar] [-e] [-f] [-i type] [-l] [-o] [-r] [-s] [-t delim] [-u] [-v] maptype mapnam


Makemap creates the database maps used by the keyed map lookups in sendmail(8).   It reads input from the standard input and outputs them to the indicated mapname.

Depending on how it is compiled, makemap handles different database formats,  selected using the maptype parameter.   They may be


B-Tree format maps.   This requires the new Berkeley DB  library.


Hash format maps.   This also requires the Berkeley DB  library.


CDB (Constant DataBase) format maps.   This requires the tinycdb library.


The first available format in the following order: hash, dbm, and cdb.

In all cases, makemap reads lines from the standard input consisting of two  words separated by white space.   The first is the database key,  the second is the value.   The value may contain  “%n”  strings to indicate parameter substitution.   Literal percents should be doubled  (“%%”). Blank lines and lines beginning with “#” are ignored.

Notice: do not use makemap to create the aliases data base, but newaliases which puts a special token into the data base that is required by sendmail.

If the TrustedUser option is set in the sendmail configuration file and makemap is invoked as root, the generated files will be owned by  the specified TrustedUser.



Use the specified sendmail configuration file for looking up the TrustedUser option.


Include the null byte that terminates strings  in the map.   This must match the -N flag in the sendmail.cf  “K” line.


Use the specified hash and B-Tree cache size.


Use to specify the character to use to indicate a comment (which is ignored) instead of the default of '#'.


Allow duplicate keys in the map.   This is only allowed on B-Tree format maps.   If two identical keys are read,  they will both be inserted into the map.


Allow empty value (right hand side).


Normally all upper case letters in the key  are folded to lower case.   This flag disables that behaviour.   This is intended to mesh with the  -f flag in the K line in sendmail.cf.   The value is never case folded.


Use the specified type as fallback if the given maptype is not available.


List supported map types.


Append to an old file.   This allows you to augment an existing file. Note: this might not be supported by all database types, e.g., cdb.


Allow replacement of existing keys.   Normally makemap complains if you repeat a key,  and does not do the insert.


Ignore safety checks on maps being created.   This includes checking for hard or symbolic  links in world writable directories.


Use the specified delimiter instead of white space (also for dumping a map).


dump (unmap) the content of the database to standard output.


Verbosely print what it is doing.


makemap hash /etc/mail/access < /etc/mail/access

See Also

sendmail(8), newaliases(1)


The makemap command appeared in  4.4BSD.