afl-fuzz - Man Page


afl-fuzz [ options ] -- /path/to/fuzzed_app [ ... ]


Required parameters:
  -i dir        - input directory with test cases
  -o dir        - output directory for fuzzer findings

Execution control settings:
  -p schedule   - power schedules compute a seed's performance score:
                  fast(default), explore, exploit, seek, rare, mmopt, coe, lin
                  quad -- see docs/ for more information
  -f file       - location read by the fuzzed program (default: stdin or @@)
  -t msec       - timeout for each run (auto-scaled, default 1000 ms). Add a '+'
                  to auto-calculate the timeout, the value being the maximum.
  -m megs       - memory limit for child process (0 MB, 0 = no limit [default])
  -O            - use binary-only instrumentation (FRIDA mode)
  -Q            - use binary-only instrumentation (QEMU mode)
  -U            - use unicorn-based instrumentation (Unicorn mode)
  -W            - use qemu-based instrumentation with Wine (Wine mode)
  -X            - use VM fuzzing (NYX mode - standalone mode)
  -Y            - use VM fuzzing (NYX mode - multiple instances mode)

Mutator settings:
  -g minlength  - set min length of generated fuzz input (default: 1)
  -G maxlength  - set max length of generated fuzz input (default: 1048576)
  -D            - enable deterministic fuzzing (once per queue entry)
  -L minutes    - use MOpt(imize) mode and set the time limit for entering the
                  pacemaker mode (minutes of no new finds). 0 = immediately,
                  -1 = immediately and together with normal mutation.
  -c program    - enable CmpLog by specifying a binary compiled for it.
                  if using QEMU/FRIDA or the fuzzing target is compiled
                  for CmpLog then just use -c 0.
  -l cmplog_opts - CmpLog configuration values (e.g. "2ATR"):
                  1=small files, 2=larger files (default), 3=all files,
                  A=arithmetic solving, T=transformational solving,
                  R=random colorization bytes.

Fuzzing behavior settings:
  -Z            - sequential queue selection instead of weighted random
  -N            - do not unlink the fuzzing input file (for devices etc.)
  -n            - fuzz without instrumentation (non-instrumented mode)
  -x dict_file  - fuzzer dictionary (see, specify up to 4 times)

Test settings:
  -s seed       - use a fixed seed for the RNG
  -V seconds    - fuzz for a specified time then terminate
  -E execs      - fuzz for an approx. no. of total executions then terminate
                  Note: not precise and can have several more executions.

Other stuff:
  -M/-S id      - distributed mode (-M sets -Z and disables trimming)
                  see docs/
                  for effective recommendations for parallel fuzzing.
  -F path       - sync to a foreign fuzzer queue directory (requires -M, can
                  be specified up to 32 times)
  -T text       - text banner to show on the screen
  -I command    - execute this command/script when a new crash is found
  -C            - crash exploration mode (the peruvian rabbit thing)
  -b cpu_id     - bind the fuzzing process to the specified CPU core (0-...)
  -e ext        - file extension for the fuzz test input file (if needed)

Environment variables used:
LD_BIND_LAZY: do not set LD_BIND_NOW env var for target
ASAN_OPTIONS: custom settings for ASAN
              (must contain abort_on_error=1 and symbolize=0)
MSAN_OPTIONS: custom settings for MSAN
              (must contain exitcode=86 and symbolize=0)
AFL_AUTORESUME: resume fuzzing if directory specified by -o already exists
AFL_BENCH_JUST_ONE: run the target just once
AFL_BENCH_UNTIL_CRASH: exit soon when the first crashing input has been found
AFL_CMPLOG_ONLY_NEW: do not run cmplog on initial testcases (good for resumes!)
AFL_CRASH_EXITCODE: optional child exit code to be interpreted as crash
AFL_CUSTOM_MUTATOR_LIBRARY: lib with afl_custom_fuzz() to mutate inputs
AFL_CUSTOM_MUTATOR_ONLY: avoid AFL++'s internal mutators
AFL_CYCLE_SCHEDULES: after completing a cycle, switch to a different -p schedule
AFL_DEBUG: extra debugging output for Python mode trimming
AFL_DEBUG_CHILD: do not suppress stdout/stderr from target
AFL_DISABLE_TRIM: disable the trimming of test cases
AFL_DUMB_FORKSRV: use fork server without feedback from target
AFL_EXIT_WHEN_DONE: exit when all inputs are run and no new finds are found
AFL_EXIT_ON_TIME: exit when no new coverage is found within the specified time
AFL_EXPAND_HAVOC_NOW: immediately enable expand havoc mode (default: after 60
                      minutes and a cycle without finds)
AFL_FAST_CAL: limit the calibration stage to three cycles for speedup
AFL_FORCE_UI: force showing the status screen (for virtual consoles)
AFL_FORKSRV_INIT_TMOUT: time spent waiting for forkserver during startup (in ms)
AFL_HANG_TMOUT: override timeout value (in milliseconds)
AFL_I_DONT_CARE_ABOUT_MISSING_CRASHES: don't warn about core dump handlers
AFL_IGNORE_PROBLEMS: do not abort fuzzing if an incorrect setup is detected
AFL_IGNORE_TIMEOUTS: do not process or save any timeouts
AFL_IGNORE_UNKNOWN_ENVS: don't warn on unknown env vars
AFL_IMPORT_FIRST: sync and import test cases from other fuzzer instances first
AFL_INPUT_LEN_MIN/AFL_INPUT_LEN_MAX: like -g/-G set min/max fuzz length produced
AFL_PIZZA_MODE: 1 - enforce pizza mode, 0 - disable for April 1st
AFL_KILL_SIGNAL: Signal ID delivered to child processes on timeout, etc.
                 (default: SIGKILL)
AFL_FORK_SERVER_KILL_SIGNAL: Kill signal for the fork server on termination
                             (default: SIGTERM). If unset and AFL_KILL_SIGNAL is
                             set, that value will be used.
AFL_MAP_SIZE: the shared memory size for that target. must be >= the size
              the target was compiled for
AFL_MAX_DET_EXTRAS: if more entries are in the dictionary list than this value
                    then they are randomly selected instead all of them being
                    used. Defaults to 200.
AFL_NO_AFFINITY: do not check for an unused cpu core to use for fuzzing
AFL_TRY_AFFINITY: try to bind to an unused core, but don't fail if unsuccessful
AFL_NO_ARITH: skip arithmetic mutations in deterministic stage
AFL_NO_AUTODICT: do not load an offered auto dictionary compiled into a target
AFL_NO_CPU_RED: avoid red color for showing very high cpu usage
AFL_NO_FORKSRV: run target via execve instead of using the forkserver
AFL_NO_SNAPSHOT: do not use the snapshot feature (if the snapshot lkm is loaded)
AFL_NO_STARTUP_CALIBRATION: no initial seed calibration, start fuzzing at once
AFL_NO_UI: switch status screen off
AFL_PATH: path to AFL support binaries
AFL_PYTHON_MODULE: mutate and trim inputs with the specified Python module
AFL_QUIET: suppress forkserver status messages
AFL_TARGET_ENV: pass extra environment variables to target
AFL_SHUFFLE_QUEUE: reorder the input queue randomly on startup
AFL_SKIP_BIN_CHECK: skip afl compatibility checks, also disables auto map size
AFL_SKIP_CPUFREQ: do not warn about variable cpu clocking
AFL_STATSD: enables StatsD metrics collection
AFL_STATSD_HOST: change default statsd host (default
AFL_STATSD_PORT: change default statsd port (default: 8125)
AFL_STATSD_TAGS_FLAVOR: set statsd tags format (default: disable tags)
                        Supported formats are: 'dogstatsd', 'librato',
                        'signalfx' and 'influxdb'
AFL_SYNC_TIME: sync time between fuzzing instances (in minutes)
AFL_NO_CRASH_README: do not create a README in the crashes directory
AFL_TESTCACHE_SIZE: use a cache for testcases, improves performance (in MB)
AFL_TMPDIR: directory to use for input file generation (ramdisk recommended)
AFL_EARLY_FORKSERVER: force an early forkserver in an afl-clang-fast/
                      afl-clang-lto/afl-gcc-fast target
AFL_PERSISTENT: enforce persistent mode (if __AFL_LOOP is in a shared lib
AFL_DEFER_FORKSRV: enforced deferred forkserver (__AFL_INIT is in a .so)
AFL_FUZZER_STATS_UPDATE_INTERVAL: interval to update fuzzer_stats file in seconds, (default: 60, minimum: 1)

Compiled without Python module support.
Compiled without AFL_PERSISTENT_RECORD support.
Compiled with shmat support.
For additional help please consult docs/ :)


afl++ was written by Michal "lcamtuf" Zalewski and is maintained by Marc "van Hauser" Heuse <>, Heiko "hexcoder-" Eissfeldt <>, Andrea Fioraldi <> and Dominik Maier <> The homepage of afl++ is:


Apache License Version 2.0, January 2004


2023-04-18 afl++