debootstrap man page

debootstrap — Bootstrap a basic Debian system

Synopsis

debootstrap [OPTION...] SUITE TARGET [MIRROR [SCRIPT]]

debootstrap [OPTION...] --second-stage

Description

debootstrap bootstraps a basic Debian system of SUITE into TARGET from MIRROR by running SCRIPT. MIRROR can be an http:// or https:// URL, a file:/// URL, or an ssh:/// URL.

The SUITE may be a release code name (eg, sid, stretch, jessie) or a symbolic name (eg, unstable, testing, stable, oldstable)

Notice that file:/ URLs are translated to file:/// (correct scheme as described in RFC1738 for local filenames), and file:// will not work. ssh://USER@HOST/PATH URLs are retrieved using scp; use of ssh-agent or similar is strongly recommended.

Debootstrap can be used to install Debian in a system without using an installation disk but can also be used to run a different Debian flavor in a chroot environment. This way you can create a full (minimal) Debian installation which can be used for testing purposes (see the Examples section). If you are looking for a chroot system to build packages please take a look at pbuilder.

Options

--arch=ARCH
Set the target architecture (use if dpkg isn't installed). See also --foreign.
--include=alpha,beta
Comma separated list of packages which will be added to download and extract lists.
--exclude=alpha,beta
Comma separated list of packages which will be removed from download and extract lists. WARNING: you can and probably will exclude essential packages, be careful using this option.
--components=alpha,beta
Use packages from the listed components of the archive.
--no-resolve-deps
By default, debootstrap will attempt to automatically resolve any missing dependencies, warning if any are found. Note that this is not a complete dependency resolve in the sense of dpkg or apt, and that it is far better to specify the entire base system than rely on this option. With this option set, this behaviour is disabled.
--variant=minbase|buildd|fakechroot
Name of the bootstrap script variant to use. Currently, the variants supported are minbase, which only includes essential packages and apt; buildd, which installs the build-essential packages into TARGET; and fakechroot, which installs the packages without root privileges. The default, with no --variant=X argument, is to create a base Debian installation in TARGET.
--merged-usr
Create /{bin,sbin,lib}/ symlinks pointing to their counterparts in /usr/.
--no-merged-usr
Do not create /{bin,sbin,lib}/ symlinks pointing to their counterparts in /usr/. (Default.)
--keyring=KEYRING
Override the default keyring for the distribution being bootstrapped, and use KEYRING to check signatures of retrieved Release files.
--no-check-gpg
Disables checking gpg signatures of retrieved Release files.
--force-check-gpg
Forces checking Release file signatures, disabling automatic fallback to HTTPS in case of a missing keyring. Incompatible with the previous option.
--verbose
Produce more info about downloading.
--print-debs
Print the packages to be installed, and exit. Note that a TARGET directory must be specified so debootstrap can download Packages files to determine which packages should be installed, and to resolve dependencies. The TARGET directory will be deleted unless --keep-debootstrap-dir is specified.
--download-only
Download packages, but don't perform installation.
--foreign
Do the initial unpack phase of bootstrapping only, for example if the target architecture does not match the host architecture. A copy of debootstrap sufficient for completing the bootstrap process will be installed as /debootstrap/debootstrap in the target filesystem. You can run it with the --second-stage option to complete the bootstrapping process.
--second-stage
Complete the bootstrapping process. Other arguments are generally not needed.
--second-stage-target=DIR
Run second stage in a subdirectory instead of root. (can be used to create a foreign chroot) (requires --second-stage)
--keep-debootstrap-dir
Don't delete the /debootstrap directory in the target after completing the installation.
--unpack-tarball=FILE
Acquire .debs from tarball FILE instead of downloading via http.
--make-tarball=FILE
Instead of bootstrapping, make a tarball (written to FILE) of the downloaded packages. The resulting tarball may be passed to a later --unpack-tarball.
--debian-installer
Used for internal purposes by the debian-installer
--extractor=TYPE
Override automatic .deb extractor selection to TYPE. Supported extractors are: dpkg-deb and ar.
--no-check-certificate
Do not check certificate against certificate authorities
--certificate=FILE
Use the client certificate stored in file (PEM)
--private-key=FILE
Read the private key from file

Examples

To setup a stretch system:

debootstrap stretch ./stretch-chroot http://deb.debian.org/debian

debootstrap stretch ./stretch-chroot file:///LOCAL_MIRROR/debian

Full process to create a complete Debian installation of sid (unstable) in a chroot:

main # debootstrap sid sid-root http://deb.debian.org/debian/
[ ... watch it download the whole system ]
main # echo "proc sid-root/proc proc defaults 0 0" >> /etc/fstab
main # mount proc sid-root/proc -t proc
main # echo "sysfs sid-root/sys sysfs defaults 0 0" >> /etc/fstab
main # mount sysfs sid-root/sys -t sysfs
main # cp /etc/hosts sid-root/etc/hosts
main # chroot sid-root /bin/bash

Author

debootstrap was written by Anthony Towns <ajt@debian.org>. This manpage was written by Matt Kraai <kraai@debian.org>.

Referenced By

fakechroot(1), systemd-nspawn(1).

2001-04-27 Debian Project Debian GNU/Linux manual