cgdisk man page

cgdisk — Curses-based GUID partition table (GPT) manipulator

Synopsis

cgdisk [ -a ] device

Description

GPT fdisk is a text-mode family of programs for creation and manipulation of partition tables. The cgdisk member of this family employs a curses-based user interface for interaction using a text-mode menuing system. It will automatically convert an old-style Master Boot Record (MBR) partition table or BSD disklabel stored without an MBR carrier partition to the newer Globally Unique Identifier (GUID) Partition Table (GPT) format, or will load a GUID partition table. Other members of this program family are gdisk (the most feature-rich program of the group, with a non-curses-based interactive user interface) and sgdisk (which is driven via command-line options for use by experts or in scripts). FixParts is a related program for fixing a limited set of problems with MBR disks.

For information on MBR vs. GPT, as well as GPT terminology and structure, see the extended GPT fdisk documentation at http://www.rodsbooks.com/gdisk/ or consult Wikipedia.

The cgdisk program employs a user interface similar to that of Linux's cfdisk, but cgdisk modifies GPT partitions. It also has the capability of transforming MBR partitions or BSD disklabels into GPT partitions. Like the original cfdisk program, cgdisk does not modify disk structures until you explicitly write them to disk, so if you make a mistake, you can exit from the program with the Quit option to leave your partitions unmodified.

Ordinarily, cgdisk operates on disk device files, such as /dev/sda or /dev/hda under Linux, /dev/disk0 under Mac OS X, or /dev/ad0 or /dev/da0 under FreeBSD. The program can also operate on disk image files, which can be either copies of whole disks (made with dd, for instance) or raw disk images used by emulators such as QEMU or VMWare. Note that only raw disk images are supported; cgdisk cannot work on compressed or other advanced disk image formats.

Upon start, cgdisk attempts to identify the partition type in use on the disk. If it finds valid GPT data, cgdisk will use it. If cgdisk finds a valid MBR or BSD disklabel but no GPT data, it will attempt to convert the MBR or disklabel into GPT form. (BSD disklabels are likely to have unusable first and/or final partitions because they overlap with the GPT data structures, though.) Upon exiting with the 'w' option, cgdisk replaces the MBR or disklabel with a GPT. This action is potentially dangerous! Your system may become unbootable, and partition type codes may become corrupted if the disk uses unrecognized type codes. Boot problems are particularly likely if you're multi-booting with any GPT-unaware OS. If you mistakenly launch cgdisk on an MBR disk, you can safely exit the program without making any changes by using the Quit option.

When creating a fresh partition table, certain considerations may be in order:

Options

Only one command-line option is accepted, aside from the device filename: -a. This option alters the highlighting of partitions and blocks of free space: Instead of using ncurses, when -a is used cgdisk uses a ">" symbol to the left of the selected partition or free space. This option is intended for use on limited display devices such as teletypes and screen readers.

Interactions with cgdisk occur with its interactive text-mode menus. The display is broken into two interactive parts:

In addition, the top of the display shows the program's name and version number, the device filename associated with the disk, and the disk's size in both sectors and IEEE-1541 units (GiB, TiB, and so on).

You can use the following keys to move among the various options and to select among them:

up arrow

This key moves the partition selection up by one partition.

down arrow

This key moves the partition selection down by one partition.

Page Up

This key moves the partition selection up by one screen.

Page Down

This key moves the partition selection down by one screen.

right arrow

This key moves the option selection to the right by one item.

left arrow

This key moves the option selection to the left by one item.

Enter

This key activates the currently selected option. You can also activate an option by typing the capitalized letter in the option's name on the keyboard, such as a to activate the Align option.

If more partitions exist than can be displayed in one screen, you can scroll between screens using the partition selection keys, much as in a text editor.

Available options are as described below. (Note that cgdisk provides a much more limited set of options than its sibling gdisk. If you need to perform partition table recovery, hybrid MBR modifcation, or other advanced operations, you should consult the gdisk documentation.)

Align

Change the sector alignment value. Disks with more logical sectors than physical sectors (such as modern Advanced Format drives), some RAID configurations, and many SSD devices, can suffer performance problems if partitions are not aligned properly for their internal data structures. On new disks, GPT fdisk attempts to align partitions on 1MiB boundaries (2048-sectors on disks with 512-byte sectors) by default, which optimizes performance for all of these disk types. On pre-partitioned disks, GPT fdisk attempts to identify the alignment value used on that disk, but will set 8-sector alignment on disks larger than 300 GB even if lesser alignment values are detected. In either case, it can be changed by using this option.

Backup

Save partition data to a backup file. You can back up your current in-memory partition table to a disk file using this option. The resulting file is a binary file consisting of the protective MBR, the main GPT header, the backup GPT header, and one copy of the partition table, in that order. Note that the backup is of the current in-memory data structures, so if you launch the program, make changes, and then use this option, the backup will reflect your changes.

Delete

Delete a partition. This action deletes the entry from the partition table but does not disturb the data within the sectors originally allocated to the partition on the disk. If a corresponding hybrid MBR partition exists, gdisk deletes it, as well, and expands any adjacent 0xEE (EFI GPT) MBR protective partition to fill the new free space.

Help

Print brief descriptions of all the options.

Info

Show detailed partition information. The summary information shown in the partition display area necessarily omits many details, such as the partitions' unique GUIDs and the partitions' sector-exact start and end points. The Info option displays this information for a single partition.

Load

Load partition data from a backup file. This option is the reverse of the Backup option. Note that restoring partition data from anything but the original disk is not recommended.

naMe

Change the GPT name of a partition. This name is encoded as a UTF-16 string, but proper entry and display of anything beyond basic ASCII values requires suitable locale and font support. For the most part, Linux ignores the partition name, but it may be important in some OSes. GPT fdisk sets a default name based on the partition type code. Note that the GPT partition name is different from the filesystem name, which is encoded in the filesystem's data structures. Note also that to activate this item by typing its alphabetic equivalent, you must use M, not the more obvious N, because the latter is used by the next option....

New

Create a new partition. You enter a starting sector, a size, a type code, and a name. The start sector can be specified in absolute terms as a sector number or as a position measured in kibibytes (K), mebibytes (M), gibibytes (G), tebibytes (T), or pebibytes (P); for instance, 40M specifies a position 40MiB from the start of the disk. You can specify locations relative to the start or end of the specified default range by preceding the number by a '+' symbol, as in +2G to specify a point 2GiB after the default start sector. The size value can use the K, M, G, T, and P suffixes, too. Pressing the Enter key with no input specifies the default value, which is the start of the largest available block for the start sector and the full available size for the size.

Quit

Quit from the program without saving your changes. Use this option if you just wanted to view information or if you make a mistake and want to back out of all your changes.

Type

Change a single partition's type code. You enter the type code using a two-byte hexadecimal number. You may also enter a GUID directly, if you have one and cgdisk doesn't know it. If you don't know the type code for your partition, you can type L to see a list of known type codes.

Verify

Verify disk. This option checks for a variety of problems, such as incorrect CRCs and mismatched main and backup data. This option does not automatically correct most problems, though; for that, you must use gdisk. If no problems are found, this command displays a summary of unallocated disk space.

Write

Write data. Use this command to save your changes.

Bugs

Known bugs and limitations include:

Authors

Primary author: Roderick W. Smith (rodsmith@rodsbooks.com)

Contributors:

* Yves Blusseau (1otnwmz02@sneakemail.com)

* David Hubbard (david.c.hubbard@gmail.com)

* Justin Maggard (justin.maggard@netgear.com)

* Dwight Schauer (dschauer@gmail.com)

* Florian Zumbiehl (florz@florz.de)

See Also

cfdisk (8), fdisk (8), gdisk (8), mkfs (8), parted (8), sfdisk (8) sgdisk (8) fixparts (8)

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/GUID_Partition_Table

http://developer.apple.com/technotes/tn2006/tn2166.html

http://www.rodsbooks.com/gdisk/

Availability

The cgdisk command is part of the GPT fdisk package and is available from Rod Smith.

Referenced By

fixparts(8), gdisk(8), sgdisk(8).

1.0.1 Roderick W. Smith GPT fdisk Manual