salt man page

salt — Salt Documentation

Installation

This section contains instructions to install Salt. If you are setting up your environment for the first time, you should install a Salt master on a dedicated management server or VM, and then install a Salt minion on each system that you want to manage using Salt. For now you don't need to worry about your architecture, you can easily add components and modify your configuration later without needing to reinstall anything.

The general installation process is as follows:

1.
Install a Salt master using the instructions for your platform or by running the Salt bootstrap script. If you use the bootstrap script, be sure to include the -M option to install the Salt master.
2.
Make sure that your Salt minions can find the Salt master.
3.
Install the Salt minion on each system that you want to manage.
4.
Accept the Salt minion keys after the Salt minion connects.

After this, you should be able to run a simple command and receive returns from all connected Salt minions.

salt '*' test.ping

Quick Install

On most distributions, you can set up a Salt Minion with the Salt bootstrap.

Platform-specific Installation Instructions

These guides go into detail how to install Salt on a given platform.

Arch Linux

Installation

Salt (stable) is currently available via the Arch Linux Official repositories. There are currently -git packages available in the Arch User repositories (AUR) as well.

Stable Release

Install Salt stable releases from the Arch Linux Official repositories as follows:

pacman -S salt-zmq

To install Salt stable releases using the RAET protocol, use the following:

pacman -S salt-raet

NOTE:

transports

Unlike other linux distributions, please be aware that Arch Linux's package manager pacman defaults to RAET as the Salt transport. If you want to use ZeroMQ instead, make sure to enter the associated number for the salt-zmq repository when prompted.

Tracking develop

To install the bleeding edge version of Salt (may include bugs!), use the -git package. Installing the -git package as follows:

wget https://aur.archlinux.org/packages/sa/salt-git/salt-git.tar.gz
tar xf salt-git.tar.gz
cd salt-git/
makepkg -is

NOTE:

yaourt

If a tool such as Yaourt is used, the dependencies will be gathered and built automatically.

The command to install salt using the yaourt tool is:

yaourt salt-git

Post-installation tasks

systemd

Activate the Salt Master and/or Minion via systemctl as follows:

systemctl enable salt-master.service
systemctl enable salt-minion.service

Start the Master

Once you've completed all of these steps you're ready to start your Salt Master. You should be able to start your Salt Master now using the command seen here:

systemctl start salt-master

Now go to the Configuring Salt page.

Debian GNU/Linux / Raspbian

Debian GNU/Linux distribution and some derivatives such as Raspbian already have included Salt packages to their repositories. However, current stable release codenamed "Jessie" contains old outdated Salt release. It is recommended to use SaltStack repository for Debian as described below.

Installation from official Debian and Raspbian repositories is described here.

Installation from the Official SaltStack Repository

Packages for Debian 8 (Jessie) and Debian 7 (Wheezy) are available in the Official SaltStack repository.

Instructions are at https://repo.saltstack.com/#debian.

NOTE:

Regular security support for Debian 7 ended on April 25th 2016. As a result, 2016.3.1 and 2015.8.10 will be the last Salt releases for which Debian 7 packages are created.

Installation from the Debian / Raspbian Official Repository

Stretch (Testing) and Sid (Unstable) distributions are already contain mostly up-to-date Salt packages built by Debian Salt Team. You can install Salt components directly from Debian.

On Jessie (Stable) there is an option to install Salt minion from Stretch with python-tornado dependency from jessie-backports repositories.

To install fresh release of Salt minion on Jessie:

1.

Add jessie-backports and stretch repositories:

Debian:

echo 'deb http://httpredir.debian.org/debian jessie-backports main' >> /etc/apt/sources.list
echo 'deb http://httpredir.debian.org/debian stretch main' >> /etc/apt/sources.list

Raspbian:

echo 'deb http://archive.raspbian.org/raspbian/ stretch main' >> /etc/apt/sources.list
2.

Make Jessie a default release:

echo 'APT::Default-Release "jessie";' > /etc/apt/apt.conf.d/10apt
3.

Install Salt dependencies:

Debian:

apt-get update
apt-get install python-zmq python-tornado/jessie-backports salt-common/stretch

Raspbian:

apt-get update
apt-get install python-zmq python-tornado/stretch salt-common/stretch
4.

Install Salt minion package from Stretch:

apt-get install salt-minion/stretch

Install Packages

Install the Salt master, minion or other packages from the repository with the apt-get command. These examples each install one of Salt components, but more than one package name may be given at a time:

·
apt-get install salt-api
·
apt-get install salt-cloud
·
apt-get install salt-master
·
apt-get install salt-minion
·
apt-get install salt-ssh
·
apt-get install salt-syndic

Post-installation tasks

Now, go to the Configuring Salt page.

Fedora

Beginning with version 0.9.4, Salt has been available in the primary Fedora repositories and EPEL. It is installable using yum or dnf, depending on your version of Fedora.

NOTE:

Released versions of Salt starting with 2015.5.2 through 2016.3.2 do not have Fedora packages available though EPEL. To install a version of Salt within this release array, please use SaltStack's Bootstrap Script and use the git method of installing Salt using the version's associated release tag.

Release 2016.3.3 and onward will have packaged versions available via EPEL.

WARNING: Fedora 19 comes with systemd 204. Systemd has known bugs fixed in later revisions that prevent the salt-master from starting reliably or opening the network connections that it needs to. It's not likely that a salt-master will start or run reliably on any distribution that uses systemd version 204 or earlier. Running salt-minions should be OK.

Installation

Salt can be installed using yum and is available in the standard Fedora repositories.

Stable Release

Salt is packaged separately for the minion and the master. It is necessary only to install the appropriate package for the role the machine will play. Typically, there will be one master and multiple minions.

yum install salt-master
yum install salt-minion

Installing from updates-testing

When a new Salt release is packaged, it is first admitted into the updates-testing repository, before being moved to the stable repo.

To install from updates-testing, use the enablerepo argument for yum:

yum --enablerepo=updates-testing install salt-master
yum --enablerepo=updates-testing install salt-minion

Installation Using pip

Since Salt is on PyPI, it can be installed using pip, though most users prefer to install using a package manager.

Installing from pip has a few additional requirements:

·
Install the group 'Development Tools', dnf groupinstall 'Development Tools'
·
Install the 'zeromq-devel' package if it fails on linking against that afterwards as well.

A pip install does not make the init scripts or the /etc/salt directory, and you will need to provide your own systemd service unit.

Installation from pip:

pip install salt

WARNING:

If installing from pip (or from source using setup.py install), be advised that the yum-utils package is needed for Salt to manage packages. Also, if the Python dependencies are not already installed, then you will need additional libraries/tools installed to build some of them. More information on this can be found here.

Post-installation tasks

Master

To have the Master start automatically at boot time:

systemctl enable salt-master.service

To start the Master:

systemctl start salt-master.service

Minion

To have the Minion start automatically at boot time:

systemctl enable salt-minion.service

To start the Minion:

systemctl start salt-minion.service

Now go to the Configuring Salt page.

FreeBSD

Installation

Salt is available in binary package form from both the FreeBSD pkgng repository or directly from SaltStack. The instructions below outline installation via both methods:

FreeBSD repo

The FreeBSD pkgng repository is preconfigured on systems 10.x and above. No configuration is needed to pull from these repositories.

pkg install py27-salt

These packages are usually available within a few days of upstream release.

SaltStack repo

SaltStack also hosts internal binary builds of the Salt package, available from https://repo.saltstack.com/freebsd/. To make use of this repository, add the following file to your system:

/usr/local/etc/pkg/repos/saltstack.conf:

saltstack: {
  url: "https://repo.saltstack.com/freebsd/${ABI}/",
  enabled: yes
}

You should now be able to install Salt from this new repository:

pkg install py27-salt

These packages are usually available earlier than upstream FreeBSD. Also available are release candidates and development releases. Use these pre-release packages with caution.

Post-installation tasks

Master

Copy the sample configuration file:

cp /usr/local/etc/salt/master.sample /usr/local/etc/salt/master

rc.conf

Activate the Salt Master in /etc/rc.conf:

sysrc salt_master_enable="YES"

Start the Master

Start the Salt Master as follows:

service salt_master start

Minion

Copy the sample configuration file:

cp /usr/local/etc/salt/minion.sample /usr/local/etc/salt/minion

rc.conf

Activate the Salt Minion in /etc/rc.conf:

sysrc salt_minion_enable="YES"

Start the Minion

Start the Salt Minion as follows:

service salt_minion start

Now go to the Configuring Salt page.

Gentoo

Salt can be easily installed on Gentoo via Portage:

emerge app-admin/salt

Post-installation tasks

Now go to the Configuring Salt page.

OpenBSD

Salt was added to the OpenBSD ports tree on Aug 10th 2013. It has been tested on OpenBSD 5.5 onwards.

Salt is dependent on the following additional ports. These will be installed as dependencies of the sysutils/salt port:

devel/py-futures
devel/py-progressbar
net/py-msgpack
net/py-zmq
security/py-crypto
security/py-M2Crypto
textproc/py-MarkupSafe
textproc/py-yaml
www/py-jinja2
www/py-requests
www/py-tornado

Installation

To install Salt from the OpenBSD pkg repo, use the command:

pkg_add salt

Post-installation tasks

Master

To have the Master start automatically at boot time:

rcctl enable salt_master

To start the Master:

rcctl start salt_master

Minion

To have the Minion start automatically at boot time:

rcctl enable salt_minion

To start the Minion:

rcctl start salt_minion

Now go to the Configuring Salt page.

Os X

Installation from the Official SaltStack Repository

Latest stable build from the selected branch:

The output of md5 <salt pkg> should match the contents of the corresponding md5 file.

Earlier builds from supported branches

Archived builds from unsupported branches

Installation from Homebrew

brew install saltstack

It should be noted that Homebrew explicitly discourages the use of sudo:

Homebrew is designed to work without using sudo. You can decide to use it but we strongly recommend not to do so. If you have used sudo and run into a bug then it is likely to be the cause. Please don’t file a bug report unless you can reproduce it after reinstalling Homebrew from scratch without using sudo

Installation from MacPorts

sudo port install salt

Installation from Pip

When only using the OS X system's pip, install this way:

sudo pip install salt

Salt-Master Customizations

NOTE:

Salt master on OS X is not tested or supported by SaltStack. See SaltStack Platform Support for more information.

To run salt-master on OS X, sudo add this configuration option to the /etc/salt/master file:

max_open_files: 8192

On versions previous to OS X 10.10 (Yosemite), increase the root user maxfiles limit:

sudo launchctl limit maxfiles 4096 8192

NOTE:

On OS X 10.10 (Yosemite) and higher, maxfiles should not be adjusted. The default limits are sufficient in all but the most extreme scenarios. Overriding these values with the setting below will cause system instability!

Now the salt-master should run without errors:

sudo salt-master --log-level=all

Post-installation tasks

Now go to the Configuring Salt page.

RHEL / CentOS / Scientific Linux / Amazon Linux / Oracle Linux

Salt should work properly with all mainstream derivatives of Red Hat Enterprise Linux, including CentOS, Scientific Linux, Oracle Linux, and Amazon Linux. Report any bugs or issues on the issue tracker.

Installation from the Official SaltStack Repository

Packages for Redhat, CentOS, and Amazon Linux are available in the SaltStack Repository.

·
Red Hat / CentOS
·
Amazon Linux

NOTE:

As of 2015.8.0, EPEL repository is no longer required for installing on RHEL systems. SaltStack repository provides all needed dependencies.

WARNING:

If installing on Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7 with disabled (not subscribed on) 'RHEL Server Releases' or 'RHEL Server Optional Channel' repositories, append CentOS 7 GPG key URL to SaltStack yum repository configuration to install required base packages:

[saltstack-repo]
name=SaltStack repo for Red Hat Enterprise Linux $releasever
baseurl=https://repo.saltstack.com/yum/redhat/$releasever/$basearch/latest
enabled=1
gpgcheck=1
gpgkey=https://repo.saltstack.com/yum/redhat/$releasever/$basearch/latest/SALTSTACK-GPG-KEY.pub
       https://repo.saltstack.com/yum/redhat/$releasever/$basearch/latest/base/RPM-GPG-KEY-CentOS-7

NOTE:

systemd and systemd-python are required by Salt, but are not installed by the Red Hat 7 @base installation or by the Salt installation. These dependencies might need to be installed before Salt.

Installation from the Community-Maintained Repository

Beginning with version 0.9.4, Salt has been available in EPEL. For RHEL/CentOS 5, Fedora COPR is a single community repository that provides Salt packages due to the removal from EPEL5.

NOTE:

Packages in these repositories are built by community, and it can take a little while until the latest stable SaltStack release become available.

RHEL/CentOS 6 and 7, Scientific Linux, etc.

WARNING:

Salt 2015.8 is currently not available in EPEL due to unsatisfied dependencies: python-crypto 2.6.1 or higher, and python-tornado version 4.2.1 or higher. These packages are not currently available in EPEL for Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 and 7.

Enabling EPEL

If the EPEL repository is not installed on your system, you can download the RPM for RHEL/CentOS 6 or for RHEL/CentOS 7 and install it using the following command:

rpm -Uvh epel-release-X-Y.rpm

Replace epel-release-X-Y.rpm with the appropriate filename.

Installing Stable Release

Salt is packaged separately for the minion and the master. It is necessary to install only the appropriate package for the role the machine will play. Typically, there will be one master and multiple minions.

·
yum install salt-master
·
yum install salt-minion
·
yum install salt-ssh
·
yum install salt-syndic
·
yum install salt-cloud

Installing from epel-testing

When a new Salt release is packaged, it is first admitted into the epel-testing repository, before being moved to the stable EPEL repository.

To install from epel-testing, use the enablerepo argument for yum:

yum --enablerepo=epel-testing install salt-minion

Installation Using pip

Since Salt is on PyPI, it can be installed using pip, though most users prefer to install using RPM packages (which can be installed from EPEL).

Installing from pip has a few additional requirements:

·
Install the group 'Development Tools', yum groupinstall 'Development Tools'
·
Install the 'zeromq-devel' package if it fails on linking against that afterwards as well.

A pip install does not make the init scripts or the /etc/salt directory, and you will need to provide your own systemd service unit.

Installation from pip:

pip install salt

WARNING:

If installing from pip (or from source using setup.py install), be advised that the yum-utils package is needed for Salt to manage packages. Also, if the Python dependencies are not already installed, then you will need additional libraries/tools installed to build some of them. More information on this can be found here.

ZeroMQ 4

We recommend using ZeroMQ 4 where available. SaltStack provides ZeroMQ 4.0.5 and pyzmq 14.5.0 in the SaltStack Repository as well as a separate zeromq4 COPR repository.

If this repository is added before Salt is installed, then installing either salt-master or salt-minion will automatically pull in ZeroMQ 4.0.5, and additional steps to upgrade ZeroMQ and pyzmq are unnecessary.

WARNING:

RHEL/CentOS 5 Users Using COPR repos on RHEL/CentOS 5 requires that the python-hashlib package be installed. Not having it present will result in checksum errors because YUM will not be able to process the SHA256 checksums used by COPR.

NOTE:

For RHEL/CentOS 5 installations, if using the SaltStack repo or Fedora COPR to install Salt (as described above), then it is not necessary to enable the zeromq4 COPR, because those repositories already include ZeroMQ 4.

Package Management

Salt's interface to yum makes heavy use of the repoquery utility, from the yum-utils package. This package will be installed as a dependency if salt is installed via EPEL. However, if salt has been installed using pip, or a host is being managed using salt-ssh, then as of version 2014.7.0 yum-utils will be installed automatically to satisfy this dependency.

Post-installation tasks

Master

To have the Master start automatically at boot time:

RHEL/CentOS 5 and 6

chkconfig salt-master on

RHEL/CentOS 7

systemctl enable salt-master.service

To start the Master:

RHEL/CentOS 5 and 6

service salt-master start

RHEL/CentOS 7

systemctl start salt-master.service

Minion

To have the Minion start automatically at boot time:

RHEL/CentOS 5 and 6

chkconfig salt-minion on

RHEL/CentOS 7

systemctl enable salt-minion.service

To start the Minion:

RHEL/CentOS 5 and 6

service salt-minion start

RHEL/CentOS 7

systemctl start salt-minion.service

Now go to the Configuring Salt page.

Solaris

Salt was added to the OpenCSW package repository in September of 2012 by Romeo Theriault <romeot@hawaii.edu> at version 0.10.2 of Salt. It has mainly been tested on Solaris 10 (sparc), though it is built for and has been tested minimally on Solaris 10 (x86), Solaris 9 (sparc/x86) and 11 (sparc/x86). (Please let me know if you're using it on these platforms!) Most of the testing has also just focused on the minion, though it has verified that the master starts up successfully on Solaris 10.

Comments and patches for better support on these platforms is very welcome.

As of version 0.10.4, Solaris is well supported under salt, with all of the following working well:

1.
remote execution
2.
grain detection
3.
service control with SMF
4.
'pkg' states with 'pkgadd' and 'pkgutil' modules
5.
cron modules/states
6.
user and group modules/states
7.
shadow password management modules/states

Salt is dependent on the following additional packages. These will automatically be installed as dependencies of the py_salt package:

·
py_yaml
·
py_pyzmq
·
py_jinja2
·
py_msgpack_python
·
py_m2crypto
·
py_crypto
·
python

Installation

To install Salt from the OpenCSW package repository you first need to install pkgutil assuming you don't already have it installed:

On Solaris 10:

pkgadd -d http://get.opencsw.org/now

On Solaris 9:

wget http://mirror.opencsw.org/opencsw/pkgutil.pkg
pkgadd -d pkgutil.pkg all

Once pkgutil is installed you'll need to edit it's config file /etc/opt/csw/pkgutil.conf to point it at the unstable catalog:

- #mirror=http://mirror.opencsw.org/opencsw/testing
+ mirror=http://mirror.opencsw.org/opencsw/unstable

OK, time to install salt.

# Update the catalog
root> /opt/csw/bin/pkgutil -U
# Install salt
root> /opt/csw/bin/pkgutil -i -y py_salt

Minion Configuration

Now that salt is installed you can find it's configuration files in /etc/opt/csw/salt/.

You'll want to edit the minion config file to set the name of your salt master server:

- #master: salt
+ master: your-salt-server

If you would like to use pkgutil as the default package provider for your Solaris minions, you can do so using the providers option in the minion config file.

You can now start the salt minion like so:

On Solaris 10:

svcadm enable salt-minion

On Solaris 9:

/etc/init.d/salt-minion start

You should now be able to log onto the salt master and check to see if the salt-minion key is awaiting acceptance:

salt-key -l un

Accept the key:

salt-key -a <your-salt-minion>

Run a simple test against the minion:

salt '<your-salt-minion>' test.ping

Troubleshooting

Logs are in /var/log/salt

Ubuntu

Installation from the Official SaltStack Repository

Packages for Ubuntu 16 (Xenial), Ubuntu 14 (Trusty), and Ubuntu 12 (Precise) are available in the SaltStack repository.

Instructions are at https://repo.saltstack.com/#ubuntu.

Installation from the Community-Maintained Repository

Packages for Ubuntu are also published in the saltstack PPA. If you have the add-apt-repository utility, you can add the repository and import the key in one step:

sudo add-apt-repository ppa:saltstack/salt

In addition to the main repository, there are secondary repositories for each individual major release. These repositories receive security and point releases but will not upgrade to any subsequent major release. There are currently several available repos: salt16, salt17, salt2014-1, salt2014-7, salt2015-5. For example to follow 2015.5.x releases:

sudo add-apt-repository ppa:saltstack/salt2015-5
add-apt-repository: command not found?

The add-apt-repository command is not always present on Ubuntu systems. This can be fixed by installing python-software-properties:

sudo apt-get install python-software-properties

The following may be required as well:

sudo apt-get install software-properties-common

Note that since Ubuntu 12.10 (Raring Ringtail), add-apt-repository is found in the software-properties-common package, and is part of the base install. Thus, add-apt-repository should be able to be used out-of-the-box to add the PPA.

Alternately, manually add the repository and import the PPA key with these commands:

echo deb http://ppa.launchpad.net/saltstack/salt/ubuntu `lsb_release -sc` main | sudo tee /etc/apt/sources.list.d/saltstack.list
wget -q -O- "http://keyserver.ubuntu.com:11371/pks/lookup?op=get&search=0x4759FA960E27C0A6" | sudo apt-key add -

After adding the repository, update the package management database:

sudo apt-get update

Install Packages

Install the Salt master, minion or other packages from the repository with the apt-get command. These examples each install one of Salt components, but more than one package name may be given at a time:

·
apt-get install salt-api
·
apt-get install salt-cloud
·
apt-get install salt-master
·
apt-get install salt-minion
·
apt-get install salt-ssh
·
apt-get install salt-syndic

Post-installation tasks

Now go to the Configuring Salt page.

Windows

Salt has full support for running the Salt minion on Windows. You must connect Windows Salt minions to a Salt master on a supported operating system to control your Salt Minions.

Many of the standard Salt modules have been ported to work on Windows and many of the Salt States currently work on Windows as well.

Installation from the Official SaltStack Repository

Latest stable build from the selected branch:

The output of md5sum <salt minion exe> should match the contents of the corresponding md5 file.

Earlier builds from supported branches

Archived builds from unsupported branches

NOTE:

The installation executable installs dependencies that the Salt minion requires.

The 64bit installer has been tested on Windows 7 64bit and Windows Server 2008R2 64bit. The 32bit installer has been tested on Windows 2008 Server 32bit. Please file a bug report on our GitHub repo if issues for other platforms are found.

The installer will detect previous installations of Salt and ask if you would like to remove them. Clicking OK will remove the Salt binaries and related files but leave any existing config, cache, and PKI information.

The installer asks for two additional bits of information to configure the minion; the master hostname and the minion name. The installer will update the minion config with these options.

The final page allows you to select which services to start.

The salt-minion service will appear in the Windows Service Manager and can be started and stopped there or with the command line program sc like any other Windows service.

sc start salt-minion
net start salt-minion

If the minion won't start, try installing the Microsoft Visual C++ 2008 x64 SP1 redistributable. Allow all Windows updates to run salt-minion smoothly.

Silent Installer Options

The installer can be run silently by providing the /S option at the command line. The installer also accepts the following options for configuring the Salt Minion silently:

·
/master= A string value to set the IP address or host name of the master. Default value is 'salt'
·
/minion-name= A string value to set the minion name. Default is 'hostname'
·
/start-minion= Either a 1 or 0. '1' will start the salt-minion service, '0' will not. Default is to start the service after installation.

NOTE:

/start-service has been deprecated but will continue to function as expected for the time being.

Here are some examples of using the silent installer:

# Will install the minion and start the service

*-Setup-*.exe /S /master=yoursaltmaster /minion-name=yourminionname
# Will install the minion but will NOT start the salt-minion service

*-Setup-*.exe /S /master=yoursaltmaster /minion-name=yourminionname /start-minion=0

Running the Salt Minion on Windows as an Unprivileged User

Notes:

·
These instructions were tested with Windows Server 2008 R2
·
They are generalizable to any version of Windows that supports a salt-minion

Create the Unprivileged User that the Salt Minion will Run As

1.
Click Start > Control Panel > User Accounts.
2.
Click Add or remove user accounts.
3.
Click Create new account.
4.
Enter salt-user (or a name of your preference) in the New account name field.
5.
Select the Standard user radio button.
6.
Click the Create Account button.
7.
Click on the newly created user account.
8.
Click the Create a password link.
9.
In the New password and Confirm new password fields, provide a password (e.g "SuperSecretMinionPassword4Me!").
10.
In the Type a password hint field, provide appropriate text (e.g. "My Salt Password").
11.
Click the Create password button.
12.
Close the Change an Account window.

Add the New User to the Access Control List for the Salt Folder

1.
In a File Explorer window, browse to the path where Salt is installed (the default path is C:\Salt).
2.
Right-click on the Salt folder and select Properties.
3.
Click on the Security tab.
4.
Click the Edit button.
5.
Click the Add button.
6.
Type the name of your designated Salt user and click the OK button.
7.
Check the box to Allow the Modify permission.
8.
Click the OK button.
9.
Click the OK button to close the Salt Properties window.

Update the Windows Service User for the salt-minion Service

1.
Click Start > Administrative Tools > Services.
2.
In the Services list, right-click on salt-minion and select Properties.
3.
Click the Log On tab.
4.
Click the This account radio button.
5.
Provide the account credentials created in section A.
6.
Click the OK button.
7.
Click the OK button to the prompt confirming that the user has been granted the Log On As A Service right.
8.
Click the OK button to the prompt confirming that The new logon name will not take effect until you stop and restart the service.
9.
Right-Click on salt-minion and select Stop.
10.
Right-Click on salt-minion and select Start.

Building and Developing on Windows

This document will explain how to set up a development environment for Salt on Windows. The development environment allows you to work with the source code to customize or fix bugs. It will also allow you to build your own installation.

There are several scripts to automate creating a Windows installer as well as setting up an environment that facilitates developing and troubleshooting Salt code. They are located in the pkg\windows directory in the Salt repo (here).

Scripts

ScriptDescription
build_env.ps1A PowerShell script that sets up the build environment
build_pkg.batA batch file that builds a Windows installer based on the contents of the C:\Python27 directory
build.batA batch file that fully automates the building of the Windows installer using the above two scripts

NOTE:

The build.bat and build_pkg.bat scripts both accept a single parameter to specify the version of Salt that will be displayed in the Windows installer. If no version is passed, the version will be determined using git.

Prerequisite Software

The only prerequisite is Git for Windows.

Create a Build Environment

1. Working Directory

Create a Salt-Dev directory on the root of C:. This will be our working directory. Navigate to Salt-Dev and clone the Salt repo from GitHub.

Open a command line and type:

cd \
md Salt-Dev
cd Salt-Dev
git clone https://github.com/saltstack/salt

Go into the salt directory and checkout the version of salt to work with (2016.3 or higher).

cd salt
git checkout 2016.3

2. Setup the Python Environment

Navigate to the pkg\windows directory and execute the build_env.ps1 PowerShell script.

cd pkg\windows
powershell -file build_env.ps1

NOTE:

You can also do this from Explorer by navigating to the pkg\windows directory, right clicking the build_env.ps1 powershell script and selecting Run with PowerShell

This will download and install Python with all the dependencies needed to develop and build Salt.

NOTE:

If you get an error or the script fails to run you may need to change the execution policy. Open a powershell window and type the following command:

Set-ExecutionPolicy RemoteSigned

3. Salt in Editable Mode

Editable mode allows you to more easily modify and test the source code. For more information see the Pip documentation.

Navigate to the root of the salt directory and install Salt in editable mode with pip

cd \Salt-Dev\salt
pip install -e .

NOTE:

The . is important

NOTE:

If pip is not recognized, you may need to restart your shell to get the updated path

4. Setup Salt Configuration

Salt requires a minion configuration file and a few other directories. The default config file is named minion located in C:\salt\conf. The easiest way to set this up is to copy the contents of the salt\pkg\windows\buildenv directory to C:\salt.

cd \
md salt
xcopy /s /e \Salt-Dev\salt\pkg\windows\buildenv\* \salt\

Now go into the C:\salt\conf directory and edit the file name minion (no extension). You need to configure the master and id parameters in this file. Edit the following lines:

master: <ip or name of your master>
id: <name of your minion>

Create a Windows Installer

To create a Windows installer, follow steps 1 and 2 from Create a Build Environment above. Then proceed to 3 below:

3. Install Salt

To create the installer for Window we install Salt using Python instead of pip. Navigate to the root salt directory and install Salt.

cd \Salt-Dev\salt
python setup.py install

4. Create the Windows Installer

Navigate to the pkg\windows directory and run the build_pkg.bat with the build version (2016.3) script.

cd pkg\windows
build_pkg.bat 2016.3

NOTE:

If no version is passed, the build_pkg.bat will guess the version number using git.

Creating a Windows Installer: Alternate Method (Easier)

Clone the Salt repo from GitHub into the directory of your choice. We're going to use Salt-Dev.

cd \
md Salt-Dev
cd Salt-Dev
git clone https://github.com/saltstack/salt

Go into the salt directory and checkout the version of Salt you want to build.

cd salt
git checkout 2016.3

Then navigate to pkg\windows and run the build.bat script with the version you're building.

cd pkg\windows
build.bat 2016.3

This will install everything needed to build a Windows installer for Salt. The binary will be in the salt\pkg\windows\installer directory.

Testing the Salt minion

1.
Create the directory C:\salt (if it doesn't exist already)
2.
Copy the example conf and var directories from
pkg\windows\buildenv into C:\salt
3.

Edit C:\salt\conf\minion

master: ipaddress or hostname of your salt-master
4.

Start the salt-minion

cd C:\Python27\Scripts
python salt-minion -l debug
5.

On the salt-master accept the new minion's key

sudo salt-key -A

This accepts all unaccepted keys. If you're concerned about security just accept the key for this specific minion.

6.

Test that your minion is responding

On the salt-master run:

sudo salt '*' test.ping

You should get the following response: {'your minion hostname': True}

Packages Management Under Windows 2003

Windows Server 2003 and Windows XP have both reached End of Support. Though Salt is not officially supported on operating systems that are EoL, some functionality may continue to work.

On Windows Server 2003, you need to install optional component "WMI Windows Installer Provider" to get a full list of installed packages. If you don't have this, salt-minion can't report some installed software.

Suse

Installation from the Official SaltStack Repository

Packages for SUSE 12 SP1, SUSE 12, SUSE 11, openSUSE 13 and openSUSE Leap 42.1 are available in the SaltStack Repository.

Instructions are at https://repo.saltstack.com/#suse.

Installation from the SUSE Repository

Since openSUSE 13.2, Salt 2014.1.11 is available in the primary repositories. With the release of SUSE manager 3 a new repository setup has been created. The new repo will by systemsmanagement:saltstack, which is the source for newer stable packages. For backward compatibility a linkpackage will be created to the old devel:language:python repo. All development of suse packages will be done in systemsmanagement:saltstack:testing. This will ensure that salt will be in mainline suse repo's, a stable release repo and a testing repo for further enhancements.

Installation

Salt can be installed using zypper and is available in the standard openSUSE/SLES repositories.

Stable Release

Salt is packaged separately for the minion and the master. It is necessary only to install the appropriate package for the role the machine will play. Typically, there will be one master and multiple minions.

zypper install salt-master
zypper install salt-minion

Post-installation tasks openSUSE

Master

To have the Master start automatically at boot time:

systemctl enable salt-master.service

To start the Master:

systemctl start salt-master.service

Minion

To have the Minion start automatically at boot time:

systemctl enable salt-minion.service

To start the Minion:

systemctl start salt-minion.service

Post-installation tasks SLES

Master

To have the Master start automatically at boot time:

chkconfig salt-master on

To start the Master:

rcsalt-master start

Minion

To have the Minion start automatically at boot time:

chkconfig salt-minion on

To start the Minion:

rcsalt-minion start

Unstable Release

openSUSE

For openSUSE Tumbleweed run the following as root:

zypper addrepo http://download.opensuse.org/repositories/systemsmanagement:/saltstack/openSUSE_Tumbleweed/systemsmanagement:saltstack.repo
zypper refresh
zypper install salt salt-minion salt-master

For openSUSE 42.1 Leap run the following as root:

zypper addrepo http://download.opensuse.org/repositories/systemsmanagement:/saltstack/openSUSE_Leap_42.1/systemsmanagement:saltstack.repo
zypper refresh
zypper install salt salt-minion salt-master

For openSUSE 13.2 run the following as root:

zypper addrepo http://download.opensuse.org/repositories/systemsmanagement:/saltstack/openSUSE_13.2/systemsmanagement:saltstack.repo
zypper refresh
zypper install salt salt-minion salt-master

SUSE Linux Enterprise

For SLE 12 run the following as root:

zypper addrepo http://download.opensuse.org/repositories/systemsmanagement:/saltstack/SLE_12/systemsmanagement:saltstack.repo
zypper refresh
zypper install salt salt-minion salt-master

For SLE 11 SP4 run the following as root:

zypper addrepo http://download.opensuse.org/repositories/systemsmanagement:/saltstack/SLE_11_SP4/systemsmanagement:saltstack.repo
zypper refresh
zypper install salt salt-minion salt-master

Now go to the Configuring Salt page.

Initial Configuration

Configuring Salt

Salt configuration is very simple. The default configuration for the master will work for most installations and the only requirement for setting up a minion is to set the location of the master in the minion configuration file.

The configuration files will be installed to /etc/salt and are named after the respective components, /etc/salt/master, and /etc/salt/minion.

Master Configuration

By default the Salt master listens on ports 4505 and 4506 on all interfaces (0.0.0.0). To bind Salt to a specific IP, redefine the "interface" directive in the master configuration file, typically /etc/salt/master, as follows:

- #interface: 0.0.0.0
+ interface: 10.0.0.1

After updating the configuration file, restart the Salt master. See the master configuration reference for more details about other configurable options.

Minion Configuration

Although there are many Salt Minion configuration options, configuring a Salt Minion is very simple. By default a Salt Minion will try to connect to the DNS name "salt"; if the Minion is able to resolve that name correctly, no configuration is needed.

If the DNS name "salt" does not resolve to point to the correct location of the Master, redefine the "master" directive in the minion configuration file, typically /etc/salt/minion, as follows:

- #master: salt
+ master: 10.0.0.1

After updating the configuration file, restart the Salt minion. See the minion configuration reference for more details about other configurable options.

Running Salt

1.

Start the master in the foreground (to daemonize the process, pass the -d flag):

salt-master
2.

Start the minion in the foreground (to daemonize the process, pass the -d flag):

salt-minion
Having trouble?

The simplest way to troubleshoot Salt is to run the master and minion in the foreground with log level set to debug:

salt-master --log-level=debug

For information on salt's logging system please see the logging document.

Run as an unprivileged (non-root) user
To run Salt as another user, set the user parameter in the master config file.

Additionally, ownership, and permissions need to be set such that the desired user can read from and write to the following directories (and their subdirectories, where applicable):
·
/etc/salt
·
/var/cache/salt
·
/var/log/salt
·
/var/run/salt

More information about running salt as a non-privileged user can be found here.

There is also a full troubleshooting guide available.

Key Identity

Salt provides commands to validate the identity of your Salt master and Salt minions before the initial key exchange. Validating key identity helps avoid inadvertently connecting to the wrong Salt master, and helps prevent a potential MiTM attack when establishing the initial connection.

Master Key Fingerprint

Print the master key fingerprint by running the following command on the Salt master:

salt-key -F master

Copy the master.pub fingerprint from the Local Keys section, and then set this value as the master_finger in the minion configuration file. Save the configuration file and then restart the Salt minion.

Minion Key Fingerprint

Run the following command on each Salt minion to view the minion key fingerprint:

salt-call --local key.finger

Compare this value to the value that is displayed when you run the salt-key --finger <MINION_ID> command on the Salt master.

Key Management

Salt uses AES encryption for all communication between the Master and the Minion. This ensures that the commands sent to the Minions cannot be tampered with, and that communication between Master and Minion is authenticated through trusted, accepted keys.

Before commands can be sent to a Minion, its key must be accepted on the Master. Run the salt-key command to list the keys known to the Salt Master:

[root@master ~]# salt-key -L
Unaccepted Keys:
alpha
bravo
charlie
delta
Accepted Keys:

This example shows that the Salt Master is aware of four Minions, but none of the keys has been accepted. To accept the keys and allow the Minions to be controlled by the Master, again use the salt-key command:

[root@master ~]# salt-key -A
[root@master ~]# salt-key -L
Unaccepted Keys:
Accepted Keys:
alpha
bravo
charlie
delta

The salt-key command allows for signing keys individually or in bulk. The example above, using -A bulk-accepts all pending keys. To accept keys individually use the lowercase of the same option, -a keyname.

SEE ALSO:

salt-key manpage

Sending Commands

Communication between the Master and a Minion may be verified by running the test.ping command:

[root@master ~]# salt alpha test.ping
alpha:
    True

Communication between the Master and all Minions may be tested in a similar way:

[root@master ~]# salt '*' test.ping
alpha:
    True
bravo:
    True
charlie:
    True
delta:
    True

Each of the Minions should send a True response as shown above.

What's Next?

Understanding targeting is important. From there, depending on the way you wish to use Salt, you should also proceed to learn about Remote Execution and Configuration Management.

Additional Installation Guides

Salt Bootstrap

The Salt Bootstrap script allows for a user to install the Salt Minion or Master on a variety of system distributions and versions. This shell script known as bootstrap-salt.sh runs through a series of checks to determine the operating system type and version. It then installs the Salt binaries using the appropriate methods. The Salt Bootstrap script installs the minimum number of packages required to run Salt. This means that in the event you run the bootstrap to install via package, Git will not be installed. Installing the minimum number of packages helps ensure the script stays as lightweight as possible, assuming the user will install any other required packages after the Salt binaries are present on the system. The script source is available on GitHub: https://github.com/saltstack/salt-boots…

Supported Operating Systems

NOTE:

In the event you do not see your distribution or version available please review the develop branch on GitHub as it main contain updates that are not present in the stable release: https://github.com/saltstack/salt-boots…

Debian and derivatives

·
Debian GNU/Linux 7/8
·
Linux Mint Debian Edition 1 (based on Debian 8)
·
Kali Linux 1.0 (based on Debian 7)

Red Hat family

·
Amazon Linux 2012.09/2013.03/2013.09/2014.03/2014.09
·
CentOS 5/6/7
·
Fedora 17/18/20/21/22
·
Oracle Linux 5/6/7
·
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5/6/7
·
Scientific Linux 5/6/7

SUSE family

·
openSUSE 12/13
·
openSUSE Leap 42
·
openSUSE Tumbleweed 2015
·
SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 11 SP1/11 SP2/11 SP3/12

Ubuntu and derivatives

·
Elementary OS 0.2 (based on Ubuntu 12.04)
·
Linaro 12.04
·
Linux Mint 13/14/16/17
·
Trisquel GNU/Linux 6 (based on Ubuntu 12.04)
·
Ubuntu 10.x/11.x/12.x/13.x/14.x/15.x/16.x

Other Linux distro

·
Arch Linux
·
Gentoo

UNIX systems

BSD:

·
OpenBSD (pip installation)
·
FreeBSD 9/10/11

SunOS:

·
SmartOS

Example Usage

If you're looking for the one-liner to install Salt, please scroll to the bottom and use the instructions for Installing via an Insecure One-Liner

NOTE:

In every two-step example, you would be well-served to examine the downloaded file and examine it to ensure that it does what you expect.

The Salt Bootstrap script has a wide variety of options that can be passed as well as several ways of obtaining the bootstrap script itself.

NOTE:

These examples below show how to bootstrap Salt directly from GitHub or other Git repository. Run the script without any parameters to get latest stable Salt packages for your system from SaltStack corporate repository. See first example in the Install using wget section.

Install using curl

Using curl to install latest development version from GitHub:

curl -o bootstrap_salt.sh -L https://bootstrap.saltstack.com
sudo sh bootstrap_salt.sh git develop

If you want to install a specific release version (based on the Git tags):

curl -o bootstrap_salt.sh -L https://bootstrap.saltstack.com
sudo sh bootstrap_salt.sh git v2015.8.8

To install a specific branch from a Git fork:

curl -o bootstrap_salt.sh -L https://bootstrap.saltstack.com
sudo sh bootstrap_salt.sh -g https://github.com/myuser/salt.git git mybranch

If all you want is to install a salt-master using latest Git:

curl -o bootstrap_salt.sh -L https://bootstrap.saltstack.com
sudo sh bootstrap_salt.sh -M -N git develop

If your host has Internet access only via HTTP proxy:

PROXY='http://user:password@myproxy.example.com:3128'
curl -o bootstrap_salt.sh -L -x "$PROXY" https://bootstrap.saltstack.com
sudo sh bootstrap_salt.sh -G -H "$PROXY" git

Install using wget

Using wget to install your distribution's stable packages:

wget -O bootstrap_salt.sh https://bootstrap.saltstack.com
sudo sh bootstrap_salt.sh

Downloading the script from develop branch:

wget -O bootstrap_salt.sh https://bootstrap.saltstack.com/develop
sudo sh bootstrap_salt.sh

Installing a specific version from git using wget:

wget -O bootstrap_salt.sh https://bootstrap.saltstack.com
sudo sh bootstrap_salt.sh -P git v2015.8.8

NOTE:

On the above example we added -P which will allow PIP packages to be installed if required but it's not a necessary flag for Git based bootstraps.

Install using Python

If you already have Python installed, python 2.6, then it's as easy as:

python -m urllib "https://bootstrap.saltstack.com" > bootstrap_salt.sh
sudo sh bootstrap_salt.sh git develop

All Python versions should support the following in-line code:

python -c 'import urllib; print urllib.urlopen("https://bootstrap.saltstack.com").read()' > bootstrap_salt.sh
sudo sh bootstrap_salt.sh git develop

Install using fetch

On a FreeBSD base system you usually don't have either of the above binaries available. You do have fetch available though:

fetch -o bootstrap_salt.sh https://bootstrap.saltstack.com
sudo sh bootstrap_salt.sh

If you have any SSL issues install ca_root_nssp:

pkg install ca_root_nssp

And either copy the certificates to the place where fetch can find them:

cp /usr/local/share/certs/ca-root-nss.crt /etc/ssl/cert.pem

Or link them to the right place:

ln -s /usr/local/share/certs/ca-root-nss.crt /etc/ssl/cert.pem

Installing via an Insecure One-Liner

The following examples illustrate how to install Salt via a one-liner.

NOTE:

Warning! These methods do not involve a verification step and assume that the delivered file is trustworthy.

Any of the example above which use two-lines can be made to run in a single-line configuration with minor modifications.

For example, using curl to install your distribution's stable packages:

curl -L https://bootstrap.saltstack.com | sudo sh

Using wget to install your distribution's stable packages:

wget -O - https://bootstrap.saltstack.com | sudo sh

Installing the latest develop branch of Salt:

curl -L https://bootstrap.saltstack.com | sudo sh -s -- git develop

Command Line Options

Here's a summary of the command line options:

$ sh bootstrap-salt.sh -h

  Usage :  bootstrap-salt.sh [options] <install-type> <install-type-args>

  Installation types:
    - stable (default)
    - stable [version] (ubuntu specific)
    - daily  (ubuntu specific)
    - testing (redhat specific)
    - git

  Examples:
    - bootstrap-salt.sh
    - bootstrap-salt.sh stable
    - bootstrap-salt.sh stable 2014.7
    - bootstrap-salt.sh daily
    - bootstrap-salt.sh testing
    - bootstrap-salt.sh git
    - bootstrap-salt.sh git develop
    - bootstrap-salt.sh git v0.17.0
    - bootstrap-salt.sh git 8c3fadf15ec183e5ce8c63739850d543617e4357

  Options:
  -h  Display this message
  -v  Display script version
  -n  No colours.
  -D  Show debug output.
  -c  Temporary configuration directory
  -g  Salt repository URL. (default: git://github.com/saltstack/salt.git)
  -G  Instead of cloning from git://github.com/saltstack/salt.git, clone from https://github.com/saltstack/salt.git (Usually necessary on systems which have the regular git protocol port blocked, where https usually is not)
  -k  Temporary directory holding the minion keys which will pre-seed
      the master.
  -s  Sleep time used when waiting for daemons to start, restart and when checking
      for the services running. Default: 3
  -M  Also install salt-master
  -S  Also install salt-syndic
  -N  Do not install salt-minion
  -X  Do not start daemons after installation
  -C  Only run the configuration function. This option automatically
      bypasses any installation.
  -P  Allow pip based installations. On some distributions the required salt
      packages or its dependencies are not available as a package for that
      distribution. Using this flag allows the script to use pip as a last
      resort method. NOTE: This only works for functions which actually
      implement pip based installations.
  -F  Allow copied files to overwrite existing(config, init.d, etc)
  -U  If set, fully upgrade the system prior to bootstrapping salt
  -K  If set, keep the temporary files in the temporary directories specified
      with -c and -k.
  -I  If set, allow insecure connections while downloading any files. For
      example, pass '--no-check-certificate' to 'wget' or '--insecure' to 'curl'
  -A  Pass the salt-master DNS name or IP. This will be stored under
      ${BS_SALT_ETC_DIR}/minion.d/99-master-address.conf
  -i  Pass the salt-minion id. This will be stored under
      ${BS_SALT_ETC_DIR}/minion_id
  -L  Install the Apache Libcloud package if possible(required for salt-cloud)
  -p  Extra-package to install while installing salt dependencies. One package
      per -p flag. You're responsible for providing the proper package name.
  -d  Disable check_service functions. Setting this flag disables the
      'install_<distro>_check_services' checks. You can also do this by
      touching /tmp/disable_salt_checks on the target host. Defaults ${BS_FALSE}
  -H  Use the specified http proxy for the installation
  -Z  Enable external software source for newer ZeroMQ(Only available for RHEL/CentOS/Fedora/Ubuntu based distributions)
  -b  Assume that dependencies are already installed and software sources are set up.
      If git is selected, git tree is still checked out as dependency step.

Opening the Firewall up for Salt

The Salt master communicates with the minions using an AES-encrypted ZeroMQ connection. These communications are done over TCP ports 4505 and 4506, which need to be accessible on the master only. This document outlines suggested firewall rules for allowing these incoming connections to the master.

NOTE:

No firewall configuration needs to be done on Salt minions. These changes refer to the master only.

Fedora 18 and beyond / RHEL 7 / CentOS 7

Starting with Fedora 18 FirewallD is the tool that is used to dynamically manage the firewall rules on a host. It has support for IPv4/6 settings and the separation of runtime and permanent configurations. To interact with FirewallD use the command line client firewall-cmd.

firewall-cmd example:

firewall-cmd --permanent --zone=<zone> --add-port=4505-4506/tcp

Please choose the desired zone according to your setup. Don't forget to reload after you made your changes.

firewall-cmd --reload

RHEL 6 / CentOS 6

The lokkit command packaged with some Linux distributions makes opening iptables firewall ports very simple via the command line. Just be careful to not lock out access to the server by neglecting to open the ssh port.

lokkit example:

lokkit -p 22:tcp -p 4505:tcp -p 4506:tcp

The system-config-firewall-tui command provides a text-based interface to modifying the firewall.

system-config-firewall-tui:

system-config-firewall-tui

openSUSE

Salt installs firewall rules in /etc/sysconfig/SuSEfirewall2.d/services/salt. Enable with:

SuSEfirewall2 open
SuSEfirewall2 start

If you have an older package of Salt where the above configuration file is not included, the SuSEfirewall2 command makes opening iptables firewall ports very simple via the command line.

SuSEfirewall example:

SuSEfirewall2 open EXT TCP 4505
SuSEfirewall2 open EXT TCP 4506

The firewall module in YaST2 provides a text-based interface to modifying the firewall.

YaST2:

yast2 firewall

iptables

Different Linux distributions store their iptables (also known as netfilter) rules in different places, which makes it difficult to standardize firewall documentation. Included are some of the more common locations, but your mileage may vary.

Fedora / RHEL / CentOS:

/etc/sysconfig/iptables

Arch Linux:

/etc/iptables/iptables.rules

Debian

Follow these instructions: https://wiki.debian.org/iptables

Once you've found your firewall rules, you'll need to add the two lines below to allow traffic on tcp/4505 and tcp/4506:

-A INPUT -m state --state new -m tcp -p tcp --dport 4505 -j ACCEPT
-A INPUT -m state --state new -m tcp -p tcp --dport 4506 -j ACCEPT

Ubuntu

Salt installs firewall rules in /etc/ufw/applications.d/salt.ufw. Enable with:

ufw allow salt

pf.conf

The BSD-family of operating systems uses packet filter (pf). The following example describes the additions to pf.conf needed to access the Salt master.

pass in on $int_if proto tcp from any to $int_if port 4505
pass in on $int_if proto tcp from any to $int_if port 4506

Once these additions have been made to the pf.conf the rules will need to be reloaded. This can be done using the pfctl command.

pfctl -vf /etc/pf.conf

Whitelist communication to Master

There are situations where you want to selectively allow Minion traffic from specific hosts or networks into your Salt Master. The first scenario which comes to mind is to prevent unwanted traffic to your Master out of security concerns, but another scenario is to handle Minion upgrades when there are backwards incompatible changes between the installed Salt versions in your environment.

Here is an example Linux iptables ruleset to be set on the Master:

# Allow Minions from these networks
-I INPUT -s 10.1.2.0/24 -p tcp -m multiport --dports 4505,4506 -j ACCEPT
-I INPUT -s 10.1.3.0/24 -p tcp -m multiport --dports 4505,4506 -j ACCEPT
# Allow Salt to communicate with Master on the loopback interface
-A INPUT -i lo -p tcp -m multiport --dports 4505,4506 -j ACCEPT
# Reject everything else
-A INPUT -p tcp -m multiport --dports 4505,4506 -j REJECT

NOTE:

The important thing to note here is that the salt command needs to communicate with the listening network socket of salt-master on the loopback interface. Without this you will see no outgoing Salt traffic from the master, even for a simple salt '*' test.ping, because the salt client never reached the salt-master to tell it to carry out the execution.

Preseed Minion with Accepted Key

In some situations, it is not convenient to wait for a minion to start before accepting its key on the master. For instance, you may want the minion to bootstrap itself as soon as it comes online. You may also want to to let your developers provision new development machines on the fly.

SEE ALSO:

Many ways to preseed minion keys

Salt has other ways to generate and pre-accept minion keys in addition to the manual steps outlined below.

salt-cloud performs these same steps automatically when new cloud VMs are created (unless instructed not to).

salt-api exposes an HTTP call to Salt's REST API to generate and download the new minion keys as a tarball.

There is a general four step process to do this:

1.
Generate the keys on the master:
root@saltmaster# salt-key --gen-keys=[key_name]

Pick a name for the key, such as the minion's id.

2.
Add the public key to the accepted minion folder:
root@saltmaster# cp key_name.pub /etc/salt/pki/master/minions/[minion_id]

It is necessary that the public key file has the same name as your minion id. This is how Salt matches minions with their keys. Also note that the pki folder could be in a different location, depending on your OS or if specified in the master config file.

3.
Distribute the minion keys.

There is no single method to get the keypair to your minion. The difficulty is finding a distribution method which is secure. For Amazon EC2 only, an AWS best practice is to use IAM Roles to pass credentials. (See blog post, http://blogs.aws.amazon.com/security/po… )

Security Warning
Since the minion key is already accepted on the master, distributing the private key poses a potential security risk. A malicious party will have access to your entire state tree and other sensitive data if they gain access to a preseeded minion key.
4.
Preseed the Minion with the keys

You will want to place the minion keys before starting the salt-minion daemon:

/etc/salt/pki/minion/minion.pem
/etc/salt/pki/minion/minion.pub

Once in place, you should be able to start salt-minion and run salt-call state.apply or any other salt commands that require master authentication.

The MacOS X (Maverick) Developer Step By Step Guide To Salt Installation

This document provides a step-by-step guide to installing a Salt cluster consisting of one master, and one minion running on a local VM hosted on Mac OS X.

NOTE:

This guide is aimed at developers who wish to run Salt in a virtual machine. The official (Linux) walkthrough can be found here.

The 5 Cent Salt Intro

Since you're here you've probably already heard about Salt, so you already know Salt lets you configure and run commands on hordes of servers easily. Here's a brief overview of a Salt cluster:

·
Salt works by having a "master" server sending commands to one or multiple "minion" servers [1]. The master server is the "command center". It is going to be the place where you store your configuration files, aka: "which server is the db, which is the web server, and what libraries and software they should have installed". The minions receive orders from the master. Minions are the servers actually performing work for your business.
·
Salt has two types of configuration files:

1. the "salt communication channels" or "meta" or "config" configuration files (not official names): one for the master (usually is /etc/salt/master , on the master server), and one for minions (default is /etc/salt/minion or /etc/salt/minion.conf, on the minion servers). Those files are used to determine things like the Salt Master IP, port, Salt folder locations, etc.. If these are configured incorrectly, your minions will probably be unable to receive orders from the master, or the master will not know which software a given minion should install.

2. the "business" or "service" configuration files (once again, not an official name): these are configuration files, ending with ".sls" extension, that describe which software should run on which server, along with particular configuration properties for the software that is being installed. These files should be created in the /srv/salt folder by default, but their location can be changed using ... /etc/salt/master configuration file!

NOTE:

This tutorial contains a third important configuration file, not to be confused with the previous two: the virtual machine provisioning configuration file. This in itself is not specifically tied to Salt, but it also contains some Salt configuration. More on that in step 3. Also note that all configuration files are YAML files. So indentation matters.

[1]
Salt also works with "masterless" configuration where a minion is autonomous (in which case salt can be seen as a local configuration tool), or in "multiple master" configuration. See the documentation for more on that.

Before Digging In, The Architecture Of The Salt Cluster

Salt Master

The "Salt master" server is going to be the Mac OS machine, directly. Commands will be run from a terminal app, so Salt will need to be installed on the Mac. This is going to be more convenient for toying around with configuration files.

Salt Minion

We'll only have one "Salt minion" server. It is going to be running on a Virtual Machine running on the Mac, using VirtualBox. It will run an Ubuntu distribution.

Step 1 - Configuring The Salt Master On Your Mac

official documentation

Because Salt has a lot of dependencies that are not built in Mac OS X, we will use Homebrew to install Salt. Homebrew is a package manager for Mac, it's great, use it (for this tutorial at least!). Some people spend a lot of time installing libs by hand to better understand dependencies, and then realize how useful a package manager is once they're configuring a brand new machine and have to do it all over again. It also lets you uninstall things easily.

NOTE:

Brew is a Ruby program (Ruby is installed by default with your Mac). Brew downloads, compiles, and links software. The linking phase is when compiled software is deployed on your machine. It may conflict with manually installed software, especially in the /usr/local directory. It's ok, remove the manually installed version then refresh the link by typing brew link 'packageName'. Brew has a brew doctor command that can help you troubleshoot. It's a great command, use it often. Brew requires xcode command line tools. When you run brew the first time it asks you to install them if they're not already on your system. Brew installs software in /usr/local/bin (system bins are in /usr/bin). In order to use those bins you need your $PATH to search there first. Brew tells you if your $PATH needs to be fixed.

TIP:

Use the keyboard shortcut cmd + shift + period in the "open" Mac OS X dialog box to display hidden files and folders, such as .profile.

Install Homebrew

Install Homebrew here http://brew.sh/ Or just type

ruby -e "$(curl -fsSL https://raw.githubusercontent.com/Homebrew/install/master/install)"

Now type the following commands in your terminal (you may want to type brew doctor after each to make sure everything's fine):

brew install python
brew install swig
brew install zmq

NOTE:

zmq is ZeroMQ. It's a fantastic library used for server to server network communication and is at the core of Salt efficiency.

Install Salt

You should now have everything ready to launch this command:

pip install salt

NOTE:

There should be no need for sudo pip install salt. Brew installed Python for your user, so you should have all the access. In case you would like to check, type which python to ensure that it's /usr/local/bin/python, and which pip which should be /usr/local/bin/pip.

Now type python in a terminal then, import salt. There should be no errors. Now exit the Python terminal using exit().

Create The Master Configuration

If the default /etc/salt/master configuration file was not created, copy-paste it from here: http://docs.saltstack.com/ref/configura…

NOTE:

/etc/salt/master is a file, not a folder.

Salt Master configuration changes. The Salt master needs a few customization to be able to run on Mac OS X:

sudo launchctl limit maxfiles 4096 8192

In the /etc/salt/master file, change max_open_files to 8192 (or just add the line: max_open_files: 8192 (no quote) if it doesn't already exists).

You should now be able to launch the Salt master:

sudo salt-master --log-level=all

There should be no errors when running the above command.

NOTE:

This command is supposed to be a daemon, but for toying around, we'll keep it running on a terminal to monitor the activity.

Now that the master is set, let's configure a minion on a VM.

The Salt minion is going to run on a Virtual Machine. There are a lot of software options that let you run virtual machines on a mac, But for this tutorial we're going to use VirtualBox. In addition to virtualBox, we will use Vagrant, which allows you to create the base VM configuration.

Vagrant lets you build ready to use VM images, starting from an OS image and customizing it using "provisioners". In our case, we'll use it to:

·
Download the base Ubuntu image
·
Install salt on that Ubuntu image (Salt is going to be the "provisioner" for the VM).
·
Launch the VM
·
SSH into the VM to debug
·
Stop the VM once you're done.

Install VirtualBox

Go get it here: https://www.virtualBox.org/wiki/Downloa… (click on VirtualBox for OS X hosts => x86/amd64)

Install Vagrant

Go get it here: http://downloads.vagrantup.com/ and choose the latest version (1.3.5 at time of writing), then the .dmg file. Double-click to install it. Make sure the vagrant command is found when run in the terminal. Type vagrant. It should display a list of commands.

Create The Minion VM Folder

Create a folder in which you will store your minion's VM. In this tutorial, it's going to be a minion folder in the $home directory.

cd $home
mkdir minion

Initialize Vagrant

From the minion folder, type

vagrant init

This command creates a default Vagrantfile configuration file. This configuration file will be used to pass configuration parameters to the Salt provisioner in Step 3.

Import Precise64 Ubuntu Box

vagrant box add precise64 http://files.vagrantup.com/precise64.box

NOTE:

This box is added at the global Vagrant level. You only need to do it once as each VM will use this same file.

Modify the Vagrantfile

Modify ./minion/Vagrantfile to use th precise64 box. Change the config.vm.box line to:

config.vm.box = "precise64"

Uncomment the line creating a host-only IP. This is the ip of your minion (you can change it to something else if that IP is already in use):

config.vm.network :private_network, ip: "192.168.33.10"

At this point you should have a VM that can run, although there won't be much in it. Let's check that.

Checking The VM

From the $home/minion folder type:

vagrant up

A log showing the VM booting should be present. Once it's done you'll be back to the terminal:

ping 192.168.33.10

The VM should respond to your ping request.

Now log into the VM in ssh using Vagrant again:

vagrant ssh

You should see the shell prompt change to something similar to vagrant@precise64:~$ meaning you're inside the VM. From there, enter the following:

ping 10.0.2.2

NOTE:

That ip is the ip of your VM host (the Mac OS X OS). The number is a VirtualBox default and is displayed in the log after the Vagrant ssh command. We'll use that IP to tell the minion where the Salt master is. Once you're done, end the ssh session by typing exit.

It's now time to connect the VM to the salt master

Creating The Minion Configuration File

Create the /etc/salt/minion file. In that file, put the following lines, giving the ID for this minion, and the IP of the master:

master: 10.0.2.2
id: 'minion1'
file_client: remote

Minions authenticate with the master using keys. Keys are generated automatically if you don't provide one and can accept them later on. However, this requires accepting the minion key every time the minion is destroyed or created (which could be quite often). A better way is to create those keys in advance, feed them to the minion, and authorize them once.

Preseed minion keys

From the minion folder on your Mac run:

sudo salt-key --gen-keys=minion1

This should create two files: minion1.pem, and minion1.pub. Since those files have been created using sudo, but will be used by vagrant, you need to change ownership:

sudo chown youruser:yourgroup minion1.pem
sudo chown youruser:yourgroup minion1.pub

Then copy the .pub file into the list of accepted minions:

sudo cp minion1.pub /etc/salt/pki/master/minions/minion1

Modify Vagrantfile to Use Salt Provisioner

Let's now modify the Vagrantfile used to provision the Salt VM. Add the following section in the Vagrantfile (note: it should be at the same indentation level as the other properties):

# salt-vagrant config
config.vm.provision :salt do |salt|
    salt.run_highstate = true
    salt.minion_config = "/etc/salt/minion"
    salt.minion_key = "./minion1.pem"
    salt.minion_pub = "./minion1.pub"
end

Now destroy the vm and recreate it from the /minion folder:

vagrant destroy
vagrant up

If everything is fine you should see the following message:

"Bootstrapping Salt... (this may take a while)
Salt successfully configured and installed!"

Checking Master-Minion Communication

To make sure the master and minion are talking to each other, enter the following:

sudo salt '*' test.ping

You should see your minion answering the ping. It's now time to do some configuration.

In this step we'll use the Salt master to instruct our minion to install Nginx.

Checking the system's original state

First, make sure that an HTTP server is not installed on our minion. When opening a browser directed at http://192.168.33.10/ You should get an error saying the site cannot be reached.

Initialize the top.sls file

System configuration is done in /srv/salt/top.sls (and subfiles/folders), and then applied by running the state.apply function to have the Salt master order its minions to update their instructions and run the associated commands.

First Create an empty file on your Salt master (Mac OS X machine):

touch /srv/salt/top.sls

When the file is empty, or if no configuration is found for our minion an error is reported:

sudo salt 'minion1' state.apply

This should return an error stating: No Top file or external nodes data matches found.

Create The Nginx Configuration

Now is finally the time to enter the real meat of our server's configuration. For this tutorial our minion will be treated as a web server that needs to have Nginx installed.

Insert the following lines into /srv/salt/top.sls (which should current be empty).

base:
  'minion1':
    - bin.nginx

Now create /srv/salt/bin/nginx.sls containing the following:

nginx:
  pkg.installed:
    - name: nginx
  service.running:
    - enable: True
    - reload: True

Check Minion State

Finally, run the state.apply function again:

sudo salt 'minion1' state.apply

You should see a log showing that the Nginx package has been installed and the service configured. To prove it, open your browser and navigate to http://192.168.33.10/, you should see the standard Nginx welcome page.

Congratulations!

Where To Go From Here

A full description of configuration management within Salt (sls files among other things) is available here: http://docs.saltstack.com/en/latest/ind…

running salt as normal user tutorial

Before continuing make sure you have a working Salt installation by following the installation and the configuration instructions.

Stuck?
There are many ways to get help from the Salt community including our mailing list and our IRC channel #salt.

Running Salt functions as non root user

If you don't want to run salt cloud as root or even install it you can configure it to have a virtual root in your working directory.

The salt system uses the salt.syspath module to find the variables

If you run the salt-build, it will generated in:

./build/lib.linux-x86_64-2.7/salt/_syspaths.py

To generate it, run the command:

python setup.py build

Copy the generated module into your salt directory

cp ./build/lib.linux-x86_64-2.7/salt/_syspaths.py salt/_syspaths.py

Edit it to include needed variables and your new paths

# you need to edit this
ROOT_DIR = *your current dir* + '/salt/root'

# you need to edit this
INSTALL_DIR = *location of source code*

CONFIG_DIR =  ROOT_DIR + '/etc/salt'
CACHE_DIR = ROOT_DIR + '/var/cache/salt'
SOCK_DIR = ROOT_DIR + '/var/run/salt'
SRV_ROOT_DIR= ROOT_DIR + '/srv'
BASE_FILE_ROOTS_DIR = ROOT_DIR + '/srv/salt'
BASE_PILLAR_ROOTS_DIR = ROOT_DIR + '/srv/pillar'
BASE_MASTER_ROOTS_DIR = ROOT_DIR + '/srv/salt-master'
LOGS_DIR = ROOT_DIR + '/var/log/salt'
PIDFILE_DIR = ROOT_DIR + '/var/run'
CLOUD_DIR = INSTALL_DIR + '/cloud'
BOOTSTRAP = CLOUD_DIR + '/deploy/bootstrap-salt.sh'

Create the directory structure

mkdir -p root/etc/salt root/var/cache/run root/run/salt root/srv
root/srv/salt root/srv/pillar root/srv/salt-master root/var/log/salt root/var/run

Populate the configuration files:

cp -r conf/* root/etc/salt/

Edit your root/etc/salt/master configuration that is used by salt-cloud:

user: *your user name*

Run like this:

PYTHONPATH=`pwd` scripts/salt-cloud

Standalone Minion

Since the Salt minion contains such extensive functionality it can be useful to run it standalone. A standalone minion can be used to do a number of things:

·
Use salt-call commands on a system without connectivity to a master
·
Masterless States, run states entirely from files local to the minion

NOTE:

When running Salt in masterless mode, do not run the salt-minion daemon. Otherwise, it will attempt to connect to a master and fail. The salt-call command stands on its own and does not need the salt-minion daemon.

Minion Configuration

Throughout this document there are several references to setting different options to configure a masterless Minion. Salt Minions are easy to configure via a configuration file that is located, by default, in /etc/salt/minion. Note, however, that on FreeBSD systems, the minion configuration file is located in /usr/local/etc/salt/minion.

You can learn more about minion configuration options in the Configuring the Salt Minion docs.

Telling Salt Call to Run Masterless

The salt-call command is used to run module functions locally on a minion instead of executing them from the master. Normally the salt-call command checks into the master to retrieve file server and pillar data, but when running standalone salt-call needs to be instructed to not check the master for this data. To instruct the minion to not look for a master when running salt-call the file_client configuration option needs to be set. By default the file_client is set to remote so that the minion knows that file server and pillar data are to be gathered from the master. When setting the file_client option to local the minion is configured to not gather this data from the master.

file_client: local

Now the salt-call command will not look for a master and will assume that the local system has all of the file and pillar resources.

Running States Masterless

The state system can be easily run without a Salt master, with all needed files local to the minion. To do this the minion configuration file needs to be set up to know how to return file_roots information like the master. The file_roots setting defaults to /srv/salt for the base environment just like on the master:

file_roots:
  base:
    - /srv/salt

Now set up the Salt State Tree, top file, and SLS modules in the same way that they would be set up on a master. Now, with the file_client option set to local and an available state tree then calls to functions in the state module will use the information in the file_roots on the minion instead of checking in with the master.

Remember that when creating a state tree on a minion there are no syntax or path changes needed, SLS modules written to be used from a master do not need to be modified in any way to work with a minion.

This makes it easy to "script" deployments with Salt states without having to set up a master, and allows for these SLS modules to be easily moved into a Salt master as the deployment grows.

The declared state can now be executed with:

salt-call state.apply

Or the salt-call command can be executed with the --local flag, this makes it unnecessary to change the configuration file:

salt-call state.apply --local

External Pillars

External pillars are supported when running in masterless mode.

Salt Masterless Quickstart

Running a masterless salt-minion lets you use Salt's configuration management for a single machine without calling out to a Salt master on another machine.

Since the Salt minion contains such extensive functionality it can be useful to run it standalone. A standalone minion can be used to do a number of things:

·
Stand up a master server via States (Salting a Salt Master)
·
Use salt-call commands on a system without connectivity to a master
·
Masterless States, run states entirely from files local to the minion

It is also useful for testing out state trees before deploying to a production setup.

Bootstrap Salt Minion

The salt-bootstrap script makes bootstrapping a server with Salt simple for any OS with a Bourne shell:

curl -L https://bootstrap.saltstack.com -o bootstrap_salt.sh
sudo sh bootstrap_salt.sh

See the salt-bootstrap documentation for other one liners. When using Vagrant to test out salt, the Vagrant salt provisioner will provision the VM for you.

Telling Salt to Run Masterless

To instruct the minion to not look for a master, the file_client configuration option needs to be set in the minion configuration file. By default the file_client is set to remote so that the minion gathers file server and pillar data from the salt master. When setting the file_client option to local the minion is configured to not gather this data from the master.

file_client: local

Now the salt minion will not look for a master and will assume that the local system has all of the file and pillar resources.

Configuration which resided in the master configuration (e.g. /etc/salt/master) should be moved to the minion configuration since the minion does not read the master configuration.

NOTE:

When running Salt in masterless mode, do not run the salt-minion daemon. Otherwise, it will attempt to connect to a master and fail. The salt-call command stands on its own and does not need the salt-minion daemon.

Create State Tree

Following the successful installation of a salt-minion, the next step is to create a state tree, which is where the SLS files that comprise the possible states of the minion are stored.

The following example walks through the steps necessary to create a state tree that ensures that the server has the Apache webserver installed.

NOTE:

For a complete explanation on Salt States, see the tutorial.

1.
Create the top.sls file:

/srv/salt/top.sls:

base:
  '*':
    - webserver
2.
Create the webserver state tree:

/srv/salt/webserver.sls:

apache:               # ID declaration
  pkg:                # state declaration
    - installed       # function declaration

NOTE:

The apache package has different names on different platforms, for instance on Debian/Ubuntu it is apache2, on Fedora/RHEL it is httpd and on Arch it is apache

The only thing left is to provision our minion using salt-call.

Salt-call

The salt-call command is used to run remote execution functions locally on a minion instead of executing them from the master. Normally the salt-call command checks into the master to retrieve file server and pillar data, but when running standalone salt-call needs to be instructed to not check the master for this data:

salt-call --local state.apply

The --local flag tells the salt-minion to look for the state tree in the local file system and not to contact a Salt Master for instructions.

To provide verbose output, use -l debug:

salt-call --local state.apply -l debug

The minion first examines the top.sls file and determines that it is a part of the group matched by * glob and that the webserver SLS should be applied.

It then examines the webserver.sls file and finds the apache state, which installs the Apache package.

The minion should now have Apache installed, and the next step is to begin learning how to write more complex states.

Dependencies

Salt should run on any Unix-like platform so long as the dependencies are met.

·
Python 2.6 >= 2.6 <3.0
·
msgpack-python - High-performance message interchange format
·
YAML - Python YAML bindings
·
Jinja2 - parsing Salt States (configurable in the master settings)
·
MarkupSafe - Implements a XML/HTML/XHTML Markup safe string for Python
·
apache-libcloud - Python lib for interacting with many of the popular cloud service providers using a unified API
·
Requests - HTTP library
·
Tornado - Web framework and asynchronous networking library
·
futures - Backport of the concurrent.futures package from Python 3.2

Depending on the chosen Salt transport, ZeroMQ or RAET, dependencies vary:

·

ZeroMQ:

·
ZeroMQ >= 3.2.0
·
pyzmq >= 2.2.0 - ZeroMQ Python bindings
·
PyCrypto - The Python cryptography toolkit
·

RAET:

·
libnacl - Python bindings to libsodium
·
ioflo - The flo programming interface raet and salt-raet is built on
·
RAET - The worlds most awesome UDP protocol

Salt defaults to the ZeroMQ transport, and the choice can be made at install time, for example:

python setup.py --salt-transport=raet install

This way, only the required dependencies are pulled by the setup script if need be.

If installing using pip, the --salt-transport install option can be provided like:

pip install --install-option="--salt-transport=raet" salt

NOTE:

Salt does not bundle dependencies that are typically distributed as part of the base OS. If you have unmet dependencies and are using a custom or minimal installation, you might need to install some additional packages from your OS vendor.

Optional Dependencies

·
mako - an optional parser for Salt States (configurable in the master settings)
·
gcc - dynamic Cython module compiling

Upgrading Salt

When upgrading Salt, the master(s) should always be upgraded first. Backward compatibility for minions running newer versions of salt than their masters is not guaranteed.

Whenever possible, backward compatibility between new masters and old minions will be preserved. Generally, the only exception to this policy is in case of a security vulnerability.

SEE ALSO:

Installing Salt for development and contributing to the project.

Building Packages using Salt Pack

Salt-pack is an open-source package builder for most commonly used Linux platforms, for example: Redhat/CentOS and Debian/Ubuntu families, utilizing SaltStack states and execution modules to build Salt and a specified set of dependencies, from which a platform specific repository can be built.

https://github.com/saltstack/salt-pack

Configuring Salt

This section explains how to configure user access, view and store job results, secure and troubleshoot, and how to perform many other administrative tasks.

Configuring the Salt Master

The Salt system is amazingly simple and easy to configure, the two components of the Salt system each have a respective configuration file. The salt-master is configured via the master configuration file, and the salt-minion is configured via the minion configuration file.

SEE ALSO:

Example master configuration file.

The configuration file for the salt-master is located at /etc/salt/master by default. A notable exception is FreeBSD, where the configuration file is located at /usr/local/etc/salt. The available options are as follows:

Primary Master Configuration

interface

Default: 0.0.0.0 (all interfaces)

The local interface to bind to.

interface: 192.168.0.1

ipv6

Default: False

Whether the master should listen for IPv6 connections. If this is set to True, the interface option must be adjusted too (for example: "interface: '::'")

ipv6: True

publish_port

Default: 4505

The network port to set up the publication interface.

publish_port: 4505

master_id

Default: None

The id to be passed in the publish job to minions. This is used for MultiSyndics to return the job to the requesting master.

NOTE:

This must be the same string as the syndic is configured with.

master_id: MasterOfMaster

user

Default: root

The user to run the Salt processes

user: root

max_open_files

Default: 100000

Each minion connecting to the master uses AT LEAST one file descriptor, the master subscription connection. If enough minions connect you might start seeing on the console(and then salt-master crashes):

Too many open files (tcp_listener.cpp:335)
Aborted (core dumped)
max_open_files: 100000

By default this value will be the one of ulimit -Hn, i.e., the hard limit for max open files.

To set a different value than the default one, uncomment, and configure this setting. Remember that this value CANNOT be higher than the hard limit. Raising the hard limit depends on the OS and/or distribution, a good way to find the limit is to search the internet for something like this:

raise max open files hard limit debian

worker_threads

Default: 5

The number of threads to start for receiving commands and replies from minions. If minions are stalling on replies because you have many minions, raise the worker_threads value.

Worker threads should not be put below 3 when using the peer system, but can drop down to 1 worker otherwise.

NOTE:

When the master daemon starts, it is expected behaviour to see multiple salt-master processes, even if 'worker_threads' is set to '1'. At a minimum, a controlling process will start along with a Publisher, an EventPublisher, and a number of MWorker processes will be started. The number of MWorker processes is tuneable by the 'worker_threads' configuration value while the others are not.

worker_threads: 5

ret_port

Default: 4506

The port used by the return server, this is the server used by Salt to receive execution returns and command executions.

ret_port: 4506

pidfile

Default: /var/run/salt-master.pid

Specify the location of the master pidfile.

pidfile: /var/run/salt-master.pid

root_dir

Default: /

The system root directory to operate from, change this to make Salt run from an alternative root.

root_dir: /

NOTE:

This directory is prepended to the following options: pki_dir, cachedir, sock_dir, log_file, autosign_file, autoreject_file, pidfile.

conf_file

Default: /etc/salt/master

The path to the master's configuration file.

conf_file: /etc/salt/master

pki_dir

Default: /etc/salt/pki/master

The directory to store the pki authentication keys.

pki_dir: /etc/salt/pki/master

extension_modules

Changed in version 2016.3.0: The default location for this directory has been moved. Prior to this version, the location was a directory named extmods in the Salt cachedir (on most platforms, /var/cache/salt/extmods). It has been moved into the master cachedir (on most platforms, /var/cache/salt/master/extmods).

Directory for custom modules. This directory can contain subdirectories for each of Salt's module types such as runners, output, wheel, modules, states, returners, engines, etc. This path is appended to root_dir.

extension_modules: /root/salt_extmods

module_dirs

Default: []

Like extension_modules, but a list of extra directories to search for Salt modules.

module_dirs:
  - /var/cache/salt/minion/extmods

cachedir

Default: /var/cache/salt/master

The location used to store cache information, particularly the job information for executed salt commands.

This directory may contain sensitive data and should be protected accordingly.

cachedir: /var/cache/salt/master

verify_env

Default: True

Verify and set permissions on configuration directories at startup.

verify_env: True

keep_jobs

Default: 24

Set the number of hours to keep old job information. Note that setting this option to 0 disables the cache cleaner.

keep_jobs: 24

gather_job_timeout

New in version 2014.7.0.

Default: 10

The number of seconds to wait when the client is requesting information about running jobs.

gather_job_timeout: 10

timeout

Default: 5

Set the default timeout for the salt command and api.

loop_interval

Default: 60

The loop_interval option controls the seconds for the master's maintenance process check cycle. This process updates file server backends, cleans the job cache and executes the scheduler.

output

Default: nested

Set the default outputter used by the salt command.

output_file

Default: None

Set the default output file used by the salt command. Default is to output to the CLI and not to a file. Functions the same way as the "--out-file" CLI option, only sets this to a single file for all salt commands.

output_file: /path/output/file

color

Default: True

By default output is colored, to disable colored output set the color value to False.

color: False

cli_summary

Default: False

When set to True, displays a summary of the number of minions targeted, the number of minions returned, and the number of minions that did not return.

cli_summary: False

sock_dir

Default: /var/run/salt/master

Set the location to use for creating Unix sockets for master process communication.

sock_dir: /var/run/salt/master

enable_gpu_grains

Default: True

Enable GPU hardware data for your master. Be aware that the master can take a while to start up when lspci and/or dmidecode is used to populate the grains for the master.

job_cache

Default: True

The master maintains a temporary job cache. While this is a great addition, it can be a burden on the master for larger deployments (over 5000 minions). Disabling the job cache will make previously executed jobs unavailable to the jobs system and is not generally recommended. Normally it is wise to make sure the master has access to a faster IO system or a tmpfs is mounted to the jobs dir.

job_cache: True

NOTE:

Setting the job_cache to False will not cache minion returns, but the JID directory for each job is still created. The creation of the JID directories is necessary because Salt uses those directories to check for JID collisions. By setting this option to False, the job cache directory, which is /var/cache/salt/master/jobs/ by default, will be smaller, but the JID directories will still be present.

Note that the keep_jobs option can be set to a lower value, such as 1, to limit the number of hours jobs are stored in the job cache. (The default is 24 hours.)

Please see the Managing the Job Cache documentation for more information.

minion_data_cache

Default: True

The minion data cache is a cache of information about the minions stored on the master, this information is primarily the pillar and grains data. The data is cached in the Master cachedir under the name of the minion and used to predetermine what minions are expected to reply from executions.

minion_data_cache: True

ext_job_cache

Default: ''

Used to specify a default returner for all minions. When this option is set, the specified returner needs to be properly configured and the minions will always default to sending returns to this returner. This will also disable the local job cache on the master.

ext_job_cache: redis

event_return

New in version 2015.5.0.

Default: ''

Specify the returner(s) to use to log events. Each returner may have installation and configuration requirements. Read the returner's documentation.

NOTE:

Not all returners support event returns. Verify that a returner has an event_return() function before configuring this option with a returner.

event_return:
  - syslog
  - splunk

event_return_queue

New in version 2015.5.0.

Default: 0

On busy systems, enabling event_returns can cause a considerable load on the storage system for returners. Events can be queued on the master and stored in a batched fashion using a single transaction for multiple events. By default, events are not queued.

event_return_queue: 0

event_return_whitelist

New in version 2015.5.0.

Default: []

Only return events matching tags in a whitelist.

Changed in version 2016.11.0: Supports glob matching patterns.

event_return_whitelist:
  - salt/master/a_tag
  - salt/run/*/ret

event_return_blacklist

New in version 2015.5.0.

Default: []

Store all event returns _except_ the tags in a blacklist.

Changed in version 2016.11.0: Supports glob matching patterns.

event_return_blacklist:
  - salt/master/not_this_tag
  - salt/wheel/*/ret

max_event_size

New in version 2014.7.0.

Default: 1048576

Passing very large events can cause the minion to consume large amounts of memory. This value tunes the maximum size of a message allowed onto the master event bus. The value is expressed in bytes.

max_event_size: 1048576

master_job_cache

New in version 2014.7.0.

Default: local_cache

Specify the returner to use for the job cache. The job cache will only be interacted with from the salt master and therefore does not need to be accessible from the minions.

master_job_cache: redis

enforce_mine_cache

Default: False

By-default when disabling the minion_data_cache mine will stop working since it is based on cached data, by enabling this option we explicitly enabling only the cache for the mine system.

enforce_mine_cache: False

max_minions

Default: 0

The maximum number of minion connections allowed by the master. Use this to accommodate the number of minions per master if you have different types of hardware serving your minions. The default of 0 means unlimited connections. Please note that this can slow down the authentication process a bit in large setups.

max_minions: 100

con_cache

Default: False

If max_minions is used in large installations, the master might experience high-load situations because of having to check the number of connected minions for every authentication. This cache provides the minion-ids of all connected minions to all MWorker-processes and greatly improves the performance of max_minions.

con_cache: True

presence_events

Default: False

Causes the master to periodically look for actively connected minions. Presence events are fired on the event bus on a regular interval with a list of connected minions, as well as events with lists of newly connected or disconnected minions. This is a master-only operation that does not send executions to minions. Note, this does not detect minions that connect to a master via localhost.

presence_events: False

transport

Default: zeromq

Changes the underlying transport layer. ZeroMQ is the recommended transport while additional transport layers are under development. Supported values are zeromq, raet (experimental), and tcp (experimental). This setting has a significant impact on performance and should not be changed unless you know what you are doing! Transports are explained in Salt Transports.

transport: zeromq

transport_opts

Default: {}

(experimental) Starts multiple transports and overrides options for each transport with the provided dictionary This setting has a significant impact on performance and should not be changed unless you know what you are doing! Transports are explained in Salt Transports. The following example shows how to start a TCP transport alongside a ZMQ transport.

transport_opts:
  tcp:
    publish_port: 4605
    ret_port: 4606
  zeromq: []

Salt-SSH Configuration

roster_file

Default: /etc/salt/roster

Pass in an alternative location for the salt-ssh roster file.

roster_file: /root/roster

ssh_minion_opts

Default: None

Pass in minion option overrides that will be inserted into the SHIM for salt-ssh calls. The local minion config is not used for salt-ssh. Can be overridden on a per-minion basis in the roster (minion_opts)

ssh_minion_opts:
  gpg_keydir: /root/gpg

ssh_use_home_key

Default: False

Set this to True to default to using ~/.ssh/id_rsa for salt-ssh authentication with minions

ssh_use_home_key: False

thin_extra_mods

Default: None

List of additional modules, needed to be included into the Salt Thin. Pass a list of importable Python modules that are typically located in the site-packages Python directory so they will be also always included into the Salt Thin, once generated.

Master Security Settings

open_mode

Default: False

Open mode is a dangerous security feature. One problem encountered with pki authentication systems is that keys can become "mixed up" and authentication begins to fail. Open mode turns off authentication and tells the master to accept all authentication. This will clean up the pki keys received from the minions. Open mode should not be turned on for general use. Open mode should only be used for a short period of time to clean up pki keys. To turn on open mode set this value to True.

open_mode: False

auto_accept

Default: False

Enable auto_accept. This setting will automatically accept all incoming public keys from minions.

auto_accept: False

autosign_timeout

New in version 2014.7.0.

Default: 120

Time in minutes that a incoming public key with a matching name found in pki_dir/minion_autosign/keyid is automatically accepted. Expired autosign keys are removed when the master checks the minion_autosign directory. This method to auto accept minions can be safer than an autosign_file because the keyid record can expire and is limited to being an exact name match. This should still be considered a less than secure option, due to the fact that trust is based on just the requesting minion id.

autosign_file

Default: not defined

If the autosign_file is specified incoming keys specified in the autosign_file will be automatically accepted. Matches will be searched for first by string comparison, then by globbing, then by full-string regex matching. This should still be considered a less than secure option, due to the fact that trust is based on just the requesting minion id.

autoreject_file

New in version 2014.1.0.

Default: not defined

Works like autosign_file, but instead allows you to specify minion IDs for which keys will automatically be rejected. Will override both membership in the autosign_file and the auto_accept setting.

publisher_acl

Default: {}

Enable user accounts on the master to execute specific modules. These modules can be expressed as regular expressions. Note that client_acl option is deprecated by publisher_acl option and will be removed in future releases.

publisher_acl:
  fred:
    - test.ping
    - pkg.*

publisher_acl_blacklist

Default: {}

Blacklist users or modules

This example would blacklist all non sudo users, including root from running any commands. It would also blacklist any use of the "cmd" module. Note that client_acl_blacklist option is deprecated by publisher_acl_blacklist option and will be removed in future releases.

This is completely disabled by default.

publisher_acl_blacklist:
  users:
    - root
    - '^(?!sudo_).*$'   #  all non sudo users
  modules:
    - cmd

external_auth

Default: {}

The external auth system uses the Salt auth modules to authenticate and validate users to access areas of the Salt system.

external_auth:
  pam:
    fred:
      - test.*

token_expire

Default: 43200

Time (in seconds) for a newly generated token to live.

Default: 12 hours

token_expire: 43200

token_expire_user_override

Default: False

Allow eauth users to specify the expiry time of the tokens they generate.

A boolean applies to all users or a dictionary of whitelisted eauth backends and usernames may be given:

token_expire_user_override:
  pam:
    - fred
    - tom
  ldap:
    - gary

file_recv

Default: False

Allow minions to push files to the master. This is disabled by default, for security purposes.

file_recv: False

file_recv_max_size

New in version 2014.7.0.

Default: 100

Set a hard-limit on the size of the files that can be pushed to the master. It will be interpreted as megabytes.

file_recv_max_size: 100

master_sign_pubkey

Default: False

Sign the master auth-replies with a cryptographic signature of the master's public key. Please see the tutorial how to use these settings in the Multimaster-PKI with Failover Tutorial

master_sign_pubkey: True

master_sign_key_name

Default: master_sign

The customizable name of the signing-key-pair without suffix.

master_sign_key_name: <filename_without_suffix>

master_pubkey_signature

Default: master_pubkey_signature

The name of the file in the master's pki-directory that holds the pre-calculated signature of the master's public-key.

master_pubkey_signature: <filename>

master_use_pubkey_signature

Default: False

Instead of computing the signature for each auth-reply, use a pre-calculated signature. The master_pubkey_signature must also be set for this.

master_use_pubkey_signature: True

rotate_aes_key

Default: True

Rotate the salt-masters AES-key when a minion-public is deleted with salt-key. This is a very important security-setting. Disabling it will enable deleted minions to still listen in on the messages published by the salt-master. Do not disable this unless it is absolutely clear what this does.

rotate_aes_key: True

Master Module Management

runner_dirs

Default: []

Set additional directories to search for runner modules.

runner_dirs:
  - /var/lib/salt/runners

cython_enable

Default: False

Set to true to enable Cython modules (.pyx files) to be compiled on the fly on the Salt master.

cython_enable: False

Master State System Settings

state_top

Default: top.sls

The state system uses a "top" file to tell the minions what environment to use and what modules to use. The state_top file is defined relative to the root of the base environment.

state_top: top.sls

master_tops

Default: {}

The master_tops option replaces the external_nodes option by creating a pluggable system for the generation of external top data. The external_nodes option is deprecated by the master_tops option. To gain the capabilities of the classic external_nodes system, use the following configuration:

master_tops:
  ext_nodes: <Shell command which returns yaml>

external_nodes

Default: None

The external_nodes option allows Salt to gather data that would normally be placed in a top file from and external node controller. The external_nodes option is the executable that will return the ENC data. Remember that Salt will look for external nodes AND top files and combine the results if both are enabled and available!

external_nodes: cobbler-ext-nodes

renderer

Default: yaml_jinja

The renderer to use on the minions to render the state data.

renderer: yaml_jinja

jinja_trim_blocks

New in version 2014.1.0.

Default: False

If this is set to True, the first newline after a Jinja block is removed (block, not variable tag!). Defaults to False and corresponds to the Jinja environment init variable trim_blocks.

jinja_trim_blocks: False

jinja_lstrip_blocks

New in version 2014.1.0.

Default: False

If this is set to True, leading spaces and tabs are stripped from the start of a line to a block. Defaults to False and corresponds to the Jinja environment init variable lstrip_blocks.

jinja_lstrip_blocks: False

failhard

Default: False

Set the global failhard flag. This informs all states to stop running states at the moment a single state fails.

failhard: False

state_verbose

Default: True

Controls the verbosity of state runs. By default, the results of all states are returned, but setting this value to False will cause salt to only display output for states that failed or states that have changes.

state_verbose: False

state_output

Default: full

The state_output setting changes if the output is the full multi line output for each changed state if set to 'full', but if set to 'terse' the output will be shortened to a single line. If set to 'mixed', the output will be terse unless a state failed, in which case that output will be full. If set to 'changes', the output will be full unless the state didn't change.

state_output: full

state_aggregate

Default: False

Automatically aggregate all states that have support for mod_aggregate by setting to True. Or pass a list of state module names to automatically aggregate just those types.

state_aggregate:
  - pkg
state_aggregate: True

state_events

Default: False

Send progress events as each function in a state run completes execution by setting to True. Progress events are in the format salt/job/<JID>/prog/<MID>/<RUN NUM>.

state_events: True

yaml_utf8

Default: False

Enable extra routines for YAML renderer used states containing UTF characters.

yaml_utf8: False

test

Default: False

Set all state calls to only test if they are going to actually make changes or just post what changes are going to be made.

test: False

runner_returns

Default: False

If set to True, runner jobs will be saved to job cache (defined by master_job_cache).

runner_returns: True

Master File Server Settings

fileserver_backend

Default: ['roots']

Salt supports a modular fileserver backend system, this system allows the salt master to link directly to third party systems to gather and manage the files available to minions. Multiple backends can be configured and will be searched for the requested file in the order in which they are defined here. The default setting only enables the standard backend roots, which is configured using the file_roots option.

Example:

fileserver_backend:
  - roots
  - git

NOTE:

For masterless Salt, this parameter must be specified in the minion config file.

fileserver_limit_traversal

New in version 2014.1.0.

Default: False

By default, the Salt fileserver recurses fully into all defined environments to attempt to find files. To limit this behavior so that the fileserver only traverses directories with SLS files and special Salt directories like _modules, set fileserver_limit_traversal to True. This might be useful for installations where a file root has a very large number of files and performance is impacted.

fileserver_limit_traversal: False

fileserver_list_cache_time

New in version 2014.1.0.

Changed in version 2016.11.0: The default was changed from 30 seconds to 20.

Default: 20

Salt caches the list of files/symlinks/directories for each fileserver backend and environment as they are requested, to guard against a performance bottleneck at scale when many minions all ask the fileserver which files are available simultaneously. This configuration parameter allows for the max age of that cache to be altered.

Set this value to 0 to disable use of this cache altogether, but keep in mind that this may increase the CPU load on the master when running a highstate on a large number of minions.

NOTE:

Rather than altering this configuration parameter, it may be advisable to use the fileserver.clear_list_cache runner to clear these caches.

fileserver_list_cache_time: 5

hash_type

Default: md5

The hash_type is the hash to use when discovering the hash of a file on the master server. The default is md5, but sha1, sha224, sha256, sha384, and sha512 are also supported.

hash_type: md5

file_buffer_size

Default: 1048576

The buffer size in the file server in bytes.

file_buffer_size: 1048576

file_ignore_regex

Default: ''

A regular expression (or a list of expressions) that will be matched against the file path before syncing the modules and states to the minions. This includes files affected by the file.recurse state. For example, if you manage your custom modules and states in subversion and don't want all the '.svn' folders and content synced to your minions, you could set this to '/.svn($|/)'. By default nothing is ignored.

file_ignore_regex:
  - '/\.svn($|/)'
  - '/\.git($|/)'

file_ignore_glob

Default ''

A file glob (or list of file globs) that will be matched against the file path before syncing the modules and states to the minions. This is similar to file_ignore_regex above, but works on globs instead of regex. By default nothing is ignored.

file_ignore_glob:
  - '\*.pyc'
  - '\*/somefolder/\*.bak'
  - '\*.swp'

NOTE:

Vim's .swp files are a common cause of Unicode errors in file.recurse states which use templating. Unless there is a good reason to distribute them via the fileserver, it is good practice to include '\*.swp' in the file_ignore_glob.

roots: Master's Local File Server

file_roots

Default:

base:
  - /srv/salt

Salt runs a lightweight file server written in ZeroMQ to deliver files to minions. This file server is built into the master daemon and does not require a dedicated port.

The file server works on environments passed to the master. Each environment can have multiple root directories. The subdirectories in the multiple file roots cannot match, otherwise the downloaded files will not be able to be reliably ensured. A base environment is required to house the top file.

Example:

file_roots:
  base:
    - /srv/salt
  dev:
    - /srv/salt/dev/services
    - /srv/salt/dev/states
  prod:
    - /srv/salt/prod/services
    - /srv/salt/prod/states

NOTE:

For masterless Salt, this parameter must be specified in the minion config file.

git: Git Remote File Server Backend

gitfs_remotes

Default: []

When using the git fileserver backend at least one git remote needs to be defined. The user running the salt master will need read access to the repo.

The repos will be searched in order to find the file requested by a client and the first repo to have the file will return it. Branches and tags are translated into salt environments.

gitfs_remotes:
  - git://github.com/saltstack/salt-states.git
  - file:///var/git/saltmaster

NOTE:

file:// repos will be treated as a remote and copied into the master's gitfs cache, so only the local refs for those repos will be exposed as fileserver environments.

As of 2014.7.0, it is possible to have per-repo versions of several of the gitfs configuration parameters. For more information, see the GitFS Walkthrough.

gitfs_provider

New in version 2014.7.0.

Optional parameter used to specify the provider to be used for gitfs. More information can be found in the GitFS Walkthrough.

Must be one of the following: pygit2, gitpython, or dulwich. If unset, then each will be tried in that same order, and the first one with a compatible version installed will be the provider that is used.

gitfs_provider: dulwich

gitfs_ssl_verify

Changed in version 2016.11.0.

Default: True

Specifies whether or not to ignore SSL certificate errors when contacting the remote repository. The False setting is useful if you're using a git repo that uses a self-signed certificate. However, keep in mind that setting this to anything other True is a considered insecure, and using an SSH-based transport (if available) may be a better option.

In the 2016.11.0 release, the default config value changed from False to True.

gitfs_ssl_verify: True

gitfs_mountpoint

New in version 2014.7.0.

Default: ''

Specifies a path on the salt fileserver which will be prepended to all files served by gitfs. This option can be used in conjunction with gitfs_root. It can also be configured on a per-remote basis, see here for more info.

gitfs_mountpoint: salt://foo/bar

NOTE:

The salt:// protocol designation can be left off (in other words, foo/bar and salt://foo/bar are equivalent). Assuming a file baz.sh in the root of a gitfs remote, and the above example mountpoint, this file would be served up via salt://foo/bar/baz.sh.

gitfs_root

Default: ''

Relative path to a subdirectory within the repository from which Salt should begin to serve files. This is useful when there are files in the repository that should not be available to the Salt fileserver. Can be used in conjunction with gitfs_mountpoint. If used, then from Salt's perspective the directories above the one specified will be ignored and the relative path will (for the purposes of gitfs) be considered as the root of the repo.

gitfs_root: somefolder/otherfolder

Changed in version 2014.7.0: Ability to specify gitfs roots on a per-remote basis was added. See here for more info.

gitfs_base

Default: master

Defines which branch/tag should be used as the base environment.

gitfs_base: salt

Changed in version 2014.7.0: Ability to specify the base on a per-remote basis was added. See here for more info.

gitfs_saltenv

New in version 2016.11.0.

Default: []

Global settings for per-saltenv configuration parameters. Though per-saltenv configuration parameters are typically one-off changes specific to a single gitfs remote, and thus more often configured on a per-remote basis, this parameter can be used to specify per-saltenv changes which should apply to all remotes. For example, the below configuration will map the develop branch to the dev saltenv for all gitfs remotes.

gitfs_saltenv:
  - dev:
    - ref: develop

gitfs_env_whitelist

New in version 2014.7.0.

Default: []

Used to restrict which environments are made available. Can speed up state runs if the repos in gitfs_remotes contain many branches/tags. More information can be found in the GitFS Walkthrough.

gitfs_env_whitelist:
  - base
  - v1.*
  - 'mybranch\d+'

gitfs_env_blacklist

New in version 2014.7.0.

Default: []

Used to restrict which environments are made available. Can speed up state runs if the repos in gitfs_remotes contain many branches/tags. More information can be found in the GitFS Walkthrough.

gitfs_env_blacklist:
  - base
  - v1.*
  - 'mybranch\d+'

gitfs_global_lock

New in version 2015.8.9.

Default: True

When set to False, if there is an update lock for a gitfs remote and the pid written to it is not running on the master, the lock file will be automatically cleared and a new lock will be obtained. When set to True, Salt will simply log a warning when there is an update lock present.

On single-master deployments, disabling this option can help automatically deal with instances where the master was shutdown/restarted during the middle of a gitfs update, leaving a update lock in place.

However, on multi-master deployments with the gitfs cachedir shared via GlusterFS, nfs, or another network filesystem, it is strongly recommended not to disable this option as doing so will cause lock files to be removed if they were created by a different master.

# Disable global lock
gitfs_global_lock: False

GitFS Authentication Options

These parameters only currently apply to the pygit2 gitfs provider. Examples of how to use these can be found in the GitFS Walkthrough.

gitfs_user

New in version 2014.7.0.

Default: ''

Along with gitfs_password, is used to authenticate to HTTPS remotes.

gitfs_user: git

gitfs_password

New in version 2014.7.0.

Default: ''

Along with gitfs_user, is used to authenticate to HTTPS remotes. This parameter is not required if the repository does not use authentication.

gitfs_password: mypassword

gitfs_insecure_auth

New in version 2014.7.0.

Default: False

By default, Salt will not authenticate to an HTTP (non-HTTPS) remote. This parameter enables authentication over HTTP. Enable this at your own risk.

gitfs_insecure_auth: True

gitfs_pubkey

New in version 2014.7.0.

Default: ''

Along with gitfs_privkey (and optionally gitfs_passphrase), is used to authenticate to SSH remotes. This parameter (or its per-remote counterpart) is required for SSH remotes.

gitfs_pubkey: /path/to/key.pub

gitfs_privkey

New in version 2014.7.0.

Default: ''

Along with gitfs_pubkey (and optionally gitfs_passphrase), is used to authenticate to SSH remotes. This parameter (or its per-remote counterpart) is required for SSH remotes.

gitfs_privkey: /path/to/key

gitfs_passphrase

New in version 2014.7.0.

Default: ''

This parameter is optional, required only when the SSH key being used to authenticate is protected by a passphrase.

gitfs_passphrase: mypassphrase

hg: Mercurial Remote File Server Backend

hgfs_remotes

New in version 0.17.0.

Default: []

When using the hg fileserver backend at least one mercurial remote needs to be defined. The user running the salt master will need read access to the repo.

The repos will be searched in order to find the file requested by a client and the first repo to have the file will return it. Branches and/or bookmarks are translated into salt environments, as defined by the hgfs_branch_method parameter.

hgfs_remotes:
  - https://username@bitbucket.org/username/reponame

NOTE:

As of 2014.7.0, it is possible to have per-repo versions of the hgfs_root, hgfs_mountpoint, hgfs_base, and hgfs_branch_method parameters. For example:

hgfs_remotes:
  - https://username@bitbucket.org/username/repo1
    - base: saltstates
  - https://username@bitbucket.org/username/repo2:
    - root: salt
    - mountpoint: salt://foo/bar/baz
  - https://username@bitbucket.org/username/repo3:
    - root: salt/states
    - branch_method: mixed

hgfs_branch_method

New in version 0.17.0.

Default: branches

Defines the objects that will be used as fileserver environments.

·
branches - Only branches and tags will be used
·
bookmarks - Only bookmarks and tags will be used
·
mixed - Branches, bookmarks, and tags will be used
hgfs_branch_method: mixed

NOTE:

Starting in version 2014.1.0, the value of the hgfs_base parameter defines which branch is used as the base environment, allowing for a base environment to be used with an hgfs_branch_method of bookmarks.

Prior to this release, the default branch will be used as the base environment.

hgfs_mountpoint

New in version 2014.7.0.

Default: ''

Specifies a path on the salt fileserver which will be prepended to all files served by hgfs. This option can be used in conjunction with hgfs_root. It can also be configured on a per-remote basis, see here for more info.

hgfs_mountpoint: salt://foo/bar

NOTE:

The salt:// protocol designation can be left off (in other words, foo/bar and salt://foo/bar are equivalent). Assuming a file baz.sh in the root of an hgfs remote, this file would be served up via salt://foo/bar/baz.sh.

hgfs_root

New in version 0.17.0.

Default: ''

Relative path to a subdirectory within the repository from which Salt should begin to serve files. This is useful when there are files in the repository that should not be available to the Salt fileserver. Can be used in conjunction with hgfs_mountpoint. If used, then from Salt's perspective the directories above the one specified will be ignored and the relative path will (for the purposes of hgfs) be considered as the root of the repo.

hgfs_root: somefolder/otherfolder

Changed in version 2014.7.0: Ability to specify hgfs roots on a per-remote basis was added. See here for more info.

hgfs_base

New in version 2014.1.0.

Default: default

Defines which branch should be used as the base environment. Change this if hgfs_branch_method is set to bookmarks to specify which bookmark should be used as the base environment.

hgfs_base: salt

hgfs_env_whitelist

New in version 2014.7.0.

Default: []

Used to restrict which environments are made available. Can speed up state runs if your hgfs remotes contain many branches/bookmarks/tags. Full names, globs, and regular expressions are supported. If using a regular expression, the expression must match the entire minion ID.

If used, only branches/bookmarks/tags which match one of the specified expressions will be exposed as fileserver environments.

If used in conjunction with hgfs_env_blacklist, then the subset of branches/bookmarks/tags which match the whitelist but do not match the blacklist will be exposed as fileserver environments.

hgfs_env_whitelist:
  - base
  - v1.*
  - 'mybranch\d+'

hgfs_env_blacklist

New in version 2014.7.0.

Default: []

Used to restrict which environments are made available. Can speed up state runs if your hgfs remotes contain many branches/bookmarks/tags. Full names, globs, and regular expressions are supported. If using a regular expression, the expression must match the entire minion ID.

If used, branches/bookmarks/tags which match one of the specified expressions will not be exposed as fileserver environments.

If used in conjunction with hgfs_env_whitelist, then the subset of branches/bookmarks/tags which match the whitelist but do not match the blacklist will be exposed as fileserver environments.

hgfs_env_blacklist:
  - base
  - v1.*
  - 'mybranch\d+'

svn: Subversion Remote File Server Backend

svnfs_remotes

New in version 0.17.0.

Default: []

When using the svn fileserver backend at least one subversion remote needs to be defined. The user running the salt master will need read access to the repo.

The repos will be searched in order to find the file requested by a client and the first repo to have the file will return it. The trunk, branches, and tags become environments, with the trunk being the base environment.

svnfs_remotes:
  - svn://foo.com/svn/myproject

NOTE:

As of 2014.7.0, it is possible to have per-repo versions of the following configuration parameters:

·
svnfs_root
·
svnfs_mountpoint
·
svnfs_trunk
·
svnfs_branches
·

svnfs_tags

For example:

svnfs_remotes:
  - svn://foo.com/svn/project1
  - svn://foo.com/svn/project2:
    - root: salt
    - mountpoint: salt://foo/bar/baz
  - svn//foo.com/svn/project3:
    - root: salt/states
    - branches: branch
    - tags: tag

svnfs_mountpoint

New in version 2014.7.0.

Default: ''

Specifies a path on the salt fileserver which will be prepended to all files served by hgfs. This option can be used in conjunction with svnfs_root. It can also be configured on a per-remote basis, see here for more info.

svnfs_mountpoint: salt://foo/bar

NOTE:

The salt:// protocol designation can be left off (in other words, foo/bar and salt://foo/bar are equivalent). Assuming a file baz.sh in the root of an svnfs remote, this file would be served up via salt://foo/bar/baz.sh.

svnfs_root

New in version 0.17.0.

Default: ''

Relative path to a subdirectory within the repository from which Salt should begin to serve files. This is useful when there are files in the repository that should not be available to the Salt fileserver. Can be used in conjunction with svnfs_mountpoint. If used, then from Salt's perspective the directories above the one specified will be ignored and the relative path will (for the purposes of svnfs) be considered as the root of the repo.

svnfs_root: somefolder/otherfolder

Changed in version 2014.7.0: Ability to specify svnfs roots on a per-remote basis was added. See here for more info.

svnfs_trunk

New in version 2014.7.0.

Default: trunk

Path relative to the root of the repository where the trunk is located. Can also be configured on a per-remote basis, see here for more info.

svnfs_trunk: trunk

svnfs_branches

New in version 2014.7.0.

Default: branches

Path relative to the root of the repository where the branches are located. Can also be configured on a per-remote basis, see here for more info.

svnfs_branches: branches

svnfs_tags

New in version 2014.7.0.

Default: tags

Path relative to the root of the repository where the tags are located. Can also be configured on a per-remote basis, see here for more info.

svnfs_tags: tags

svnfs_env_whitelist

New in version 2014.7.0.

Default: []

Used to restrict which environments are made available. Can speed up state runs if your svnfs remotes contain many branches/tags. Full names, globs, and regular expressions are supported. If using a regular expression, the expression must match the entire minion ID.

If used, only branches/tags which match one of the specified expressions will be exposed as fileserver environments.

If used in conjunction with svnfs_env_blacklist, then the subset of branches/tags which match the whitelist but do not match the blacklist will be exposed as fileserver environments.

svnfs_env_whitelist:
  - base
  - v1.*
  - 'mybranch\d+'

svnfs_env_blacklist

New in version 2014.7.0.

Default: []

Used to restrict which environments are made available. Can speed up state runs if your svnfs remotes contain many branches/tags. Full names, globs, and regular expressions are supported. If using a regular expression, the expression must match the entire minion ID.

If used, branches/tags which match one of the specified expressions will not be exposed as fileserver environments.

If used in conjunction with svnfs_env_whitelist, then the subset of branches/tags which match the whitelist but do not match the blacklist will be exposed as fileserver environments.

svnfs_env_blacklist:
  - base
  - v1.*
  - 'mybranch\d+'

minion: MinionFS Remote File Server Backend

minionfs_env

New in version 2014.7.0.

Default: base

Environment from which MinionFS files are made available.

minionfs_env: minionfs

minionfs_mountpoint

New in version 2014.7.0.

Default: ''

Specifies a path on the salt fileserver from which minionfs files are served.

minionfs_mountpoint: salt://foo/bar

NOTE:

The salt:// protocol designation can be left off (in other words, foo/bar and salt://foo/bar are equivalent).

minionfs_whitelist

New in version 2014.7.0.

Default: []

Used to restrict which minions' pushed files are exposed via minionfs. If using a regular expression, the expression must match the entire minion ID.

If used, only the pushed files from minions which match one of the specified expressions will be exposed.

If used in conjunction with minionfs_blacklist, then the subset of hosts which match the whitelist but do not match the blacklist will be exposed.

minionfs_whitelist:
  - server01
  - dev*
  - 'mail\d+.mydomain.tld'

minionfs_blacklist

New in version 2014.7.0.

Default: []

Used to restrict which minions' pushed files are exposed via minionfs. If using a regular expression, the expression must match the entire minion ID.

If used, only the pushed files from minions which match one of the specified expressions will not be exposed.

If used in conjunction with minionfs_whitelist, then the subset of hosts which match the whitelist but do not match the blacklist will be exposed.

minionfs_blacklist:
  - server01
  - dev*
  - 'mail\d+.mydomain.tld'

Pillar Configuration

pillar_roots

Default:

base:
  - /srv/pillar

Set the environments and directories used to hold pillar sls data. This configuration is the same as file_roots:

pillar_roots:
  base:
    - /srv/pillar
  dev:
    - /srv/pillar/dev
  prod:
    - /srv/pillar/prod

pillar_opts

Default: False

The pillar_opts option adds the master configuration file data to a dict in the pillar called master. This can be used to set simple configurations in the master config file that can then be used on minions.

Note that setting this option to True means the master config file will be included in all minion's pillars. While this makes global configuration of services and systems easy, it may not be desired if sensitive data is stored in the master configuration.

pillar_opts: False

ext_pillar

The ext_pillar option allows for any number of external pillar interfaces to be called when populating pillar data. The configuration is based on ext_pillar functions. The available ext_pillar functions can be found herein:

https://github.com/saltstack/salt/blob/…

By default, the ext_pillar interface is not configured to run.

Default: []

ext_pillar:
  - hiera: /etc/hiera.yaml
  - cmd_yaml: cat /etc/salt/yaml
  - reclass:
      inventory_base_uri: /etc/reclass

There are additional details at salt-pillars

pillar_roots_override_ext_pillar

New in version 2016.11.0.

Default: False

This option allows for external pillar sources to be evaluated before pillar_roots, which means that values obtained from pillar_roots take precedence over those found from ext_pillar sources.

pillar_roots_override_ext_pillar: False

ext_pillar_first

New in version 2015.5.0.

Default: False

This option allows for external pillar sources to be evaluated before pillar_roots. This allows for targeting file system pillar from ext_pillar. Note that ext_pillar_first option is deprecated by pillar_roots_override_ext_pillar option and will be removed in future releases.

ext_pillar_first: False

pillar_raise_on_missing

New in version 2015.5.0.

Default: False

Set this option to True to force a KeyError to be raised whenever an attempt to retrieve a named value from pillar fails. When this option is set to False, the failed attempt returns an empty string.

Git External Pillar (git_pillar) Configuration Options

git_pillar_provider

New in version 2015.8.0.

Specify the provider to be used for git_pillar. Must be either pygit2 or gitpython. If unset, then both will be tried in that same order, and the first one with a compatible version installed will be the provider that is used.

git_pillar_provider: gitpython

git_pillar_base

New in version 2015.8.0.

Default: master

If the desired branch matches this value, and the environment is omitted from the git_pillar configuration, then the environment for that git_pillar remote will be base. For example, in the configuration below, the foo branch/tag would be assigned to the base environment, while bar would be mapped to the bar environment.

git_pillar_base: foo

ext_pillar:
  - git:
    - foo https://mygitserver/git-pillar.git
    - bar https://mygitserver/git-pillar.git

git_pillar_branch

New in version 2015.8.0.

Default: master

If the branch is omitted from a git_pillar remote, then this branch will be used instead. For example, in the configuration below, the first two remotes would use the pillardata branch/tag, while the third would use the foo branch/tag.

git_pillar_branch: pillardata

ext_pillar:
  - git:
    - https://mygitserver/pillar1.git
    - https://mygitserver/pillar2.git:
      - root: pillar
    - foo https://mygitserver/pillar3.git

git_pillar_env

New in version 2015.8.0.

Default: '' (unset)

Environment to use for git_pillar remotes. This is normally derived from the branch/tag (or from a per-remote env parameter), but if set this will override the process of deriving the env from the branch/tag name. For example, in the configuration below the foo branch would be assigned to the base environment, while the bar branch would need to explicitly have bar configured as it's environment to keep it from also being mapped to the base environment.

git_pillar_env: base

ext_pillar:
  - git:
    - foo https://mygitserver/git-pillar.git
    - bar https://mygitserver/git-pillar.git:
      - env: bar

For this reason, this option is recommended to be left unset, unless the use case calls for all (or almost all) of the git_pillar remotes to use the same environment irrespective of the branch/tag being used.

git_pillar_root

New in version 2015.8.0.

Default: ''

Path relative to the root of the repository where the git_pillar top file and SLS files are located. In the below configuration, the pillar top file and SLS files would be looked for in a subdirectory called pillar.

git_pillar_root: pillar

ext_pillar:
  - git:
    - master https://mygitserver/pillar1.git
    - master https://mygitserver/pillar2.git

NOTE:

This is a global option. If only one or two repos need to have their files sourced from a subdirectory, then git_pillar_root can be omitted and the root can be specified on a per-remote basis, like so:

ext_pillar:
  - git:
    - master https://mygitserver/pillar1.git
    - master https://mygitserver/pillar2.git:
      - root: pillar

In this example, for the first remote the top file and SLS files would be looked for in the root of the repository, while in the second remote the pillar data would be retrieved from the pillar subdirectory.

git_pillar_ssl_verify

New in version 2015.8.0.

Changed in version 2016.11.0.

Default: False

Specifies whether or not to ignore SSL certificate errors when contacting the remote repository. The False setting is useful if you're using a git repo that uses a self-signed certificate. However, keep in mind that setting this to anything other True is a considered insecure, and using an SSH-based transport (if available) may be a better option.

In the 2016.11.0 release, the default config value changed from False to True.

git_pillar_ssl_verify: True

git_pillar_global_lock

New in version 2015.8.9.

Default: True

When set to False, if there is an update/checkout lock for a git_pillar remote and the pid written to it is not running on the master, the lock file will be automatically cleared and a new lock will be obtained. When set to True, Salt will simply log a warning when there is an lock present.

On single-master deployments, disabling this option can help automatically deal with instances where the master was shutdown/restarted during the middle of a git_pillar update/checkout, leaving a lock in place.

However, on multi-master deployments with the git_pillar cachedir shared via GlusterFS, nfs, or another network filesystem, it is strongly recommended not to disable this option as doing so will cause lock files to be removed if they were created by a different master.

# Disable global lock
git_pillar_global_lock: False

Git External Pillar Authentication Options

These parameters only currently apply to the pygit2 git_pillar_provider. Authentication works the same as it does in gitfs, as outlined in the GitFS Walkthrough, though the global configuration options are named differently to reflect that they are for git_pillar instead of gitfs.

git_pillar_user

New in version 2015.8.0.

Default: ''

Along with git_pillar_password, is used to authenticate to HTTPS remotes.

git_pillar_user: git

git_pillar_password

New in version 2015.8.0.

Default: ''

Along with git_pillar_user, is used to authenticate to HTTPS remotes. This parameter is not required if the repository does not use authentication.

git_pillar_password: mypassword

git_pillar_insecure_auth

New in version 2015.8.0.

Default: False

By default, Salt will not authenticate to an HTTP (non-HTTPS) remote. This parameter enables authentication over HTTP. Enable this at your own risk.

git_pillar_insecure_auth: True

git_pillar_pubkey

New in version 2015.8.0.

Default: ''

Along with git_pillar_privkey (and optionally git_pillar_passphrase), is used to authenticate to SSH remotes.

git_pillar_pubkey: /path/to/key.pub

git_pillar_privkey

New in version 2015.8.0.

Default: ''

Along with git_pillar_pubkey (and optionally git_pillar_passphrase), is used to authenticate to SSH remotes.

git_pillar_privkey: /path/to/key

git_pillar_passphrase

New in version 2015.8.0.

Default: ''

This parameter is optional, required only when the SSH key being used to authenticate is protected by a passphrase.

git_pillar_passphrase: mypassphrase

Pillar Merging Options

pillar_source_merging_strategy

New in version 2014.7.0.

Default: smart

The pillar_source_merging_strategy option allows you to configure merging strategy between different sources. It accepts 5 values:

·
none:

New in version 2016.3.4: It will not do any merging at all and only parse the pillar data from the passed environment and 'base' if no environment was specified.

·

recurse:

it will merge recursively mapping of data. For example, theses 2 sources:

foo: 42
bar:
    element1: True
bar:
    element2: True
baz: quux

will be merged as:

foo: 42
bar:
    element1: True
    element2: True
baz: quux
·

aggregate:

instructs aggregation of elements between sources that use the #!yamlex renderer.

For example, these two documents:

#!yamlex
foo: 42
bar: !aggregate {
  element1: True
}
baz: !aggregate quux
#!yamlex
bar: !aggregate {
  element2: True
}
baz: !aggregate quux2

will be merged as:

foo: 42
bar:
  element1: True
  element2: True
baz:
  - quux
  - quux2
·

overwrite:

Will use the behaviour of the 2014.1 branch and earlier.

Overwrites elements according the order in which they are processed.

First pillar processed:

A:
  first_key: blah
  second_key: blah

Second pillar processed:

A:
  third_key: blah
  fourth_key: blah

will be merged as:

A:
  third_key: blah
  fourth_key: blah
·
smart (default):

Guesses the best strategy based on the "renderer" setting.

pillar_merge_lists

New in version 2015.8.0.

Default: False

Recursively merge lists by aggregating them instead of replacing them.

pillar_merge_lists: False

Pillar Cache Options

pillar_cache

New in version 2015.8.8.

Default: False

A master can cache pillars locally to bypass the expense of having to render them for each minion on every request. This feature should only be enabled in cases where pillar rendering time is known to be unsatisfactory and any attendant security concerns about storing pillars in a master cache have been addressed.

When enabling this feature, be certain to read through the additional pillar_cache_* configuration options to fully understand the tunable parameters and their implications.

pillar_cache: False

NOTE:

Setting pillar_cache: True has no effect on targeting minions with pillar.

pillar_cache_ttl

New in version 2015.8.8.

Default: 3600

If and only if a master has set pillar_cache: True, the cache TTL controls the amount of time, in seconds, before the cache is considered invalid by a master and a fresh pillar is recompiled and stored.

pillar_cache_backend

New in version 2015.8.8.

Default: disk

If an only if a master has set pillar_cache: True, one of several storage providers can be utilized:

·
disk (default):

The default storage backend. This caches rendered pillars to the master cache. Rendered pillars are serialized and deserialized as msgpack structures for speed. Note that pillars are stored UNENCRYPTED. Ensure that the master cache has permissions set appropriately (sane defaults are provided).
·
memory [EXPERIMENTAL]:

An optional backend for pillar caches which uses a pure-Python in-memory data structure for maximal performance. There are several caveats, however. First, because each master worker contains its own in-memory cache, there is no guarantee of cache consistency between minion requests. This works best in situations where the pillar rarely if ever changes. Secondly, and perhaps more importantly, this means that unencrypted pillars will be accessible to any process which can examine the memory of the salt-master! This may represent a substantial security risk.
pillar_cache_backend: disk

Syndic Server Settings

A Salt syndic is a Salt master used to pass commands from a higher Salt master to minions below the syndic. Using the syndic is simple. If this is a master that will have syndic servers(s) below it, set the "order_masters" setting to True.

If this is a master that will be running a syndic daemon for passthrough the "syndic_master" setting needs to be set to the location of the master server.

Do not not forget that, in other words, it means that it shares with the local minion its ID and PKI_DIR.

order_masters

Default: False

Extra data needs to be sent with publications if the master is controlling a lower level master via a syndic minion. If this is the case the order_masters value must be set to True

order_masters: False

syndic_master

Default: ''

If this master will be running a salt-syndic to connect to a higher level master, specify the higher level master with this configuration value.

syndic_master: masterofmasters

You can optionally connect a syndic to multiple higher level masters by setting the 'syndic_master' value to a list:

syndic_master:
  - masterofmasters1
  - masterofmasters2

Each higher level master must be set up in a multimaster configuration.

syndic_master_port

Default: 4506

If this master will be running a salt-syndic to connect to a higher level master, specify the higher level master port with this configuration value.

syndic_master_port: 4506

syndic_pidfile

Default: salt-syndic.pid

If this master will be running a salt-syndic to connect to a higher level master, specify the pidfile of the syndic daemon.

syndic_pidfile: syndic.pid

syndic_log_file

Default: syndic.log

If this master will be running a salt-syndic to connect to a higher level master, specify the log_file of the syndic daemon.

syndic_log_file: salt-syndic.log

syndic_failover

New in version 2016.3.0.

Default: random

The behaviour of the multi-syndic when connection to a master of masters failed. Can specify random (default) or ordered. If set to random, masters will be iterated in random order. If ordered is specified, the configured order will be used.

syndic_failover: random

Peer Publish Settings

Salt minions can send commands to other minions, but only if the minion is allowed to. By default "Peer Publication" is disabled, and when enabled it is enabled for specific minions and specific commands. This allows secure compartmentalization of commands based on individual minions.

peer

Default: {}

The configuration uses regular expressions to match minions and then a list of regular expressions to match functions. The following will allow the minion authenticated as foo.example.com to execute functions from the test and pkg modules.

peer:
  foo.example.com:
      - test.*
      - pkg.*

This will allow all minions to execute all commands:

peer:
  .*:
      - .*

This is not recommended, since it would allow anyone who gets root on any single minion to instantly have root on all of the minions!

By adding an additional layer you can limit the target hosts in addition to the accessible commands:

peer:
  foo.example.com:
    'db*':
      - test.*
      - pkg.*

peer_run

Default: {}

The peer_run option is used to open up runners on the master to access from the minions. The peer_run configuration matches the format of the peer configuration.

The following example would allow foo.example.com to execute the manage.up runner:

peer_run:
  foo.example.com:
      - manage.up

Master Logging Settings

log_file

Default: /var/log/salt/master

The master log can be sent to a regular file, local path name, or network location. See also log_file.

Examples:

log_file: /var/log/salt/master
log_file: file:///dev/log
log_file: udp://loghost:10514

log_level

Default: warning

The level of messages to send to the console. See also log_level.

log_level: warning

log_level_logfile

Default: warning

The level of messages to send to the log file. See also log_level_logfile. When it is not set explicitly it will inherit the level set by log_level option.

log_level_logfile: warning

log_datefmt

Default: %H:%M:%S

The date and time format used in console log messages. See also log_datefmt.

log_datefmt: '%H:%M:%S'

log_datefmt_logfile

Default: %Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S

The date and time format used in log file messages. See also log_datefmt_logfile.

log_datefmt_logfile: '%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S'

log_fmt_console

Default: [%(levelname)-8s] %(message)s

The format of the console logging messages. See also log_fmt_console.

NOTE:

Log colors are enabled in log_fmt_console rather than the color config since the logging system is loaded before the master config.

Console log colors are specified by these additional formatters:

%(colorlevel)s %(colorname)s %(colorprocess)s %(colormsg)s

Since it is desirable to include the surrounding brackets, '[' and ']', in the coloring of the messages, these color formatters also include padding as well. Color LogRecord attributes are only available for console logging.

log_fmt_console: '%(colorlevel)s %(colormsg)s'
log_fmt_console: '[%(levelname)-8s] %(message)s'

log_fmt_logfile

Default: %(asctime)s,%(msecs)03d [%(name)-17s][%(levelname)-8s] %(message)s

The format of the log file logging messages. See also log_fmt_logfile.

log_fmt_logfile: '%(asctime)s,%(msecs)03d [%(name)-17s][%(levelname)-8s] %(message)s'

log_granular_levels

Default: {}

This can be used to control logging levels more specifically. See also log_granular_levels.

Node Groups

Default: {}

Node groups allow for logical groupings of minion nodes. A group consists of a group name and a compound target.

nodegroups:
  group1: 'L@foo.domain.com,bar.domain.com,baz.domain.com or bl*.domain.com'
  group2: 'G@os:Debian and foo.domain.com'
  group3: 'G@os:Debian and N@group1'
  group4:
    - 'G@foo:bar'
    - 'or'
    - 'G@foo:baz'

More information on using nodegroups can be found here.

Range Cluster Settings

range_server

Default: 'range:80'

The range server (and optional port) that serves your cluster information https://github.com/ytoolshed/range/wiki…

range_server: range:80

Include Configuration

default_include

Default: master.d/*.conf

The master can include configuration from other files. Per default the master will automatically include all config files from master.d/*.conf where master.d is relative to the directory of the master configuration file.

NOTE:

Salt creates files in the master.d directory for its own use. These files are prefixed with an underscore. A common example of this is the _schedule.conf file.

include

Default: not defined

The master can include configuration from other files. To enable this, pass a list of paths to this option. The paths can be either relative or absolute; if relative, they are considered to be relative to the directory the main minion configuration file lives in. Paths can make use of shell-style globbing. If no files are matched by a path passed to this option then the master will log a warning message.

# Include files from a master.d directory in the same
# directory as the master config file
include: master.d/*

# Include a single extra file into the configuration
include: /etc/roles/webserver

# Include several files and the master.d directory
include:
  - extra_config
  - master.d/*
  - /etc/roles/webserver

Windows Software Repo Settings

winrepo_provider

New in version 2015.8.0.

Specify the provider to be used for winrepo. Must be either pygit2 or gitpython. If unset, then both will be tried in that same order, and the first one with a compatible version installed will be the provider that is used.

winrepo_provider: gitpython

winrepo_dir

Changed in version 2015.8.0: Renamed from win_repo to winrepo_dir.

Default: /srv/salt/win/repo

Location on the master where the winrepo_remotes are checked out for pre-2015.8.0 minions. 2015.8.0 and later minions use winrepo_remotes_ng instead.

winrepo_dir: /srv/salt/win/repo

winrepo_dir_ng

New in version 2015.8.0: A new ng repo was added.

Default: /srv/salt/win/repo-ng

Location on the master where the winrepo_remotes_ng are checked out for 2015.8.0 and later minions.

winrepo_dir_ng: /srv/salt/win/repo-ng

winrepo_cachefile

Changed in version 2015.8.0: Renamed from win_repo_mastercachefile to winrepo_cachefile

NOTE:

2015.8.0 and later minions do not use this setting since the cachefile is now located on the minion.

Default: winrepo.p

Path relative to winrepo_dir where the winrepo cache should be created.

winrepo_cachefile: winrepo.p

winrepo_remotes

Changed in version 2015.8.0: Renamed from win_gitrepos to winrepo_remotes.

Default: ['https://github.com/saltstack/salt-winre…']

List of git repositories to checkout and include in the winrepo for pre-2015.8.0 minions. 2015.8.0 and later minions use winrepo_remotes_ng instead.

winrepo_remotes:
  - https://github.com/saltstack/salt-winrepo.git

To specify a specific revision of the repository, prepend a commit ID to the URL of the repository:

winrepo_remotes:
  - '<commit_id> https://github.com/saltstack/salt-winrepo.git'

Replace <commit_id> with the SHA1 hash of a commit ID. Specifying a commit ID is useful in that it allows one to revert back to a previous version in the event that an error is introduced in the latest revision of the repo.

winrepo_remotes_ng

New in version 2015.8.0: A new ng repo was added.

Default: ['https://github.com/saltstack/salt-winre…']

List of git repositories to checkout and include in the winrepo for 2015.8.0 and later minions.

winrepo_remotes_ng:
  - https://github.com/saltstack/salt-winrepo-ng.git

To specify a specific revision of the repository, prepend a commit ID to the URL of the repository:

winrepo_remotes:
  - '<commit_id> https://github.com/saltstack/salt-winrepo-ng.git'

Replace <commit_id> with the SHA1 hash of a commit ID. Specifying a commit ID is useful in that it allows one to revert back to a previous version in the event that an error is introduced in the latest revision of the repo.

winrepo_branch

New in version 2015.8.0.

Default: master

If the branch is omitted from a winrepo remote, then this branch will be used instead. For example, in the configuration below, the first two remotes would use the winrepo branch/tag, while the third would use the foo branch/tag.

winrepo_branch: winrepo

ext_pillar:
  - git:
    - https://mygitserver/winrepo1.git
    - https://mygitserver/winrepo2.git:
    - foo https://mygitserver/winrepo3.git

winrepo_ssl_verify

New in version 2015.8.0.

Changed in version 2016.11.0.

Default: False

Specifies whether or not to ignore SSL certificate errors when contacting the remote repository. The False setting is useful if you're using a git repo that uses a self-signed certificate. However, keep in mind that setting this to anything other True is a considered insecure, and using an SSH-based transport (if available) may be a better option.

In the 2016.11.0 release, the default config value changed from False to True.

winrepo_ssl_verify: True

Winrepo Authentication Options

These parameters only currently apply to the pygit2 winrepo_provider. Authentication works the same as it does in gitfs, as outlined in the GitFS Walkthrough, though the global configuration options are named differently to reflect that they are for winrepo instead of gitfs.

winrepo_user

New in version 2015.8.0.

Default: ''

Along with winrepo_password, is used to authenticate to HTTPS remotes.

winrepo_user: git

winrepo_password

New in version 2015.8.0.

Default: ''

Along with winrepo_user, is used to authenticate to HTTPS remotes. This parameter is not required if the repository does not use authentication.

winrepo_password: mypassword

winrepo_insecure_auth

New in version 2015.8.0.

Default: False

By default, Salt will not authenticate to an HTTP (non-HTTPS) remote. This parameter enables authentication over HTTP. Enable this at your own risk.

winrepo_insecure_auth: True

winrepo_pubkey

New in version 2015.8.0.

Default: ''

Along with winrepo_privkey (and optionally winrepo_passphrase), is used to authenticate to SSH remotes.

winrepo_pubkey: /path/to/key.pub

winrepo_privkey

New in version 2015.8.0.

Default: ''

Along with winrepo_pubkey (and optionally winrepo_passphrase), is used to authenticate to SSH remotes.

winrepo_privkey: /path/to/key

winrepo_passphrase

New in version 2015.8.0.

Default: ''

This parameter is optional, required only when the SSH key being used to authenticate is protected by a passphrase.

winrepo_passphrase: mypassphrase

Configuring the Salt Minion

The Salt system is amazingly simple and easy to configure. The two components of the Salt system each have a respective configuration file. The salt-master is configured via the master configuration file, and the salt-minion is configured via the minion configuration file.

SEE ALSO:

example minion configuration file

The Salt Minion configuration is very simple. Typically, the only value that needs to be set is the master value so the minion knows where to locate its master.

By default, the salt-minion configuration will be in /etc/salt/minion. A notable exception is FreeBSD, where the configuration will be in /usr/local/etc/salt/minion.

Minion Primary Configuration

master

Default: salt

The hostname or ipv4 of the master.

Default: salt

master: salt

The option can can also be set to a list of masters, enabling multi-master mode.

master:
  - address1
  - address2

Changed in version 2014.7.0: The master can be dynamically configured. The master value can be set to an module function which will be executed and will assume that the returning value is the ip or hostname of the desired master. If a function is being specified, then the master_type option must be set to func, to tell the minion that the value is a function to be run and not a fully-qualified domain name.

master: module.function
master_type: func

In addition, instead of using multi-master mode, the minion can be configured to use the list of master addresses as a failover list, trying the first address, then the second, etc. until the minion successfully connects. To enable this behavior, set master_type to failover:

master:
  - address1
  - address2
master_type: failover

master_type

New in version 2014.7.0.

Default: str

The type of the master variable. Can be str, failover, func or disable.

master_type: failover

If this option is set to failover, master must be a list of master addresses. The minion will then try each master in the order specified in the list until it successfully connects. master_alive_interval must also be set, this determines how often the minion will verify the presence of the master.

master_type: func

If the master needs to be dynamically assigned by executing a function instead of reading in the static master value, set this to func. This can be used to manage the minion's master setting from an execution module. By simply changing the algorithm in the module to return a new master ip/fqdn, restart the minion and it will connect to the new master.

master_type: disable

If you just want to run a masterless minion, this can be set and the minion will never attempt to talk to the master.

max_event_size

New in version 2014.7.0.

Default: 1048576

Passing very large events can cause the minion to consume large amounts of memory. This value tunes the maximum size of a message allowed onto the minion event bus. The value is expressed in bytes.

max_event_size: 1048576

master_failback

New in version 2016.3.0.

Default: False

If the minion is in multi-master mode and the :conf_minion`master_type` configuration option is set to failover, this setting can be set to True to force the minion to fail back to the first master in the list if the first master is back online.

master_failback: False

master_failback_interval

New in version 2016.3.0.

Default: 0

If the minion is in multi-master mode, the :conf_minion`master_type` configuration is set to failover, and the master_failback option is enabled, the master failback interval can be set to ping the top master with this interval, in seconds.

master_failback_interval: 0

master_alive_interval

Default: 0

Configures how often, in seconds, the minion will verify that the current master is alive and responding. The minion will try to establish a connection to the next master in the list if it finds the existing one is dead.

master_alive_interval: 30

master_shuffle

New in version 2014.7.0.

Default: False

If master is a list of addresses and :conf_minion`master_type` is failover, shuffle them before trying to connect to distribute the minions over all available masters. This uses Python's random.shuffle method.

master_shuffle: True

random_master

Default: False

If master is a list of addresses, shuffle them before trying to connect to distribute the minions over all available masters. This uses Python's random.randint method.

random_master: True

retry_dns

Default: 30

Set the number of seconds to wait before attempting to resolve the master hostname if name resolution fails. Defaults to 30 seconds. Set to zero if the minion should shutdown and not retry.

retry_dns: 30

master_port

Default: 4506

The port of the master ret server, this needs to coincide with the ret_port option on the Salt master.

master_port: 4506

user

Default: root

The user to run the Salt processes

user: root

sudo_user

Default: ''

The user to run salt remote execution commands as via sudo. If this option is enabled then sudo will be used to change the active user executing the remote command. If enabled the user will need to be allowed access via the sudoers file for the user that the salt minion is configured to run as. The most common option would be to use the root user. If this option is set the user option should also be set to a non-root user. If migrating from a root minion to a non root minion the minion cache should be cleared and the minion pki directory will need to be changed to the ownership of the new user.

sudo_user: root

pidfile

Default: /var/run/salt-minion.pid

The location of the daemon's process ID file

pidfile: /var/run/salt-minion.pid

root_dir

Default: /

This directory is prepended to the following options: pki_dir, cachedir, log_file, sock_dir, and pidfile.

root_dir: /

conf_file

Default: /etc/salt/minion

The path to the minion's configuration file.

conf_file: /etc/salt/minion

pki_dir

Default: /etc/salt/pki/minion

The directory used to store the minion's public and private keys.

pki_dir: /etc/salt/pki/minion

id

Default: the system's hostname

SEE ALSO:

Salt Walkthrough

The Setting up a Salt Minion section contains detailed information on how the hostname is determined.

Explicitly declare the id for this minion to use. Since Salt uses detached ids it is possible to run multiple minions on the same machine but with different ids.

id: foo.bar.com

minion_id_caching

New in version 0.17.2.

Default: True

Caches the minion id to a file when the minion's

:minion_conf:`id`

is not statically defined in the minion config. This setting prevents potential problems when automatic minion id resolution changes, which can cause the minion to lose connection with the master. To turn off minion id caching, set this config to False.

For more information, please see Issue #7558 and Pull Request #8488.

minion_id_caching: True

append_domain

Default: None

Append a domain to a hostname in the event that it does not exist. This is useful for systems where socket.getfqdn() does not actually result in a FQDN (for instance, Solaris).

append_domain: foo.org

cachedir

Default: /var/cache/salt/minion

The location for minion cache data.

This directory may contain sensitive data and should be protected accordingly.

cachedir: /var/cache/salt/minion

append_minionid_config_dirs

Default: [] (the empty list) for regular minions, ['cachedir'] for proxy minions.

Append minion_id to these configuration directories. Helps with multiple proxies and minions running on the same machine. Allowed elements in the list: pki_dir, cachedir, extension_modules. Normally not needed unless running several proxies and/or minions on the same machine.

append_minionid_config_dirs:
  - pki_dir
  - cachedir

verify_env

Default: True

Verify and set permissions on configuration directories at startup.

verify_env: True

NOTE:

When set to True the verify_env option requires WRITE access to the configuration directory (/etc/salt/). In certain situations such as mounting /etc/salt/ as read-only for templating this will create a stack trace when state.apply is called.

cache_jobs

Default: False

The minion can locally cache the return data from jobs sent to it, this can be a good way to keep track of the minion side of the jobs the minion has executed. By default this feature is disabled, to enable set cache_jobs to True.

cache_jobs: False

minion_pillar_cache

Default: False

The minion can locally cache rendered pillar data under cachedir/pillar. This allows a temporarily disconnected minion to access previously cached pillar data by invoking salt-call with the --local and --pillar_root=:conf_minion:cachedir/pillar options. Before enabling this setting consider that the rendered pillar may contain security sensitive data. Appropriate access restrictions should be in place. By default the saved pillar data will be readable only by the user account running salt. By default this feature is disabled, to enable set minion_pillar_cache to True.

minion_pillar_cache: False

grains

Default: (empty)

SEE ALSO:

static-custom-grains

Statically assigns grains to the minion.

grains:
  roles:
    - webserver
    - memcache
  deployment: datacenter4
  cabinet: 13
  cab_u: 14-15

grains_cache

Default: False

The minion can locally cache grain data instead of refreshing the data each time the grain is referenced. By default this feature is disabled, to enable set grains_cache to True.

grains_cache: False

grains_deep_merge

New in version 2016.3.0.

Default: False

The grains can be merged, instead of overridden, using this option. This allows custom grains to defined different subvalues of a dictionary grain. By default this feature is disabled, to enable set grains_deep_merge to True.

grains_deep_merge: False

For example, with these custom grains functions:

def custom1_k1():
    return {'custom1': {'k1': 'v1'}}

def custom1_k2():
    return {'custom1': {'k2': 'v2'}}

Without grains_deep_merge, the result would be:

custom1:
  k1: v1

With grains_deep_merge, the result will be:

custom1:
  k1: v1
  k2: v2

mine_enabled

New in version 2015.8.10.

Default: True

Determines whether or not the salt minion should run scheduled mine updates. If this is set to False then the mine update function will not get added to the scheduler for the minion.

mine_enabled: True

mine_return_job

New in version 2015.8.10.

Default: False

Determines whether or not scheduled mine updates should be accompanied by a job return for the job cache.

mine_return_job: False

mine_functions

Default: Empty

Designate which functions should be executed at mine_interval intervals on each minion. See this documentation on the Salt Mine for more information. Note these can be defined in the pillar for a minion as well.

example minion configuration file

mine_functions:
  test.ping: []
  network.ip_addrs:
    interface: eth0
    cidr: '10.0.0.0/8'

sock_dir

Default: /var/run/salt/minion

The directory where Unix sockets will be kept.

sock_dir: /var/run/salt/minion

backup_mode

Default: ''

Backup files replaced by file.managed and file.recurse under cachedir.

backup_mode: minion

acceptance_wait_time

Default: 10

The number of seconds to wait until attempting to re-authenticate with the master.

acceptance_wait_time: 10

acceptance_wait_time_max

Default: 0

The maximum number of seconds to wait until attempting to re-authenticate with the master. If set, the wait will increase by acceptance_wait_time seconds each iteration.

acceptance_wait_time_max: 0

random_reauth_delay

Default: 10

When the master key changes, the minion will try to re-auth itself to receive the new master key. In larger environments this can cause a syn-flood on the master because all minions try to re-auth immediately. To prevent this and have a minion wait for a random amount of time, use this optional parameter. The wait-time will be a random number of seconds between 0 and the defined value.

random_reauth_delay: 60

master_tries

New in version 2016.3.0.

Default: 1

The number of attempts to connect to a master before giving up. Set this to -1 for unlimited attempts. This allows for a master to have downtime and the minion to reconnect to it later when it comes back up. In 'failover' mode, which is set in the master_type configuration, this value is the number of attempts for each set of masters. In this mode, it will cycle through the list of masters for each attempt.

master_tries is different than auth_tries because auth_tries attempts to retry auth attempts with a single master. auth_tries is under the assumption that you can connect to the master but not gain authorization from it. master_tries will still cycle through all of the masters in a given try, so it is appropriate if you expect occasional downtime from the master(s).

master_tries: 1

auth_tries

New in version 2014.7.0.

Default: 7

The number of attempts to authenticate to a master before giving up. Or, more technically, the number of consecutive SaltReqTimeoutErrors that are acceptable when trying to authenticate to the master.

auth_tries: 7

auth_timeout

New in version 2014.7.0.

Default: 60

When waiting for a master to accept the minion's public key, salt will continuously attempt to reconnect until successful. This is the timeout value, in seconds, for each individual attempt. After this timeout expires, the minion will wait for acceptance_wait_time seconds before trying again. Unless your master is under unusually heavy load, this should be left at the default.

auth_timeout: 60

auth_safemode

New in version 2014.7.0.

Default: False

If authentication fails due to SaltReqTimeoutError during a ping_interval, this setting, when set to True, will cause a sub-minion process to restart.

auth_safemode: False

recon_default

Default: 1000

The interval in milliseconds that the socket should wait before trying to reconnect to the master (1000ms = 1 second).

recon_default: 1000

recon_max

Default: 10000

The maximum time a socket should wait. Each interval the time to wait is calculated by doubling the previous time. If recon_max is reached, it starts again at the recon_default.

Short example:
·
reconnect 1: the socket will wait 'recon_default' milliseconds
·
reconnect 2: 'recon_default' * 2
·
reconnect 3: ('recon_default' * 2) * 2
·
reconnect 4: value from previous interval * 2
·
reconnect 5: value from previous interval * 2
·
reconnect x: if value >= recon_max, it starts again with recon_default
recon_max: 10000

recon_randomize

Default: True

Generate a random wait time on minion start. The wait time will be a random value between recon_default and recon_default + recon_max. Having all minions reconnect with the same recon_default and recon_max value kind of defeats the purpose of being able to change these settings. If all minions have the same values and the setup is quite large (several thousand minions), they will still flood the master. The desired behavior is to have time-frame within all minions try to reconnect.

recon_randomize: True

loop_interval

Default: 1

The loop_interval sets how long in seconds the minion will wait between evaluating the scheduler and running cleanup tasks. This defaults to 1 second on the minion scheduler.

loop_interval: 1

pub_ret

Default: True

Some installations choose to start all job returns in a cache or a returner and forgo sending the results back to a master. In this workflow, jobs are most often executed with --async from the Salt CLI and then results are evaluated by examining job caches on the minions or any configured returners. WARNING: Setting this to False will disable returns back to the master.

pub_ret: True

return_retry_timer

Default: 5

The default timeout for a minion return attempt.

return_retry_timer: 5

return_retry_timer_max

Default: 10

The maximum timeout for a minion return attempt. If non-zero the minion return retry timeout will be a random int between return_retry_timer and return_retry_timer_max

return_retry_timer_max: 10

cache_sreqs

Default: True

The connection to the master ret_port is kept open. When set to False, the minion creates a new connection for every return to the master.

cache_sreqs: True

ipc_mode

Default: ipc

Windows platforms lack POSIX IPC and must rely on slower TCP based inter- process communications. Set ipc_mode to tcp on such systems.

ipc_mode: ipc

tcp_pub_port

Default: 4510

Publish port used when ipc_mode is set to tcp.

tcp_pub_port: 4510

tcp_pull_port

Default: 4511

Pull port used when ipc_mode is set to tcp.

tcp_pull_port: 4511

transport

Default: zeromq

Changes the underlying transport layer. ZeroMQ is the recommended transport while additional transport layers are under development. Supported values are zeromq, raet (experimental), and tcp (experimental). This setting has a significant impact on performance and should not be changed unless you know what you are doing! Transports are explained in Salt Transports.

transport: zeromq

syndic_finger

Default: ''

The key fingerprint of the higher-level master for the syndic to verify it is talking to the intended master.

syndic_finger: 'ab:30:65:2a:d6:9e:20:4f:d8:b2:f3:a7:d4:65:50:10'

proxy_host

Default: ''

The hostname used for HTTP proxy access.

proxy_host: proxy.my-domain

proxy_port

Default: 0

The port number used for HTTP proxy access.

proxy_port: 31337

proxy_username

Default: ''

The username used for HTTP proxy access.

proxy_username: charon

proxy_password

Default: ''

The password used for HTTP proxy access.

proxy_password: obolus

Minion Module Management

disable_modules

Default: [] (all modules are enabled by default)

The event may occur in which the administrator desires that a minion should not be able to execute a certain module. The sys module is built into the minion and cannot be disabled.

This setting can also tune the minion. Because all modules are loaded into system memory, disabling modules will lover the minion's memory footprint.

Modules should be specified according to their file name on the system and not by their virtual name. For example, to disable cmd, use the string cmdmod which corresponds to salt.modules.cmdmod.

disable_modules:
  - test
  - solr

disable_returners

Default: [] (all returners are enabled by default)

If certain returners should be disabled, this is the place

disable_returners:
  - mongo_return

whitelist_modules

Default: [] (Module whitelisting is disabled. Adding anything to the config option will cause only the listed modules to be enabled. Modules not in the list will not be loaded.)

This option is the reverse of disable_modules.

Note that this is a very large hammer and it can be quite difficult to keep the minion working the way you think it should since Salt uses many modules internally itself. At a bare minimum you need the following enabled or else the minion won't start.

whitelist_modules:
  - cmdmod
  - test
  - config

module_dirs

Default: []

A list of extra directories to search for Salt modules

module_dirs:
  - /var/lib/salt/modules

returner_dirs

Default: []

A list of extra directories to search for Salt returners

returner_dirs:
  - /var/lib/salt/returners

states_dirs

Default: []

A list of extra directories to search for Salt states

states_dirs:
  - /var/lib/salt/states

grains_dirs

Default: []

A list of extra directories to search for Salt grains

grains_dirs:
  - /var/lib/salt/grains

render_dirs

Default: []

A list of extra directories to search for Salt renderers

render_dirs:
  - /var/lib/salt/renderers

cython_enable

Default: False

Set this value to true to enable auto-loading and compiling of .pyx modules, This setting requires that gcc and cython are installed on the minion.

cython_enable: False

enable_zip_modules

New in version 2015.8.0.

Default: False

Set this value to true to enable loading of zip archives as extension modules. This allows for packing module code with specific dependencies to avoid conflicts and/or having to install specific modules' dependencies in system libraries.

enable_zip_modules: False

providers

Default: (empty)

A module provider can be statically overwritten or extended for the minion via the providers option. This can be done on an individual basis in an SLS file, or globally here in the minion config, like below.

providers:
  service: systemd

State Management Settings

renderer

Default: yaml_jinja

The default renderer used for local state executions

renderer: yaml_jinja

state_verbose

Default: True

Controls the verbosity of state runs. By default, the results of all states are returned, but setting this value to False will cause salt to only display output for states that failed or states that have changes.

state_verbose: True

state_output

Default: full

The state_output setting changes if the output is the full multi line output for each changed state if set to 'full', but if set to 'terse' the output will be shortened to a single line.

state_output: full

autoload_dynamic_modules

Default: True

autoload_dynamic_modules turns on automatic loading of modules found in the environments on the master. This is turned on by default. To turn off auto-loading modules when states run, set this value to False.

autoload_dynamic_modules: True

Default: True

clean_dynamic_modules keeps the dynamic modules on the minion in sync with the dynamic modules on the master. This means that if a dynamic module is not on the master it will be deleted from the minion. By default this is enabled and can be disabled by changing this value to False.

clean_dynamic_modules: True

environment

Normally the minion is not isolated to any single environment on the master when running states, but the environment can be isolated on the minion side by statically setting it. Remember that the recommended way to manage environments is to isolate via the top file.

environment: dev

state_top_saltenv

This option has no default value. Set it to an environment name to ensure that only the top file from that environment is considered during a highstate.

NOTE:

Using this value does not change the merging strategy. For instance, if top_file_merging_strategy is set to merge, and state_top_saltenv is set to foo, then any sections for environments other than foo in the top file for the foo environment will be ignored. With state_top_saltenv set to base, all states from all environments in the base top file will be applied, while all other top files are ignored. The only way to set state_top_saltenv to something other than base and not have the other environments in the targeted top file ignored, would be to set top_file_merging_strategy to merge_all.

state_top_saltenv: dev

top_file_merging_strategy

Changed in version 2016.11.0: A merge_all strategy has been added.

Default: merge

When no specific fileserver environment (a.k.a. saltenv) has been specified for a highstate, all environments' top files are inspected. This config option determines how the SLS targets in those top files are handled.

When set to merge, the base environment's top file is evaluated first, followed by the other environments' top files. The first target expression (e.g. '*') for a given environment is kept, and when the same target expression is used in a different top file evaluated later, it is ignored. Because base is evaluated first, it is authoritative. For example, if there is a target for '*' for the foo environment in both the base and foo environment's top files, the one in the foo environment would be ignored. The environments will be evaluated in no specific order (aside from base coming first). For greater control over the order in which the environments are evaluated, use env_order.

When set to same, then for each environment, only that environment's top file is processed, with the others being ignored. For example, only the dev environment's top file will be processed for the dev environment, and any SLS targets defined for dev in the base environment's (or any other environment's) top file will be ignored. If an environment does not have a top file, then the top file from the default_top config parameter will be used as a fallback.

When set to merge_all, then all states in all environments in all top files will be applied. The order in which individual SLS files will be executed will depend on the order in which the top files were evaluated, and the environments will be evaluated in no specific order. For greater control over the order in which the environments are evaluated, use env_order.

top_file_merging_strategy: same

env_order

Default: []

When top_file_merging_strategy is set to merge, and no environment is specified for a highstate, this config option allows for the order in which top files are evaluated to be explicitly defined.

env_order:
  - base
  - dev
  - qa

default_top

Default: base

When top_file_merging_strategy is set to same, and no environment is specified for a highstate (i.e. environment is not set for the minion), this config option specifies a fallback environment in which to look for a top file if an environment lacks one.

default_top: dev

snapper_states

Default: False

The snapper_states value is used to enable taking snapper snapshots before and after salt state runs. This allows for state runs to be rolled back.

For snapper states to function properly snapper needs to be installed and enabled.

snapper_states: True

snapper_states_config

Default: root

Snapper can execute based on a snapper configuration. The configuration needs to be set up before snapper can use it. The default configuration is root, this default makes snapper run on SUSE systems using the default configuration set up at install time.

snapper_states_config: root

File Directory Settings

file_client

Default: remote

The client defaults to looking on the master server for files, but can be directed to look on the minion by setting this parameter to local.

file_client: remote

use_master_when_local

Default: False

When using a local file_client, this parameter is used to allow the client to connect to a master for remote execution.

use_master_when_local: False

file_roots

Default:

base:
  - /srv/salt

When using a local file_client, this parameter is used to setup the fileserver's environments. This parameter operates identically to the master config parameter of the same name.

file_roots:
  base:
    - /srv/salt
  dev:
    - /srv/salt/dev/services
    - /srv/salt/dev/states
  prod:
    - /srv/salt/prod/services
    - /srv/salt/prod/states

fileserver_limit_traversal

New in version 2014.1.0.

Default: False

By default, the Salt fileserver recurses fully into all defined environments to attempt to find files. To limit this behavior so that the fileserver only traverses directories with SLS files and special Salt directories like _modules, set fileserver_limit_traversal to True. This might be useful for installations where a file root has a very large number of files and performance is impacted.

fileserver_limit_traversal: False

hash_type

Default: md5

The hash_type is the hash to use when discovering the hash of a file on the local fileserver. The default is md5, but sha1, sha224, sha256, sha384, and sha512 are also supported.

hash_type: md5

Pillar Settings

pillar_roots

Default:

base:
  - /srv/pillar

When using a local file_client, this parameter is used to setup the pillar environments.

pillar_roots:
  base:
    - /srv/pillar
  dev:
    - /srv/pillar/dev
  prod:
    - /srv/pillar/prod

pillarenv

Default: None

Isolates the pillar environment on the minion side. This functions the same as the environment setting, but for pillar instead of states.

pillarenv: None

pillar_raise_on_missing

New in version 2015.5.0.

Default: False

Set this option to True to force a KeyError to be raised whenever an attempt to retrieve a named value from pillar fails. When this option is set to False, the failed attempt returns an empty string.

file_recv_max_size

New in version 2014.7.0.

Default: 100

Set a hard-limit on the size of the files that can be pushed to the master. It will be interpreted as megabytes.

file_recv_max_size: 100

Security Settings

open_mode

Default: False

Open mode can be used to clean out the PKI key received from the Salt master, turn on open mode, restart the minion, then turn off open mode and restart the minion to clean the keys.

open_mode: False

master_finger

Default: ''

Fingerprint of the master public key to validate the identity of your Salt master before the initial key exchange. The master fingerprint can be found by running "salt-key -F master" on the Salt master.

master_finger: 'ba:30:65:2a:d6:9e:20:4f:d8:b2:f3:a7:d4:65:11:13'

verify_master_pubkey_sign

Default: False

Enables verification of the master-public-signature returned by the master in auth-replies. Please see the tutorial on how to configure this properly Multimaster-PKI with Failover Tutorial

New in version 2014.7.0.

verify_master_pubkey_sign: True

If this is set to True, master_sign_pubkey must be also set to True in the master configuration file.

master_sign_key_name

Default: master_sign

The filename without the .pub suffix of the public key that should be used for verifying the signature from the master. The file must be located in the minion's pki directory.

New in version 2014.7.0.

master_sign_key_name: <filename_without_suffix>

always_verify_signature

Default: False

If verify_master_pubkey_sign is enabled, the signature is only verified if the public-key of the master changes. If the signature should always be verified, this can be set to True.

New in version 2014.7.0.

always_verify_signature: True

cmd_blacklist_glob

Default: []

If cmd_blacklist_glob is enabled then any shell command called over remote execution or via salt-call will be checked against the glob matches found in the cmd_blacklist_glob list and any matched shell command will be blocked.

NOTE:

This blacklist is only applied to direct executions made by the salt and salt-call commands. This does NOT blacklist commands called from states or shell commands executed from other modules.

New in version 2016.11.0.

cmd_blacklist_glob:
  - 'rm * '
  - 'cat /etc/* '

cmd_whitelist_glob

Default: []

If cmd_whitelist_glob is enabled then any shell command called over remote execution or via salt-call will be checked against the glob matches found in the cmd_whitelist_glob list and any shell command NOT found in the list will be blocked. If cmd_whitelist_glob is NOT SET, then all shell commands are permitted.

NOTE:

This whitelist is only applied to direct executions made by the salt and salt-call commands. This does NOT restrict commands called from states or shell commands executed from other modules.

New in version 2016.11.0.

cmd_whitelist_glob:
  - 'ls * '
  - 'cat /etc/fstab'

Thread Settings

Default: True

If multiprocessing is enabled when a minion receives a publication a new process is spawned and the command is executed therein. Conversely, if multiprocessing is disabled the new publication will be run executed in a thread.

multiprocessing: True

Minion Logging Settings

log_file

Default: /var/log/salt/minion

The minion log can be sent to a regular file, local path name, or network location. See also log_file.

Examples:

log_file: /var/log/salt/minion
log_file: file:///dev/log
log_file: udp://loghost:10514

log_level

Default: warning

The level of messages to send to the console. See also log_level.

log_level: warning

log_level_logfile

Default: info

The level of messages to send to the log file. See also log_level_logfile. When it is not set explicitly it will inherit the level set by log_level option.

log_level_logfile: warning

log_datefmt

Default: %H:%M:%S

The date and time format used in console log messages. See also log_datefmt.

log_datefmt: '%H:%M:%S'

log_datefmt_logfile

Default: %Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S

The date and time format used in log file messages. See also log_datefmt_logfile.

log_datefmt_logfile: '%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S'

log_fmt_console

Default: [%(levelname)-8s] %(message)s

The format of the console logging messages. See also log_fmt_console.

NOTE:

Log colors are enabled in log_fmt_console rather than the color config since the logging system is loaded before the minion config.

Console log colors are specified by these additional formatters:

%(colorlevel)s %(colorname)s %(colorprocess)s %(colormsg)s

Since it is desirable to include the surrounding brackets, '[' and ']', in the coloring of the messages, these color formatters also include padding as well. Color LogRecord attributes are only available for console logging.

log_fmt_console: '%(colorlevel)s %(colormsg)s'
log_fmt_console: '[%(levelname)-8s] %(message)s'

log_fmt_logfile

Default: %(asctime)s,%(msecs)03d [%(name)-17s][%(levelname)-8s] %(message)s

The format of the log file logging messages. See also log_fmt_logfile.

log_fmt_logfile: '%(asctime)s,%(msecs)03d [%(name)-17s][%(levelname)-8s] %(message)s'

log_granular_levels

Default: {}

This can be used to control logging levels more specifically. See also log_granular_levels.

zmq_monitor

Default: False

To diagnose issues with minions disconnecting or missing returns, ZeroMQ supports the use of monitor sockets to log connection events. This feature requires ZeroMQ 4.0 or higher.

To enable ZeroMQ monitor sockets, set 'zmq_monitor' to 'True' and log at a debug level or higher.

A sample log event is as follows:

[DEBUG   ] ZeroMQ event: {'endpoint': 'tcp://127.0.0.1:4505', 'event': 512,
'value': 27, 'description': 'EVENT_DISCONNECTED'}

All events logged will include the string ZeroMQ event. A connection event should be logged as the minion starts up and initially connects to the master. If not, check for debug log level and that the necessary version of ZeroMQ is installed.

failhard

Default: False

Set the global failhard flag. This informs all states to stop running states at the moment a single state fails

failhard: False

Include Configuration

default_include

Default: minion.d/*.conf

The minion can include configuration from other files. Per default the minion will automatically include all config files from minion.d/*.conf where minion.d is relative to the directory of the minion configuration file.

NOTE:

Salt creates files in the minion.d directory for its own use. These files are prefixed with an underscore. A common example of this is the _schedule.conf file.

include

Default: not defined

The minion can include configuration from other files. To enable this, pass a list of paths to this option. The paths can be either relative or absolute; if relative, they are considered to be relative to the directory the main minion configuration file lives in. Paths can make use of shell-style globbing. If no files are matched by a path passed to this option then the minion will log a warning message.

# Include files from a minion.d directory in the same
# directory as the minion config file
include: minion.d/*.conf

# Include a single extra file into the configuration
include: /etc/roles/webserver

# Include several files and the minion.d directory
include:
  - extra_config
  - minion.d/*
  - /etc/roles/webserver

Frozen Build Update Settings

These options control how salt.modules.saltutil.update() works with esky frozen apps. For more information look at https://github.com/cloudmatrix/esky/.

update_url

Default: False (Update feature is disabled)

The url to use when looking for application updates. Esky depends on directory listings to search for new versions. A webserver running on your Master is a good starting point for most setups.

update_url: 'http://salt.example.com/minion-updates'

update_restart_services

Default: [] (service restarting on update is disabled)

A list of services to restart when the minion software is updated. This would typically just be a list containing the minion's service name, but you may have other services that need to go with it.

update_restart_services: ['salt-minion']

winrepo_cache_expire_min

New in version 2016.11.0.

Default: 0

If set to a nonzero integer, then passing refresh=True to functions in the windows pkg module will not refresh the windows repo metadata if the age of the metadata is less than this value. The exception to this is pkg.refresh_db, which will always refresh the metadata, regardless of age.

winrepo_cache_expire_min: 1800

winrepo_cache_expire_max

New in version 2016.11.0.

Default: 21600

If the windows repo metadata is older than this value, and the metadata is needed by a function in the windows pkg module, the metadata will be refreshed.

winrepo_cache_expire_max: 86400

Standalone Minion Windows Software Repo Settings

IMPORTANT:

To use these config options, the minion must be running in masterless mode (set file_client to local).

winrepo_dir

Changed in version 2015.8.0: Renamed from win_repo to winrepo_dir. Also, this option did not have a default value until this version.

Default: C:\salt\srv\salt\win\repo

Location on the minion where the winrepo_remotes are checked out.

winrepo_dir: 'D:\winrepo'

winrepo_cachefile

Changed in version 2015.8.0: Renamed from win_repo_cachefile to winrepo_cachefile. Also, this option did not have a default value until this version.

Default: winrepo.p

Path relative to winrepo_dir where the winrepo cache should be created.

winrepo_cachefile: winrepo.p

winrepo_remotes

Changed in version 2015.8.0: Renamed from win_gitrepos to winrepo_remotes. Also, this option did not have a default value until this version.

New in version 2015.8.0.

Default: ['https://github.com/saltstack/salt-winre…']

List of git repositories to checkout and include in the winrepo

winrepo_remotes:
  - https://github.com/saltstack/salt-winrepo.git

To specify a specific revision of the repository, prepend a commit ID to the URL of the the repository:

winrepo_remotes:
  - '<commit_id> https://github.com/saltstack/salt-winrepo.git'

Replace <commit_id> with the SHA1 hash of a commit ID. Specifying a commit ID is useful in that it allows one to revert back to a previous version in the event that an error is introduced in the latest revision of the repo.

Configuration file examples

·
Example master configuration file
·
Example minion configuration file

Example master configuration file

##### Primary configuration settings #####
##########################################
# This configuration file is used to manage the behavior of the Salt Master.
# Values that are commented out but have an empty line after the comment are
# defaults that do not need to be set in the config. If there is no blank line
# after the comment then the value is presented as an example and is not the
# default.

# Per default, the master will automatically include all config files
# from master.d/*.conf (master.d is a directory in the same directory
# as the main master config file).
#default_include: master.d/*.conf

# The address of the interface to bind to:
#interface: 0.0.0.0

# Whether the master should listen for IPv6 connections. If this is set to True,
# the interface option must be adjusted, too. (For example: "interface: '::'")
#ipv6: False

# The tcp port used by the publisher:
#publish_port: 4505

# The user under which the salt master will run. Salt will update all
# permissions to allow the specified user to run the master. The exception is
# the job cache, which must be deleted if this user is changed. If the
# modified files cause conflicts, set verify_env to False.
#user: root

# The port used by the communication interface. The ret (return) port is the
# interface used for the file server, authentication, job returns, etc.
#ret_port: 4506

# Specify the location of the daemon process ID file:
#pidfile: /var/run/salt-master.pid

# The root directory prepended to these options: pki_dir, cachedir,
# sock_dir, log_file, autosign_file, autoreject_file, extension_modules,
# key_logfile, pidfile:
#root_dir: /

# The path to the master's configuration file.
#conf_file: /etc/salt/master

# Directory used to store public key data:
#pki_dir: /etc/salt/pki/master

# Key cache. Increases master speed for large numbers of accepted
# keys. Available options: 'sched'. (Updates on a fixed schedule.)
# Note that enabling this feature means that minions will not be
# available to target for up to the length of the maintanence loop
# which by default is 60s.
#key_cache: ''

# Directory to store job and cache data:
# This directory may contain sensitive data and should be protected accordingly.
#
#cachedir: /var/cache/salt/master

# Directory for custom modules. This directory can contain subdirectories for
# each of Salt's module types such as "runners", "output", "wheel", "modules",
# "states", "returners", etc.
#extension_modules: <no default>

# Directory for custom modules. This directory can contain subdirectories for
# each of Salt's module types such as "runners", "output", "wheel", "modules",
# "states", "returners", "engines", etc.
# Like 'extension_modules' but can take an array of paths
#module_dirs: <no default>
#   - /var/cache/salt/minion/extmods

# Verify and set permissions on configuration directories at startup:
#verify_env: True

# Set the number of hours to keep old job information in the job cache:
#keep_jobs: 24

# The number of seconds to wait when the client is requesting information
# about running jobs.
#gather_job_timeout: 10

# Set the default timeout for the salt command and api. The default is 5
# seconds.
#timeout: 5

# The loop_interval option controls the seconds for the master's maintenance
# process check cycle. This process updates file server backends, cleans the
# job cache and executes the scheduler.
#loop_interval: 60

# Set the default outputter used by the salt command. The default is "nested".
#output: nested

# Set the default output file used by the salt command. Default is to output
# to the CLI and not to a file. Functions the same way as the "--out-file"
# CLI option, only sets this to a single file for all salt commands.
#output_file: None

# Return minions that timeout when running commands like test.ping
#show_timeout: True

# By default, output is colored. To disable colored output, set the color value
# to False.
#color: True

# Do not strip off the colored output from nested results and state outputs
# (true by default).
# strip_colors: False

# To display a summary of the number of minions targeted, the number of
# minions returned, and the number of minions that did not return, set the
# cli_summary value to True. (False by default.)
#
#cli_summary: False

# Set the directory used to hold unix sockets:
#sock_dir: /var/run/salt/master

# The master can take a while to start up when lspci and/or dmidecode is used
# to populate the grains for the master. Enable if you want to see GPU hardware
# data for your master.
# enable_gpu_grains: False

# The master maintains a job cache. While this is a great addition, it can be
# a burden on the master for larger deployments (over 5000 minions).
# Disabling the job cache will make previously executed jobs unavailable to
# the jobs system and is not generally recommended.
#job_cache: True

# Cache minion grains and pillar data in the cachedir.
#minion_data_cache: True

# Store all returns in the given returner.
# Setting this option requires that any returner-specific configuration also
# be set. See various returners in salt/returners for details on required
# configuration values. (See also, event_return_queue below.)
#
#event_return: mysql

# On busy systems, enabling event_returns can cause a considerable load on
# the storage system for returners. Events can be queued on the master and
# stored in a batched fashion using a single transaction for multiple events.
# By default, events are not queued.
#event_return_queue: 0

# Only return events matching tags in a whitelist, supports glob matches.
#event_return_whitelist:
#  - salt/master/a_tag
#  - salt/run/*/ret

# Store all event returns **except** the tags in a blacklist, supports globs.
#event_return_blacklist:
#  - salt/master/not_this_tag
#  - salt/wheel/*/ret

# Passing very large events can cause the minion to consume large amounts of
# memory. This value tunes the maximum size of a message allowed onto the
# master event bus. The value is expressed in bytes.
#max_event_size: 1048576

# By default, the master AES key rotates every 24 hours. The next command
# following a key rotation will trigger a key refresh from the minion which may
# result in minions which do not respond to the first command after a key refresh.
#
# To tell the master to ping all minions immediately after an AES key refresh, set
# ping_on_rotate to True. This should mitigate the issue where a minion does not
# appear to initially respond after a key is rotated.
#
# Note that ping_on_rotate may cause high load on the master immediately after
# the key rotation event as minions reconnect. Consider this carefully if this
# salt master is managing a large number of minions.
#
# If disabled, it is recommended to handle this event by listening for the
# 'aes_key_rotate' event with the 'key' tag and acting appropriately.
# ping_on_rotate: False

# By default, the master deletes its cache of minion data when the key for that
# minion is removed. To preserve the cache after key deletion, set
# 'preserve_minion_cache' to True.
#
# WARNING: This may have security implications if compromised minions auth with
# a previous deleted minion ID.
#preserve_minion_cache: False

# If max_minions is used in large installations, the master might experience
# high-load situations because of having to check the number of connected
# minions for every authentication. This cache provides the minion-ids of
# all connected minions to all MWorker-processes and greatly improves the
# performance of max_minions.
# con_cache: False

# The master can include configuration from other files. To enable this,
# pass a list of paths to this option. The paths can be either relative or
# absolute; if relative, they are considered to be relative to the directory
# the main master configuration file lives in (this file). Paths can make use
# of shell-style globbing. If no files are matched by a path passed to this
# option, then the master will log a warning message.
#
# Include a config file from some other path:
# include: /etc/salt/extra_config
#
# Include config from several files and directories:
# include:
#   - /etc/salt/extra_config


#####  Large-scale tuning settings   #####
##########################################
# Max open files
#
# Each minion connecting to the master uses AT LEAST one file descriptor, the
# master subscription connection. If enough minions connect you might start
# seeing on the console (and then salt-master crashes):
#   Too many open files (tcp_listener.cpp:335)
#   Aborted (core dumped)
#
# By default this value will be the one of `ulimit -Hn`, ie, the hard limit for
# max open files.
#
# If you wish to set a different value than the default one, uncomment and
# configure this setting. Remember that this value CANNOT be higher than the
# hard limit. Raising the hard limit depends on your OS and/or distribution,
# a good way to find the limit is to search the internet. For example:
#   raise max open files hard limit debian
#
#max_open_files: 100000

# The number of worker threads to start. These threads are used to manage
# return calls made from minions to the master. If the master seems to be
# running slowly, increase the number of threads. This setting can not be
# set lower than 3.
#worker_threads: 5

# Set the ZeroMQ high water marks
# http://api.zeromq.org/3-2:zmq-setsockopt

# The publisher interface ZeroMQPubServerChannel
#pub_hwm: 1000

# These two ZMQ HWM settings, salt_event_pub_hwm and event_publisher_pub_hwm
# are significant for masters with thousands of minions.  When these are
# insufficiently high it will manifest in random responses missing in the CLI
# and even missing from the job cache.  Masters that have fast CPUs and many
# cores with appropriate worker_threads will not need these set as high.

# On deployment with 8,000 minions, 2.4GHz CPUs, 24 cores, 32GiB memory has
# these settings:
#
#   salt_event_pub_hwm: 128000
#   event_publisher_pub_hwm: 64000

# ZMQ high-water-mark for SaltEvent pub socket
#salt_event_pub_hwm: 20000

# ZMQ high-water-mark for EventPublisher pub socket
#event_publisher_pub_hwm: 10000

# The master may allocate memory per-event and not
# reclaim it.
# To set a high-water mark for memory allocation, use
# ipc_write_buffer to set a high-water mark for message
# buffering.
# Value: In bytes. Set to 'dynamic' to have Salt select
# a value for you. Default is disabled.
# ipc_write_buffer: 'dynamic'


#####        Security settings       #####
##########################################
# Enable "open mode", this mode still maintains encryption, but turns off
# authentication, this is only intended for highly secure environments or for
# the situation where your keys end up in a bad state. If you run in open mode
# you do so at your own risk!
#open_mode: False

# Enable auto_accept, this setting will automatically accept all incoming
# public keys from the minions. Note that this is insecure.
#auto_accept: False

# Time in minutes that an incoming public key with a matching name found in
# pki_dir/minion_autosign/keyid is automatically accepted. Expired autosign keys
# are removed when the master checks the minion_autosign directory.
# 0 equals no timeout
# autosign_timeout: 120

# If the autosign_file is specified, incoming keys specified in the
# autosign_file will be automatically accepted. This is insecure.  Regular
# expressions as well as globing lines are supported.
#autosign_file: /etc/salt/autosign.conf

# Works like autosign_file, but instead allows you to specify minion IDs for
# which keys will automatically be rejected. Will override both membership in
# the autosign_file and the auto_accept setting.
#autoreject_file: /etc/salt/autoreject.conf

# Enable permissive access to the salt keys. This allows you to run the
# master or minion as root, but have a non-root group be given access to
# your pki_dir. To make the access explicit, root must belong to the group
# you've given access to. This is potentially quite insecure. If an autosign_file
# is specified, enabling permissive_pki_access will allow group access to that
# specific file.
#permissive_pki_access: False

# Allow users on the master access to execute specific commands on minions.
# This setting should be treated with care since it opens up execution
# capabilities to non root users. By default this capability is completely
# disabled.
#publisher_acl:
#  larry:
#    - test.ping
#    - network.*
#
# Blacklist any of the following users or modules
#
# This example would blacklist all non sudo users, including root from
# running any commands. It would also blacklist any use of the "cmd"
# module. This is completely disabled by default.
#
#
# Check the list of configured users in client ACL against users on the
# system and throw errors if they do not exist.
#client_acl_verify: True
#
#publisher_acl_blacklist:
#  users:
#    - root
#    - '^(?!sudo_).*$'   #  all non sudo users
#  modules:
#    - cmd
#
# WARNING: client_acl and client_acl_blacklist options are deprecated and will
# be removed in the future releases. Use publisher_acl and
# publisher_acl_blacklist instead.

# Enforce publisher_acl & publisher_acl_blacklist when users have sudo
# access to the salt command.
#
#sudo_acl: False

# The external auth system uses the Salt auth modules to authenticate and
# validate users to access areas of the Salt system.
#external_auth:
#  pam:
#    fred:
#      - test.*
#
# Time (in seconds) for a newly generated token to live. Default: 12 hours
#token_expire: 43200
#
# Allow eauth users to specify the expiry time of the tokens they generate.
# A boolean applies to all users or a dictionary of whitelisted eauth backends
# and usernames may be given.
# token_expire_user_override:
#   pam:
#     - fred
#     - tom
#   ldap:
#     - gary
#
#token_expire_user_override: False

# Allow minions to push files to the master. This is disabled by default, for
# security purposes.
#file_recv: False

# Set a hard-limit on the size of the files that can be pushed to the master.
# It will be interpreted as megabytes. Default: 100
#file_recv_max_size: 100

# Signature verification on messages published from the master.
# This causes the master to cryptographically sign all messages published to its event
# bus, and minions then verify that signature before acting on the message.
#
# This is False by default.
#
# Note that to facilitate interoperability with masters and minions that are different
# versions, if sign_pub_messages is True but a message is received by a minion with
# no signature, it will still be accepted, and a warning message will be logged.
# Conversely, if sign_pub_messages is False, but a minion receives a signed
# message it will be accepted, the signature will not be checked, and a warning message
# will be logged. This behavior went away in Salt 2014.1.0 and these two situations
# will cause minion to throw an exception and drop the message.
# sign_pub_messages: False

#####     Salt-SSH Configuration     #####
##########################################

# Pass in an alternative location for the salt-ssh roster file
#roster_file: /etc/salt/roster

# Pass in minion option overrides that will be inserted into the SHIM for
# salt-ssh calls. The local minion config is not used for salt-ssh. Can be
# overridden on a per-minion basis in the roster (`minion_opts`)
#ssh_minion_opts:
#  gpg_keydir: /root/gpg

# Set this to True to default to using ~/.ssh/id_rsa for salt-ssh
# authentication with minions
#ssh_use_home_key: False

#####    Master Module Management    #####
##########################################
# Manage how master side modules are loaded.

# Add any additional locations to look for master runners:
#runner_dirs: []

# Enable Cython for master side modules:
#cython_enable: False


#####      State System settings     #####
##########################################
# The state system uses a "top" file to tell the minions what environment to
# use and what modules to use. The state_top file is defined relative to the
# root of the base environment as defined in "File Server settings" below.
#state_top: top.sls

# The master_tops option replaces the external_nodes option by creating
# a plugable system for the generation of external top data. The external_nodes
# option is deprecated by the master_tops option.
#
# To gain the capabilities of the classic external_nodes system, use the
# following configuration:
# master_tops:
#   ext_nodes: <Shell command which returns yaml>
#
#master_tops: {}

# The external_nodes option allows Salt to gather data that would normally be
# placed in a top file. The external_nodes option is the executable that will
# return the ENC data. Remember that Salt will look for external nodes AND top
# files and combine the results if both are enabled!
#external_nodes: None

# The renderer to use on the minions to render the state data
#renderer: yaml_jinja

# The Jinja renderer can strip extra carriage returns and whitespace
# See http://jinja.pocoo.org/docs/api/#high-level-api
#
# If this is set to True the first newline after a Jinja block is removed
# (block, not variable tag!). Defaults to False, corresponds to the Jinja
# environment init variable "trim_blocks".
#jinja_trim_blocks: False
#
# If this is set to True leading spaces and tabs are stripped from the start
# of a line to a block. Defaults to False, corresponds to the Jinja
# environment init variable "lstrip_blocks".
#jinja_lstrip_blocks: False

# The failhard option tells the minions to stop immediately after the first
# failure detected in the state execution, defaults to False
#failhard: False

# The state_verbose and state_output settings can be used to change the way
# state system data is printed to the display. By default all data is printed.
# The state_verbose setting can be set to True or False, when set to False
# all data that has a result of True and no changes will be suppressed.
#state_verbose: True

# The state_output setting changes if the output is the full multi line
# output for each changed state if set to 'full', but if set to 'terse'
# the output will be shortened to a single line.  If set to 'mixed', the output
# will be terse unless a state failed, in which case that output will be full.
# If set to 'changes', the output will be full unless the state didn't change.
#state_output: full

# Automatically aggregate all states that have support for mod_aggregate by
# setting to 'True'. Or pass a list of state module names to automatically
# aggregate just those types.
#
# state_aggregate:
#   - pkg
#
#state_aggregate: False

# Send progress events as each function in a state run completes execution
# by setting to 'True'. Progress events are in the format
# 'salt/job/<JID>/prog/<MID>/<RUN NUM>'.
#state_events: False

#####      File Server settings      #####
##########################################
# Salt runs a lightweight file server written in zeromq to deliver files to
# minions. This file server is built into the master daemon and does not
# require a dedicated port.

# The file server works on environments passed to the master, each environment
# can have multiple root directories, the subdirectories in the multiple file
# roots cannot match, otherwise the downloaded files will not be able to be
# reliably ensured. A base environment is required to house the top file.
# Example:
# file_roots:
#   base:
#     - /srv/salt/
#   dev:
#     - /srv/salt/dev/services
#     - /srv/salt/dev/states
#   prod:
#     - /srv/salt/prod/services
#     - /srv/salt/prod/states
#
#file_roots:
#  base:
#    - /srv/salt
#

# When using multiple environments, each with their own top file, the
# default behaviour is an unordered merge. To prevent top files from
# being merged together and instead to only use the top file from the
# requested environment, set this value to 'same'.
#top_file_merging_strategy: merge

# To specify the order in which environments are merged, set the ordering
# in the env_order option. Given a conflict, the last matching value will
# win.
#env_order: ['base', 'dev', 'prod']

# If top_file_merging_strategy is set to 'same' and an environment does not
# contain a top file, the top file in the environment specified by default_top
# will be used instead.
#default_top: base

# The hash_type is the hash to use when discovering the hash of a file on
# the master server. The default is md5 but sha1, sha224, sha256, sha384
# and sha512 are also supported.
#
# WARNING: While md5 is also supported, do not use it due to the high chance
# of possible collisions and thus security breach.
#
# Prior to changing this value, the master should be stopped and all Salt
# caches should be cleared.
#hash_type: sha256

# The buffer size in the file server can be adjusted here:
#file_buffer_size: 1048576

# A regular expression (or a list of expressions) that will be matched
# against the file path before syncing the modules and states to the minions.
# This includes files affected by the file.recurse state.
# For example, if you manage your custom modules and states in subversion
# and don't want all the '.svn' folders and content synced to your minions,
# you could set this to '/\.svn($|/)'. By default nothing is ignored.
#file_ignore_regex:
#  - '/\.svn($|/)'
#  - '/\.git($|/)'

# A file glob (or list of file globs) that will be matched against the file
# path before syncing the modules and states to the minions. This is similar
# to file_ignore_regex above, but works on globs instead of regex. By default
# nothing is ignored.
# file_ignore_glob:
#  - '*.pyc'
#  - '*/somefolder/*.bak'
#  - '*.swp'

# File Server Backend
#
# Salt supports a modular fileserver backend system, this system allows
# the salt master to link directly to third party systems to gather and
# manage the files available to minions. Multiple backends can be
# configured and will be searched for the requested file in the order in which
# they are defined here. The default setting only enables the standard backend
# "roots" which uses the "file_roots" option.
#fileserver_backend:
#  - roots
#
# To use multiple backends list them in the order they are searched:
#fileserver_backend:
#  - git
#  - roots
#
# Uncomment the line below if you do not want the file_server to follow
# symlinks when walking the filesystem tree. This is set to True
# by default. Currently this only applies to the default roots
# fileserver_backend.
#fileserver_followsymlinks: False
#
# Uncomment the line below if you do not want symlinks to be
# treated as the files they are pointing to. By default this is set to
# False. By uncommenting the line below, any detected symlink while listing
# files on the Master will not be returned to the Minion.
#fileserver_ignoresymlinks: True
#
# By default, the Salt fileserver recurses fully into all defined environments
# to attempt to find files. To limit this behavior so that the fileserver only
# traverses directories with SLS files and special Salt directories like _modules,
# enable the option below. This might be useful for installations where a file root
# has a very large number of files and performance is impacted. Default is False.
# fileserver_limit_traversal: False
#
# The fileserver can fire events off every time the fileserver is updated,
# these are disabled by default, but can be easily turned on by setting this
# flag to True
#fileserver_events: False

# Git File Server Backend Configuration
#
# Optional parameter used to specify the provider to be used for gitfs. Must
# be one of the following: pygit2, gitpython, or dulwich. If unset, then each
# will be tried in that same order, and the first one with a compatible
# version installed will be the provider that is used.
#gitfs_provider: pygit2

# Along with gitfs_password, is used to authenticate to HTTPS remotes.
# gitfs_user: ''

# Along with gitfs_user, is used to authenticate to HTTPS remotes.
# This parameter is not required if the repository does not use authentication.
#gitfs_password: ''

# By default, Salt will not authenticate to an HTTP (non-HTTPS) remote.
# This parameter enables authentication over HTTP. Enable this at your own risk.
#gitfs_insecure_auth: False

# Along with gitfs_privkey (and optionally gitfs_passphrase), is used to
# authenticate to SSH remotes. This parameter (or its per-remote counterpart)
# is required for SSH remotes.
#gitfs_pubkey: ''

# Along with gitfs_pubkey (and optionally gitfs_passphrase), is used to
# authenticate to SSH remotes. This parameter (or its per-remote counterpart)
# is required for SSH remotes.
#gitfs_privkey: ''

# This parameter is optional, required only when the SSH key being used to
# authenticate is protected by a passphrase.
#gitfs_passphrase: ''

# When using the git fileserver backend at least one git remote needs to be
# defined. The user running the salt master will need read access to the repo.
#
# The repos will be searched in order to find the file requested by a client
# and the first repo to have the file will return it.
# When using the git backend branches and tags are translated into salt
# environments.
# Note: file:// repos will be treated as a remote, so refs you want used must
# exist in that repo as *local* refs.
#gitfs_remotes:
#  - git://github.com/saltstack/salt-states.git
#  - file:///var/git/saltmaster
#
# The gitfs_ssl_verify option specifies whether to ignore ssl certificate
# errors when contacting the gitfs backend. You might want to set this to
# false if you're using a git backend that uses a self-signed certificate but
# keep in mind that setting this flag to anything other than the default of True
# is a security concern, you may want to try using the ssh transport.
#gitfs_ssl_verify: True
#
# The gitfs_root option gives the ability to serve files from a subdirectory
# within the repository. The path is defined relative to the root of the
# repository and defaults to the repository root.
#gitfs_root: somefolder/otherfolder
#
#
#####         Pillar settings        #####
##########################################
# Salt Pillars allow for the building of global data that can be made selectively
# available to different minions based on minion grain filtering. The Salt
# Pillar is laid out in the same fashion as the file server, with environments,
# a top file and sls files. However, pillar data does not need to be in the
# highstate format, and is generally just key/value pairs.
#pillar_roots:
#  base:
#    - /srv/pillar
#
#ext_pillar:
#  - hiera: /etc/hiera.yaml
#  - cmd_yaml: cat /etc/salt/yaml

# The ext_pillar_first option allows for external pillar sources to populate
# before file system pillar. This allows for targeting file system pillar from
# ext_pillar.
#ext_pillar_first: False

# The pillar_gitfs_ssl_verify option specifies whether to ignore ssl certificate
# errors when contacting the pillar gitfs backend. You might want to set this to
# false if you're using a git backend that uses a self-signed certificate but
# keep in mind that setting this flag to anything other than the default of True
# is a security concern, you may want to try using the ssh transport.
#pillar_gitfs_ssl_verify: True

# The pillar_opts option adds the master configuration file data to a dict in
# the pillar called "master". This is used to set simple configurations in the
# master config file that can then be used on minions.
#pillar_opts: False

# The pillar_safe_render_error option prevents the master from passing pillar
# render errors to the minion. This is set on by default because the error could
# contain templating data which would give that minion information it shouldn't
# have, like a password! When set true the error message will only show:
#   Rendering SLS 'my.sls' failed. Please see master log for details.
#pillar_safe_render_error: True

# The pillar_source_merging_strategy option allows you to configure merging strategy
# between different sources. It accepts five values: none, recurse, aggregate, overwrite,
# or smart. None will not do any merging at all. Recurse will merge recursively mapping of data.
# Aggregate instructs aggregation of elements between sources that use the #!yamlex renderer. Overwrite
# will overwrite elements according the order in which they are processed. This is
# behavior of the 2014.1 branch and earlier. Smart guesses the best strategy based
# on the "renderer" setting and is the default value.
#pillar_source_merging_strategy: smart

# Recursively merge lists by aggregating them instead of replacing them.
#pillar_merge_lists: False

# Set this option to 'True' to force a 'KeyError' to be raised whenever an
# attempt to retrieve a named value from pillar fails. When this option is set
# to 'False', the failed attempt returns an empty string. Default is 'False'.
#pillar_raise_on_missing: False

# Git External Pillar (git_pillar) Configuration Options
#
# Specify the provider to be used for git_pillar. Must be either pygit2 or
# gitpython. If unset, then both will be tried in that same order, and the
# first one with a compatible version installed will be the provider that
# is used.
#git_pillar_provider: pygit2

# If the desired branch matches this value, and the environment is omitted
# from the git_pillar configuration, then the environment for that git_pillar
# remote will be base.
#git_pillar_base: master

# If the branch is omitted from a git_pillar remote, then this branch will
# be used instead
#git_pillar_branch: master

# Environment to use for git_pillar remotes. This is normally derived from
# the branch/tag (or from a per-remote env parameter), but if set this will
# override the process of deriving the env from the branch/tag name.
#git_pillar_env: ''

# Path relative to the root of the repository where the git_pillar top file
# and SLS files are located.
#git_pillar_root: ''

# Specifies whether or not to ignore SSL certificate errors when contacting
# the remote repository.
#git_pillar_ssl_verify: False

# When set to False, if there is an update/checkout lock for a git_pillar
# remote and the pid written to it is not running on the master, the lock
# file will be automatically cleared and a new lock will be obtained.
#git_pillar_global_lock: True

# Git External Pillar Authentication Options
#
# Along with git_pillar_password, is used to authenticate to HTTPS remotes.
#git_pillar_user: ''

# Along with git_pillar_user, is used to authenticate to HTTPS remotes.
# This parameter is not required if the repository does not use authentication.
#git_pillar_password: ''

# By default, Salt will not authenticate to an HTTP (non-HTTPS) remote.
# This parameter enables authentication over HTTP.
#git_pillar_insecure_auth: False

# Along with git_pillar_privkey (and optionally git_pillar_passphrase),
# is used to authenticate to SSH remotes.
#git_pillar_pubkey: ''

# Along with git_pillar_pubkey (and optionally git_pillar_passphrase),
# is used to authenticate to SSH remotes.
#git_pillar_privkey: ''

# This parameter is optional, required only when the SSH key being used
# to authenticate is protected by a passphrase.
#git_pillar_passphrase: ''

# A master can cache pillars locally to bypass the expense of having to render them
# for each minion on every request. This feature should only be enabled in cases
# where pillar rendering time is known to be unsatisfactory and any attendant security
# concerns about storing pillars in a master cache have been addressed.
#
# When enabling this feature, be certain to read through the additional ``pillar_cache_*``
# configuration options to fully understand the tunable parameters and their implications.
#
# Note: setting ``pillar_cache: True`` has no effect on targeting Minions with Pillars.
# See https://docs.saltstack.com/en/latest/topics/targeting/pillar.html
#pillar_cache: False

# If and only if a master has set ``pillar_cache: True``, the cache TTL controls the amount
# of time, in seconds, before the cache is considered invalid by a master and a fresh
# pillar is recompiled and stored.
#pillar_cache_ttl: 3600

# If and only if a master has set `pillar_cache: True`, one of several storage providers
# can be utililzed.
#
# `disk`: The default storage backend. This caches rendered pillars to the master cache.
#         Rendered pillars are serialized and deserialized as msgpack structures for speed.
#         Note that pillars are stored UNENCRYPTED. Ensure that the master cache
#         has permissions set appropriately. (Same defaults are provided.)
#
# memory: [EXPERIMENTAL] An optional backend for pillar caches which uses a pure-Python
#         in-memory data structure for maximal performance. There are several caveats,
#         however. First, because each master worker contains its own in-memory cache,
#         there is no guarantee of cache consistency between minion requests. This
#         works best in situations where the pillar rarely if ever changes. Secondly,
#         and perhaps more importantly, this means that unencrypted pillars will
#         be accessible to any process which can examine the memory of the ``salt-master``!
#         This may represent a substantial security risk.
#
#pillar_cache_backend: disk


#####          Syndic settings       #####
##########################################
# The Salt syndic is used to pass commands through a master from a higher
# master. Using the syndic is simple. If this is a master that will have
# syndic servers(s) below it, then set the "order_masters" setting to True.
#
# If this is a master that will be running a syndic daemon for passthrough, then
# the "syndic_master" setting needs to be set to the location of the master server
# to receive commands from.

# Set the order_masters setting to True if this master will command lower
# masters' syndic interfaces.
#order_masters: False

# If this master will be running a salt syndic daemon, syndic_master tells
# this master where to receive commands from.
#syndic_master: masterofmaster

# This is the 'ret_port' of the MasterOfMaster:
#syndic_master_port: 4506

# PID file of the syndic daemon:
#syndic_pidfile: /var/run/salt-syndic.pid

# LOG file of the syndic daemon:
#syndic_log_file: syndic.log

# The behaviour of the multi-syndic when connection to a master of masters failed.
# Can specify ``random`` (default) or ``ordered``. If set to ``random``, masters
# will be iterated in random order. If ``ordered`` is specified, the configured
# order will be used.
#syndic_failover: random


#####      Peer Publish settings     #####
##########################################
# Salt minions can send commands to other minions, but only if the minion is
# allowed to. By default "Peer Publication" is disabled, and when enabled it
# is enabled for specific minions and specific commands. This allows secure
# compartmentalization of commands based on individual minions.

# The configuration uses regular expressions to match minions and then a list
# of regular expressions to match functions. The following will allow the
# minion authenticated as foo.example.com to execute functions from the test
# and pkg modules.
#peer:
#  foo.example.com:
#    - test.*
#    - pkg.*
#
# This will allow all minions to execute all commands:
#peer:
#  .*:
#    - .*
#
# This is not recommended, since it would allow anyone who gets root on any
# single minion to instantly have root on all of the minions!

# Minions can also be allowed to execute runners from the salt master.
# Since executing a runner from the minion could be considered a security risk,
# it needs to be enabled. This setting functions just like the peer setting
# except that it opens up runners instead of module functions.
#
# All peer runner support is turned off by default and must be enabled before
# using. This will enable all peer runners for all minions:
#peer_run:
#  .*:
#    - .*
#
# To enable just the manage.up runner for the minion foo.example.com:
#peer_run:
#  foo.example.com:
#    - manage.up
#
#
#####         Mine settings     #####
#####################################
# Restrict mine.get access from minions. By default any minion has a full access
# to get all mine data from master cache. In acl definion below, only pcre matches
# are allowed.
# mine_get:
#   .*:
#     - .*
#
# The example below enables minion foo.example.com to get 'network.interfaces' mine
# data only, minions web* to get all network.* and disk.* mine data and all other
# minions won't get any mine data.
# mine_get:
#   foo.example.com:
#     - network.interfaces
#   web.*:
#     - network.*
#     - disk.*


#####         Logging settings       #####
##########################################
# The location of the master log file
# The master log can be sent to a regular file, local path name, or network
# location. Remote logging works best when configured to use rsyslogd(8) (e.g.:
# ``file:///dev/log``), with rsyslogd(8) configured for network logging. The URI
# format is: <file|udp|tcp>://<host|socketpath>:<port-if-required>/<log-facility>
#log_file: /var/log/salt/master
#log_file: file:///dev/log
#log_file: udp://loghost:10514

#log_file: /var/log/salt/master
#key_logfile: /var/log/salt/key

# The level of messages to send to the console.
# One of 'garbage', 'trace', 'debug', info', 'warning', 'error', 'critical'.
#
# The following log levels are considered INSECURE and may log sensitive data:
# ['garbage', 'trace', 'debug']
#
#log_level: warning

# The level of messages to send to the log file.
# One of 'garbage', 'trace', 'debug', info', 'warning', 'error', 'critical'.
# If using 'log_granular_levels' this must be set to the highest desired level.
#log_level_logfile: warning

# The date and time format used in log messages. Allowed date/time formatting
# can be seen here: http://docs.python.org/library/time.html#time.strftime
#log_datefmt: '%H:%M:%S'
#log_datefmt_logfile: '%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S'

# The format of the console logging messages. Allowed formatting options can
# be seen here: http://docs.python.org/library/logging.html#logrecord-attributes
#
# Console log colors are specified by these additional formatters:
#
# %(colorlevel)s
# %(colorname)s
# %(colorprocess)s
# %(colormsg)s
#
# Since it is desirable to include the surrounding brackets, '[' and ']', in
# the coloring of the messages, these color formatters also include padding as
# well.  Color LogRecord attributes are only available for console logging.
#
#log_fmt_console: '%(colorlevel)s %(colormsg)s'
#log_fmt_console: '[%(levelname)-8s] %(message)s'
#
#log_fmt_logfile: '%(asctime)s,%(msecs)03d [%(name)-17s][%(levelname)-8s] %(message)s'

# This can be used to control logging levels more specificically.  This
# example sets the main salt library at the 'warning' level, but sets
# 'salt.modules' to log at the 'debug' level:
#   log_granular_levels:
#     'salt': 'warning'
#     'salt.modules': 'debug'
#
#log_granular_levels: {}


#####         Node Groups           ######
##########################################
# Node groups allow for logical groupings of minion nodes. A group consists of
# a group name and a compound target. Nodgroups can reference other nodegroups
# with 'N@' classifier. Ensure that you do not have circular references.
#
#nodegroups:
#  group1: 'L@foo.domain.com,bar.domain.com,baz.domain.com or bl*.domain.com'
#  group2: 'G@os:Debian and foo.domain.com'
#  group3: 'G@os:Debian and N@group1'
#  group4:
#    - 'G@foo:bar'
#    - 'or'
#    - 'G@foo:baz'


#####     Range Cluster settings     #####
##########################################
# The range server (and optional port) that serves your cluster information
# https://github.com/ytoolshed/range/wiki/%22yamlfile%22-module-file-spec
#
#range_server: range:80


#####  Windows Software Repo settings #####
###########################################
# Location of the repo on the master:
#winrepo_dir_ng: '/srv/salt/win/repo-ng'
#
# List of git repositories to include with the local repo:
#winrepo_remotes_ng:
#  - 'https://github.com/saltstack/salt-winrepo-ng.git'


#####  Windows Software Repo settings - Pre 2015.8 #####
########################################################
# Legacy repo settings for pre-2015.8 Windows minions.
#
# Location of the repo on the master:
#winrepo_dir: '/srv/salt/win/repo'
#
# Location of the master's repo cache file:
#winrepo_mastercachefile: '/srv/salt/win/repo/winrepo.p'
#
# List of git repositories to include with the local repo:
#winrepo_remotes:
#  - 'https://github.com/saltstack/salt-winrepo.git'


#####      Returner settings          ######
############################################
# Which returner(s) will be used for minion's result:
#return: mysql


######    Miscellaneous  settings     ######
############################################
# Default match type for filtering events tags: startswith, endswith, find, regex, fnmatch
#event_match_type: startswith

# Save runner returns to the job cache
#runner_returns: True

# Permanently include any available Python 3rd party modules into Salt Thin
# when they are generated for Salt-SSH or other purposes.
# The modules should be named by the names they are actually imported inside the Python.
# The value of the parameters can be either one module or a comma separated list of them.
#thin_extra_mods: foo,bar

Example minion configuration file

##### Primary configuration settings #####
##########################################
# This configuration file is used to manage the behavior of the Salt Minion.
# With the exception of the location of the Salt Master Server, values that are
# commented out but have an empty line after the comment are defaults that need
# not be set in the config. If there is no blank line after the comment, the
# value is presented as an example and is not the default.

# Per default the minion will automatically include all config files
# from minion.d/*.conf (minion.d is a directory in the same directory
# as the main minion config file).
#default_include: minion.d/*.conf

# Set the location of the salt master server. If the master server cannot be
# resolved, then the minion will fail to start.
#master: salt

# Set http proxy information for the minion when doing requests
#proxy_host:
#proxy_port:
#proxy_username:
#proxy_password:

# If multiple masters are specified in the 'master' setting, the default behavior
# is to always try to connect to them in the order they are listed. If random_master is
# set to True, the order will be randomized instead. This can be helpful in distributing
# the load of many minions executing salt-call requests, for example, from a cron job.
# If only one master is listed, this setting is ignored and a warning will be logged.
# NOTE: If master_type is set to failover, use master_shuffle instead.
#random_master: False

# Use if master_type is set to failover.
#master_shuffle: False

# Minions can connect to multiple masters simultaneously (all masters
# are "hot"), or can be configured to failover if a master becomes
# unavailable.  Multiple hot masters are configured by setting this
# value to "str".  Failover masters can be requested by setting
# to "failover".  MAKE SURE TO SET master_alive_interval if you are
# using failover.
# Setting master_type to 'disable' let's you have a running minion (with engines and
# beacons) without a master connection
# master_type: str

# Poll interval in seconds for checking if the master is still there.  Only
# respected if master_type above is "failover". To disable the interval entirely,
# set the value to -1. (This may be necessary on machines which have high numbers
# of TCP connections, such as load balancers.)
# master_alive_interval: 30

# If the minion is in multi-master mode and the master_type configuration option
# is set to "failover", this setting can be set to "True" to force the minion
# to fail back to the first master in the list if the first master is back online.
#master_failback: False

# If the minion is in multi-master mode, the "master_type" configuration is set to
# "failover", and the "master_failback" option is enabled, the master failback
# interval can be set to ping the top master with this interval, in seconds.
#master_failback_interval: 0

# Set whether the minion should connect to the master via IPv6:
#ipv6: False

# Set the number of seconds to wait before attempting to resolve
# the master hostname if name resolution fails. Defaults to 30 seconds.
# Set to zero if the minion should shutdown and not retry.
# retry_dns: 30

# Set the port used by the master reply and authentication server.
#master_port: 4506

# The user to run salt.
#user: root

# The user to run salt remote execution commands as via sudo. If this option is
# enabled then sudo will be used to change the active user executing the remote
# command. If enabled the user will need to be allowed access via the sudoers
# file for the user that the salt minion is configured to run as. The most
# common option would be to use the root user. If this option is set the user
# option should also be set to a non-root user. If migrating from a root minion
# to a non root minion the minion cache should be cleared and the minion pki
# directory will need to be changed to the ownership of the new user.
#sudo_user: root

# Specify the location of the daemon process ID file.
#pidfile: /var/run/salt-minion.pid

# The root directory prepended to these options: pki_dir, cachedir, log_file,
# sock_dir, pidfile.
#root_dir: /

# The path to the minion's configuration file.
#conf_file: /etc/salt/minion

# The directory to store the pki information in
#pki_dir: /etc/salt/pki/minion

# Explicitly declare the id for this minion to use, if left commented the id
# will be the hostname as returned by the python call: socket.getfqdn()
# Since salt uses detached ids it is possible to run multiple minions on the
# same machine but with different ids, this can be useful for salt compute
# clusters.
#id:

# Cache the minion id to a file when the minion's id is not statically defined
# in the minion config. Defaults to "True". This setting prevents potential
# problems when automatic minion id resolution changes, which can cause the
# minion to lose connection with the master. To turn off minion id caching,
# set this config to ``False``.
#minion_id_caching: True

# Append a domain to a hostname in the event that it does not exist.  This is
# useful for systems where socket.getfqdn() does not actually result in a
# FQDN (for instance, Solaris).
#append_domain:

# Custom static grains for this minion can be specified here and used in SLS
# files just like all other grains. This example sets 4 custom grains, with
# the 'roles' grain having two values that can be matched against.
#grains:
#  roles:
#    - webserver
#    - memcache
#  deployment: datacenter4
#  cabinet: 13
#  cab_u: 14-15
#
# Where cache data goes.
# This data may contain sensitive data and should be protected accordingly.
#cachedir: /var/cache/salt/minion

# Append minion_id to these directories.  Helps with
# multiple proxies and minions running on the same machine.
# Allowed elements in the list: pki_dir, cachedir, extension_modules
# Normally not needed unless running several proxies and/or minions on the same machine
# Defaults to ['cachedir'] for proxies, [] (empty list) for regular minions
#append_minionid_config_dirs:

# Verify and set permissions on configuration directories at startup.
#verify_env: True

# The minion can locally cache the return data from jobs sent to it, this
# can be a good way to keep track of jobs the minion has executed
# (on the minion side). By default this feature is disabled, to enable, set
# cache_jobs to True.
#cache_jobs: False

# Set the directory used to hold unix sockets.
#sock_dir: /var/run/salt/minion

# Set the default outputter used by the salt-call command. The default is
# "nested".
#output: nested
#
# By default output is colored. To disable colored output, set the color value
# to False.
#color: True

# Do not strip off the colored output from nested results and state outputs
# (true by default).
# strip_colors: False

# Backup files that are replaced by file.managed and file.recurse under
# 'cachedir'/file_backups relative to their original location and appended
# with a timestamp. The only valid setting is "minion". Disabled by default.
#
# Alternatively this can be specified for each file in state files:
# /etc/ssh/sshd_config:
#   file.managed:
#     - source: salt://ssh/sshd_config
#     - backup: minion
#
#backup_mode: minion

# When waiting for a master to accept the minion's public key, salt will
# continuously attempt to reconnect until successful. This is the time, in
# seconds, between those reconnection attempts.
#acceptance_wait_time: 10

# If this is nonzero, the time between reconnection attempts will increase by
# acceptance_wait_time seconds per iteration, up to this maximum. If this is
# set to zero, the time between reconnection attempts will stay constant.
#acceptance_wait_time_max: 0

# If the master rejects the minion's public key, retry instead of exiting.
# Rejected keys will be handled the same as waiting on acceptance.
#rejected_retry: False

# When the master key changes, the minion will try to re-auth itself to receive
# the new master key. In larger environments this can cause a SYN flood on the
# master because all minions try to re-auth immediately. To prevent this and
# have a minion wait for a random amount of time, use this optional parameter.
# The wait-time will be a random number of seconds between 0 and the defined value.
#random_reauth_delay: 60

# When waiting for a master to accept the minion's public key, salt will
# continuously attempt to reconnect until successful. This is the timeout value,
# in seconds, for each individual attempt. After this timeout expires, the minion
# will wait for acceptance_wait_time seconds before trying again. Unless your master
# is under unusually heavy load, this should be left at the default.
#auth_timeout: 60

# Number of consecutive SaltReqTimeoutError that are acceptable when trying to
# authenticate.
#auth_tries: 7

# The number of attempts to connect to a master before giving up.
# Set this to -1 for unlimited attempts. This allows for a master to have
# downtime and the minion to reconnect to it later when it comes back up.
# In 'failover' mode, it is the number of attempts for each set of masters.
# In this mode, it will cycle through the list of masters for each attempt.
#
# This is different than auth_tries because auth_tries attempts to
# retry auth attempts with a single master. auth_tries is under the
# assumption that you can connect to the master but not gain
# authorization from it. master_tries will still cycle through all
# the masters in a given try, so it is appropriate if you expect
# occasional downtime from the master(s).
#master_tries: 1

# If authentication fails due to SaltReqTimeoutError during a ping_interval,
# cause sub minion process to restart.
#auth_safemode: False

# Ping Master to ensure connection is alive (minutes).
#ping_interval: 0

# To auto recover minions if master changes IP address (DDNS)
#    auth_tries: 10
#    auth_safemode: False
#    ping_interval: 90
#
# Minions won't know master is missing until a ping fails. After the ping fail,
# the minion will attempt authentication and likely fails out and cause a restart.
# When the minion restarts it will resolve the masters IP and attempt to reconnect.

# If you don't have any problems with syn-floods, don't bother with the
# three recon_* settings described below, just leave the defaults!
#
# The ZeroMQ pull-socket that binds to the masters publishing interface tries
# to reconnect immediately, if the socket is disconnected (for example if
# the master processes are restarted). In large setups this will have all
# minions reconnect immediately which might flood the master (the ZeroMQ-default
# is usually a 100ms delay). To prevent this, these three recon_* settings
# can be used.
# recon_default: the interval in milliseconds that the socket should wait before
#                trying to reconnect to the master (1000ms = 1 second)
#
# recon_max: the maximum time a socket should wait. each interval the time to wait
#            is calculated by doubling the previous time. if recon_max is reached,
#            it starts again at recon_default. Short example:
#
#            reconnect 1: the socket will wait 'recon_default' milliseconds
#            reconnect 2: 'recon_default' * 2
#            reconnect 3: ('recon_default' * 2) * 2
#            reconnect 4: value from previous interval * 2
#            reconnect 5: value from previous interval * 2
#            reconnect x: if value >= recon_max, it starts again with recon_default
#
# recon_randomize: generate a random wait time on minion start. The wait time will
#                  be a random value between recon_default and recon_default +
#                  recon_max. Having all minions reconnect with the same recon_default
#                  and recon_max value kind of defeats the purpose of being able to
#                  change these settings. If all minions have the same values and your
#                  setup is quite large (several thousand minions), they will still
#                  flood the master. The desired behavior is to have timeframe within
#                  all minions try to reconnect.
#
# Example on how to use these settings. The goal: have all minions reconnect within a
# 60 second timeframe on a disconnect.
# recon_default: 1000
# recon_max: 59000
# recon_randomize: True
#
# Each minion will have a randomized reconnect value between 'recon_default'
# and 'recon_default + recon_max', which in this example means between 1000ms
# 60000ms (or between 1 and 60 seconds). The generated random-value will be
# doubled after each attempt to reconnect. Lets say the generated random
# value is 11 seconds (or 11000ms).
# reconnect 1: wait 11 seconds
# reconnect 2: wait 22 seconds
# reconnect 3: wait 33 seconds
# reconnect 4: wait 44 seconds
# reconnect 5: wait 55 seconds
# reconnect 6: wait time is bigger than 60 seconds (recon_default + recon_max)
# reconnect 7: wait 11 seconds
# reconnect 8: wait 22 seconds
# reconnect 9: wait 33 seconds
# reconnect x: etc.
#
# In a setup with ~6000 thousand hosts these settings would average the reconnects
# to about 100 per second and all hosts would be reconnected within 60 seconds.
# recon_default: 100
# recon_max: 5000
# recon_randomize: False
#
#
# The loop_interval sets how long in seconds the minion will wait between
# evaluating the scheduler and running cleanup tasks.  This defaults to 1
# second on the minion scheduler.
#loop_interval: 1

# Some installations choose to start all job returns in a cache or a returner
# and forgo sending the results back to a master. In this workflow, jobs
# are most often executed with --async from the Salt CLI and then results
# are evaluated by examining job caches on the minions or any configured returners.
# WARNING: Setting this to False will **disable** returns back to the master.
#pub_ret: True


# The grains can be merged, instead of overridden, using this option.
# This allows custom grains to defined different subvalues of a dictionary
# grain. By default this feature is disabled, to enable set grains_deep_merge
# to ``True``.
#grains_deep_merge: False

# The grains_refresh_every setting allows for a minion to periodically check
# its grains to see if they have changed and, if so, to inform the master
# of the new grains. This operation is moderately expensive, therefore
# care should be taken not to set this value too low.
#
# Note: This value is expressed in __minutes__!
#
# A value of 10 minutes is a reasonable default.
#
# If the value is set to zero, this check is disabled.
#grains_refresh_every: 1

# Cache grains on the minion. Default is False.
#grains_cache: False

# Cache rendered pillar data on the minion. Default is False.
# This may cause 'cachedir'/pillar to contain sensitive data that should be
# protected accordingly.
#minion_pillar_cache: False

# Grains cache expiration, in seconds. If the cache file is older than this
# number of seconds then the grains cache will be dumped and fully re-populated
# with fresh data. Defaults to 5 minutes. Will have no effect if 'grains_cache'
# is not enabled.
# grains_cache_expiration: 300

# Determines whether or not the salt minion should run scheduled mine updates.
# Defaults to "True". Set to "False" to disable the scheduled mine updates
# (this essentially just does not add the mine update function to the minion's
# scheduler).
#mine_enabled: True

# Determines whether or not scheduled mine updates should be accompanied by a job
# return for the job cache. Defaults to "False". Set to "True" to include job
# returns in the job cache for mine updates.
#mine_return_job: False

# Example functions that can be run via the mine facility
# NO mine functions are established by default.
# Note these can be defined in the minion's pillar as well.
#mine_functions:
#  test.ping: []
#  network.ip_addrs:
#    interface: eth0
#    cidr: '10.0.0.0/8'

# Windows platforms lack posix IPC and must rely on slower TCP based inter-
# process communications. Set ipc_mode to 'tcp' on such systems
#ipc_mode: ipc

# Overwrite the default tcp ports used by the minion when in tcp mode
#tcp_pub_port: 4510
#tcp_pull_port: 4511

# Passing very large events can cause the minion to consume large amounts of
# memory. This value tunes the maximum size of a message allowed onto the
# minion event bus. The value is expressed in bytes.
#max_event_size: 1048576

# To detect failed master(s) and fire events on connect/disconnect, set
# master_alive_interval to the number of seconds to poll the masters for
# connection events.
#
#master_alive_interval: 30

# The minion can include configuration from other files. To enable this,
# pass a list of paths to this option. The paths can be either relative or
# absolute; if relative, they are considered to be relative to the directory
# the main minion configuration file lives in (this file). Paths can make use
# of shell-style globbing. If no files are matched by a path passed to this
# option then the minion will log a warning message.
#
# Include a config file from some other path:
# include: /etc/salt/extra_config
#
# Include config from several files and directories:
#include:
#  - /etc/salt/extra_config
#  - /etc/roles/webserver

# The syndic minion can verify that it is talking to the correct master via the
# key fingerprint of the higher-level master with the "syndic_finger" config.
#syndic_finger: ''
#
#
#
#####   Minion module management     #####
##########################################
# Disable specific modules. This allows the admin to limit the level of
# access the master has to the minion.  The default here is the empty list,
# below is an example of how this needs to be formatted in the config file
#disable_modules:
#  - cmdmod
#  - test
#disable_returners: []

# This is the reverse of disable_modules.  The default, like disable_modules, is the empty list,
# but if this option is set to *anything* then *only* those modules will load.
# Note that this is a very large hammer and it can be quite difficult to keep the minion working
# the way you think it should since Salt uses many modules internally itself.  At a bare minimum
# you need the following enabled or else the minion won't start.
#whitelist_modules:
#  - cmdmod
#  - test
#  - config

# Modules can be loaded from arbitrary paths. This enables the easy deployment
# of third party modules. Modules for returners and minions can be loaded.
# Specify a list of extra directories to search for minion modules and
# returners. These paths must be fully qualified!
#module_dirs: []
#returner_dirs: []
#states_dirs: []
#render_dirs: []
#utils_dirs: []
#
# A module provider can be statically overwritten or extended for the minion
# via the providers option, in this case the default module will be
# overwritten by the specified module. In this example the pkg module will
# be provided by the yumpkg5 module instead of the system default.
#providers:
#  pkg: yumpkg5
#
# Enable Cython modules searching and loading. (Default: False)
#cython_enable: False
#
# Specify a max size (in bytes) for modules on import. This feature is currently
# only supported on *nix operating systems and requires psutil.
# modules_max_memory: -1


#####    State Management Settings    #####
###########################################
# The state management system executes all of the state templates on the minion
# to enable more granular control of system state management. The type of
# template and serialization used for state management needs to be configured
# on the minion, the default renderer is yaml_jinja. This is a yaml file
# rendered from a jinja template, the available options are:
# yaml_jinja
# yaml_mako
# yaml_wempy
# json_jinja
# json_mako
# json_wempy
#
#renderer: yaml_jinja
#
# The failhard option tells the minions to stop immediately after the first
# failure detected in the state execution. Defaults to False.
#failhard: False
#
# Reload the modules prior to a highstate run.
#autoload_dynamic_modules: True
#
# clean_dynamic_modules keeps the dynamic modules on the minion in sync with
# the dynamic modules on the master, this means that if a dynamic module is
# not on the master it will be deleted from the minion. By default, this is
# enabled and can be disabled by changing this value to False.
#clean_dynamic_modules: True
#
# Normally, the minion is not isolated to any single environment on the master
# when running states, but the environment can be isolated on the minion side
# by statically setting it. Remember that the recommended way to manage
# environments is to isolate via the top file.
#environment: None
#
# Isolates the pillar environment on the minion side. This functions the same
# as the environment setting, but for pillar instead of states.
#pillarenv: None
#
# Set this option to 'True' to force a 'KeyError' to be raised whenever an
# attempt to retrieve a named value from pillar fails. When this option is set
# to 'False', the failed attempt returns an empty string. Default is 'False'.
#pillar_raise_on_missing: False
#
# If using the local file directory, then the state top file name needs to be
# defined, by default this is top.sls.
#state_top: top.sls
#
# Run states when the minion daemon starts. To enable, set startup_states to:
# 'highstate' -- Execute state.highstate
# 'sls' -- Read in the sls_list option and execute the named sls files
# 'top' -- Read top_file option and execute based on that file on the Master
#startup_states: ''
#
# List of states to run when the minion starts up if startup_states is 'sls':
#sls_list:
#  - edit.vim
#  - hyper
#
# Top file to execute if startup_states is 'top':
#top_file: ''

# Automatically aggregate all states that have support for mod_aggregate by
# setting to True. Or pass a list of state module names to automatically
# aggregate just those types.
#
# state_aggregate:
#   - pkg
#
#state_aggregate: False

#####     File Directory Settings    #####
##########################################
# The Salt Minion can redirect all file server operations to a local directory,
# this allows for the same state tree that is on the master to be used if
# copied completely onto the minion. This is a literal copy of the settings on
# the master but used to reference a local directory on the minion.

# Set the file client. The client defaults to looking on the master server for
# files, but can be directed to look at the local file directory setting
# defined below by setting it to "local". Setting a local file_client runs the
# minion in masterless mode.
#file_client: remote

# The file directory works on environments passed to the minion, each environment
# can have multiple root directories, the subdirectories in the multiple file
# roots cannot match, otherwise the downloaded files will not be able to be
# reliably ensured. A base environment is required to house the top file.
# Example:
# file_roots:
#   base:
#     - /srv/salt/
#   dev:
#     - /srv/salt/dev/services
#     - /srv/salt/dev/states
#   prod:
#     - /srv/salt/prod/services
#     - /srv/salt/prod/states
#
#file_roots:
#  base:
#    - /srv/salt

# Uncomment the line below if you do not want the file_server to follow
# symlinks when walking the filesystem tree. This is set to True
# by default. Currently this only applies to the default roots
# fileserver_backend.
#fileserver_followsymlinks: False
#
# Uncomment the line below if you do not want symlinks to be
# treated as the files they are pointing to. By default this is set to
# False. By uncommenting the line below, any detected symlink while listing
# files on the Master will not be returned to the Minion.
#fileserver_ignoresymlinks: True
#
# By default, the Salt fileserver recurses fully into all defined environments
# to attempt to find files. To limit this behavior so that the fileserver only
# traverses directories with SLS files and special Salt directories like _modules,
# enable the option below. This might be useful for installations where a file root
# has a very large number of files and performance is negatively impacted. Default
# is False.
#fileserver_limit_traversal: False

# The hash_type is the hash to use when discovering the hash of a file on
# the local fileserver. The default is md5, but sha1, sha224, sha256, sha384
# and sha512 are also supported.
#
# WARNING: While md5 and sha1 are also supported, do not use it due to the high chance
# of possible collisions and thus security breach.
#
# WARNING: While md5 is also supported, do not use it due to the high chance
# of possible collisions and thus security breach.
#
# Warning: Prior to changing this value, the minion should be stopped and all
# Salt caches should be cleared.
#hash_type: sha256

# The Salt pillar is searched for locally if file_client is set to local. If
# this is the case, and pillar data is defined, then the pillar_roots need to
# also be configured on the minion:
#pillar_roots:
#  base:
#    - /srv/pillar

# Set a hard-limit on the size of the files that can be pushed to the master.
# It will be interpreted as megabytes. Default: 100
#file_recv_max_size: 100
#
#
######        Security settings       #####
###########################################
# Enable "open mode", this mode still maintains encryption, but turns off
# authentication, this is only intended for highly secure environments or for
# the situation where your keys end up in a bad state. If you run in open mode
# you do so at your own risk!
#open_mode: False

# Enable permissive access to the salt keys.  This allows you to run the
# master or minion as root, but have a non-root group be given access to
# your pki_dir.  To make the access explicit, root must belong to the group
# you've given access to. This is potentially quite insecure.
#permissive_pki_access: False

# The state_verbose and state_output settings can be used to change the way
# state system data is printed to the display. By default all data is printed.
# The state_verbose setting can be set to True or False, when set to False
# all data that has a result of True and no changes will be suppressed.
#state_verbose: True

# The state_output setting changes if the output is the full multi line
# output for each changed state if set to 'full', but if set to 'terse'
# the output will be shortened to a single line.
#state_output: full

# The state_output_diff setting changes whether or not the output from
# successful states is returned. Useful when even the terse output of these
# states is cluttering the logs. Set it to True to ignore them.
#state_output_diff: False

# The state_output_profile setting changes whether profile information
# will be shown for each state run.
#state_output_profile: True

# Fingerprint of the master public key to validate the identity of your Salt master
# before the initial key exchange. The master fingerprint can be found by running
# "salt-key -f master.pub" on the Salt master.
#master_finger: ''


######         Thread settings        #####
###########################################
# Disable multiprocessing support, by default when a minion receives a
# publication a new process is spawned and the command is executed therein.
#multiprocessing: True


#####         Logging settings       #####
##########################################
# The location of the minion log file
# The minion log can be sent to a regular file, local path name, or network
# location. Remote logging works best when configured to use rsyslogd(8) (e.g.:
# ``file:///dev/log``), with rsyslogd(8) configured for network logging. The URI
# format is: <file|udp|tcp>://<host|socketpath>:<port-if-required>/<log-facility>
#log_file: /var/log/salt/minion
#log_file: file:///dev/log
#log_file: udp://loghost:10514
#
#log_file: /var/log/salt/minion
#key_logfile: /var/log/salt/key

# The level of messages to send to the console.
# One of 'garbage', 'trace', 'debug', info', 'warning', 'error', 'critical'.
#
# The following log levels are considered INSECURE and may log sensitive data:
# ['garbage', 'trace', 'debug']
#
# Default: 'warning'
#log_level: warning

# The level of messages to send to the log file.
# One of 'garbage', 'trace', 'debug', info', 'warning', 'error', 'critical'.
# If using 'log_granular_levels' this must be set to the highest desired level.
# Default: 'warning'
#log_level_logfile:

# The date and time format used in log messages. Allowed date/time formatting
# can be seen here: http://docs.python.org/library/time.html#time.strftime
#log_datefmt: '%H:%M:%S'
#log_datefmt_logfile: '%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S'

# The format of the console logging messages. Allowed formatting options can
# be seen here: http://docs.python.org/library/logging.html#logrecord-attributes
#
# Console log colors are specified by these additional formatters:
#
# %(colorlevel)s
# %(colorname)s
# %(colorprocess)s
# %(colormsg)s
#
# Since it is desirable to include the surrounding brackets, '[' and ']', in
# the coloring of the messages, these color formatters also include padding as
# well.  Color LogRecord attributes are only available for console logging.
#
#log_fmt_console: '%(colorlevel)s %(colormsg)s'
#log_fmt_console: '[%(levelname)-8s] %(message)s'
#
#log_fmt_logfile: '%(asctime)s,%(msecs)03d [%(name)-17s][%(levelname)-8s] %(message)s'

# This can be used to control logging levels more specificically.  This
# example sets the main salt library at the 'warning' level, but sets
# 'salt.modules' to log at the 'debug' level:
#   log_granular_levels:
#     'salt': 'warning'
#     'salt.modules': 'debug'
#
#log_granular_levels: {}

# To diagnose issues with minions disconnecting or missing returns, ZeroMQ
# supports the use of monitor sockets to log connection events. This
# feature requires ZeroMQ 4.0 or higher.
#
# To enable ZeroMQ monitor sockets, set 'zmq_monitor' to 'True' and log at a
# debug level or higher.
#
# A sample log event is as follows:
#
# [DEBUG   ] ZeroMQ event: {'endpoint': 'tcp://127.0.0.1:4505', 'event': 512,
# 'value': 27, 'description': 'EVENT_DISCONNECTED'}
#
# All events logged will include the string 'ZeroMQ event'. A connection event
# should be logged as the minion starts up and initially connects to the
# master. If not, check for debug log level and that the necessary version of
# ZeroMQ is installed.
#
#zmq_monitor: False

######      Module configuration      #####
###########################################
# Salt allows for modules to be passed arbitrary configuration data, any data
# passed here in valid yaml format will be passed on to the salt minion modules
# for use. It is STRONGLY recommended that a naming convention be used in which
# the module name is followed by a . and then the value. Also, all top level
# data must be applied via the yaml dict construct, some examples:
#
# You can specify that all modules should run in test mode:
#test: True
#
# A simple value for the test module:
#test.foo: foo
#
# A list for the test module:
#test.bar: [baz,quo]
#
# A dict for the test module:
#test.baz: {spam: sausage, cheese: bread}
#
#
######      Update settings          ######
###########################################
# Using the features in Esky, a salt minion can both run as a frozen app and
# be updated on the fly. These options control how the update process
# (saltutil.update()) behaves.
#
# The url for finding and downloading updates. Disabled by default.
#update_url: False
#
# The list of services to restart after a successful update. Empty by default.
#update_restart_services: []


######      Keepalive settings        ######
############################################
# ZeroMQ now includes support for configuring SO_KEEPALIVE if supported by
# the OS. If connections between the minion and the master pass through
# a state tracking device such as a firewall or VPN gateway, there is
# the risk that it could tear down the connection the master and minion
# without informing either party that their connection has been taken away.
# Enabling TCP Keepalives prevents this from happening.

# Overall state of TCP Keepalives, enable (1 or True), disable (0 or False)
# or leave to the OS defaults (-1), on Linux, typically disabled. Default True, enabled.
#tcp_keepalive: True

# How long before the first keepalive should be sent in seconds. Default 300
# to send the first keepalive after 5 minutes, OS default (-1) is typically 7200 seconds
# on Linux see /proc/sys/net/ipv4/tcp_keepalive_time.
#tcp_keepalive_idle: 300

# How many lost probes are needed to consider the connection lost. Default -1
# to use OS defaults, typically 9 on Linux, see /proc/sys/net/ipv4/tcp_keepalive_probes.
#tcp_keepalive_cnt: -1

# How often, in seconds, to send keepalives after the first one. Default -1 to
# use OS defaults, typically 75 seconds on Linux, see
# /proc/sys/net/ipv4/tcp_keepalive_intvl.
#tcp_keepalive_intvl: -1


######   Windows Software settings    ######
############################################
# Location of the repository cache file on the master:
#win_repo_cachefile: 'salt://win/repo/winrepo.p'


######      Returner  settings        ######
############################################
# Which returner(s) will be used for minion's result:
#return: mysql


######    Miscellaneous  settings     ######
############################################
# Default match type for filtering events tags: startswith, endswith, find, regex, fnmatch
#event_match_type: startswith

Minion Blackout Configuration

New in version 2016.3.0.

Salt supports minion blackouts. When a minion is in blackout mode, all remote execution commands are disabled. This allows production minions to be put "on hold", eliminating the risk of an untimely configuration change.

Minion blackouts are configured via a special pillar key, minion_blackout. If this key is set to True, then the minion will reject all incoming commands, except for saltutil.refresh_pillar. (The exception is important, so minions can be brought out of blackout mode)

Salt also supports an explicit whitelist of additional functions that will be allowed during blackout. This is configured with the special pillar key minion_blackout_whitelist, which is formed as a list:

minion_blackout_whitelist:
  - test.ping
  - pillar.get

Access Control System

New in version 0.10.4.

Salt maintains a standard system used to open granular control to non administrative users to execute Salt commands. The access control system has been applied to all systems used to configure access to non administrative control interfaces in Salt.

These interfaces include, the peer system, the external auth system and the publisher acl system.

The access control system mandated a standard configuration syntax used in all of the three aforementioned systems. While this adds functionality to the configuration in 0.10.4, it does not negate the old configuration.

Now specific functions can be opened up to specific minions from specific users in the case of external auth and publisher ACLs, and for specific minions in the case of the peer system.

Publisher ACL system

The salt publisher ACL system is a means to allow system users other than root to have access to execute select salt commands on minions from the master.

The publisher ACL system is configured in the master configuration file via the publisher_acl configuration option. Under the publisher_acl configuration option the users open to send commands are specified and then a list of regular expressions which specify the minion functions which will be made available to specified user. This configuration is much like the peer configuration:

publisher_acl:
  # Allow thatch to execute anything.
  thatch:
    - .*
  # Allow fred to use test and pkg, but only on "web*" minions.
  fred:
    - web*:
      - test.*
      - pkg.*

WARNING: client_acl and client_acl_blacklist options are deprecated and will be removed in the future releases. Use publisher_acl and publisher_acl_blacklist instead.

Permission Issues

Directories required for publisher_acl must be modified to be readable by the users specified:

chmod 755 /var/cache/salt /var/cache/salt/master /var/cache/salt/master/jobs /var/run/salt /var/run/salt/master

NOTE:

In addition to the changes above you will also need to modify the permissions of /var/log/salt and the existing log file to be writable by the user(s) which will be running the commands. If you do not wish to do this then you must disable logging or Salt will generate errors as it cannot write to the logs as the system users.

If you are upgrading from earlier versions of salt you must also remove any existing user keys and re-start the Salt master:

rm /var/cache/salt/.*key
service salt-master restart

Whitelist and Blacklist

Salt's authentication systems can be configured by specifying what is allowed using a whitelist, or by specifying what is disallowed using a blacklist. If you specify a whitelist, only specified operations are allowed. If you specify a blacklist, all operations are allowed except those that are blacklisted.

See publisher_acl and publisher_acl_blacklist.

External Authentication System

Salt's External Authentication System (eAuth) allows for Salt to pass through command authorization to any external authentication system, such as PAM or LDAP.

NOTE:

eAuth using the PAM external auth system requires salt-master to be run as root as this system needs root access to check authentication.

External Authentication System Configuration

The external authentication system allows for specific users to be granted access to execute specific functions on specific minions. Access is configured in the master configuration file and uses the access control system:

external_auth:
  pam:
    thatch:
      - 'web*':
        - test.*
        - network.*
    steve:
      - .*

The above configuration allows the user thatch to execute functions in the test and network modules on the minions that match the web* target. User steve is given unrestricted access to minion commands.

Salt respects the current PAM configuration in place, and uses the 'login' service to authenticate.

NOTE:

The PAM module does not allow authenticating as root.

NOTE:

state.sls and state.highstate will return "Failed to authenticate!" if the request timeout is reached. Use -t flag to increase the timeout

To allow access to wheel modules or runner modules the following @ syntax must be used:

external_auth:
  pam:
    thatch:
      - '@wheel'   # to allow access to all wheel modules
      - '@runner'  # to allow access to all runner modules
      - '@jobs'    # to allow access to the jobs runner and/or wheel module

NOTE:

The runner/wheel markup is different, since there are no minions to scope the acl to.

NOTE:

Globs will not match wheel or runners! They must be explicitly allowed with @wheel or @runner.

WARNING:

All users that have external authentication privileges are allowed to run saltutil.findjob. Be aware that this could inadvertently expose some data such as minion IDs.

Matching syntax

The structure of the external_auth dictionary can take the following shapes. Function matches are regular expressions; minion matches are compound targets.

By user:

external_auth:
  <eauth backend>:
    <user or group%>:
      - <regex to match function>

By user, by minion:

external_auth:
  <eauth backend>:
    <user or group%>:
      <minion compound target>:
        - <regex to match function>

Groups

To apply permissions to a group of users in an external authentication system, append a % to the ID:

external_auth:
  pam:
    admins%:
      - '*':
        - 'pkg.*'

Limiting by function arguments

Positional arguments or keyword arguments to functions can also be whitelisted.

New in version 2016.3.0.

external_auth:
  pam:
    my_user:
      - '*':
        - 'my_mod.*':
          args:
            - 'a.*'
            - 'b.*'
          kwargs:
            'kwa': 'kwa.*'
            'kwb': 'kwb'

The rules:

1.
The arguments values are matched as regexp.
2.
If arguments restrictions are specified the only matched are allowed.
3.
If an argument isn't specified any value is allowed.
4.

To skip an arg use "everything" regexp .*. I.e. if arg0 and arg2 should be limited but arg1 and other arguments could have any value use:

args:
  - 'value0'
  - '.*'
  - 'value2'

Usage

The external authentication system can then be used from the command-line by any user on the same system as the master with the -a option:

$ salt -a pam web\* test.ping

The system will ask the user for the credentials required by the authentication system and then publish the command.

Tokens

With external authentication alone, the authentication credentials will be required with every call to Salt. This can be alleviated with Salt tokens.

Tokens are short term authorizations and can be easily created by just adding a -T option when authenticating:

$ salt -T -a pam web\* test.ping

Now a token will be created that has an expiration of 12 hours (by default). This token is stored in a file named salt_token in the active user's home directory.

Once the token is created, it is sent with all subsequent communications. User authentication does not need to be entered again until the token expires.

Token expiration time can be set in the Salt master config file.

LDAP and Active Directory

NOTE:

LDAP usage requires that you have installed python-ldap.

Salt supports both user and group authentication for LDAP (and Active Directory accessed via its LDAP interface)

OpenLDAP and similar systems

LDAP configuration happens in the Salt master configuration file.

Server configuration values and their defaults:

# Server to auth against
auth.ldap.server: localhost

# Port to connect via
auth.ldap.port: 389

# Use TLS when connecting
auth.ldap.tls: False

# LDAP scope level, almost always 2
auth.ldap.scope: 2

# Server specified in URI format
auth.ldap.uri: ''    # Overrides .ldap.server, .ldap.port, .ldap.tls above

# Verify server's TLS certificate
auth.ldap.no_verify: False

# Bind to LDAP anonymously to determine group membership
# Active Directory does not allow anonymous binds without special configuration
auth.ldap.anonymous: False

# FOR TESTING ONLY, this is a VERY insecure setting.
# If this is True, the LDAP bind password will be ignored and
# access will be determined by group membership alone with
# the group memberships being retrieved via anonymous bind
auth.ldap.auth_by_group_membership_only: False

# Require authenticating user to be part of this Organizational Unit
# This can be blank if your LDAP schema does not use this kind of OU
auth.ldap.groupou: 'Groups'

# Object Class for groups.  An LDAP search will be done to find all groups of this
# class to which the authenticating user belongs.
auth.ldap.groupclass: 'posixGroup'

# Unique ID attribute name for the user
auth.ldap.accountattributename: 'memberUid'

# These are only for Active Directory
auth.ldap.activedirectory: False
auth.ldap.persontype: 'person'

auth.ldap.minion_stripdomains: []

There are two phases to LDAP authentication. First, Salt authenticates to search for a users' Distinguished Name and group membership. The user it authenticates as in this phase is often a special LDAP system user with read-only access to the LDAP directory. After Salt searches the directory to determine the actual user's DN and groups, it re-authenticates as the user running the Salt commands.

If you are already aware of the structure of your DNs and permissions in your LDAP store are set such that users can look up their own group memberships, then the first and second users can be the same. To tell Salt this is the case, omit the auth.ldap.bindpw parameter. You can template the binddn like this:

auth.ldap.basedn: dc=saltstack,dc=com
auth.ldap.binddn: uid={{ username }},cn=users,cn=accounts,dc=saltstack,dc=com

Salt will use the password entered on the salt command line in place of the bindpw.

To use two separate users, specify the LDAP lookup user in the binddn directive, and include a bindpw like so

auth.ldap.binddn: uid=ldaplookup,cn=sysaccounts,cn=etc,dc=saltstack,dc=com
auth.ldap.bindpw: mypassword

As mentioned before, Salt uses a filter to find the DN associated with a user. Salt substitutes the {{ username }} value for the username when querying LDAP

auth.ldap.filter: uid={{ username }}

For OpenLDAP, to determine group membership, one can specify an OU that contains group data. This is prepended to the basedn to create a search path. Then the results are filtered against auth.ldap.groupclass, default posixGroup, and the account's 'name' attribute, memberUid by default.

auth.ldap.groupou: Groups

When using the ldap('DC=domain,DC=com') eauth operator, sometimes the records returned from LDAP or Active Directory have fully-qualified domain names attached, while minion IDs instead are simple hostnames. The parameter below allows the administrator to strip off a certain set of domain names so the hostnames looked up in the directory service can match the minion IDs.

auth.ldap.minion_stripdomains: ['.external.bigcorp.com', '.internal.bigcorp.com']

Active Directory

Active Directory handles group membership differently, and does not utilize the groupou configuration variable. AD needs the following options in the master config:

auth.ldap.activedirectory: True
auth.ldap.filter: sAMAccountName={{username}}
auth.ldap.accountattributename: sAMAccountName
auth.ldap.groupclass: group
auth.ldap.persontype: person

To determine group membership in AD, the username and password that is entered when LDAP is requested as the eAuth mechanism on the command line is used to bind to AD's LDAP interface. If this fails, then it doesn't matter what groups the user belongs to, he or she is denied access. Next, the distinguishedName of the user is looked up with the following LDAP search:

(&(<value of auth.ldap.accountattributename>={{username}})
  (objectClass=<value of auth.ldap.persontype>)
)

This should return a distinguishedName that we can use to filter for group membership. Then the following LDAP query is executed:

(&(member=<distinguishedName from search above>)
  (objectClass=<value of auth.ldap.groupclass>)
)
external_auth:
  ldap:
    test_ldap_user:
        - '*':
            - test.ping

To configure a LDAP group, append a % to the ID:

external_auth:
  ldap:
    test_ldap_group%:
      - '*':
        - test.echo

In addition, if there are a set of computers in the directory service that should be part of the eAuth definition, they can be specified like this:

external_auth:
  ldap:
    test_ldap_group%:
      - ldap('DC=corp,DC=example,DC=com'):
        - test.echo

The string inside ldap() above is any valid LDAP/AD tree limiter. OU= in particular is permitted as long as it would return a list of computer objects.

Peer Communication

Salt 0.9.0 introduced the capability for Salt minions to publish commands. The intent of this feature is not for Salt minions to act as independent brokers one with another, but to allow Salt minions to pass commands to each other.

In Salt 0.10.0 the ability to execute runners from the master was added. This allows for the master to return collective data from runners back to the minions via the peer interface.

The peer interface is configured through two options in the master configuration file. For minions to send commands from the master the peer configuration is used. To allow for minions to execute runners from the master the peer_run configuration is used.

Since this presents a viable security risk by allowing minions access to the master publisher the capability is turned off by default. The minions can be allowed access to the master publisher on a per minion basis based on regular expressions. Minions with specific ids can be allowed access to certain Salt modules and functions.

Peer Configuration

The configuration is done under the peer setting in the Salt master configuration file, here are a number of configuration possibilities.

The simplest approach is to enable all communication for all minions, this is only recommended for very secure environments.

peer:
  .*:
    - .*

This configuration will allow minions with IDs ending in example.com access to the test, ps, and pkg module functions.

peer:
  .*example.com:
    - test.*
    - ps.*
    - pkg.*

The configuration logic is simple, a regular expression is passed for matching minion ids, and then a list of expressions matching minion functions is associated with the named minion. For instance, this configuration will also allow minions ending with foo.org access to the publisher.

peer:
  .*example.com:
    - test.*
    - ps.*
    - pkg.*
  .*foo.org:
    - test.*
    - ps.*
    - pkg.*

NOTE:

Functions are matched using regular expressions.

Peer Runner Communication

Configuration to allow minions to execute runners from the master is done via the peer_run option on the master. The peer_run configuration follows the same logic as the peer option. The only difference is that access is granted to runner modules.

To open up access to all minions to all runners:

peer_run:
  .*:
    - .*

This configuration will allow minions with IDs ending in example.com access to the manage and jobs runner functions.

peer_run:
  .*example.com:
    - manage.*
    - jobs.*

NOTE:

Functions are matched using regular expressions.

Using Peer Communication

The publish module was created to manage peer communication. The publish module comes with a number of functions to execute peer communication in different ways. Currently there are three functions in the publish module. These examples will show how to test the peer system via the salt-call command.

To execute test.ping on all minions:

# salt-call publish.publish \* test.ping

To execute the manage.up runner:

# salt-call publish.runner manage.up

To match minions using other matchers, use expr_form:

# salt-call publish.publish 'webserv* and not G@os:Ubuntu' test.ping expr_form='compound'

When to Use Each Authentication System

publisher_acl is useful for allowing local system users to run Salt commands without giving them root access. If you can log into the Salt master directly, then publisher_acl allows you to use Salt without root privileges. If the local system is configured to authenticate against a remote system, like LDAP or Active Directory, then publisher_acl will interact with the remote system transparently.

external_auth is useful for salt-api or for making your own scripts that use Salt's Python API. It can be used at the CLI (with the -a flag) but it is more cumbersome as there are more steps involved. The only time it is useful at the CLI is when the local system is not configured to authenticate against an external service but you still want Salt to authenticate against an external service.

Examples

The access controls are manifested using matchers in these configurations:

publisher_acl:
  fred:
    - web\*:
      - pkg.list_pkgs
      - test.*
      - apache.*

In the above example, fred is able to send commands only to minions which match the specified glob target. This can be expanded to include other functions for other minions based on standard targets (all matchers are supported except the compound one).

external_auth:
  pam:
    dave:
      - test.ping
      - mongo\*:
        - network.*
      - log\*:
        - network.*
        - pkg.*
      - 'G@os:RedHat':
        - kmod.*
    steve:
      - .*

The above allows for all minions to be hit by test.ping by dave, and adds a few functions that dave can execute on other minions. It also allows steve unrestricted access to salt commands.

NOTE:

Functions are matched using regular expressions.

Job Management

New in version 0.9.7.

Since Salt executes jobs running on many systems, Salt needs to be able to manage jobs running on many systems.

The Minion proc System

Salt Minions maintain a proc directory in the Salt cachedir. The proc directory maintains files named after the executed job ID. These files contain the information about the current running jobs on the minion and allow for jobs to be looked up. This is located in the proc directory under the cachedir, with a default configuration it is under /var/cache/salt/proc.

Functions in the saltutil Module

Salt 0.9.7 introduced a few new functions to the saltutil module for managing jobs. These functions are:

1.
running Returns the data of all running jobs that are found in the proc directory.
2.
find_job Returns specific data about a certain job based on job id.
3.
signal_job Allows for a given jid to be sent a signal.
4.
term_job Sends a termination signal (SIGTERM, 15) to the process controlling the specified job.
5.
kill_job Sends a kill signal (SIGKILL, 9) to the process controlling the specified job.

These functions make up the core of the back end used to manage jobs at the minion level.

The jobs Runner

A convenience runner front end and reporting system has been added as well. The jobs runner contains functions to make viewing data easier and cleaner.

The jobs runner contains a number of functions...

active

The active function runs saltutil.running on all minions and formats the return data about all running jobs in a much more usable and compact format. The active function will also compare jobs that have returned and jobs that are still running, making it easier to see what systems have completed a job and what systems are still being waited on.

# salt-run jobs.active

lookup_jid

When jobs are executed the return data is sent back to the master and cached. By default it is cached for 24 hours, but this can be configured via the keep_jobs option in the master configuration. Using the lookup_jid runner will display the same return data that the initial job invocation with the salt command would display.

# salt-run jobs.lookup_jid <job id number>

list_jobs

Before finding a historic job, it may be required to find the job id. list_jobs will parse the cached execution data and display all of the job data for jobs that have already, or partially returned.

# salt-run jobs.list_jobs

Scheduling Jobs

Salt's scheduling system allows incremental executions on minions or the master. The schedule system exposes the execution of any execution function on minions or any runner on the master.

Scheduling can be enabled by multiple methods:

·
schedule option in either the master or minion config files. These require the master or minion application to be restarted in order for the schedule to be implemented.
·
Minion pillar data. Schedule is implemented by refreshing the minion's pillar data, for example by using saltutil.refresh_pillar.
·
The schedule state or schedule module

NOTE:

The scheduler executes different functions on the master and minions. When running on the master the functions reference runner functions, when running on the minion the functions specify execution functions.

A scheduled run has no output on the minion unless the config is set to info level or higher. Refer to minion-logging-settings.

States are executed on the minion, as all states are. You can pass positional arguments and provide a YAML dict of named arguments.

schedule:
  job1:
    function: state.sls
    seconds: 3600
    args:
      - httpd
    kwargs:
      test: True

This will schedule the command: state.sls httpd test=True every 3600 seconds (every hour).

schedule:
  job1:
    function: state.sls
    seconds: 3600
    args:
      - httpd
    kwargs:
      test: True
    splay: 15

This will schedule the command: state.sls httpd test=True every 3600 seconds (every hour) splaying the time between 0 and 15 seconds.

schedule:
  job1:
    function: state.sls
    seconds: 3600
    args:
      - httpd
    kwargs:
      test: True
    splay:
      start: 10
      end: 15

This will schedule the command: state.sls httpd test=True every 3600 seconds (every hour) splaying the time between 10 and 15 seconds.

Schedule by Date and Time

New in version 2014.7.0.

Frequency of jobs can also be specified using date strings supported by the Python dateutil library. This requires the Python dateutil library to be installed.

schedule:
  job1:
    function: state.sls
    args:
      - httpd
    kwargs:
      test: True
    when: 5:00pm

This will schedule the command: state.sls httpd test=True at 5:00 PM minion localtime.

schedule:
  job1:
    function: state.sls
    args:
      - httpd
    kwargs:
      test: True
    when:
      - Monday 5:00pm
      - Tuesday 3:00pm
      - Wednesday 5:00pm
      - Thursday 3:00pm
      - Friday 5:00pm

This will schedule the command: state.sls httpd test=True at 5:00 PM on Monday, Wednesday and Friday, and 3:00 PM on Tuesday and Thursday.

schedule:
  job1:
    function: state.sls
    seconds: 3600
    args:
      - httpd
    kwargs:
      test: True
    range:
      start: 8:00am
      end: 5:00pm

This will schedule the command: state.sls httpd test=True every 3600 seconds (every hour) between the hours of 8:00 AM and 5:00 PM. The range parameter must be a dictionary with the date strings using the dateutil format.

schedule:
  job1:
    function: state.sls
    seconds: 3600
    args:
      - httpd
    kwargs:
      test: True
    range:
      invert: True
      start: 8:00am
      end: 5:00pm

Using the invert option for range, this will schedule the command state.sls httpd test=True every 3600 seconds (every hour) until the current time is between the hours of 8:00 AM and 5:00 PM. The range parameter must be a dictionary with the date strings using the dateutil format.

schedule:
  job1:
    function: pkg.install
    kwargs:
      pkgs: [{'bar': '>1.2.3'}]
      refresh: true
    once: '2016-01-07T14:30:00'

This will schedule the function pkg.install to be executed once at the specified time. The schedule entry job1 will not be removed after the job completes, therefore use schedule.delete to manually remove it afterwards.

The default date format is ISO 8601 but can be overridden by also specifying the once_fmt option, like this:

schedule:
  job1:
    function: test.ping
    once: 2015-04-22T20:21:00
    once_fmt: '%Y-%m-%dT%H:%M:%S'

Maximum Parallel Jobs Running

New in version 2014.7.0.

The scheduler also supports ensuring that there are no more than N copies of a particular routine running. Use this for jobs that may be long-running and could step on each other or pile up in case of infrastructure outage.

The default for maxrunning is 1.

schedule:
  long_running_job:
    function: big_file_transfer
    jid_include: True
    maxrunning: 1

Cron-like Schedule

New in version 2014.7.0.

schedule:
  job1:
    function: state.sls
    cron: '*/15 * * * *'
    args:
      - httpd
    kwargs:
      test: True

The scheduler also supports scheduling jobs using a cron like format. This requires the Python croniter library.

Job Data Return

New in version 2015.5.0.

By default, data about jobs runs from the Salt scheduler is returned to the master. Setting the return_job parameter to False will prevent the data from being sent back to the Salt master.

schedule:
  job1:
    function: scheduled_job_function
    return_job: False

Job Metadata

New in version 2015.5.0.

It can be useful to include specific data to differentiate a job from other jobs. Using the metadata parameter special values can be associated with a scheduled job. These values are not used in the execution of the job, but can be used to search for specific jobs later if combined with the return_job parameter. The metadata parameter must be specified as a dictionary, othewise it will be ignored.

schedule:
  job1:
    function: scheduled_job_function
    metadata:
      foo: bar

Run on Start

New in version 2015.5.0.

By default, any job scheduled based on the startup time of the minion will run the scheduled job when the minion starts up. Sometimes this is not the desired situation. Using the run_on_start parameter set to False will cause the scheduler to skip this first run and wait until the next scheduled run:

schedule:
  job1:
    function: state.sls
    seconds: 3600
    run_on_start: False
    args:
      - httpd
    kwargs:
      test: True

Until and After

New in version 2015.8.0.

schedule:
  job1:
    function: state.sls
    seconds: 15
    until: '12/31/2015 11:59pm'
    args:
      - httpd
    kwargs:
      test: True

Using the until argument, the Salt scheduler allows you to specify an end time for a scheduled job. If this argument is specified, jobs will not run once the specified time has passed. Time should be specified in a format supported by the dateutil library. This requires the Python dateutil library to be installed.

New in version 2015.8.0.

schedule:
  job1:
    function: state.sls
    seconds: 15
    after: '12/31/2015 11:59pm'
    args:
      - httpd
    kwargs:
      test: True

Using the after argument, the Salt scheduler allows you to specify an start time for a scheduled job. If this argument is specified, jobs will not run until the specified time has passed. Time should be specified in a format supported by the dateutil library. This requires the Python dateutil library to be installed.

Scheduling States

schedule:
  log-loadavg:
    function: cmd.run
    seconds: 3660
    args:
      - 'logger -t salt < /proc/loadavg'
    kwargs:
      stateful: False
      shell: /bin/sh

Scheduling Highstates

To set up a highstate to run on a minion every 60 minutes set this in the minion config or pillar:

schedule:
  highstate:
    function: state.highstate
    minutes: 60

Time intervals can be specified as seconds, minutes, hours, or days.

Scheduling Runners

Runner executions can also be specified on the master within the master configuration file:

schedule:
  run_my_orch:
    function: state.orchestrate
    hours: 6
    splay: 600
    args:
      - orchestration.my_orch

The above configuration is analogous to running salt-run state.orch orchestration.my_orch every 6 hours.

Scheduler With Returner

The scheduler is also useful for tasks like gathering monitoring data about a minion, this schedule option will gather status data and send it to a MySQL returner database:

schedule:
  uptime:
    function: status.uptime
    seconds: 60
    returner: mysql
  meminfo:
    function: status.meminfo
    minutes: 5
    returner: mysql

Since specifying the returner repeatedly can be tiresome, the schedule_returner option is available to specify one or a list of global returners to be used by the minions when scheduling.

Managing the Job Cache

The Salt Master maintains a job cache of all job executions which can be queried via the jobs runner. This job cache is called the Default Job Cache.

Default Job Cache

A number of options are available when configuring the job cache. The default caching system uses local storage on the Salt Master and can be found in the job cache directory (on Linux systems this is typically /var/cache/salt/master/jobs). The default caching system is suitable for most deployments as it does not typically require any further configuration or management.

The default job cache is a temporary cache and jobs will be stored for 24 hours. If the default cache needs to store jobs for a different period the time can be easily adjusted by changing the keep_jobs parameter in the Salt Master configuration file. The value passed in is measured via hours:

keep_jobs: 24

Reducing the Size of the Default Job Cache

The Default Job Cache can sometimes be a burden on larger deployments (over 5000 minions). Disabling the job cache will make previously executed jobs unavailable to the jobs system and is not generally recommended. Normally it is wise to make sure the master has access to a faster IO system or a tmpfs is mounted to the jobs dir.

However, you can disable the job_cache by setting it to False in the Salt Master configuration file. Setting this value to False means that the Salt Master will no longer cache minion returns, but a JID directory and jid file for each job will still be created. This JID directory is necessary for checking for and preventing JID collisions.

The default location for the job cache is in the /var/cache/salt/master/jobs/ directory.

Setting the job_cache` to False in addition to setting the keep_jobs option to a smaller value, such as 1, in the Salt Master configuration file will reduce the size of the Default Job Cache, and thus the burden on the Salt Master.

NOTE:

Changing the keep_jobs option sets the number of hours to keep old job information and defaults to 24 hours. Do not set this value to 0 when trying to make the cache cleaner run more frequently, as this means the cache cleaner will never run.

Additional Job Cache Options

Many deployments may wish to use an external database to maintain a long term register of executed jobs. Salt comes with two main mechanisms to do this, the master job cache and the external job cache.

See Storing Job Results in an External System.

Storing Job Results in an External System

After a job executes, job results are returned to the Salt Master by each Salt Minion. These results are stored in the Default Job Cache.

In addition to the Default Job Cache, Salt provides two additional mechanisms to send job results to other systems (databases, local syslog, and others):

·
External Job Cache
·
Master Job Cache

The major difference between these two mechanism is from where results are returned (from the Salt Master or Salt Minion).

External Job Cache - Minion-Side Returner

When an External Job Cache is configured, data is returned to the Default Job Cache on the Salt Master like usual, and then results are also sent to an External Job Cache using a Salt returner module running on the Salt Minion. [image]

·
Advantages: Data is stored without placing additional load on the Salt Master.
·
Disadvantages: Each Salt Minion connects to the external job cache, which can result in a large number of connections. Also requires additional configuration to get returner module settings on all Salt Minions.

Master Job Cache - Master-Side Returner

New in version 2014.7.0.

Instead of configuring an External Job Cache on each Salt Minion, you can configure the Master Job Cache to send job results from the Salt Master instead. In this configuration, Salt Minions send data to the Default Job Cache as usual, and then the Salt Master sends the data to the external system using a Salt returner module running on the Salt Master. [image]

·
Advantages: A single connection is required to the external system. This is preferred for databases and similar systems.
·
Disadvantages: Places additional load on your Salt Master.

Configure an External or Master Job Cache

Step 1: Understand Salt Returners

Before you configure a job cache, it is essential to understand Salt returner modules ("returners"). Returners are pluggable Salt Modules that take the data returned by jobs, and then perform any necessary steps to send the data to an external system. For example, a returner might establish a connection, authenticate, and then format and transfer data.

The Salt Returner system provides the core functionality used by the External and Master Job Cache systems, and the same returners are used by both systems.

Salt currently provides many different returners that let you connect to a wide variety of systems. A complete list is available at all Salt returners. Each returner is configured differently, so make sure you read and follow the instructions linked from that page.

For example, the MySQL returner requires:

·
A database created using provided schema (structure is available at MySQL returner)
·
A user created with with privileges to the database
·
Optional SSL configuration

A simpler returner, such as Slack or HipChat, requires:

·
An API key/version
·
The target channel/room
·
The username that should be used to send the message

Step 2: Configure the Returner

After you understand the configuration and have the external system ready, add the returner configuration settings to the Salt Minion configuration file for the External Job Cache, or to the Salt Master configuration file for the Master Job Cache.

For example, MySQL requires:

mysql.host: 'salt'
mysql.user: 'salt'
mysql.pass: 'salt'
mysql.db: 'salt'
mysql.port: 3306

Slack requires:

slack.channel: 'channel'
slack.api_key: 'key'
slack.from_name: 'name'

After you have configured the returner and added settings to the configuration file, you can enable the External or Master Job Cache.

Step 3: Enable the External or Master Job Cache

Configuration is a single line that specifies an already-configured returner to use to send all job data to an external system.

External Job Cache

To enable a returner as the External Job Cache (Minion-side), add the following line to the Salt Master configuration file:

ext_job_cache: <returner>

For example:

ext_job_cache: mysql

NOTE:

When configuring an External Job Cache (Minion-side), the returner settings are added to the Minion configuration file, but the External Job Cache setting is configured in the Master configuration file.

Master Job Cache

To enable a returner as a Master Job Cache (Master-side), add the following line to the Salt Master configuration file:

master_job_cache: <returner>

For example:

master_job_cache: mysql

Verify that the returner configuration settings are in the Master configuration file, and be sure to restart the salt-master service after you make configuration changes. (service salt-master restart).

Logging

The salt project tries to get the logging to work for you and help us solve any issues you might find along the way.

If you want to get some more information on the nitty-gritty of salt's logging system, please head over to the logging development document, if all you're after is salt's logging configurations, please continue reading.

Log Levels

The log levels are ordered numerically such that setting the log level to a specific level will record all log statements at that level and higher. For example, setting log_level: error will log statements at error, critical, and quiet levels, although nothing should be logged at quiet level.

Most of the logging levels are defined by default in Python's logging library and can be found in the official Python documentation. Salt uses some more levels in addition to the standard levels. All levels available in salt are shown in the table below.

NOTE:

Python dependencies used by salt may define and use additional logging levels. For example, the Python 2 version of the multiprocessing standard Python library uses the levels subwarning, 25 and subdebug, 5.

LevelNumeric valueDescription
quiet1000Nothing should be logged at this level
critical50Critical errors
error40Errors
warning30Warnings
info20Normal log information
profile15Profiling information on salt performance
debug10Information useful for debugging both salt implementations and salt code
trace5More detailed code debugging information
garbage1Even more debugging information
all0Everything

Available Configuration Settings

log_file

The log records can be sent to a regular file, local path name, or network location. Remote logging works best when configured to use rsyslogd(8) (e.g.: file:///dev/log), with rsyslogd(8) configured for network logging. The format for remote addresses is: <file|udp|tcp>://<host|socketpath>:<port-if-required>/<log-facility>. Where log-facility is the symbolic name of a syslog facility as defined in the SysLogHandler documentation . It defaults to LOG_USER.

Default: Dependent of the binary being executed, for example, for salt-master, /var/log/salt/master.

Examples:

log_file: /var/log/salt/master
log_file: /var/log/salt/minion
log_file: file:///dev/log
log_file: file:///dev/log/LOG_DAEMON
log_file: udp://loghost:10514

log_level

Default: warning

The level of log record messages to send to the console. One of all, garbage, trace, debug, profile, info, warning, error, critical, quiet.

log_level: warning

NOTE:

Add log_level: quiet in salt configuration file to completely disable logging. In case of running salt in command line use --log-level=quiet instead.

log_level_logfile

Default: info

The level of messages to send to the log file. One of all, garbage, trace, debug, profile, info, warning, error, critical, quiet.

log_level_logfile: warning

log_datefmt

Default: %H:%M:%S

The date and time format used in console log messages. Allowed date/time formatting can be seen on time.strftime.

log_datefmt: '%H:%M:%S'

log_datefmt_logfile

Default: %Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S

The date and time format used in log file messages. Allowed date/time formatting can be seen on time.strftime.

log_datefmt_logfile: '%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S'

log_fmt_console

Default: [%(levelname)-8s] %(message)s

The format of the console logging messages. All standard python logging LogRecord attributes can be used. Salt also provides these custom LogRecord attributes to colorize console log output:

'%(colorlevel)s'   # log level name colorized by level
'%(colorname)s'    # colorized module name
'%(colorprocess)s' # colorized process number
'%(colormsg)s'     # log message colorized by level

NOTE:

The %(colorlevel)s, %(colorname)s, and %(colorprocess) LogRecord attributes also include padding and enclosing brackets, [ and ] to match the default values of their collateral non-colorized LogRecord attributes.

log_fmt_console: '[%(levelname)-8s] %(message)s'

log_fmt_logfile

Default: %(asctime)s,%(msecs)03d [%(name)-17s][%(levelname)-8s] %(message)s

The format of the log file logging messages. All standard python logging LogRecord attributes can be used. Salt also provides these custom LogRecord attributes that include padding and enclosing brackets [ and ]:

'%(bracketlevel)s'   # equivalent to [%(levelname)-8s]
'%(bracketname)s'    # equivalent to [%(name)-17s]
'%(bracketprocess)s' # equivalent to [%(process)5s]
log_fmt_logfile: '%(asctime)s,%(msecs)03d [%(name)-17s][%(levelname)-8s] %(message)s'

log_granular_levels

Default: {}

This can be used to control logging levels more specifically. The example sets the main salt library at the 'warning' level, but sets salt.modules to log at the debug level:

log_granular_levels:
  'salt': 'warning'
  'salt.modules': 'debug'

External Logging Handlers

Besides the internal logging handlers used by salt, there are some external which can be used, see the external logging handlers document.

Salt File Server

Salt comes with a simple file server suitable for distributing files to the Salt minions. The file server is a stateless ZeroMQ server that is built into the Salt master.

The main intent of the Salt file server is to present files for use in the Salt state system. With this said, the Salt file server can be used for any general file transfer from the master to the minions.

File Server Backends

In Salt 0.12.0, the modular fileserver was introduced. This feature added the ability for the Salt Master to integrate different file server backends. File server backends allow the Salt file server to act as a transparent bridge to external resources. A good example of this is the git backend, which allows Salt to serve files sourced from one or more git repositories, but there are several others as well. Click here for a full list of Salt's fileserver backends.

Enabling a Fileserver Backend

Fileserver backends can be enabled with the fileserver_backend option.

fileserver_backend:
  - git

See the documentation for each backend to find the correct value to add to fileserver_backend in order to enable them.

Using Multiple Backends

If fileserver_backend is not defined in the Master config file, Salt will use the roots backend, but the fileserver_backend option supports multiple backends. When more than one backend is in use, the files from the enabled backends are merged into a single virtual filesystem. When a file is requested, the backends will be searched in order for that file, and the first backend to match will be the one which returns the file.

fileserver_backend:
  - roots
  - git

With this configuration, the environments and files defined in the file_roots parameter will be searched first, and if the file is not found then the git repositories defined in gitfs_remotes will be searched.

Defining Environments

Just as the order of the values in fileserver_backend matters, so too does the order in which different sources are defined within a fileserver environment. For example, given the below file_roots configuration, if both /srv/salt/dev/foo.txt and /srv/salt/prod/foo.txt exist on the Master, then salt://foo.txt would point to /srv/salt/dev/foo.txt in the dev environment, but it would point to /srv/salt/prod/foo.txt in the base environment.

file_roots:
  base:
    - /srv/salt/prod
  qa:
    - /srv/salt/qa
    - /srv/salt/prod
  dev:
    - /srv/salt/dev
    - /srv/salt/qa
    - /srv/salt/prod

Similarly, when using the git backend, if both repositories defined below have a hotfix23 branch/tag, and both of them also contain the file bar.txt in the root of the repository at that branch/tag, then salt://bar.txt in the hotfix23 environment would be served from the first repository.

gitfs_remotes:
  - https://mydomain.tld/repos/first.git
  - https://mydomain.tld/repos/second.git

NOTE:

Environments map differently based on the fileserver backend. For instance, the mappings are explicitly defined in roots backend, while in the VCS backends (git, hg, svn) the environments are created from branches/tags/bookmarks/etc. For the minion backend, the files are all in a single environment, which is specified by the minionfs_env option.

See the documentation for each backend for a more detailed explanation of how environments are mapped.

Dynamic Module Distribution

New in version 0.9.5.

Custom Salt execution, state, and other modules can be distributed to Salt minions using the Salt file server.

Under the root of any environment defined via the file_roots option on the master server directories corresponding to the type of module can be used.

The directories are prepended with an underscore:

·
_beacons
·
_engines
·
_grains
·
_modules
·
_output
·
_proxy
·
_renderers
·
_returners
·
_states
·
_utils

The contents of these directories need to be synced over to the minions after Python modules have been created in them. There are a number of ways to sync the modules.

Sync Via States

The minion configuration contains an option autoload_dynamic_modules which defaults to True. This option makes the state system refresh all dynamic modules when states are run. To disable this behavior set autoload_dynamic_modules to False in the minion config.

When dynamic modules are autoloaded via states, modules only pertinent to the environments matched in the master's top file are downloaded.

This is important to remember, because modules can be manually loaded from any specific environment that environment specific modules will be loaded when a state run is executed.

Sync Via the saltutil Module

The saltutil module has a number of functions that can be used to sync all or specific dynamic modules. The saltutil module function saltutil.sync_all will sync all module types over to a minion. For more information see: salt.modules.saltutil

Requesting Files from Specific Environments

The Salt fileserver supports multiple environments, allowing for SLS files and other files to be isolated for better organization.

For the default backend (called roots), environments are defined using the roots option. Other backends (such as gitfs) define environments in their own ways. For a list of available fileserver backends, see here.

Querystring Syntax

Any salt:// file URL can specify its fileserver environment using a querystring syntax, like so:

salt://path/to/file?saltenv=foo

In Reactor configurations, this method must be used to pull files from an environment other than base.

In States

Minions can be instructed which environment to use both globally, and for a single state, and multiple methods for each are available:

Globally

A minion can be pinned to an environment using the environment option in the minion config file.

Additionally, the environment can be set for a single call to the following functions:

·
state.apply
·
state.highstate
·
state.sls
·
state.top

NOTE:

When the saltenv parameter is used to trigger a highstate using either state.apply or state.highstate, only states from that environment will be applied.

On a Per-State Basis

Within an individual state, there are two ways of specifying the environment. The first is to add a saltenv argument to the state. This example will pull the file from the config environment:

/etc/foo/bar.conf:
  file.managed:
    - source: salt://foo/bar.conf
    - user: foo
    - mode: 600
    - saltenv: config

Another way of doing the same thing is to use the querystring syntax described above:

/etc/foo/bar.conf:
  file.managed:
    - source: salt://foo/bar.conf?saltenv=config
    - user: foo
    - mode: 600

NOTE:

Specifying the environment using either of the above methods is only necessary in cases where a state from one environment needs to access files from another environment. If the SLS file containing this state was in the config environment, then it would look in that environment by default.

File Server Configuration

The Salt file server is a high performance file server written in ZeroMQ. It manages large files quickly and with little overhead, and has been optimized to handle small files in an extremely efficient manner.

The Salt file server is an environment aware file server. This means that files can be allocated within many root directories and accessed by specifying both the file path and the environment to search. The individual environments can span across multiple directory roots to create overlays and to allow for files to be organized in many flexible ways.

Environments

The Salt file server defaults to the mandatory base environment. This environment MUST be defined and is used to download files when no environment is specified.

Environments allow for files and sls data to be logically separated, but environments are not isolated from each other. This allows for logical isolation of environments by the engineer using Salt, but also allows for information to be used in multiple environments.

Directory Overlay

The environment setting is a list of directories to publish files from. These directories are searched in order to find the specified file and the first file found is returned.

This means that directory data is prioritized based on the order in which they are listed. In the case of this file_roots configuration:

file_roots:
  base:
    - /srv/salt/base
    - /srv/salt/failover

If a file's URI is salt://httpd/httpd.conf, it will first search for the file at /srv/salt/base/httpd/httpd.conf. If the file is found there it will be returned. If the file is not found there, then /srv/salt/failover/httpd/httpd.conf will be used for the source.

This allows for directories to be overlaid and prioritized based on the order they are defined in the configuration.

It is also possible to have file_roots which supports multiple environments:

file_roots:
  base:
    - /srv/salt/base
  dev:
    - /srv/salt/dev
    - /srv/salt/base
  prod:
    - /srv/salt/prod
    - /srv/salt/base

This example ensures that each environment will check the associated environment directory for files first. If a file is not found in the appropriate directory, the system will default to using the base directory.

Local File Server

New in version 0.9.8.

The file server can be rerouted to run from the minion. This is primarily to enable running Salt states without a Salt master. To use the local file server interface, copy the file server data to the minion and set the file_roots option on the minion to point to the directories copied from the master. Once the minion file_roots option has been set, change the file_client option to local to make sure that the local file server interface is used.

The cp Module

The cp module is the home of minion side file server operations. The cp module is used by the Salt state system, salt-cp, and can be used to distribute files presented by the Salt file server.

Escaping Special Characters

The salt:// url format can potentially contain a query string, for example salt://dir/file.txt?saltenv=base. You can prevent the fileclient/fileserver from interpreting ? as the initial token of a query string by referencing the file with salt://| rather than salt://.

/etc/marathon/conf/?checkpoint:
  file.managed:
    - source: salt://|hw/config/?checkpoint
    - makedirs: True

Environments

Since the file server is made to work with the Salt state system, it supports environments. The environments are defined in the master config file and when referencing an environment the file specified will be based on the root directory of the environment.

get_file

The cp.get_file function can be used on the minion to download a file from the master, the syntax looks like this:

# salt '*' cp.get_file salt://vimrc /etc/vimrc

This will instruct all Salt minions to download the vimrc file and copy it to /etc/vimrc

Template rendering can be enabled on both the source and destination file names like so:

# salt '*' cp.get_file "salt://{{grains.os}}/vimrc" /etc/vimrc template=jinja

This example would instruct all Salt minions to download the vimrc from a directory with the same name as their OS grain and copy it to /etc/vimrc

For larger files, the cp.get_file module also supports gzip compression. Because gzip is CPU-intensive, this should only be used in scenarios where the compression ratio is very high (e.g. pretty-printed JSON or YAML files).

To use compression, use the gzip named argument. Valid values are integers from 1 to 9, where 1 is the lightest compression and 9 the heaviest. In other words, 1 uses the least CPU on the master (and minion), while 9 uses the most.

# salt '*' cp.get_file salt://vimrc /etc/vimrc gzip=5

Finally, note that by default cp.get_file does not create new destination directories if they do not exist. To change this, use the makedirs argument:

# salt '*' cp.get_file salt://vimrc /etc/vim/vimrc makedirs=True

In this example, /etc/vim/ would be created if it didn't already exist.

get_dir

The cp.get_dir function can be used on the minion to download an entire directory from the master. The syntax is very similar to get_file:

# salt '*' cp.get_dir salt://etc/apache2 /etc

cp.get_dir supports template rendering and gzip compression arguments just like get_file:

# salt '*' cp.get_dir salt://etc/{{pillar.webserver}} /etc gzip=5 template=jinja

File Server Client Instance

A client instance is available which allows for modules and applications to be written which make use of the Salt file server.

The file server uses the same authentication and encryption used by the rest of the Salt system for network communication.

fileclient Module

The salt/fileclient.py module is used to set up the communication from the minion to the master. When creating a client instance using the fileclient module, the minion configuration needs to be passed in. When using the fileclient module from within a minion module the built in __opts__ data can be passed:

import salt.minion
import salt.fileclient

def get_file(path, dest, saltenv='base'):
    '''
    Used to get a single file from the Salt master

    CLI Example:
    salt '*' cp.get_file salt://vimrc /etc/vimrc
    '''
    # Get the fileclient object
    client = salt.fileclient.get_file_client(__opts__)
    # Call get_file
    return client.get_file(path, dest, False, saltenv)

Creating a fileclient instance outside of a minion module where the __opts__ data is not available, it needs to be generated:

import salt.fileclient
import salt.config

def get_file(path, dest, saltenv='base'):
    '''
    Used to get a single file from the Salt master
    '''
    # Get the configuration data
    opts = salt.config.minion_config('/etc/salt/minion')
    # Get the fileclient object
    client = salt.fileclient.get_file_client(opts)
    # Call get_file
    return client.get_file(path, dest, False, saltenv)

Git Fileserver Backend Walkthrough

NOTE:

This walkthrough assumes basic knowledge of Salt. To get up to speed, check out the Salt Walkthrough.

The gitfs backend allows Salt to serve files from git repositories. It can be enabled by adding git to the fileserver_backend list, and configuring one or more repositories in gitfs_remotes.

Branches and tags become Salt fileserver environments.

NOTE:

Branching and tagging can result in a lot of potentially-conflicting top files, for this reason it may be useful to set top_file_merging_strategy to same in the minions' config files if the top files are being managed in a GitFS repo.

Installing Dependencies

Beginning with version 2014.7.0, both pygit2 and Dulwich are supported as alternatives to GitPython. The desired provider can be configured using the gitfs_provider parameter in the master config file.

If gitfs_provider is not configured, then Salt will prefer pygit2 if a suitable version is available, followed by GitPython and Dulwich.

NOTE:

It is recommended to always run the most recent version of any the below dependencies. Certain features of gitfs may not be available without the most recent version of the chosen library.

pygit2

The minimum supported version of pygit2 is 0.20.3. Availability for this version of pygit2 is still limited, though the SaltStack team is working to get compatible versions available for as many platforms as possible.

For the Fedora/EPEL versions which have a new enough version packaged, the following command would be used to install pygit2:

# yum install python-pygit2

Provided a valid version is packaged for Debian/Ubuntu (which is not currently the case), the package name would be the same, and the following command would be used to install it:

# apt-get install python-pygit2

If pygit2 is not packaged for the platform on which the Master is running, the pygit2 website has installation instructions here. Keep in mind however that following these instructions will install libgit2 and pygit2 without system packages. Additionally, keep in mind that SSH authentication in pygit2 requires libssh2 (not libssh) development libraries to be present before libgit2 is built. On some Debian-based distros pkg-config is also required to link libgit2 with libssh2.

Additionally, version 0.21.0 of pygit2 introduced a dependency on python-cffi, which in turn depends on newer releases of libffi. Upgrading libffi is not advisable as several other applications depend on it, so on older LTS linux releases pygit2 0.20.3 and libgit2 0.20.0 is the recommended combination. While these are not packaged in the official repositories for Debian and Ubuntu, SaltStack is actively working on adding packages for these to our repositories. The progress of this effort can be tracked here.

WARNING:

pygit2 is actively developed and frequently makes non-backwards-compatible API changes, even in minor releases. It is not uncommon for pygit2 upgrades to result in errors in Salt. Please take care when upgrading pygit2, and pay close attention to the changelog, keeping an eye out for API changes. Errors can be reported on the SaltStack issue tracker.

GitPython

GitPython 0.3.0 or newer is required to use GitPython for gitfs. For RHEL-based Linux distros, a compatible version is available in EPEL, and can be easily installed on the master using yum:

# yum install GitPython

Ubuntu 14.04 LTS and Debian Wheezy (7.x) also have a compatible version packaged:

# apt-get install python-git

If your master is running an older version (such as Ubuntu 12.04 LTS or Debian Squeeze), then you will need to install GitPython using either pip or easy_install (it is recommended to use pip). Version 0.3.2.RC1 is now marked as the stable release in PyPI, so it should be a simple matter of running pip install GitPython (or easy_install GitPython) as root.

WARNING:

Keep in mind that if GitPython has been previously installed on the master using pip (even if it was subsequently uninstalled), then it may still exist in the build cache (typically /tmp/pip-build-root/GitPython) if the cache is not cleared after installation. The package in the build cache will override any requirement specifiers, so if you try upgrading to version 0.3.2.RC1 by running pip install 'GitPython==0.3.2.RC1' then it will ignore this and simply install the version from the cache directory. Therefore, it may be necessary to delete the GitPython directory from the build cache in order to ensure that the specified version is installed.

WARNING:

GitPython 2.0.9 and newer is not compatible with Python 2.6. If installing GitPython using pip on a machine running Python 2.6, make sure that a version earlier than 2.0.9 is installed. This can be done on the CLI by running pip install 'GitPython<2.0.9', or in a pip.installed state using the following SLS:

GitPython:
  pip.installed:
    - name: 'GitPython < 2.0.9'

Dulwich

Dulwich 0.9.4 or newer is required to use Dulwich as backend for gitfs.

Dulwich is available in EPEL, and can be easily installed on the master using yum:

# yum install python-dulwich

For APT-based distros such as Ubuntu and Debian:

# apt-get install python-dulwich

IMPORTANT:

If switching to Dulwich from GitPython/pygit2, or switching from GitPython/pygit2 to Dulwich, it is necessary to clear the gitfs cache to avoid unpredictable behavior. This is probably a good idea whenever switching to a new gitfs_provider, but it is less important when switching between GitPython and pygit2.

Beginning in version 2015.5.0, the gitfs cache can be easily cleared using the fileserver.clear_cache runner.

salt-run fileserver.clear_cache backend=git

If the Master is running an earlier version, then the cache can be cleared by removing the gitfs and file_lists/gitfs directories (both paths relative to the master cache directory, usually /var/cache/salt/master).

rm -rf /var/cache/salt/master{,/file_lists}/gitfs

Simple Configuration

To use the gitfs backend, only two configuration changes are required on the master:

1.

Include git in the fileserver_backend list in the master config file:

fileserver_backend:
  - git
2.

Specify one or more git://, https://, file://, or ssh:// URLs in gitfs_remotes to configure which repositories to cache and search for requested files:

gitfs_remotes:
  - https://github.com/saltstack-formulas/salt-formula.git

SSH remotes can also be configured using scp-like syntax:

gitfs_remotes:
  - git@github.com:user/repo.git
  - ssh://user@domain.tld/path/to/repo.git

Information on how to authenticate to SSH remotes can be found here.

NOTE:

Dulwich does not recognize ssh:// URLs, git+ssh:// must be used instead. Salt version 2015.5.0 and later will automatically add the git+ to the beginning of these URLs before fetching, but earlier Salt versions will fail to fetch unless the URL is specified using git+ssh://.

3.
Restart the master to load the new configuration.

NOTE:

In a master/minion setup, files from a gitfs remote are cached once by the master, so minions do not need direct access to the git repository.

Multiple Remotes

The gitfs_remotes option accepts an ordered list of git remotes to cache and search, in listed order, for requested files.

A simple scenario illustrates this cascading lookup behavior:

If the gitfs_remotes option specifies three remotes:

gitfs_remotes:
  - git://github.com/example/first.git
  - https://github.com/example/second.git
  - file:///root/third

And each repository contains some files:

first.git:
    top.sls
    edit/vim.sls
    edit/vimrc
    nginx/init.sls

second.git:
    edit/dev_vimrc
    haproxy/init.sls

third:
    haproxy/haproxy.conf
    edit/dev_vimrc

Salt will attempt to lookup the requested file from each gitfs remote repository in the order in which they are defined in the configuration. The git://github.com/example/first.git remote will be searched first. If the requested file is found, then it is served and no further searching is executed. For example:

·
A request for the file salt://haproxy/init.sls will be served from the https://github.com/example/second.git git repo.
·
A request for the file salt://haproxy/haproxy.conf will be served from the file:///root/third repo.

NOTE:

This example is purposefully contrived to illustrate the behavior of the gitfs backend. This example should not be read as a recommended way to lay out files and git repos.

The file:// prefix denotes a git repository in a local directory. However, it will still use the given file:// URL as a remote, rather than copying the git repo to the salt cache. This means that any refs you want accessible must exist as local refs in the specified repo.

WARNING:

Salt versions prior to 2014.1.0 are not tolerant of changing the order of remotes or modifying the URI of existing remotes. In those versions, when modifying remotes it is a good idea to remove the gitfs cache directory (/var/cache/salt/master/gitfs) before restarting the salt-master service.

Per-remote Configuration Parameters

New in version 2014.7.0.

The following master config parameters are global (that is, they apply to all configured gitfs remotes):

·
gitfs_base
·
gitfs_root
·
gitfs_mountpoint (new in 2014.7.0)
·
gitfs_user (pygit2 only, new in 2014.7.0)
·
gitfs_password (pygit2 only, new in 2014.7.0)
·
gitfs_insecure_auth (pygit2 only, new in 2014.7.0)
·
gitfs_pubkey (pygit2 only, new in 2014.7.0)
·
gitfs_privkey (pygit2 only, new in 2014.7.0)
·
gitfs_passphrase (pygit2 only, new in 2014.7.0)

These parameters can now be overridden on a per-remote basis. This allows for a tremendous amount of customization. Here's some example usage:

gitfs_provider: pygit2
gitfs_base: develop

gitfs_remotes:
  - https://foo.com/foo.git
  - https://foo.com/bar.git:
    - root: salt
    - mountpoint: salt://bar
    - base: salt-base
  - https://foo.com/bar.git:
    - name: second_bar_repo
    - root: other/salt
    - mountpoint: salt://other/bar
    - base: salt-base
  - http://foo.com/baz.git:
    - root: salt/states
    - user: joe
    - password: mysupersecretpassword
    - insecure_auth: True

IMPORTANT:

There are two important distinctions which should be noted for per-remote configuration:

1.
The URL of a remote which has per-remote configuration must be suffixed with a colon.
2.
Per-remote configuration parameters are named like the global versions, with the gitfs_ removed from the beginning. The exception being the name parameter which is only available to per-remote configurations.

In the example configuration above, the following is true:

1.
The first and fourth gitfs remotes will use the develop branch/tag as the base environment, while the second and third will use the salt-base branch/tag as the base environment.
2.
The first remote will serve all files in the repository. The second remote will only serve files from the salt directory (and its subdirectories). The third remote will only server files from the other/salt directory (and its subdirectories), while the fourth remote will only serve files from the salt/states directory (and its subdirectories).
3.
The first and fourth remotes will have files located under the root of the Salt fileserver namespace (salt://). The files from the second remote will be located under salt://bar, while the files from the third remote will be located under salt://other/bar.
4.
The second and third remotes reference the same repository and unique names need to be declared for duplicate gitfs remotes.
5.
The fourth remote overrides the default behavior of not authenticating to insecure (non-HTTPS) remotes.

Per-Saltenv Configuration Parameters

New in version 2016.11.0.

For more granular control, Salt allows the following three things to be overridden for individual saltenvs within a given repo:

·
The mountpoint
·
The root
·
The branch/tag to be used for a given saltenv

Here is an example:

gitfs_root: salt

gitfs_saltenv:
  - dev:
    - mountpoint: salt://gitfs-dev
    - ref: develop

gitfs_remotes:
  - https://foo.com/bar.git:
    - saltenv:
      - staging:
        - ref: qa
        - mountpoint: salt://bar-staging
      - dev:
        - ref: development
  - https://foo.com/baz.git:
    - saltenv:
      - staging:
        - mountpoint: salt://baz-staging

Given the above configuration, the following is true:

1.
For all gitfs remotes, files for the dev saltenv will be located under salt://gitfs-dev.
2.
For the dev saltenv, files from the first remote will be sourced from the development branch, while files from the second remote will be sourced from the develop branch.
3.
For the staging saltenv, files from the first remote will be located under salt://bar-staging, while files from the second remote will be located under salt://baz-staging.
4.
For all gitfs remotes, and in all saltenvs, files will be served from the salt directory (and its subdirectories).

Configuration Order of Precedence

The order of precedence for gitfs configuration is as follows (each level overrides all levels below it):

1.

Per-saltenv configuration (defined under a per-remote saltenv param)

gitfs_remotes:
  - https://foo.com/bar.git:
    - saltenv:
      - dev:
        - mountpoint: salt://bar
2.

Global per-saltenv configuration (defined in gitfs_saltenv)

gitfs_saltenv:
  - saltenv:
    - dev:
      - mountpoint: salt://bar
3.

Per-remote configuration parameter

gitfs_remotes:
  - https://foo.com/bar.git:
    - mountpoint: salt://bar
4.

Global configuration parameter

gitfs_mountpoint: salt://bar

Serving from a Subdirectory

The gitfs_root parameter allows files to be served from a subdirectory within the repository. This allows for only part of a repository to be exposed to the Salt fileserver.

Assume the below layout:

.gitignore
README.txt
foo/
foo/bar/
foo/bar/one.txt
foo/bar/two.txt
foo/bar/three.txt
foo/baz/
foo/baz/top.sls
foo/baz/edit/vim.sls
foo/baz/edit/vimrc
foo/baz/nginx/init.sls

The below configuration would serve only the files under foo/baz, ignoring the other files in the repository:

gitfs_remotes:
  - git://mydomain.com/stuff.git

gitfs_root: foo/baz

The root can also be configured on a per-remote basis.

Mountpoints

New in version 2014.7.0.

The gitfs_mountpoint parameter will prepend the specified path to the files served from gitfs. This allows an existing repository to be used, rather than needing to reorganize a repository or design it around the layout of the Salt fileserver.

Before the addition of this feature, if a file being served up via gitfs was deeply nested within the root directory (for example, salt://webapps/foo/files/foo.conf, it would be necessary to ensure that the file was properly located in the remote repository, and that all of the the parent directories were present (for example, the directories webapps/foo/files/ would need to exist at the root of the repository).

The below example would allow for a file foo.conf at the root of the repository to be served up from the Salt fileserver path salt://webapps/foo/files/foo.conf.

gitfs_remotes:
  - https://mydomain.com/stuff.git

gitfs_mountpoint: salt://webapps/foo/files

Mountpoints can also be configured on a per-remote basis.

Using gitfs Alongside Other Backends

Sometimes it may make sense to use multiple backends; for instance, if sls files are stored in git but larger files are stored directly on the master.

The cascading lookup logic used for multiple remotes is also used with multiple backends. If the fileserver_backend option contains multiple backends:

fileserver_backend:
  - roots
  - git

Then the roots backend (the default backend of files in /srv/salt) will be searched first for the requested file; then, if it is not found on the master, each configured git remote will be searched.

Branches, Environments, and Top Files

When using the gitfs backend, branches, and tags will be mapped to environments using the branch/tag name as an identifier.

There is one exception to this rule: the master branch is implicitly mapped to the base environment.

So, for a typical base, qa, dev setup, the following branches could be used:

master
qa
dev

top.sls files from different branches will be merged into one at runtime. Since this can lead to overly complex configurations, the recommended setup is to have a separate repository, containing only the top.sls file with just one single master branch.

To map a branch other than master as the base environment, use the gitfs_base parameter.

gitfs_base: salt-base

The base can also be configured on a per-remote basis.

Environment Whitelist/Blacklist

New in version 2014.7.0.

The gitfs_env_whitelist and gitfs_env_blacklist parameters allow for greater control over which branches/tags are exposed as fileserver environments. Exact matches, globs, and regular expressions are supported, and are evaluated in that order. If using a regular expression, ^ and $ must be omitted, and the expression must match the entire branch/tag.

gitfs_env_whitelist:
  - base
  - v1.*
  - 'mybranch\d+'

NOTE:

v1.*, in this example, will match as both a glob and a regular expression (though it will have been matched as a glob, since globs are evaluated before regular expressions).

The behavior of the blacklist/whitelist will differ depending on which combination of the two options is used:

·
If only gitfs_env_whitelist is used, then only branches/tags which match the whitelist will be available as environments
·
If only gitfs_env_blacklist is used, then the branches/tags which match the blacklist will not be available as environments
·
If both are used, then the branches/tags which match the whitelist, but do not match the blacklist, will be available as environments.

Authentication

pygit2

New in version 2014.7.0.

Both HTTPS and SSH authentication are supported as of version 0.20.3, which is the earliest version of pygit2 supported by Salt for gitfs.

NOTE:

The examples below make use of per-remote configuration parameters, a feature new to Salt 2014.7.0. More information on these can be found here.

HTTPS

For HTTPS repositories which require authentication, the username and password can be provided like so:

gitfs_remotes:
  - https://domain.tld/myrepo.git:
    - user: git
    - password: mypassword

If the repository is served over HTTP instead of HTTPS, then Salt will by default refuse to authenticate to it. This behavior can be overridden by adding an insecure_auth parameter:

gitfs_remotes:
  - http://domain.tld/insecure_repo.git:
    - user: git
    - password: mypassword
    - insecure_auth: True

SSH

SSH repositories can be configured using the ssh:// protocol designation, or using scp-like syntax. So, the following two configurations are equivalent:

·
ssh://git@github.com/user/repo.git
·
git@github.com:user/repo.git

Both gitfs_pubkey and gitfs_privkey (or their per-remote counterparts) must be configured in order to authenticate to SSH-based repos. If the private key is protected with a passphrase, it can be configured using gitfs_passphrase (or simply passphrase if being configured per-remote). For example:

gitfs_remotes:
  - git@github.com:user/repo.git:
    - pubkey: /root/.ssh/id_rsa.pub
    - privkey: /root/.ssh/id_rsa
    - passphrase: myawesomepassphrase

Finally, the SSH host key must be added to the known_hosts file.

GitPython

With GitPython, only passphrase-less SSH public key authentication is supported. The auth parameters (pubkey, privkey, etc.) shown in the pygit2 authentication examples above do not work with GitPython.

gitfs_remotes:
  - ssh://git@github.com/example/salt-states.git

Since GitPython wraps the git CLI, the private key must be located in ~/.ssh/id_rsa for the user under which the Master is running, and should have permissions of 0600. Also, in the absence of a user in the repo URL, GitPython will (just as SSH does) attempt to login as the current user (in other words, the user under which the Master is running, usually root).

If a key needs to be used, then ~/.ssh/config can be configured to use the desired key. Information on how to do this can be found by viewing the manpage for ssh_config. Here's an example entry which can be added to the ~/.ssh/config to use an alternate key for gitfs:

Host github.com
    IdentityFile /root/.ssh/id_rsa_gitfs

The Host parameter should be a hostname (or hostname glob) that matches the domain name of the git repository.

It is also necessary to add the SSH host key to the known_hosts file. The exception to this would be if strict host key checking is disabled, which can be done by adding StrictHostKeyChecking no to the entry in ~/.ssh/config

Host github.com
    IdentityFile /root/.ssh/id_rsa_gitfs
    StrictHostKeyChecking no

However, this is generally regarded as insecure, and is not recommended.

Adding the SSH Host Key to the known_hosts File

To use SSH authentication, it is necessary to have the remote repository's SSH host key in the ~/.ssh/known_hosts file. If the master is also a minion, this can be done using the ssh.set_known_host function:

# salt mymaster ssh.set_known_host user=root hostname=github.com
mymaster:
    ----------
    new:
        ----------
        enc:
            ssh-rsa
        fingerprint:
            16:27:ac:a5:76:28:2d:36:63:1b:56:4d:eb:df:a6:48
        hostname:
            |1|OiefWWqOD4kwO3BhoIGa0loR5AA=|BIXVtmcTbPER+68HvXmceodDcfI=
        key:
            AAAAB3NzaC1yc2EAAAABIwAAAQEAq2A7hRGmdnm9tUDbO9IDSwBK6TbQa+PXYPCPy6rbTrTtw7PHkccKrpp0yVhp5HdEIcKr6pLlVDBfOLX9QUsyCOV0wzfjIJNlGEYsdlLJizHhbn2mUjvSAHQqZETYP81eFzLQNnPHt4EVVUh7VfDESU84KezmD5QlWpXLmvU31/yMf+Se8xhHTvKSCZIFImWwoG6mbUoWf9nzpIoaSjB+weqqUUmpaaasXVal72J+UX2B+2RPW3RcT0eOzQgqlJL3RKrTJvdsjE3JEAvGq3lGHSZXy28G3skua2SmVi/w4yCE6gbODqnTWlg7+wC604ydGXA8VJiS5ap43JXiUFFAaQ==
    old:
        None
    status:
        updated

If not, then the easiest way to add the key is to su to the user (usually root) under which the salt-master runs and attempt to login to the server via SSH:

$ su -
Password:
# ssh github.com
The authenticity of host 'github.com (192.30.252.128)' can't be established.
RSA key fingerprint is 16:27:ac:a5:76:28:2d:36:63:1b:56:4d:eb:df:a6:48.
Are you sure you want to continue connecting (yes/no)? yes
Warning: Permanently added 'github.com,192.30.252.128' (RSA) to the list of known hosts.
Permission denied (publickey).

It doesn't matter if the login was successful, as answering yes will write the fingerprint to the known_hosts file.

Verifying the Fingerprint

To verify that the correct fingerprint was added, it is a good idea to look it up. One way to do this is to use nmap:

$ nmap -p 22 github.com --script ssh-hostkey

Starting Nmap 5.51 ( http://nmap.org ) at 2014-08-18 17:47 CDT
Nmap scan report for github.com (192.30.252.129)
Host is up (0.17s latency).
Not shown: 996 filtered ports
PORT     STATE SERVICE
22/tcp   open  ssh
| ssh-hostkey: 1024 ad:1c:08:a4:40:e3:6f:9c:f5:66:26:5d:4b:33:5d:8c (DSA)
|_2048 16:27:ac:a5:76:28:2d:36:63:1b:56:4d:eb:df:a6:48 (RSA)
80/tcp   open  http
443/tcp  open  https
9418/tcp open  git

Nmap done: 1 IP address (1 host up) scanned in 28.78 seconds

Another way is to check one's own known_hosts file, using this one-liner:

$ ssh-keygen -l -f /dev/stdin <<<`ssh-keyscan github.com 2>/dev/null` | awk '{print $2}'
16:27:ac:a5:76:28:2d:36:63:1b:56:4d:eb:df:a6:48

WARNING:

AWS tracks usage of nmap and may flag it as abuse. On AWS hosts, the ssh-keygen method is recommended for host key verification.

NOTE:

As of OpenSSH 6.8 the SSH fingerprint is now shown as a base64-encoded SHA256 checksum of the host key. So, instead of the fingerprint looking like 16:27:ac:a5:76:28:2d:36:63:1b:56:4d:eb:df:a6:48, it would look like SHA256:nThbg6kXUpJWGl7E1IGOCspRomTxdCARLviKw6E5SY8.

Refreshing gitfs Upon Push

By default, Salt updates the remote fileserver backends every 60 seconds. However, if it is desirable to refresh quicker than that, the Reactor System can be used to signal the master to update the fileserver on each push, provided that the git server is also a Salt minion. There are three steps to this process:

1.

On the master, create a file /srv/reactor/update_fileserver.sls, with the following contents:

update_fileserver:
  runner.fileserver.update
2.

Add the following reactor configuration to the master config file:

reactor:
  - 'salt/fileserver/gitfs/update':
    - /srv/reactor/update_fileserver.sls
3.

On the git server, add a post-receive hook

a.
If the user executing git push is the same as the minion user, use the following hook:
#!/usr/bin/env sh
salt-call event.fire_master update salt/fileserver/gitfs/update
b.
To enable other git users to run the hook after a push, use sudo in the hook script:
#!/usr/bin/env sh
sudo -u root salt-call event.fire_master update salt/fileserver/gitfs/update
4.

If using sudo in the git hook (above), the policy must be changed to permit all users to fire the event. Add the following policy to the sudoers file on the git server.

Cmnd_Alias SALT_GIT_HOOK = /bin/salt-call event.fire_master update salt/fileserver/gitfs/update
Defaults!SALT_GIT_HOOK !requiretty
ALL ALL=(root) NOPASSWD: SALT_GIT_HOOK

The update argument right after event.fire_master in this example can really be anything, as it represents the data being passed in the event, and the passed data is ignored by this reactor.

Similarly, the tag name salt/fileserver/gitfs/update can be replaced by anything, so long as the usage is consistent.

The root user name in the hook script and sudo policy should be changed to match the user under which the minion is running.

Using Git as an External Pillar Source

The git external pillar (a.k.a. git_pillar) has been rewritten for the 2015.8.0 release. This rewrite brings with it pygit2 support (allowing for access to authenticated repositories), as well as more granular support for per-remote configuration.

To make use of the new features, changes to the git ext_pillar configuration must be made. The new configuration schema is detailed here.

For Salt releases before 2015.8.0, click here for documentation.

Why aren't my custom modules/states/etc. syncing to my Minions?

In versions 0.16.3 and older, when using the git fileserver backend, certain versions of GitPython may generate errors when fetching, which Salt fails to catch. While not fatal to the fetch process, these interrupt the fileserver update that takes place before custom types are synced, and thus interrupt the sync itself. Try disabling the git fileserver backend in the master config, restarting the master, and attempting the sync again.

This issue is worked around in Salt 0.16.4 and newer.

MinionFS Backend Walkthrough

New in version 2014.1.0.

NOTE:

This walkthrough assumes basic knowledge of Salt and cp.push. To get up to speed, check out the walkthrough.

Sometimes it is desirable to deploy a file located on one minion to one or more other minions. This is supported in Salt, and can be accomplished in two parts:

1.
Minion support for pushing files to the master (using cp.push)
2.
The minionfs fileserver backend

This walkthrough will show how to use both of these features.

Enabling File Push

To set the master to accept files pushed from minions, the file_recv option in the master config file must be set to True (the default is False).

file_recv: True

NOTE:

This change requires a restart of the salt-master service.

Pushing Files

Once this has been done, files can be pushed to the master using the cp.push function:

salt 'minion-id' cp.push /path/to/the/file

This command will store the file in a subdirectory named minions under the master's cachedir. On most masters, this path will be /var/cache/salt/master/minions. Within this directory will be one directory for each minion which has pushed a file to the master, and underneath that the full path to the file on the minion. So, for example, if a minion with an ID of dev1 pushed a file /var/log/myapp.log to the master, it would be saved to /var/cache/salt/master/minions/dev1/var/log/myapp.log.

Serving Pushed Files Using MinionFS

While it is certainly possible to add /var/cache/salt/master/minions to the master's file_roots and serve these files, it may only be desirable to expose files pushed from certain minions. Adding /var/cache/salt/master/minions/<minion-id> for each minion that needs to be exposed can be cumbersome and prone to errors.

Enter minionfs. This fileserver backend will make files pushed using cp.push available to the Salt fileserver, and provides an easy mechanism to restrict which minions' pushed files are made available.

Simple Configuration

To use the minionfs backend, add minion to the list of backends in the fileserver_backend configuration option on the master:

file_recv: True

fileserver_backend:
  - roots
  - minion

NOTE:

As described earlier, file_recv: True is also needed to enable the master to receive files pushed from minions. As always, changes to the master configuration require a restart of the salt-master service.

Files made available via minionfs are by default located at salt://<minion-id>/path/to/file. Think back to the earlier example, in which dev1 pushed a file /var/log/myapp.log to the master. With minionfs enabled, this file would be addressable in Salt at salt://dev1/var/log/myapp.log.

If many minions have pushed to the master, this will result in many directories in the root of the Salt fileserver. For this reason, it is recommended to use the minionfs_mountpoint config option to organize these files underneath a subdirectory:

minionfs_mountpoint: salt://minionfs

Using the above mountpoint, the file in the example would be located at salt://minionfs/dev1/var/log/myapp.log.

Restricting Certain Minions' Files from Being Available Via MinionFS

A whitelist and blacklist can be used to restrict the minions whose pushed files are available via minionfs. These lists can be managed using the minionfs_whitelist and minionfs_blacklist config options. Click the links for both of them for a detailed explanation of how to use them.

A more complex configuration example, which uses both a whitelist and blacklist, can be found below:

file_recv: True

fileserver_backend:
  - roots
  - minion

minionfs_mountpoint: salt://minionfs

minionfs_whitelist:
  - host04
  - web*
  - 'mail\d+\.domain\.tld'

minionfs_whitelist:
  - web21

Potential Concerns

·
There is no access control in place to restrict which minions have access to files served up by minionfs. All minions will have access to these files.
·
Unless the minionfs_whitelist and/or minionfs_blacklist config options are used, all minions which push files to the master will have their files made available via minionfs.

Salt Package Manager

The Salt Package Manager, or SPM, enables Salt formulas to be packaged to simplify distribution to Salt masters. The design of SPM was influenced by other existing packaging systems including RPM, Yum, and Pacman. [image]

NOTE:

The previous diagram shows each SPM component as a different system, but this is not required. You can build packages and host the SPM repo on a single Salt master if you'd like.

Packaging System

The packaging system is used to package the state, pillar, file templates, and other files used by your formula into a single file. After a formula package is created, it is copied to the Repository System where it is made available to Salt masters.

See Building SPM Packages

Repo System

The Repo system stores the SPM package and metadata files and makes them available to Salt masters via http(s), ftp, or file URLs. SPM repositories can be hosted on a Salt Master, a Salt Minion, or on another system.

See Distributing SPM Packages

Salt Master

SPM provides Salt master settings that let you configure the URL of one or more SPM repos. You can then quickly install packages that contain entire formulas to your Salt masters using SPM.

See Installing SPM Packages

Contents

Building SPM Packages

The first step when using Salt Package Manager is to build packages for each of of the formulas that you want to distribute. Packages can be built on any system where you can install Salt.

Package Build Overview

To build a package, all state, pillar, jinja, and file templates used by your formula are assembled into a folder on the build system. These files can be cloned from a Git repository, such as those found at the saltstack-formulas organization on GitHub, or copied directly to the folder.

The following diagram demonstrates a typical formula layout on the build system: [image]

In this example, all formula files are placed in a myapp-formula folder. This is the folder that is targeted by the spm build command when this package is built.

Within this folder, pillar data is placed in a pillar.example file at the root, and all state, jinja, and template files are placed within a subfolder that is named after the application being packaged. State files are typically contained within a subfolder, similar to how state files are organized in the state tree. Any non-pillar files in your package that are not contained in a subfolder are placed at the root of the spm state tree.

Additionally, a FORMULA file is created and placed in the root of the folder. This file contains package metadata that is used by SPM.

Package Installation Overview

When building packages, it is useful to know where files are installed on the Salt master. During installation, all files except pillar.example and FORMULA are copied directly to the spm state tree on the Salt master (located at \srv\spm\salt).

If a pillar.example file is present in the root, it is renamed to <formula name>.sls.orig and placed in the pillar_path. [image]

NOTE:

Even though the pillar data file is copied to the pillar root, you still need to manually assign this pillar data to systems using the pillar top file. This file can also be duplicated and renamed so the .orig version is left intact in case you need to restore it later.

Building an SPM Formula Package

1.
Assemble formula files in a folder on the build system.
2.
Create a FORMULA file and place it in the root of the package folder.
3.

Run spm build <folder name>. The package is built and placed in the /srv/spm_build folder.

spm build /path/to/salt-packages-source/myapp-formula
4.
Copy the .spm file to a folder on the repository system.

Types of Packages

SPM supports different types of packages. The function of each package is denoted by its name. For instance, packages which end in -formula are considered to be Salt States (the most common type of formula). Packages which end in -conf contain configuration which is to be placed in the /etc/salt/ directory. Packages which do not contain one of these names are treated as if they have a -formula name.

formula

By default, most files from this type of package live in the /srv/spm/salt/ directory. The exception is the pillar.example file, which will be renamed to <package_name>.sls and placed in the pillar directory (/srv/spm/pillar/ by default).

reactor

By default, files from this type of package live in the /srv/spm/reactor/ directory.

conf

The files in this type of package are configuration files for Salt, which normally live in the /etc/salt/ directory. Configuration files for packages other than Salt can and should be handled with a Salt State (using a formula type of package).

Technical Information

Packages are built using BZ2-compressed tarballs. By default, the package database is stored using the sqlite3 driver (see Loader Modules below).

Support for these are built into Python, and so no external dependencies are needed.

All other files belonging to SPM use YAML, for portability and ease of use and maintainability.

SPM-Specific Loader Modules

SPM was designed to behave like traditional package managers, which apply files to the filesystem and store package metadata in a local database. However, because modern infrastructures often extend beyond those use cases, certain parts of SPM have been broken out into their own set of modules.

Package Database

By default, the package database is stored using the sqlite3 module. This module was chosen because support for SQLite3 is built into Python itself.

Please see the SPM Development Guide for information on creating new modules for package database management.

Package Files

By default, package files are installed using the local module. This module applies files to the local filesystem, on the machine that the package is installed on.

Please see the SPM Development Guide for information on creating new modules for package file management.

Distributing SPM Packages

SPM packages can be distributed to Salt masters over HTTP(S), FTP, or through the file system. The SPM repo can be hosted on any system where you can install Salt. Salt is installed so you can run the spm create_repo command when you update or add a package to the repo. SPM repos do not require the salt-master, salt-minion, or any other process running on the system.

NOTE:

If you are hosting the SPM repo on a system where you can not or do not want to install Salt, you can run the spm create_repo command on the build system and then copy the packages and the generated SPM-METADATA file to the repo. You can also install SPM files directly on a Salt master, bypassing the repository completely.

Setting up a Package Repository

After packages are built, the generated SPM files are placed in the srv/spm_build folder.

Where you place the built SPM files on your repository server depends on how you plan to make them available to your Salt masters.

You can share the srv/spm_build folder on the network, or copy the files to your FTP or Web server.

Adding a Package to the repository

New packages are added by simply copying the SPM file to the repo folder, and then generating repo metadata.

Generate Repo Metadata

Each time you update or add an SPM package to your repository, issue an spm create_repo command:

spm create_repo /srv/spm_build

SPM generates the repository metadata for all of the packages in that directory and places it in an SPM-METADATA file at the folder root. This command is used even if repository metadata already exists in that directory.

Installing SPM Packages

SPM packages are installed to your Salt master, where they are available to Salt minions using all of Salt's package management functions.

Configuring Remote Repositories

Before SPM can use a repository, two things need to happen. First, the Salt master needs to know where the repository is through a configuration process. Then it needs to pull down the repository metadata.

Repository Configuration Files

Repositories are configured by adding each of them to the /etc/salt/spm.repos.d/spm.repo file on each Salt master. This file contains the name of the repository, and the link to the repository:

my_repo:
  url: https://spm.example.com/

The URL can use http, https, ftp, or file.

my_repo:
  url: file:///srv/spm_build

Updating Local Repository Metadata

After the repository is configured on the Salt master, repository metadata is downloaded using the spm update_repo command:

spm update_repo

NOTE:

A file for each repo is placed in /var/cache/salt/spm on the Salt master after you run the update_repo command. If you add a repository and it does not seem to be showing up, check this path to verify that the repository was found.

Update File Roots

SPM packages are installed to the srv/spm/salt folder on your Salt master. This path needs to be added to the file roots on your Salt master manually.

file_roots:
  base:
    1. /srv/salt
    2. /srv/spm/salt

Restart the salt-master service after updating the file_roots setting.

Installing Packages

To install a package, use the spm install command:

spm install apache

WARNING:

Currently, SPM does not check to see if files are already in place before installing them. That means that existing files will be overwritten without warning.

Installing directly from an SPM file

You can also install SPM packages using a local SPM file using the spm local install command:

spm local install /srv/spm/apache-201506-1.spm

An SPM repository is not required when using spm local install.

Pillars

If an installed package includes Pillar data, be sure to target the installed pillar to the necessary systems using the pillar Top file.

Removing Packages

Packages may be removed after they are installed using the spm remove command.

spm remove apache

If files have been modified, they will not be removed. Empty directories will also be removed.

SPM Configuration

There are a number of options that are specific to SPM. They may be configured in the master configuration file, or in SPM's own spm configuration file (normally located at /etc/salt/spm). If configured in both places, the spm file takes precedence. In general, these values will not need to be changed from the defaults.

spm_logfile

Default: /var/log/salt/spm

Where SPM logs messages.

spm_repos_config

Default: /etc/salt/spm.repos

SPM repositories are configured with this file. There is also a directory which corresponds to it, which ends in .d. For instance, if the filename is /etc/salt/spm.repos, the directory will be /etc/salt/spm.repos.d/.

spm_cache_dir

Default: /var/cache/salt/spm

When SPM updates package repository metadata and downloads packaged, they will be placed in this directory. The package database, normally called packages.db, also lives in this directory.

spm_db

Default: /var/cache/salt/spm/packages.db

The location and name of the package database. This database stores the names of all of the SPM packages installed on the system, the files that belong to them, and the metadata for those files.

spm_build_dir

Default: /srv/spm_build

When packages are built, they will be placed in this directory.

spm_build_exclude

Default: ['.git']

When SPM builds a package, it normally adds all files in the formula directory to the package. Files listed here will be excluded from that package. This option requires a list to be specified.

spm_build_exclude:
  - .git
  - .svn

Types of Packages

SPM supports different types of formula packages. The function of each package is denoted by its name. For instance, packages which end in -formula are considered to be Salt States (the most common type of formula). Packages which end in -conf contain configuration which is to be placed in the /etc/salt/ directory. Packages which do not contain one of these names are treated as if they have a -formula name.

formula

By default, most files from this type of package live in the /srv/spm/salt/ directory. The exception is the pillar.example file, which will be renamed to <package_name>.sls and placed in the pillar directory (/srv/spm/pillar/ by default).

reactor

By default, files from this type of package live in the /srv/spm/reactor/ directory.

conf

The files in this type of package are configuration files for Salt, which normally live in the /etc/salt/ directory. Configuration files for packages other than Salt can and should be handled with a Salt State (using a formula type of package).

FORMULA File

In addition to the formula itself, a FORMULA file must exist which describes the package. An example of this file is:

name: apache
os: RedHat, Debian, Ubuntu, SUSE, FreeBSD
os_family: RedHat, Debian, SUSE, FreeBSD
version: 201506
release: 2
summary: Formula for installing Apache
description: Formula for installing Apache

Required Fields

This file must contain at least the following fields:

name

The name of the package, as it will appear in the package filename, in the repository metadata, and the package database. Even if the source formula has -formula in its name, this name should probably not include that. For instance, when packaging the apache-formula, the name should be set to apache.

os

The value of the os grain that this formula supports. This is used to help users know which operating systems can support this package.

os_family

The value of the os_family grain that this formula supports. This is used to help users know which operating system families can support this package.

version

The version of the package. While it is up to the organization that manages this package, it is suggested that this version is specified in a YYYYMM format. For instance, if this version was released in June 2015, the package version should be 201506. If multiple releases are made in a month, the release field should be used.

minimum_version

Minimum recommended version of Salt to use this formula. Not currently enforced.

release

This field refers primarily to a release of a version, but also to multiple versions within a month. In general, if a version has been made public, and immediate updates need to be made to it, this field should also be updated.

summary

A one-line description of the package.

description

A more detailed description of the package which can contain more than one line.

Optional Fields

The following fields may also be present.

top_level_dir

This field is optional, but highly recommended. If it is not specified, the package name will be used.

Formula repositories typically do not store .sls files in the root of the repository; instead they are stored in a subdirectory. For instance, an apache-formula repository would contain a directory called apache, which would contain an init.sls, plus a number of other related files. In this instance, the top_level_dir should be set to apache.

Files outside the top_level_dir, such as README.rst, FORMULA, and LICENSE will not be installed. The exceptions to this rule are files that are already treated specially, such as pillar.example and _modules/.

dependencies

A comma-separated list of packages that must be installed along with this package. When this package is installed, SPM will attempt to discover and install these packages as well. If it is unable to, then it will refuse to install this package.

This is useful for creating packages which tie together other packages. For instance, a package called wordpress-mariadb-apache would depend upon wordpress, mariadb, and apache.

optional

A comma-separated list of packages which are related to this package, but are neither required nor necessarily recommended. This list is displayed in an informational message when the package is installed to SPM.

Building a Package

Once a FORMULA file has been created, it is placed into the root of the formula that is to be turned into a package. The spm build command is used to turn that formula into a package:

spm build /path/to/saltstack-formulas/apache-formula

The resulting file will be placed in the build directory. By default this directory is located at /srv/spm/.

Loader Modules

When an execution module is placed in <file_roots>/_modules/ on the master, it will automatically be synced to minions, the next time a sync operation takes place. Other modules are also propagated this way: state modules can be placed in _states/, and so on.

When SPM detects a file in a package which resides in one of these directories, that directory will be placed in <file_roots> instead of in the formula directory with the rest of the files.

Removing Packages

Packages may be removed once they are installed using the spm remove command.

spm remove apache

If files have been modified, they will not be removed. Empty directories will also be removed.

Technical Information

Packages are built using BZ2-compressed tarballs. By default, the package database is stored using the sqlite3 driver (see Loader Modules below).

Support for these are built into Python, and so no external dependencies are needed.

All other files belonging to SPM use YAML, for portability and ease of use and maintainability.

SPM-Specific Loader Modules

SPM was designed to behave like traditional package managers, which apply files to the filesystem and store package metadata in a local database. However, because modern infrastructures often extend beyond those use cases, certain parts of SPM have been broken out into their own set of modules.

Package Database

By default, the package database is stored using the sqlite3 module. This module was chosen because support for SQLite3 is built into Python itself.

Please see the SPM Development Guide for information on creating new modules for package database management.

Package Files

By default, package files are installed using the local module. This module applies files to the local filesystem, on the machine that the package is installed on.

Please see the SPM Development Guide for information on creating new modules for package file management.

Types of Packages

SPM supports different types of formula packages. The function of each package is denoted by its name. For instance, packages which end in -formula are considered to be Salt States (the most common type of formula). Packages which end in -conf contain configuration which is to be placed in the /etc/salt/ directory. Packages which do not contain one of these names are treated as if they have a -formula name.

formula

By default, most files from this type of package live in the /srv/spm/salt/ directory. The exception is the pillar.example file, which will be renamed to <package_name>.sls and placed in the pillar directory (/srv/spm/pillar/ by default).

reactor

By default, files from this type of package live in the /srv/spm/reactor/ directory.

conf

The files in this type of package are configuration files for Salt, which normally live in the /etc/salt/ directory. Configuration files for packages other than Salt can and should be handled with a Salt State (using a formula type of package).

SPM Development Guide

This document discusses developing additional code for SPM.

SPM-Specific Loader Modules

SPM was designed to behave like traditional package managers, which apply files to the filesystem and store package metadata in a local database. However, because modern infrastructures often extend beyond those use cases, certain parts of SPM have been broken out into their own set of modules.

Each function that accepts arguments has a set of required and optional arguments. Take note that SPM will pass all arguments in, and therefore each function must accept each of those arguments. However, arguments that are marked as required are crucial to SPM's core functionality, while arguments that are marked as optional are provided as a benefit to the module, if it needs to use them.

Package Database

By default, the package database is stored using the sqlite3 module. This module was chosen because support for SQLite3 is built into Python itself.

Modules for managing the package database are stored in the salt/spm/pkgdb/ directory. A number of functions must exist to support database management.

init()

Get a database connection, and initialize the package database if necessary.

This function accepts no arguments. If a database is used which supports a connection object, then that connection object is returned. For instance, the sqlite3 module returns a connect() object from the sqlite3 library:

conn = sqlite3.connect(__opts__['spm_db'], isolation_level=None)
...
return conn

SPM itself will not use this connection object; it will be passed in as-is to the other functions in the module. Therefore, when you set up this object, make sure to do so in a way that is easily usable throughout the module.

info()

Return information for a package. This generally consists of the information that is stored in the FORMULA file in the package.

The arguments that are passed in, in order, are package (required) and conn (optional).

package is the name of the package, as specified in the FORMULA. conn is the connection object returned from init().

list_files()

Return a list of files for an installed package. Only the filename should be returned, and no other information.

The arguments that are passed in, in order, are package (required) and conn (optional).

package is the name of the package, as specified in the FORMULA. conn is the connection object returned from init().

register_pkg()

Register a package in the package database. Nothing is expected to be returned from this function.

The arguments that are passed in, in order, are name (required), formula_def (required), and conn (optional).

name is the name of the package, as specified in the FORMULA. formula_def is the contents of the FORMULA file, as a dict. conn is the connection object returned from init().

register_file()

Register a file in the package database. Nothing is expected to be returned from this function.

The arguments that are passed in are name (required), member (required), path (required), digest (optional), and conn (optional).

name is the name of the package.

member is a tarfile object for the package file. It is included, because it contains most of the information for the file.

path is the location of the file on the local filesystem.

digest is the SHA1 checksum of the file.

conn is the connection object returned from init().

unregister_pkg()

Unregister a package from the package database. This usually only involves removing the package's record from the database. Nothing is expected to be returned from this function.

The arguments that are passed in, in order, are name (required) and conn (optional).

name is the name of the package, as specified in the FORMULA. conn is the connection object returned from init().

unregister_file()

Unregister a package from the package database. This usually only involves removing the package's record from the database. Nothing is expected to be returned from this function.

The arguments that are passed in, in order, are name (required), pkg (optional) and conn (optional).

name is the path of the file, as it was installed on the filesystem.

pkg is the name of the package that the file belongs to.

conn is the connection object returned from init().

db_exists()

Check to see whether the package database already exists. This is the path to the package database file. This function will return True or False.

The only argument that is expected is db_, which is the package database file.

Package Files

By default, package files are installed using the local module. This module applies files to the local filesystem, on the machine that the package is installed on.

Modules for managing the package database are stored in the salt/spm/pkgfiles/ directory. A number of functions must exist to support file management.

init()

Initialize the installation location for the package files. Normally these will be directory paths, but other external destinations such as databases can be used. For this reason, this function will return a connection object, which can be a database object. However, in the default local module, this object is a dict containing the paths. This object will be passed into all other functions.

Three directories are used for the destinations: formula_path, pillar_path, and reactor_path.

formula_path is the location of most of the files that will be installed. The default is specific to the operating system, but is normally /srv/salt/.

pillar_path is the location that the pillar.example file will be installed to. The default is specific to the operating system, but is normally /srv/pillar/.

reactor_path is the location that reactor files will be installed to. The default is specific to the operating system, but is normally /srv/reactor/.

check_existing()

Check the filesystem for existing files. All files for the package will be checked, and if any are existing, then this function will normally state that SPM will refuse to install the package.

This function returns a list of the files that exist on the system.

The arguments that are passed into this function are, in order: package (required), pkg_files (required), formula_def (formula_def), and conn (optional).

package is the name of the package that is to be installed.

pkg_files is a list of the files to be checked.

formula_def is a copy of the information that is stored in the FORMULA file.

conn is the file connection object.

install_file()

Install a single file to the destination (normally on the filesystem). Nothing is expected to be returned from this function.

This function returns the final location that the file was installed to.

The arguments that are passed into this function are, in order, package (required), formula_tar (required), member (required), formula_def (required), and conn (optional).

package is the name of the package that is to be installed.

formula_tar is the tarfile object for the package. This is passed in so that the function can call formula_tar.extract() for the file.

member is the tarfile object which represents the individual file. This may be modified as necessary, before being passed into formula_tar.extract().

formula_def is a copy of the information from the FORMULA file.

conn is the file connection object.

remove_file()

Remove a single file from file system. Normally this will be little more than an os.remove(). Nothing is expected to be returned from this function.

The arguments that are passed into this function are, in order, path (required) and conn (optional).

path is the absolute path to the file to be removed.

conn is the file connection object.

hash_file()

Returns the hexdigest hash value of a file.

The arguments that are passed into this function are, in order, path (required), hashobj (required), and conn (optional).

path is the absolute path to the file.

hashobj is a reference to hashlib.sha1(), which is used to pull the hexdigest() for the file.

conn is the file connection object.

This function will not generally be more complex than:

def hash_file(path, hashobj, conn=None):
    with salt.utils.fopen(path, 'r') as f:
        hashobj.update(f.read())
        return hashobj.hexdigest()

path_exists()

Check to see whether the file already exists on the filesystem. Returns True or False.

This function expects a path argument, which is the absolute path to the file to be checked.

path_isdir()

Check to see whether the path specified is a directory. Returns True or False.

This function expects a path argument, which is the absolute path to be checked.

Storing Data in Other Databases

The SDB interface is designed to store and retrieve data that, unlike pillars and grains, is not necessarily minion-specific. The initial design goal was to allow passwords to be stored in a secure database, such as one managed by the keyring package, rather than as plain-text files. However, as a generic database interface, it could conceptually be used for a number of other purposes.

SDB was added to Salt in version 2014.7.0.

SDB Configuration

In order to use the SDB interface, a configuration profile must be set up in either the master or minion configuration file. The configuration stanza includes the name/ID that the profile will be referred to as, a driver setting, and any other arguments that are necessary for the SDB module that will be used. For instance, a profile called mykeyring, which uses the system service in the keyring module would look like:

mykeyring:
  driver: keyring
  service: system

It is recommended to keep the name of the profile simple, as it is used in the SDB URI as well.

SDB URIs

SDB is designed to make small database queries (hence the name, SDB) using a compact URL. This allows users to reference a database value quickly inside a number of Salt configuration areas, without a lot of overhead. The basic format of an SDB URI is:

sdb://<profile>/<args>

The profile refers to the configuration profile defined in either the master or the minion configuration file. The args are specific to the module referred to in the profile, but will typically only need to refer to the key of a key/value pair inside the database. This is because the profile itself should define as many other parameters as possible.

For example, a profile might be set up to reference credentials for a specific OpenStack account. The profile might look like:

kevinopenstack:
  driver: keyring
  service: salt.cloud.openstack.kevin

And the URI used to reference the password might look like:

sdb://kevinopenstack/password

Getting, Setting and Deleting SDB Values

Once an SDB driver is configured, you can use the sdb execution module to get, set and delete values from it. There are two functions that may appear in most SDB modules: get, set and delete.

Getting a value requires only the SDB URI to be specified. To retrieve a value from the kevinopenstack profile above, you would use:

salt-call sdb.get sdb://kevinopenstack/password

Some drivers use slightly more complex URIs. For instance, the vault driver requires the full path to where the key is stored, followed by a question mark, followed by the key to be retrieved. If you were using a profile called myvault, you would use a URI that looks like:

salt-call sdb.get 'sdb://myvault/secret/salt?saltstack'

Setting a value uses the same URI as would be used to retrieve it, followed by the value as another argument. For the above myvault URI, you would set a new value using a command like:

salt-call sdb.set 'sdb://myvault/secret/salt?saltstack' 'super awesome'

Deleting values (if supported by the driver) is done pretty much the same way as getting them. Provided that you have a profile called mykvstore that uses a driver allowing to delete values you would delete a value as shown bellow:

salt-call sdb.delete 'sdb://mykvstore/foobar'

The sdb.get, sdb.set and sdb.delete functions are also available in the runner system:

salt-run sdb.get 'sdb://myvault/secret/salt?saltstack'
salt-run sdb.set 'sdb://myvault/secret/salt?saltstack' 'super awesome'
salt-run sdb.delete 'sdb://mykvstore/foobar'

Using SDB URIs in Files

SDB URIs can be used in both configuration files, and files that are processed by the renderer system (jinja, mako, etc.). In a configuration file (such as /etc/salt/master, /etc/salt/minion, /etc/salt/cloud, etc.), make an entry as usual, and set the value to the SDB URI. For instance:

mykey: sdb://myetcd/mykey

To retrieve this value using a module, the module in question must use the config.get function to retrieve configuration values. This would look something like:

mykey = __salt__['config.get']('mykey')

Templating renderers use a similar construct. To get the mykey value from above in Jinja, you would use:

{{ salt['config.get']('mykey') }}

When retrieving data from configuration files using config.get, the SDB URI need only appear in the configuration file itself.

If you would like to retrieve a key directly from SDB, you would call the sdb.get function directly, using the SDB URI. For instance, in Jinja:

{{ salt['sdb.get']('sdb://myetcd/mykey') }}

When writing Salt modules, it is not recommended to call sdb.get directly, as it requires the user to provide values in SDB, using a specific URI. Use config.get instead.

Writing SDB Modules

There is currently one function that MUST exist in any SDB module (get()), one that SHOULD exist (set_()) and one that MAY exist (delete()). If using a (set_()) function, a __func_alias__ dictionary MUST be declared in the module as well:

__func_alias__ = {
    'set_': 'set',
}

This is because set is a Python built-in, and therefore functions should not be created which are called set(). The __func_alias__ functionality is provided via Salt's loader interfaces, and allows legally-named functions to be referred to using names that would otherwise be unwise to use.

The get() function is required, as it will be called via functions in other areas of the code which make use of the sdb:// URI. For example, the config.get function in the config execution module uses this function.

The set_() function may be provided, but is not required, as some sources may be read-only, or may be otherwise unwise to access via a URI (for instance, because of SQL injection attacks).

The delete() function may be provided as well, but is not required, as many sources may be read-only or restrict such operations.

A simple example of an SDB module is salt/sdb/keyring_db.py, as it provides basic examples of most, if not all, of the types of functionality that are available not only for SDB modules, but for Salt modules in general.

Running the Salt Master/Minion as an Unprivileged User

While the default setup runs the master and minion as the root user, some may consider it an extra measure of security to run the master as a non-root user. Keep in mind that doing so does not change the master's capability to access minions as the user they are running as. Due to this many feel that running the master as a non-root user does not grant any real security advantage which is why the master has remained as root by default.

NOTE:

Some of Salt's operations cannot execute correctly when the master is not running as root, specifically the pam external auth system, as this system needs root access to check authentication.

As of Salt 0.9.10 it is possible to run Salt as a non-root user. This can be done by setting the user parameter in the master configuration file. and restarting the salt-master service.

The minion has it's own user parameter as well, but running the minion as an unprivileged user will keep it from making changes to things like users, installed packages, etc. unless access controls (sudo, etc.) are setup on the minion to permit the non-root user to make the needed changes.

In order to allow Salt to successfully run as a non-root user, ownership, and permissions need to be set such that the desired user can read from and write to the following directories (and their subdirectories, where applicable):

·
/etc/salt
·
/var/cache/salt
·
/var/log/salt
·
/var/run/salt

Ownership can be easily changed with chown, like so:

# chown -R user /etc/salt /var/cache/salt /var/log/salt /var/run/salt

WARNING:

Running either the master or minion with the root_dir parameter specified will affect these paths, as will setting options like pki_dir, cachedir, log_file, and other options that normally live in the above directories.

Using cron with Salt

The Salt Minion can initiate its own highstate using the salt-call command.

$ salt-call state.apply

This will cause the minion to check in with the master and ensure it is in the correct "state".

Use cron to initiate a highstate

If you would like the Salt Minion to regularly check in with the master you can use cron to run the salt-call command:

0 0 * * * salt-call state.apply

The above cron entry will run a highstate every day at midnight.

NOTE:

When executing Salt using cron, keep in mind that the default PATH for cron may not include the path for any scripts or commands used by Salt, and it may be necessary to set the PATH accordingly in the crontab:

PATH=/bin:/sbin:/usr/bin:/usr/sbin:/usr/local/bin:/usr/local/sbin:/opt/bin

0 0 * * * salt-call state.apply

Hardening Salt

This topic contains tips you can use to secure and harden your Salt environment. How you best secure and harden your Salt environment depends heavily on how you use Salt, where you use Salt, how your team is structured, where you get data from, and what kinds of access (internal and external) you require.

General hardening tips

·
Restrict who can directly log into your Salt master system.
·
Use SSH keys secured with a passphrase to gain access to the Salt master system.
·
Track and secure SSH keys and any other login credentials you and your team need to gain access to the Salt master system.
·
Use a hardened bastion server or a VPN to restrict direct access to the Salt master from the internet.
·
Don't expose the Salt master any more than what is required.
·
Harden the system as you would with any high-priority target.
·
Keep the system patched and up-to-date.
·
Use tight firewall rules.

Salt hardening tips

·
Subscribe to salt-users or salt-announce so you know when new Salt releases are available. Keep your systems up-to-date with the latest patches.
·
Use Salt's Client ACL system to avoid having to give out root access in order to run Salt commands.
·
Use Salt's Client ACL system to restrict which users can run what commands.
·
Use external Pillar to pull data into Salt from external sources so that non-sysadmins (other teams, junior admins, developers, etc) can provide configuration data without needing access to the Salt master.
·
Make heavy use of SLS files that are version-controlled and go through a peer-review/code-review process before they're deployed and run in production. This is good advice even for "one-off" CLI commands because it helps mitigate typos and mistakes.
·
Use salt-api, SSL, and restrict authentication with the external auth system if you need to expose your Salt master to external services.
·
Make use of Salt's event system and reactor to allow minions to signal the Salt master without requiring direct access.
·
Run the salt-master daemon as non-root.
·
Disable which modules are loaded onto minions with the disable_modules setting. (for example, disable the cmd module if it makes sense in your environment.)
·
Look through the fully-commented sample master and minion config files. There are many options for securing an installation.
·
Run masterless-mode minions on particularly sensitive minions. There is also salt-ssh or the modules.sudo if you need to further restrict a minion.

Security disclosure policy

email
security@saltstack.com
gpg key ID
4EA0793D
gpg key fingerprint
8ABE 4EFC F0F4 B24B FF2A AF90 D570 F2D3 4EA0 793D

gpg public key:

-----BEGIN PGP PUBLIC KEY BLOCK-----
Version: GnuPG/MacGPG2 v2.0.22 (Darwin)

mQINBFO15mMBEADa3CfQwk5ED9wAQ8fFDku277CegG3U1hVGdcxqKNvucblwoKCb
hRK6u9ihgaO9V9duV2glwgjytiBI/z6lyWqdaD37YXG/gTL+9Md+qdSDeaOa/9eg
7y+g4P+FvU9HWUlujRVlofUn5Dj/IZgUywbxwEybutuzvvFVTzsn+DFVwTH34Qoh
QIuNzQCSEz3Lhh8zq9LqkNy91ZZQO1ZIUrypafspH6GBHHcE8msBFgYiNBnVcUFH
u0r4j1Rav+621EtD5GZsOt05+NJI8pkaC/dDKjURcuiV6bhmeSpNzLaXUhwx6f29
Vhag5JhVGGNQxlRTxNEM86HEFp+4zJQ8m/wRDrGX5IAHsdESdhP+ljDVlAAX/ttP
/Ucl2fgpTnDKVHOA00E515Q87ZHv6awJ3GL1veqi8zfsLaag7rw1TuuHyGLOPkDt
t5PAjsS9R3KI7pGnhqI6bTOi591odUdgzUhZChWUUX1VStiIDi2jCvyoOOLMOGS5
AEYXuWYP7KgujZCDRaTNqRDdgPd93Mh9JI8UmkzXDUgijdzVpzPjYgFaWtyK8lsc
Fizqe3/Yzf9RCVX/lmRbiEH+ql/zSxcWlBQd17PKaL+TisQFXcmQzccYgAxFbj2r
QHp5ABEu9YjFme2Jzun7Mv9V4qo3JF5dmnUk31yupZeAOGZkirIsaWC3hwARAQAB
tDBTYWx0U3RhY2sgU2VjdXJpdHkgVGVhbSA8c2VjdXJpdHlAc2FsdHN0YWNrLmNv
bT6JAj4EEwECACgFAlO15mMCGwMFCQeGH4AGCwkIBwMCBhUIAgkKCwQWAgMBAh4B
AheAAAoJENVw8tNOoHk9z/MP/2vzY27fmVxU5X8joiiturjlgEqQw41IYEmWv1Bw
4WVXYCHP1yu/1MC1uuvOmOd5BlI8YO2C2oyW7d1B0NorguPtz55b7jabCElekVCh
h/H4ZVThiwqgPpthRv/2npXjIm7SLSs/kuaXo6Qy2JpszwDVFw+xCRVL0tH9KJxz
HuNBeVq7abWD5fzIWkmGM9hicG/R2D0RIlco1Q0VNKy8klG+pOFOW886KnwkSPc7
JUYp1oUlHsSlhTmkLEG54cyVzrTP/XuZuyMTdtyTc3mfgW0adneAL6MARtC5UB/h
q+v9dqMf4iD3wY6ctu8KWE8Vo5MUEsNNO9EA2dUR88LwFZ3ZnnXdQkizgR/Aa515
dm17vlNkSoomYCo84eN7GOTfxWcq+iXYSWcKWT4X+h/ra+LmNndQWQBRebVUtbKE
ZDwKmiQz/5LY5EhlWcuU4lVmMSFpWXt5FR/PtzgTdZAo9QKkBjcv97LYbXvsPI69
El1BLAg+m+1UpE1L7zJT1il6PqVyEFAWBxW46wXCCkGssFsvz2yRp0PDX8A6u4yq
rTkt09uYht1is61joLDJ/kq3+6k8gJWkDOW+2NMrmf+/qcdYCMYXmrtOpg/wF27W
GMNAkbdyzgeX/MbUBCGCMdzhevRuivOI5bu4vT5s3KdshG+yhzV45bapKRd5VN+1
mZRquQINBFO15mMBEAC5UuLii9ZLz6qHfIJp35IOW9U8SOf7QFhzXR7NZ3DmJsd3
f6Nb/habQFIHjm3K9wbpj+FvaW2oWRlFVvYdzjUq6c82GUUjW1dnqgUvFwdmM835
1n0YQ2TonmyaF882RvsRZrbJ65uvy7SQxlouXaAYOdqwLsPxBEOyOnMPSktW5V2U
IWyxsNP3sADchWIGq9p5D3Y/loyIMsS1dj+TjoQZOKSj7CuRT98+8yhGAY8YBEXu
9r3I9o6mDkuPpAljuMc8r09Im6az2egtK/szKt4Hy1bpSSBZU4W/XR7XwQNywmb3
wxjmYT6Od3Mwj0jtzc3gQiH8hcEy3+BO+NNmyzFVyIwOLziwjmEcw62S57wYKUVn
HD2nglMsQa8Ve0e6ABBMEY7zGEGStva59rfgeh0jUMJiccGiUDTMs0tdkC6knYKb
u/fdRqNYFoNuDcSeLEw4DdCuP01l2W4yY+fiK6hAcL25amjzc+yYo9eaaqTn6RAT
bzdhHQZdpAMxY+vNT0+NhP1Zo5gYBMR65Zp/VhFsf67ijb03FUtdw9N8dHwiR2m8
vVA8kO/gCD6wS2p9RdXqrJ9JhnHYWjiVuXR+f755ZAndyQfRtowMdQIoiXuJEXYw
6XN+/BX81gJaynJYc0uw0MnxWQX+A5m8HqEsbIFUXBYXPgbwXTm7c4IHGgXXdwAR
AQABiQIlBBgBAgAPBQJTteZjAhsMBQkHhh+AAAoJENVw8tNOoHk91rcQAIhxLv4g
duF/J1Cyf6Wixz4rqslBQ7DgNztdIUMjCThg3eB6pvIzY5d3DNROmwU5JvGP1rEw
hNiJhgBDFaB0J/y28uSci+orhKDTHb/cn30IxfuAuqrv9dujvmlgM7JUswOtLZhs
5FYGa6v1RORRWhUx2PQsF6ORg22QAaagc7OlaO3BXBoiE/FWsnEQCUsc7GnnPqi7
um45OJl/pJntsBUKvivEU20fj7j1UpjmeWz56NcjXoKtEvGh99gM5W2nSMLE3aPw
vcKhS4yRyLjOe19NfYbtID8m8oshUDji0XjQ1z5NdGcf2V1YNGHU5xyK6zwyGxgV
xZqaWnbhDTu1UnYBna8BiUobkuqclb4T9k2WjbrUSmTwKixokCOirFDZvqISkgmN
r6/g3w2TRi11/LtbUciF0FN2pd7rj5mWrOBPEFYJmrB6SQeswWNhr5RIsXrQd/Ho
zvNm0HnUNEe6w5YBfA6sXQy8B0Zs6pcgLogkFB15TuHIIIpxIsVRv5z8SlEnB7HQ
Io9hZT58yjhekJuzVQB9loU0C/W0lzci/pXTt6fd9puYQe1DG37pSifRG6kfHxrR
if6nRyrfdTlawqbqdkoqFDmEybAM9/hv3BqriGahGGH/hgplNQbYoXfNwYMYaHuB
aSkJvrOQW8bpuAzgVyd7TyNFv+t1kLlfaRYJ
=wBTJ
-----END PGP PUBLIC KEY BLOCK-----

The SaltStack Security Team is available at security@saltstack.com for security-related bug reports or questions.

We request the disclosure of any security-related bugs or issues be reported non-publicly until such time as the issue can be resolved and a security-fix release can be prepared. At that time we will release the fix and make a public announcement with upgrade instructions and download locations.

Security response procedure

SaltStack takes security and the trust of our customers and users very seriously. Our disclosure policy is intended to resolve security issues as quickly and safely as is possible.

1.
A security report sent to security@saltstack.com is assigned to a team member. This person is the primary contact for questions and will coordinate the fix, release, and announcement.
2.
The reported issue is reproduced and confirmed. A list of affected projects and releases is made.
3.
Fixes are implemented for all affected projects and releases that are actively supported. Back-ports of the fix are made to any old releases that are actively supported.
4.
Packagers are notified via the salt-packagers mailing list that an issue was reported and resolved, and that an announcement is incoming.
5.
A new release is created and pushed to all affected repositories. The release documentation provides a full description of the issue, plus any upgrade instructions or other relevant details.
6.
An announcement is made to the salt-users and salt-announce mailing lists. The announcement contains a description of the issue and a link to the full release documentation and download locations.

Receiving security announcements

The fastest place to receive security announcements is via the salt-announce mailing list. This list is low-traffic.

Salt Transport

One of fundamental features of Salt is remote execution. Salt has two basic "channels" for communicating with minions. Each channel requires a client (minion) and a server (master) implementation to work within Salt. These pairs of channels will work together to implement the specific message passing required by the channel interface.

Pub Channel

The pub channel, or publish channel, is how a master sends a job (payload) to a minion. This is a basic pub/sub paradigm, which has specific targeting semantics. All data which goes across the publish system should be encrypted such that only members of the Salt cluster can decrypt the publishes.

Req Channel

The req channel is how the minions send data to the master. This interface is primarily used for fetching files and returning job returns. The req channels have two basic interfaces when talking to the master. send is the basic method that guarantees the message is encrypted at least so that only minions attached to the same master can read it-- but no guarantee of minion-master confidentiality, whereas the crypted_transfer_decode_dictentry method does guarantee minion-master confidentiality.

Zeromq Transport

NOTE:

Zeromq is the current default transport within Salt

Zeromq is a messaging library with bindings into many languages. Zeromq implements a socket interface for message passing, with specific semantics for the socket type.

Pub Channel

The pub channel is implemented using zeromq's pub/sub sockets. By default we don't use zeromq's filtering, which means that all publish jobs are sent to all minions and filtered minion side. Zeromq does have publisher side filtering which can be enabled in salt using zmq_filtering.

Req Channel

The req channel is implemented using zeromq's req/rep sockets. These sockets enforce a send/recv pattern, which forces salt to serialize messages through these socket pairs. This means that although the interface is asynchronous on the minion we cannot send a second message until we have received the reply of the first message.

TCP Transport

The tcp transport is an implementation of Salt's channels using raw tcp sockets. Since this isn't using a pre-defined messaging library we will describe the wire protocol, message semantics, etc. in this document.

The tcp transport is enabled by changing the transport setting to tcp on each Salt minion and Salt master.

transport: tcp

Wire Protocol

This implementation over TCP focuses on flexibility over absolute efficiency. This means we are okay to spend a couple of bytes of wire space for flexibility in the future. That being said, the wire framing is quite efficient and looks like:

msgpack({'head': SOMEHEADER, 'body': SOMEBODY})

Since msgpack is an iterably parsed serialization, we can simply write the serialized payload to the wire. Within that payload we have two items "head" and "body". Head contains header information (such as "message id"). The Body contains the actual message that we are sending. With this flexible wire protocol we can implement any message semantics that we'd like-- including multiplexed message passing on a single socket.

Crypto

The current implementation uses the same crypto as the zeromq transport.

Pub Channel

For the pub channel we send messages without "message ids" which the remote end interprets as a one-way send.

NOTE:

As of today we send all publishes to all minions and rely on minion-side filtering.

Req Channel

For the req channel we send messages with a "message id". This "message id" allows us to multiplex messages across the socket.

The RAET Transport

NOTE:

The RAET transport is in very early development, it is functional but no promises are yet made as to its reliability or security. As for reliability and security, the encryption used has been audited and our tests show that raet is reliable. With this said we are still conducting more security audits and pushing the reliability. This document outlines the encryption used in RAET

New in version 2014.7.0.

The Reliable Asynchronous Event Transport, or RAET, is an alternative transport medium developed specifically with Salt in mind. It has been developed to allow queuing to happen up on the application layer and comes with socket layer encryption. It also abstracts a great deal of control over the socket layer and makes it easy to bubble up errors and exceptions.

RAET also offers very powerful message routing capabilities, allowing for messages to be routed between processes on a single machine all the way up to processes on multiple machines. Messages can also be restricted, allowing processes to be sent messages of specific types from specific sources allowing for trust to be established.

Using RAET in Salt

Using RAET in Salt is easy, the main difference is that the core dependencies change, instead of needing pycrypto, M2Crypto, ZeroMQ, and PYZMQ, the packages libsodium, libnacl, ioflo, and raet are required. Encryption is handled very cleanly by libnacl, while the queueing and flow control is handled by ioflo. Distribution packages are forthcoming, but libsodium can be easily installed from source, or many distributions do ship packages for it. The libnacl and ioflo packages can be easily installed from pypi, distribution packages are in the works.

Once the new deps are installed the 2014.7 release or higher of Salt needs to be installed.

Once installed, modify the configuration files for the minion and master to set the transport to raet:

/etc/salt/master:

transport: raet

/etc/salt/minion:

transport: raet

Now start salt as it would normally be started, the minion will connect to the master and share long term keys, which can then in turn be managed via salt-key. Remote execution and salt states will function in the same way as with Salt over ZeroMQ.

Limitations

The 2014.7 release of RAET is not complete! The Syndic and Multi Master have not been completed yet and these are slated for completion in the 2015.5.0 release.

Also, Salt-Raet allows for more control over the client but these hooks have not been implemented yet, thereforre the client still uses the same system as the ZeroMQ client. This means that the extra reliability that RAET exposes has not yet been implemented in the CLI client.

Why?

Customer and User Request

Why make an alternative transport for Salt? There are many reasons, but the primary motivation came from customer requests, many large companies came with requests to run Salt over an alternative transport, the reasoning was varied, from performance and scaling improvements to licensing concerns. These customers have partnered with SaltStack to make RAET a reality.

More Capabilities

RAET has been designed to allow salt to have greater communication capabilities. It has been designed to allow for development into features which out ZeroMQ topologies can't match.

Many of the proposed features are still under development and will be announced as they enter proof of concept phases, but these features include salt-fuse - a filesystem over salt, salt-vt - a parallel api driven shell over the salt transport and many others.

RAET Reliability

RAET is reliable, hence the name (Reliable Asynchronous Event Transport).

The concern posed by some over RAET reliability is based on the fact that RAET uses UDP instead of TCP and UDP does not have built in reliability.

RAET itself implements the needed reliability layers that are not natively present in UDP, this allows RAET to dynamically optimize packet delivery in a way that keeps it both reliable and asynchronous.

RAET and ZeroMQ

When using RAET, ZeroMQ is not required. RAET is a complete networking replacement. It is noteworthy that RAET is not a ZeroMQ replacement in a general sense, the ZeroMQ constructs are not reproduced in RAET, but they are instead implemented in such a way that is specific to Salt's needs.

RAET is primarily an async communication layer over truly async connections, defaulting to UDP. ZeroMQ is over TCP and abstracts async constructs within the socket layer.

Salt is not dropping ZeroMQ support and has no immediate plans to do so.

Encryption

RAET uses Dan Bernstein's NACL encryption libraries and CurveCP handshake. The libnacl python binding binds to both libsodium and tweetnacl to execute the underlying cryptography. This allows us to completely rely on an externally developed cryptography system.

Programming Intro

Intro to RAET Programming

NOTE:

This page is still under construction

The first thing to cover is that RAET does not present a socket api, it presents, and queueing api, all messages in RAET are made available to via queues. This is the single most differentiating factor with RAET vs other networking libraries, instead of making a socket, a stack is created. Instead of calling send() or recv(), messages are placed on the stack to be sent and messages that are received appear on the stack.

Different kinds of stacks are also available, currently two stacks exist, the UDP stack, and the UXD stack. The UDP stack is used to communicate over udp sockets, and the UXD stack is used to communicate over Unix Domain Sockets.

The UDP stack runs a context for communicating over networks, while the UXD stack has contexts for communicating between processes.

UDP Stack Messages

To create a UDP stack in RAET, simply create the stack, manage the queues, and process messages:

from salt.transport.road.raet import stacking
from salt.transport.road.raet import estating

udp_stack = stacking.StackUdp(ha=('127.0.0.1', 7870))
r_estate = estating.Estate(stack=stack, name='foo', ha=('192.168.42.42', 7870))
msg = {'hello': 'world'}
udp_stack.transmit(msg, udp_stack.estates[r_estate.name])
udp_stack.serviceAll()

Master Tops System

In 0.10.4 the external_nodes system was upgraded to allow for modular subsystems to be used to generate the top file data for a highstate run on the master.

The old external_nodes option has been removed. The master tops system contains a number of subsystems that are loaded via the Salt loader interfaces like modules, states, returners, runners, etc.

Using the new master_tops option is simple:

master_tops:
  ext_nodes: cobbler-external-nodes

for Cobbler or:

master_tops:
  reclass:
    inventory_base_uri: /etc/reclass
    classes_uri: roles

for Reclass.

master_tops:
  varstack: /path/to/the/config/file/varstack.yaml

for Varstack.

It's also possible to create custom master_tops modules. These modules must go in a subdirectory called tops in the extension_modules directory. The extension_modules directory is not defined by default (the default /srv/salt/_modules will NOT work as of this release)

Custom tops modules are written like any other execution module, see the source for the two modules above for examples of fully functional ones. Below is a degenerate example:

/etc/salt/master:

extension_modules: /srv/salt/modules
master_tops:
  customtop: True

/srv/salt/modules/tops/customtop.py:

import logging
import sys
# Define the module's virtual name
__virtualname__ = 'customtop'

log = logging.getLogger(__name__)

def __virtual__():
    return __virtualname__


def top(**kwargs):
    log.debug('Calling top in customtop')
    return {'base': ['test']}

salt minion state.show_top should then display something like:

$ salt minion state.show_top

minion
    ----------
    base:
      - test

Returners

By default the return values of the commands sent to the Salt minions are returned to the Salt master, however anything at all can be done with the results data.

By using a Salt returner, results data can be redirected to external data-stores for analysis and archival.

Returners pull their configuration values from the Salt minions. Returners are only configured once, which is generally at load time.

The returner interface allows the return data to be sent to any system that can receive data. This means that return data can be sent to a Redis server, a MongoDB server, a MySQL server, or any system.

SEE ALSO:

Full list of builtin returners

Using Returners

All Salt commands will return the command data back to the master. Specifying returners will ensure that the data is _also_ sent to the specified returner interfaces.

Specifying what returners to use is done when the command is invoked:

salt '*' test.ping --return redis_return

This command will ensure that the redis_return returner is used.

It is also possible to specify multiple returners:

salt '*' test.ping --return mongo_return,redis_return,cassandra_return

In this scenario all three returners will be called and the data from the test.ping command will be sent out to the three named returners.

Writing a Returner

A returner is a Python module containing at minimum a returner function. Other optional functions can be included to add support for master_job_cache, external_job_cache, and Event Returners.

returner
The returner function must accept a single argument. The argument contains return data from the called minion function. If the minion function test.ping is called, the value of the argument will be a dictionary. Run the following command from a Salt master to get a sample of the dictionary:
salt-call --local --metadata test.ping --out=pprint
import redis
import json

def returner(ret):
    '''
    Return information to a redis server
    '''
    # Get a redis connection
    serv = redis.Redis(
                host='redis-serv.example.com',
                port=6379,
                db='0')
    serv.sadd("%(id)s:jobs" % ret, ret['jid'])
    serv.set("%(jid)s:%(id)s" % ret, json.dumps(ret['return']))
    serv.sadd('jobs', ret['jid'])
    serv.sadd(ret['jid'], ret['id'])

The above example of a returner set to send the data to a Redis server serializes the data as JSON and sets it in redis.

Master Job Cache Support

master_job_cache, external_job_cache, and Event Returners. Salt's master_job_cache allows returners to be used as a pluggable replacement for the default_job_cache. In order to do so, a returner must implement the following functions:

NOTE:

The code samples contained in this section were taken from the cassandra_cql returner.

prep_jid
Ensures that job ids (jid) don't collide, unless passed_jid is provided.

nochache is an optional boolean that indicates if return data should be cached. passed_jid is a caller provided jid which should be returned unconditionally.
def prep_jid(nocache, passed_jid=None):  # pylint: disable=unused-argument
    '''
    Do any work necessary to prepare a JID, including sending a custom id
    '''
    return passed_jid if passed_jid is not None else salt.utils.jid.gen_jid()
save_load
Save job information. The jid is generated by prep_jid and should be considered a unique identifier for the job. The jid, for example, could be used as the primary/unique key in a database. The load is what is returned to a Salt master by a minion. The following code example stores the load as a JSON string in the salt.jids table.
def save_load(jid, load):
    '''
    Save the load to the specified jid id
    '''
    query = '''INSERT INTO salt.jids (
                 jid, load
               ) VALUES (
                 '{0}', '{1}'
               );'''.format(jid, json.dumps(load))

    # cassandra_cql.cql_query may raise a CommandExecutionError
    try:
        __salt__['cassandra_cql.cql_query'](query)
    except CommandExecutionError:
        log.critical('Could not save load in jids table.')
        raise
    except Exception as e:
        log.critical('''Unexpected error while inserting into
         jids: {0}'''.format(str(e)))
        raise
get_load
must accept a job id (jid) and return the job load stored by save_load, or an empty dictionary when not found.
def get_load(jid):
    '''
    Return the load data that marks a specified jid
    '''
    query = '''SELECT load FROM salt.jids WHERE jid = '{0}';'''.format(jid)

    ret = {}

    # cassandra_cql.cql_query may raise a CommandExecutionError
    try:
        data = __salt__['cassandra_cql.cql_query'](query)
        if data:
            load = data[0].get('load')
            if load:
                ret = json.loads(load)
    except CommandExecutionError:
        log.critical('Could not get load from jids table.')
        raise
    except Exception as e:
        log.critical('''Unexpected error while getting load from
         jids: {0}'''.format(str(e)))
        raise

    return ret

External Job Cache Support

Salt's external_job_cache extends the master_job_cache. External Job Cache support requires the following functions in addition to what is required for Master Job Cache support:

get_jid
Return a dictionary containing the information (load) returned by each minion when the specified job id was executed.

Sample:

{
    "local": {
        "master_minion": {
            "fun_args": [],
            "jid": "20150330121011408195",
            "return": true,
            "retcode": 0,
            "success": true,
            "cmd": "_return",
            "_stamp": "2015-03-30T12:10:12.708663",
            "fun": "test.ping",
            "id": "master_minion"
        }
    }
}
get_fun
Return a dictionary of minions that called a given Salt function as their last function call.

Sample:

{
    "local": {
        "minion1": "test.ping",
        "minion3": "test.ping",
        "minion2": "test.ping"
    }
}
get_jids
Return a list of all job ids.

Sample:

{
    "local": [
        "20150330121011408195",
        "20150330195922139916"
    ]
}
get_minions
Returns a list of minions

Sample:

{
     "local": [
         "minion3",
         "minion2",
         "minion1",
         "master_minion"
     ]
}

Please refer to one or more of the existing returners (i.e. mysql, cassandra_cql) if you need further clarification.

Event Support

An event_return function must be added to the returner module to allow events to be logged from a master via the returner. A list of events are passed to the function by the master.

The following example was taken from the MySQL returner. In this example, each event is inserted into the salt_events table keyed on the event tag. The tag contains the jid and therefore is guaranteed to be unique.

def event_return(events):
 '''
 Return event to mysql server

 Requires that configuration be enabled via 'event_return'
 option in master config.
 '''
 with _get_serv(events, commit=True) as cur:
     for event in events:
         tag = event.get('tag', '')
         data = event.get('data', '')
         sql = '''INSERT INTO `salt_events` (`tag`, `data`, `master_id` )
                  VALUES (%s, %s, %s)'''
         cur.execute(sql, (tag, json.dumps(data), __opts__['id']))

Custom Returners

Place custom returners in a _returners directory within the file_roots specified by the master config file.

Custom returners are distributed when any of the following are called:

·
state.apply
·
saltutil.sync_returners
·
saltutil.sync_all

Any custom returners which have been synced to a minion that are named the same as one of Salt's default set of returners will take the place of the default returner with the same name.

Naming the Returner

Note that a returner's default name is its filename (i.e. foo.py becomes returner foo), but that its name can be overridden by using a __virtual__ function. A good example of this can be found in the redis returner, which is named redis_return.py but is loaded as simply redis:

try:
    import redis
    HAS_REDIS = True
except ImportError:
    HAS_REDIS = False

__virtualname__ = 'redis'

def __virtual__():
    if not HAS_REDIS:
        return False
    return __virtualname__

Testing the Returner

The returner, prep_jid, save_load, get_load, and event_return functions can be tested by configuring the master_job_cache and Event Returners in the master config file and submitting a job to test.ping each minion from the master.

Once you have successfully exercised the Master Job Cache functions, test the External Job Cache functions using the ret execution module.

salt-call ret.get_jids cassandra_cql --output=json
salt-call ret.get_fun cassandra_cql test.ping --output=json
salt-call ret.get_minions cassandra_cql --output=json
salt-call ret.get_jid cassandra_cql 20150330121011408195 --output=json

Event Returners

For maximum visibility into the history of events across a Salt infrastructure, all events seen by a salt master may be logged to one or more returners.

To enable event logging, set the event_return configuration option in the master config to the returner(s) which should be designated as the handler for event returns.

NOTE:

Not all returners support event returns. Verify a returner has an event_return() function before using.

NOTE:

On larger installations, many hundreds of events may be generated on a busy master every second. Be certain to closely monitor the storage of a given returner as Salt can easily overwhelm an underpowered server with thousands of returns.

Full List of Returners

returner modules

carbon_returnTake data from salt and "return" it into a carbon receiver
cassandra_cql_returnReturn data to a cassandra server
cassandra_returnReturn data to a Cassandra ColumnFamily
couchbase_returnSimple returner for Couchbase.
couchdb_returnSimple returner for CouchDB.
django_returnA returner that will infor a Django system that returns are available using Django's signal system.
elasticsearch_returnReturn data to an elasticsearch server for indexing.
etcd_returnReturn data to an etcd server or cluster
hipchat_returnReturn salt data via hipchat.
influxdb_returnReturn data to an influxdb server.
kafka_returnReturn data to a Kafka topic
localThe local returner is used to test the returner interface, it just prints the
local_cacheReturn data to local job cache
memcache_returnReturn data to a memcache server
mongo_future_returnReturn data to a mongodb server
mongo_returnReturn data to a mongodb server
multi_returnerRead/Write multiple returners
mysqlReturn data to a mysql server
nagios_returnReturn salt data to Nagios
odbcReturn data to an ODBC compliant server.
pgjsonbReturn data to a PostgreSQL server with json data stored in Pg's jsonb data type
postgresReturn data to a postgresql server
postgres_local_cacheUse a postgresql server for the master job cache.
pushover_returnerReturn salt data via pushover (http://www.pushover.net)
rawfile_jsonTake data from salt and "return" it into a raw file containing the json, with one line per event.
redis_returnReturn data to a redis server
sentry_returnSalt returner that reports execution results back to sentry.
slack_returnerReturn salt data via slack
sms_returnReturn data by SMS.
smtp_returnReturn salt data via email
splunkSend json response data to Splunk via the HTTP Event Collector
sqlite3_returnInsert minion return data into a sqlite3 database
syslog_returnReturn data to the host operating system's syslog facility
xmpp_returnReturn salt data via xmpp

salt.returners.carbon_return

Take data from salt and "return" it into a carbon receiver

Add the following configuration to the minion configuration file:

carbon.host: <server ip address>
carbon.port: 2003

Errors when trying to convert data to numbers may be ignored by setting carbon.skip_on_error to True:

carbon.skip_on_error: True

By default, data will be sent to carbon using the plaintext protocol. To use the pickle protocol, set carbon.mode to pickle:

carbon.mode: pickle
You can also specify the pattern used for the metric base path (except for virt modules metrics):
carbon.metric_base_pattern: carbon.[minion_id].[module].[function]
These tokens can used :
[module]: salt module [function]: salt function [minion_id]: minion id
Default is :
carbon.metric_base_pattern: [module].[function].[minion_id]

Carbon settings may also be configured as:

carbon:
  host: <server IP or hostname>
  port: <carbon port>
  skip_on_error: True
  mode: (pickle|text)
  metric_base_pattern: <pattern> | [module].[function].[minion_id]

Alternative configuration values can be used by prefacing the configuration. Any values not found in the alternative configuration will be pulled from the default location:

alternative.carbon:
  host: <server IP or hostname>
  port: <carbon port>
  skip_on_error: True
  mode: (pickle|text)

To use the carbon returner, append '--return carbon' to the salt command.

salt '*' test.ping --return carbon

To use the alternative configuration, append '--return_config alternative' to the salt command.

New in version 2015.5.0.

salt '*' test.ping --return carbon --return_config alternative

To override individual configuration items, append --return_kwargs '{"key:": "value"}' to the salt command.

New in version 2016.3.0.

salt '*' test.ping --return carbon --return_kwargs '{"skip_on_error": False}'
salt.returners.carbon_return.event_return(events)
Return event data to remote carbon server

Provide a list of events to be stored in carbon
salt.returners.carbon_return.prep_jid(nocache=False, passed_jid=None)
Do any work necessary to prepare a JID, including sending a custom id
salt.returners.carbon_return.returner(ret)

Return data to a remote carbon server using the text metric protocol

Each metric will look like:

[module].[function].[minion_id].[metric path [...]].[metric name]

salt.returners.cassandra_cql_return

Return data to a cassandra server

New in version 2015.5.0.

maintainer
Corin Kochenower<ckochenower@saltstack.com>
maturity
new as of 2015.2
depends
salt.modules.cassandra_cql
depends
DataStax Python Driver for Apache Cassandra https://github.com/datastax/python-driv… pip install cassandra-driver
platform
all
configuration

To enable this returner, the minion will need the DataStax Python Driver for Apache Cassandra ( https://github.com/datastax/python-driv… ) installed and the following values configured in the minion or master config. The list of cluster IPs must include at least one cassandra node IP address. No assumption or default will be used for the cluster IPs. The cluster IPs will be tried in the order listed. The port, username, and password values shown below will be the assumed defaults if you do not provide values.:

cassandra:
  cluster:
    - 192.168.50.11
    - 192.168.50.12
    - 192.168.50.13
  port: 9042
  username: salt
  password: salt

Use the following cassandra database schema:

CREATE KEYSPACE IF NOT EXISTS salt
    WITH replication = {'class': 'SimpleStrategy', 'replication_factor' : 1};

CREATE USER IF NOT EXISTS salt WITH PASSWORD 'salt' NOSUPERUSER;

GRANT ALL ON KEYSPACE salt TO salt;

USE salt;

CREATE TABLE IF NOT EXISTS salt.salt_returns (
    jid text,
    minion_id text,
    fun text,
    alter_time timestamp,
    full_ret text,
    return text,
    success boolean,
    PRIMARY KEY (jid, minion_id, fun)
) WITH CLUSTERING ORDER BY (minion_id ASC, fun ASC);
CREATE INDEX IF NOT EXISTS salt_returns_minion_id ON salt.salt_returns (minion_id);
CREATE INDEX IF NOT EXISTS salt_returns_fun ON salt.salt_returns (fun);

CREATE TABLE IF NOT EXISTS salt.jids (
    jid text PRIMARY KEY,
    load text
);

CREATE TABLE IF NOT EXISTS salt.minions (
    minion_id text PRIMARY KEY,
    last_fun text
);
CREATE INDEX IF NOT EXISTS minions_last_fun ON salt.minions (last_fun);

CREATE TABLE IF NOT EXISTS salt.salt_events (
    id timeuuid,
    tag text,
    alter_time timestamp,
    data text,
    master_id text,
    PRIMARY KEY (id, tag)
) WITH CLUSTERING ORDER BY (tag ASC);
CREATE INDEX tag ON salt.salt_events (tag);

Required python modules: cassandra-driver

To use the cassandra returner, append '--return cassandra_cql' to the salt command. ex:

salt '*' test.ping --return_cql cassandra

Note: if your Cassandra instance has not been tuned much you may benefit from altering some timeouts in cassandra.yaml like so:

As always, your mileage may vary and your Cassandra cluster may have different needs. SaltStack has seen situations where these timeouts can resolve some stacktraces that appear to come from the Datastax Python driver.

salt.returners.cassandra_cql_return.event_return(events)
Return event to one of potentially many clustered cassandra nodes

Requires that configuration be enabled via 'event_return' option in master config.

Cassandra does not support an auto-increment feature due to the highly inefficient nature of creating a monotonically increasing number across all nodes in a distributed database. Each event will be assigned a uuid by the connecting client.
salt.returners.cassandra_cql_return.get_fun(fun)
Return a dict of the last function called for all minions
salt.returners.cassandra_cql_return.get_jid(jid)
Return the information returned when the specified job id was executed
salt.returners.cassandra_cql_return.get_jids()
Return a list of all job ids
salt.returners.cassandra_cql_return.get_load(jid)
Return the load data that marks a specified jid
salt.returners.cassandra_cql_return.get_minions()
Return a list of minions
salt.returners.cassandra_cql_return.prep_jid(nocache, passed_jid=None)
Do any work necessary to prepare a JID, including sending a custom id
salt.returners.cassandra_cql_return.returner(ret)
Return data to one of potentially many clustered cassandra nodes
salt.returners.cassandra_cql_return.save_load(jid, load, minions=None)
Save the load to the specified jid id

salt.returners.cassandra_return

Return data to a Cassandra ColumnFamily

Here's an example Keyspace / ColumnFamily setup that works with this returner:

create keyspace salt;
use salt;
create column family returns
  with key_validation_class='UTF8Type'
  and comparator='UTF8Type'
  and default_validation_class='UTF8Type';

Required python modules: pycassa

To use the cassandra returner, append '--return cassandra' to the salt command. ex:
salt '*' test.ping --return cassandra

salt.returners.cassandra_return.prep_jid(nocache=False, passed_jid=None)
Do any work necessary to prepare a JID, including sending a custom id
salt.returners.cassandra_return.returner(ret)
Return data to a Cassandra ColumnFamily

salt.returners.couchbase_return

Simple returner for Couchbase. Optional configuration settings are listed below, along with sane defaults.

couchbase.host: 'salt' couchbase.port: 8091 couchbase.bucket: 'salt' couchbase.skip_verify_views: False

To use the couchbase returner, append '--return couchbase' to the salt command. ex:
salt '*' test.ping --return couchbase

All of the return data will be stored in documents as follows:

Jid

load: load obj tgt_minions: list of minions targeted nocache: should we not cache the return data

Jid/Minion_id

return: return_data out: out_data

salt.returners.couchbase_return.get_jid(jid)
Return the information returned when the specified job id was executed
salt.returners.couchbase_return.get_jids()
Return a list of all job ids
salt.returners.couchbase_return.get_load(jid)
Return the load data that marks a specified jid
salt.returners.couchbase_return.prep_jid(nocache=False, passed_jid=None)
Return a job id and prepare the job id directory This is the function responsible for making sure jids don't collide (unless its passed a jid) So do what you have to do to make sure that stays the case
salt.returners.couchbase_return.returner(load)
Return data to the local job cache
salt.returners.couchbase_return.save_load(jid, clear_load, minion=None)
Save the load to the specified jid
salt.returners.couchbase_return.save_minions(jid, minions, syndic_id=None)
Save/update the minion list for a given jid. The syndic_id argument is included for API compatibility only.

salt.returners.couchdb_return

Simple returner for CouchDB. Optional configuration settings are listed below, along with sane defaults:

couchdb.db: 'salt'
couchdb.url: 'http://salt:5984/'

Alternative configuration values can be used by prefacing the configuration. Any values not found in the alternative configuration will be pulled from the default location:

alternative.couchdb.db: 'salt'
alternative.couchdb.url: 'http://salt:5984/'

To use the couchdb returner, append --return couchdb to the salt command. Example:

salt '*' test.ping --return couchdb

To use the alternative configuration, append --return_config alternative to the salt command.

New in version 2015.5.0.

salt '*' test.ping --return couchdb --return_config alternative

To override individual configuration items, append --return_kwargs '{"key:": "value"}' to the salt command.

New in version 2016.3.0.

salt '*' test.ping --return couchdb --return_kwargs '{"db": "another-salt"}'

On concurrent database access

As this returner creates a couchdb document with the salt job id as document id and as only one document with a given id can exist in a given couchdb database, it is advised for most setups that every minion be configured to write to it own database (the value of couchdb.db may be suffixed with the minion id), otherwise multi-minion targeting can lead to losing output:

·
the first returning minion is able to create a document in the database
·
other minions fail with {'error': 'HTTP Error 409: Conflict'}
salt.returners.couchdb_return.ensure_views()
This function makes sure that all the views that should exist in the design document do exist.
salt.returners.couchdb_return.get_fun(fun)
Return a dict with key being minion and value being the job details of the last run of function 'fun'.
salt.returners.couchdb_return.get_jid(jid)
Get the document with a given JID.
salt.returners.couchdb_return.get_jids()
List all the jobs that we have..
salt.returners.couchdb_return.get_minions()
Return a list of minion identifiers from a request of the view.
salt.returners.couchdb_return.get_valid_salt_views()
Returns a dict object of views that should be part of the salt design document.
salt.returners.couchdb_return.prep_jid(nocache=False, passed_jid=None)
Do any work necessary to prepare a JID, including sending a custom id
salt.returners.couchdb_return.returner(ret)
Take in the return and shove it into the couchdb database.
salt.returners.couchdb_return.set_salt_view()
Helper function that sets the salt design document. Uses get_valid_salt_views and some hardcoded values.

salt.returners.django_return

A returner that will infor a Django system that returns are available using Django's signal system.

https://docs.djangoproject.com/en/dev/t…

It is up to the Django developer to register necessary handlers with the signals provided by this returner and process returns as necessary.

The easiest way to use signals is to import them from this returner directly and then use a decorator to register them.

An example Django module that registers a function called 'returner_callback' with this module's 'returner' function:

import salt.returners.django_return
from django.dispatch import receiver

@receiver(salt.returners.django_return, sender=returner)
def returner_callback(sender, ret):
    print('I received {0} from {1}'.format(ret, sender))
salt.returners.django_return.prep_jid(nocache=False, passed_jid=None)
Do any work necessary to prepare a JID, including sending a custom ID
salt.returners.django_return.returner(ret)
Signal a Django server that a return is available
salt.returners.django_return.save_load(jid, load, minions=None)
Save the load to the specified jid

salt.returners.elasticsearch_return

Return data to an elasticsearch server for indexing.

maintainer
Jurnell Cockhren <jurnell.cockhren@sophicware.com>, Arnold Bechtoldt <mail@arnoldbechtoldt.com>
maturity
New
depends
elasticsearch-py
platform
all

To enable this returner the elasticsearch python client must be installed on the desired minions (all or some subset).

Please see documentation of elasticsearch execution module for a valid connection configuration.

WARNING:

The index that you wish to store documents will be created by Elasticsearch automatically if doesn't exist yet. It is highly recommended to create predefined index templates with appropriate mapping(s) that will be used by Elasticsearch upon index creation. Otherwise you will have problems as described in #20826.

To use the returner per salt call:

salt '*' test.ping --return elasticsearch

In order to have the returner apply to all minions:

ext_job_cache: elasticsearch

Minion configuration example:

elasticsearch:
    hosts:
      - "10.10.10.10:9200"
      - "10.10.10.11:9200"
      - "10.10.10.12:9200"
    index_date: True
    number_of_shards: 5
    number_of_replicas: 1
    functions_blacklist:
      - "test.ping"
salt.returners.elasticsearch_return.event_return(events)
Return events to Elasticsearch

Requires that the event_return configuration be set in master config.
salt.returners.elasticsearch_return.get_load(jid)
Return the load data that marks a specified jid

New in version 2015.8.1.
salt.returners.elasticsearch_return.prep_jid(nocache=False, passed_jid=None)
Do any work necessary to prepare a JID, including sending a custom id
salt.returners.elasticsearch_return.returner(ret)
Process the return from Salt
salt.returners.elasticsearch_return.save_load(jid, load, minions=None)
Save the load to the specified jid id

New in version 2015.8.1.

salt.returners.etcd_return

Return data to an etcd server or cluster

depends
·
python-etcd

In order to return to an etcd server, a profile should be created in the master configuration file:

my_etcd_config:
  etcd.host: 127.0.0.1
  etcd.port: 4001

It is technically possible to configure etcd without using a profile, but this is not considered to be a best practice, especially when multiple etcd servers or clusters are available.

etcd.host: 127.0.0.1
etcd.port: 4001

Additionally, two more options must be specified in the top-level configuration in order to use the etcd returner:

etcd.returner: my_etcd_config
etcd.returner_root: /salt/return

The etcd.returner option specifies which configuration profile to use. The etcd.returner_root option specifies the path inside etcd to use as the root of the returner system.

Once the etcd options are configured, the returner may be used:

CLI Example:

salt '*' test.ping --return etcd

A username and password can be set:

etcd.username: larry  # Optional; requires etcd.password to be set
etcd.password: 123pass  # Optional; requires etcd.username to be set

You can also set a TTL (time to live) value for the returner:

etcd.ttl: 5

Authentication with username and password, and ttl, currently requires the master branch of python-etcd.

You may also specify different roles for read and write operations. First, create the profiles as specified above. Then add:

etcd.returner_read_profile: my_etcd_read
etcd.returner_write_profile: my_etcd_write
salt.returners.etcd_return.__virtual__()
Only return if python-etcd is installed
salt.returners.etcd_return.get_fun()
Return a dict of the last function called for all minions
salt.returners.etcd_return.get_jid(jid)
Return the information returned when the specified job id was executed
salt.returners.etcd_return.get_jids()
Return a list of all job ids
salt.returners.etcd_return.get_load(jid)
Return the load data that marks a specified jid
salt.returners.etcd_return.get_minions()
Return a list of minions
salt.returners.etcd_return.prep_jid(nocache=False, passed_jid=None)
Do any work necessary to prepare a JID, including sending a custom id
salt.returners.etcd_return.returner(ret)
Return data to an etcd server or cluster
salt.returners.etcd_return.save_load(jid, load, minions=None)
Save the load to the specified jid

salt.returners.hipchat_return

Return salt data via hipchat.

New in version 2015.5.0.

The following fields can be set in the minion conf file:

hipchat.room_id (required)
hipchat.api_key (required)
hipchat.api_version (required)
hipchat.api_url (optional)
hipchat.from_name (required)
hipchat.color (optional)
hipchat.notify (optional)
hipchat.profile (optional)
hipchat.url (optional)

NOTE:

When using Hipchat's API v2, api_key needs to be assigned to the room with the "Label" set to what you would have been set in the hipchat.from_name field. The v2 API disregards the from_name in the data sent for the room notification and uses the Label assigned through the Hipchat control panel.

Alternative configuration values can be used by prefacing the configuration. Any values not found in the alternative configuration will be pulled from the default location:

hipchat.room_id
hipchat.api_key
hipchat.api_version
hipchat.api_url
hipchat.from_name

Hipchat settings may also be configured as:

hipchat:
  room_id: RoomName
  api_url: https://hipchat.myteam.con
  api_key: xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
  api_version: v1
  from_name: user@email.com

alternative.hipchat:
  room_id: RoomName
  api_key: xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
  api_version: v1
  from_name: user@email.com

hipchat_profile:
  hipchat.api_key: xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
  hipchat.api_version: v1
  hipchat.from_name: user@email.com

hipchat:
  profile: hipchat_profile
  room_id: RoomName

alternative.hipchat:
  profile: hipchat_profile
  room_id: RoomName

hipchat:
  room_id: RoomName
  api_key: xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
  api_version: v1
  api_url: api.hipchat.com
  from_name: user@email.com

To use the HipChat returner, append '--return hipchat' to the salt command.

salt '*' test.ping --return hipchat

To use the alternative configuration, append '--return_config alternative' to the salt command.

New in version 2015.5.0.

salt '*' test.ping --return hipchat --return_config alternative

To override individual configuration items, append --return_kwargs '{"key:": "value"}' to the salt command.

New in version 2016.3.0.

salt '*' test.ping --return hipchat --return_kwargs '{"room_id": "another-room"}'
salt.returners.hipchat_return.__virtual__()

Return virtual name of the module.

Returns
The virtual name of the module.
salt.returners.hipchat_return.event_return(events)
Return event data to hipchat
salt.returners.hipchat_return.returner(ret)
Send an hipchat message with the return data from a job

salt.returners.influxdb_return

Return data to an influxdb server.

New in version 2015.8.0.

To enable this returner the minion will need the python client for influxdb installed and the following values configured in the minion or master config, these are the defaults:

influxdb.db: 'salt'
influxdb.user: 'salt'
influxdb.password: 'salt'
influxdb.host: 'localhost'
influxdb.port: 8086

Alternative configuration values can be used by prefacing the configuration. Any values not found in the alternative configuration will be pulled from the default location:

alternative.influxdb.db: 'salt'
alternative.influxdb.user: 'salt'
alternative.influxdb.password: 'salt'
alternative.influxdb.host: 'localhost'
alternative.influxdb.port: 6379

To use the influxdb returner, append '--return influxdb' to the salt command.

salt '*' test.ping --return influxdb

To use the alternative configuration, append '--return_config alternative' to the salt command.

salt '*' test.ping --return influxdb --return_config alternative

To override individual configuration items, append --return_kwargs '{"key:": "value"}' to the salt command.

New in version 2016.3.0.

salt '*' test.ping --return influxdb --return_kwargs '{"db": "another-salt"}'
salt.returners.influxdb_return.get_fun(fun)
Return a dict of the last function called for all minions
salt.returners.influxdb_return.get_jid(jid)
Return the information returned when the specified job id was executed
salt.returners.influxdb_return.get_jids()
Return a list of all job ids
salt.returners.influxdb_return.get_load(jid)
Return the load data that marks a specified jid
salt.returners.influxdb_return.get_minions()
Return a list of minions
salt.returners.influxdb_return.prep_jid(nocache=False, passed_jid=None)
Do any work necessary to prepare a JID, including sending a custom id
salt.returners.influxdb_return.returner(ret)
Return data to a influxdb data store
salt.returners.influxdb_return.save_load(jid, load, minions=None)
Save the load to the specified jid

salt.returners.kafka_return

Return data to a Kafka topic

maintainer
Christer Edwards (christer.edwards@gmail.com)
maturity
0.1
depends
kafka-python
platform
all

To enable this returner install kafka-python and enable the following settings in the minion config:

returner.kafka.hostnames:
·
"server1"
·
"server2"
·
"server3"

returner.kafka.topic: 'topic'

To use the kafka returner, append '--return kafka' to the Salt command, eg;

salt '*' test.ping --return kafka

salt.returners.kafka_return.returner(ret)
Return information to a Kafka server

salt.returners.local

The local returner is used to test the returner interface, it just prints the return data to the console to verify that it is being passed properly

To use the local returner, append '--return local' to the salt command. ex:
salt '*' test.ping --return local

salt.returners.local.event_return(event)
Print event return data to the terminal to verify functionality
salt.returners.local.returner(ret)
Print the return data to the terminal to verify functionality

salt.returners.local_cache

Return data to local job cache

salt.returners.local_cache.clean_old_jobs()
Clean out the old jobs from the job cache
salt.returners.local_cache.get_endtime(jid)
Retrieve the stored endtime for a given job

Returns False if no endtime is present
salt.returners.local_cache.get_jid(jid)
Return the information returned when the specified job id was executed
salt.returners.local_cache.get_jids()
Return a dict mapping all job ids to job information
salt.returners.local_cache.get_jids_filter(count, filter_find_job=True)
Return a list of all jobs information filtered by the given criteria. :param int count: show not more than the count of most recent jobs :param bool filter_find_jobs: filter out 'saltutil.find_job' jobs
salt.returners.local_cache.get_load(jid)
Return the load data that marks a specified jid
salt.returners.local_cache.load_reg()
Load the register from msgpack files
salt.returners.local_cache.prep_jid(nocache=False, passed_jid=None, recurse_count=0)
Return a job id and prepare the job id directory.

This is the function responsible for making sure jids don't collide (unless it is passed a jid). So do what you have to do to make sure that stays the case
salt.returners.local_cache.returner(load)
Return data to the local job cache
salt.returners.local_cache.save_load(jid, clear_load, minions=None, recurse_count=0)
Save the load to the specified jid

minions argument is to provide a pre-computed list of matched minions for the job, for cases when this function can't compute that list itself (such as for salt-ssh)
salt.returners.local_cache.save_minions(jid, minions, syndic_id=None)
Save/update the serialized list of minions for a given job
salt.returners.local_cache.save_reg(data)
Save the register to msgpack files
salt.returners.local_cache.update_endtime(jid, time)
Update (or store) the end time for a given job

Endtime is stored as a plain text string

salt.returners.memcache_return

Return data to a memcache server

To enable this returner the minion will need the python client for memcache installed and the following values configured in the minion or master config, these are the defaults.

memcache.host: 'localhost'
memcache.port: '11211'

Alternative configuration values can be used by prefacing the configuration. Any values not found in the alternative configuration will be pulled from the default location.

alternative.memcache.host: 'localhost'
alternative.memcache.port: '11211'

python2-memcache uses 'localhost' and '11211' as syntax on connection.

To use the memcache returner, append '--return memcache' to the salt command.

salt '*' test.ping --return memcache

To use the alternative configuration, append '--return_config alternative' to the salt command.

New in version 2015.5.0.

salt '*' test.ping --return memcache --return_config alternative

To override individual configuration items, append --return_kwargs '{"key:": "value"}' to the salt command.

New in version 2016.3.0.

salt '*' test.ping --return memcache --return_kwargs '{"host": "hostname.domain.com"}'
salt.returners.memcache_return.get_fun(fun)
Return a dict of the last function called for all minions
salt.returners.memcache_return.get_jid(jid)
Return the information returned when the specified job id was executed
salt.returners.memcache_return.get_jids()
Return a list of all job ids
salt.returners.memcache_return.get_load(jid)
Return the load data that marks a specified jid
salt.returners.memcache_return.get_minions()
Return a list of minions
salt.returners.memcache_return.prep_jid(nocache=False, passed_jid=None)
Do any work necessary to prepare a JID, including sending a custom id
salt.returners.memcache_return.returner(ret)
Return data to a memcache data store
salt.returners.memcache_return.save_load(jid, load, minions=None)
Save the load to the specified jid

salt.returners.mongo_future_return

Return data to a mongodb server

Required python modules: pymongo

This returner will send data from the minions to a MongoDB server. To configure the settings for your MongoDB server, add the following lines to the minion config files:

mongo.db: <database name>
mongo.host: <server ip address>
mongo.user: <MongoDB username>
mongo.password: <MongoDB user password>
mongo.port: 27017

You can also ask for indexes creation on the most common used fields, which should greatly improve performance. Indexes are not created by default.

mongo.indexes: true

Alternative configuration values can be used by prefacing the configuration. Any values not found in the alternative configuration will be pulled from the default location:

alternative.mongo.db: <database name>
alternative.mongo.host: <server ip address>
alternative.mongo.user: <MongoDB username>
alternative.mongo.password: <MongoDB user password>
alternative.mongo.port: 27017

This mongo returner is being developed to replace the default mongodb returner in the future and should not be considered API stable yet.

To use the mongo returner, append '--return mongo' to the salt command.

salt '*' test.ping --return mongo

To use the alternative configuration, append '--return_config alternative' to the salt command.

New in version 2015.5.0.

salt '*' test.ping --return mongo --return_config alternative

To override individual configuration items, append --return_kwargs '{"key:": "value"}' to the salt command.

New in version 2016.3.0.

salt '*' test.ping --return mongo --return_kwargs '{"db": "another-salt"}'
salt.returners.mongo_future_return.event_return(events)
Return events to Mongodb server
salt.returners.mongo_future_return.get_fun(fun)
Return the most recent jobs that have executed the named function
salt.returners.mongo_future_return.get_jid(jid)
Return the return information associated with a jid
salt.returners.mongo_future_return.get_jids()
Return a list of job ids
salt.returners.mongo_future_return.get_load(jid)
Return the load associated with a given job id
salt.returners.mongo_future_return.get_minions()
Return a list of minions
salt.returners.mongo_future_return.prep_jid(nocache=False, passed_jid=None)
Do any work necessary to prepare a JID, including sending a custom id
salt.returners.mongo_future_return.returner(ret)
Return data to a mongodb server
salt.returners.mongo_future_return.save_load(jid, load, minions=None)
Save the load for a given job id

salt.returners.mongo_return

Return data to a mongodb server

Required python modules: pymongo

This returner will send data from the minions to a MongoDB server. To configure the settings for your MongoDB server, add the following lines to the minion config files.

mongo.db: <database name>
mongo.host: <server ip address>
mongo.user: <MongoDB username>
mongo.password: <MongoDB user password>
mongo.port: 27017

Alternative configuration values can be used by prefacing the configuration. Any values not found in the alternative configuration will be pulled from the default location.

alternative.mongo.db: <database name>
alternative.mongo.host: <server ip address>
alternative.mongo.user: <MongoDB username>
alternative.mongo.password: <MongoDB user password>
alternative.mongo.port: 27017

To use the mongo returner, append '--return mongo' to the salt command.

salt '*' test.ping --return mongo_return

To use the alternative configuration, append '--return_config alternative' to the salt command.

New in version 2015.5.0.

salt '*' test.ping --return mongo_return --return_config alternative

To override individual configuration items, append --return_kwargs '{"key:": "value"}' to the salt command.

New in version 2016.3.0.

salt '*' test.ping --return mongo --return_kwargs '{"db": "another-salt"}'

To override individual configuration items, append --return_kwargs '{"key:": "value"}' to the salt command.

New in version 2016.3.0.

salt '*' test.ping --return mongo --return_kwargs '{"db": "another-salt"}'
salt.returners.mongo_return.get_fun(fun)
Return the most recent jobs that have executed the named function
salt.returners.mongo_return.get_jid(jid)
Return the return information associated with a jid
salt.returners.mongo_return.prep_jid(nocache=False, passed_jid=None)
Do any work necessary to prepare a JID, including sending a custom id
salt.returners.mongo_return.returner(ret)
Return data to a mongodb server

salt.returners.multi_returner

Read/Write multiple returners

salt.returners.multi_returner.clean_old_jobs()
Clean out the old jobs from all returners (if you have it)
salt.returners.multi_returner.get_jid(jid)
Merge the return data from all returners
salt.returners.multi_returner.get_jids()
Return all job data from all returners
salt.returners.multi_returner.get_load(jid)
Merge the load data from all returners
salt.returners.multi_returner.prep_jid(nocache=False, passed_jid=None)
Call both with prep_jid on all returners in multi_returner

TODO: finish this, what do do when you get different jids from 2 returners... since our jids are time based, this make this problem hard, because they aren't unique, meaning that we have to make sure that no one else got the jid and if they did we spin to get a new one, which means "locking" the jid in 2 returners is non-trivial
salt.returners.multi_returner.returner(load)
Write return to all returners in multi_returner
salt.returners.multi_returner.save_load(jid, clear_load, minions=None)
Write load to all returners in multi_returner

salt.returners.mysql

Return data to a mysql server

maintainer
Dave Boucha <dave@saltstack.com>, Seth House <shouse@saltstack.com>
maturity
mature
depends
python-mysqldb
platform
all

To enable this returner, the minion will need the python client for mysql installed and the following values configured in the minion or master config. These are the defaults:

mysql.host: 'salt'
mysql.user: 'salt'
mysql.pass: 'salt'
mysql.db: 'salt'
mysql.port: 3306

SSL is optional. The defaults are set to None. If you do not want to use SSL, either exclude these options or set them to None.

mysql.ssl_ca: None
mysql.ssl_cert: None
mysql.ssl_key: None

Alternative configuration values can be used by prefacing the configuration with alternative.. Any values not found in the alternative configuration will be pulled from the default location. As stated above, SSL configuration is optional. The following ssl options are simply for illustration purposes:

alternative.mysql.host: 'salt'
alternative.mysql.user: 'salt'
alternative.mysql.pass: 'salt'
alternative.mysql.db: 'salt'
alternative.mysql.port: 3306
alternative.mysql.ssl_ca: '/etc/pki/mysql/certs/localhost.pem'
alternative.mysql.ssl_cert: '/etc/pki/mysql/certs/localhost.crt'
alternative.mysql.ssl_key: '/etc/pki/mysql/certs/localhost.key'

Should you wish the returner data to be cleaned out every so often, set keep_jobs to the number of hours for the jobs to live in the tables. Setting it to 0 or leaving it unset will cause the data to stay in the tables.

Should you wish to archive jobs in a different table for later processing, set archive_jobs to True. Salt will create 3 archive tables

·
jids_archive
·
salt_returns_archive
·
salt_events_archive

and move the contents of jids, salt_returns, and salt_events that are more than keep_jobs hours old to these tables.

Use the following mysql database schema:

CREATE DATABASE  `salt`
  DEFAULT CHARACTER SET utf8
  DEFAULT COLLATE utf8_general_ci;

USE `salt`;

--
-- Table structure for table `jids`
--

DROP TABLE IF EXISTS `jids`;
CREATE TABLE `jids` (
  `jid` varchar(255) NOT NULL,
  `load` mediumtext NOT NULL,
  UNIQUE KEY `jid` (`jid`)
) ENGINE=InnoDB DEFAULT CHARSET=utf8;
CREATE INDEX jid ON jids(jid) USING BTREE;

--
-- Table structure for table `salt_returns`
--

DROP TABLE IF EXISTS `salt_returns`;
CREATE TABLE `salt_returns` (
  `fun` varchar(50) NOT NULL,
  `jid` varchar(255) NOT NULL,
  `return` mediumtext NOT NULL,
  `id` varchar(255) NOT NULL,
  `success` varchar(10) NOT NULL,
  `full_ret` mediumtext NOT NULL,
  `alter_time` TIMESTAMP DEFAULT CURRENT_TIMESTAMP,
  KEY `id` (`id`),
  KEY `jid` (`jid`),
  KEY `fun` (`fun`)
) ENGINE=InnoDB DEFAULT CHARSET=utf8;

--
-- Table structure for table `salt_events`
--

DROP TABLE IF EXISTS `salt_events`;
CREATE TABLE `salt_events` (
`id` BIGINT NOT NULL AUTO_INCREMENT,
`tag` varchar(255) NOT NULL,
`data` mediumtext NOT NULL,
`alter_time` TIMESTAMP DEFAULT CURRENT_TIMESTAMP,
`master_id` varchar(255) NOT NULL,
PRIMARY KEY (`id`),
KEY `tag` (`tag`)
) ENGINE=InnoDB DEFAULT CHARSET=utf8;

Required python modules: MySQLdb

To use the mysql returner, append '--return mysql' to the salt command.

salt '*' test.ping --return mysql

To use the alternative configuration, append '--return_config alternative' to the salt command.

New in version 2015.5.0.

salt '*' test.ping --return mysql --return_config alternative

To override individual configuration items, append --return_kwargs '{"key:": "value"}' to the salt command.

New in version 2016.3.0.

salt '*' test.ping --return mysql --return_kwargs '{"db": "another-salt"}'
salt.returners.mysql.clean_old_jobs()
Called in the master's event loop every loop_interval. Archives and/or deletes the events and job details from the database. :return:
salt.returners.mysql.event_return(events)
Return event to mysql server

Requires that configuration be enabled via 'event_return' option in master config.
salt.returners.mysql.get_fun(fun)
Return a dict of the last function called for all minions
salt.returners.mysql.get_jid(jid)
Return the information returned when the specified job id was executed
salt.returners.mysql.get_jids()
Return a list of all job ids
salt.returners.mysql.get_jids_filter(count, filter_find_job=True)
Return a list of all job ids :param int count: show not more than the count of most recent jobs :param bool filter_find_jobs: filter out 'saltutil.find_job' jobs
salt.returners.mysql.get_load(jid)
Return the load data that marks a specified jid
salt.returners.mysql.get_minions()
Return a list of minions
salt.returners.mysql.prep_jid(nocache=False, passed_jid=None)
Do any work necessary to prepare a JID, including sending a custom id
salt.returners.mysql.returner(ret)
Return data to a mysql server
salt.returners.mysql.save_load(jid, load, minions=None)
Save the load to the specified jid id

salt.returners.nagios_return

Return salt data to Nagios

The following fields can be set in the minion conf file:

nagios.url (required)
nagios.token (required)
nagios.service (optional)
nagios.check_type (optional)

Alternative configuration values can be used by prefacing the configuration. Any values not found in the alternative configuration will be pulled from the default location:

nagios.url
nagios.token
nagios.service

Nagios settings may also be configured as:

nagios:
    url: http://localhost/nrdp
    token: r4nd0mt0k3n
    service: service-check

  alternative.nagios:
      url: http://localhost/nrdp
      token: r4nd0mt0k3n
      service: another-service-check

To use the Nagios returner, append '--return nagios' to the salt command. ex:

.. code-block:: bash

  salt '*' test.ping --return nagios

To use the alternative configuration, append '--return_config alternative' to the salt command. ex:

  salt '*' test.ping --return nagios --return_config alternative

To override individual configuration items, append --return_kwargs '{"key:": "value"}' to the salt command.

New in version 2016.3.0.

salt '*' test.ping --return nagios --return_kwargs '{"service": "service-name"}'
salt.returners.nagios_return.__virtual__()
Return virtualname
salt.returners.nagios_return.returner(ret)
Send a message to Nagios with the data

salt.returners.odbc

Return data to an ODBC compliant server. This driver was developed with Microsoft SQL Server in mind, but theoretically could be used to return data to any compliant ODBC database as long as there is a working ODBC driver for it on your minion platform.

maintainer
C.
R.
Oldham (cr@saltstack.com)
maturity
New
depends
unixodbc, pyodbc, freetds (for SQL Server)
platform
all

To enable this returner the minion will need

On Linux:

unixodbc (http://www.unixodbc.org) pyodbc (pip install pyodbc) The FreeTDS ODBC driver for SQL Server (http://www.freetds.org) or another compatible ODBC driver

On Windows:

TBD

unixODBC and FreeTDS need to be configured via /etc/odbcinst.ini and /etc/odbc.ini.

/etc/odbcinst.ini:

[TDS]
Description=TDS
Driver=/usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/odbc/libtdsodbc.so

(Note the above Driver line needs to point to the location of the FreeTDS shared library. This example is for Ubuntu 14.04.)

/etc/odbc.ini:

[TS]
Description = "Salt Returner"
Driver=TDS
Server = <your server ip or fqdn>
Port = 1433
Database = salt
Trace = No

Also you need the following values configured in the minion or master config. Configure as you see fit:

returner.odbc.dsn: 'TS'
returner.odbc.user: 'salt'
returner.odbc.passwd: 'salt'

Alternative configuration values can be used by prefacing the configuration. Any values not found in the alternative configuration will be pulled from the default location:

alternative.returner.odbc.dsn: 'TS'
alternative.returner.odbc.user: 'salt'
alternative.returner.odbc.passwd: 'salt'

Running the following commands against Microsoft SQL Server in the desired database as the appropriate user should create the database tables correctly. Replace with equivalent SQL for other ODBC-compliant servers

--
-- Table structure for table 'jids'
--

  if OBJECT_ID('dbo.jids', 'U') is not null
      DROP TABLE dbo.jids

  CREATE TABLE dbo.jids (
     jid   varchar(255) PRIMARY KEY,
     load  varchar(MAX) NOT NULL
   );

  --
  -- Table structure for table 'salt_returns'
  --
  IF OBJECT_ID('dbo.salt_returns', 'U') IS NOT NULL
      DROP TABLE dbo.salt_returns;

  CREATE TABLE dbo.salt_returns (
     added     datetime not null default (getdate()),
     fun       varchar(100) NOT NULL,
     jid       varchar(255) NOT NULL,
     retval    varchar(MAX) NOT NULL,
     id        varchar(255) NOT NULL,
     success   bit default(0) NOT NULL,
     full_ret  varchar(MAX)
   );

  CREATE INDEX salt_returns_added on dbo.salt_returns(added);
  CREATE INDEX salt_returns_id on dbo.salt_returns(id);
  CREATE INDEX salt_returns_jid on dbo.salt_returns(jid);
  CREATE INDEX salt_returns_fun on dbo.salt_returns(fun);

To use this returner, append '--return odbc' to the salt command.

.. code-block:: bash

  salt '*' status.diskusage --return odbc

To use the alternative configuration, append '--return_config alternative' to the salt command.

.. versionadded:: 2015.5.0

.. code-block:: bash

  salt '*' test.ping --return odbc --return_config alternative

To override individual configuration items, append --return_kwargs '{"key:": "value"}' to the salt command.

New in version 2016.3.0.

salt '*' test.ping --return odbc --return_kwargs '{"dsn": "dsn-name"}'
salt.returners.odbc.get_fun(fun)
Return a dict of the last function called for all minions
salt.returners.odbc.get_jid(jid)
Return the information returned when the specified job id was executed
salt.returners.odbc.get_jids()
Return a list of all job ids
salt.returners.odbc.get_load(jid)
Return the load data that marks a specified jid
salt.returners.odbc.get_minions()
Return a list of minions
salt.returners.odbc.prep_jid(nocache=False, passed_jid=None)
Do any work necessary to prepare a JID, including sending a custom id
salt.returners.odbc.returner(ret)
Return data to an odbc server
salt.returners.odbc.save_load(jid, load, minions=None)
Save the load to the specified jid id

salt.returners.pgjsonb

Return data to a PostgreSQL server with json data stored in Pg's jsonb data type

maintainer
Dave Boucha <dave@saltstack.com>, Seth House <shouse@saltstack.com>, C. R. Oldham <cr@saltstack.com>
maturity
new
depends
python-psycopg2
platform
all

To enable this returner, the minion will need the python client for PostgreSQL installed and the following values configured in the minion or master config. These are the defaults:

returner.pgjsonb.host: 'salt'
returner.pgjsonb.user: 'salt'
returner.pgjsonb.pass: 'salt'
returner.pgjsonb.db: 'salt'
returner.pgjsonb.port: 5432

SSL is optional. The defaults are set to None. If you do not want to use SSL, either exclude these options or set them to None.

returner.pgjsonb.ssl_ca: None
returner.pgjsonb.ssl_cert: None
returner.pgjsonb.ssl_key: None

Alternative configuration values can be used by prefacing the configuration with alternative.. Any values not found in the alternative configuration will be pulled from the default location. As stated above, SSL configuration is optional. The following ssl options are simply for illustration purposes:

alternative.pgjsonb.host: 'salt'
alternative.pgjsonb.user: 'salt'
alternative.pgjsonb.pass: 'salt'
alternative.pgjsonb.db: 'salt'
alternative.pgjsonb.port: 5432
alternative.pgjsonb.ssl_ca: '/etc/pki/mysql/certs/localhost.pem'
alternative.pgjsonb.ssl_cert: '/etc/pki/mysql/certs/localhost.crt'
alternative.pgjsonb.ssl_key: '/etc/pki/mysql/certs/localhost.key'

Use the following Pg database schema:

CREATE DATABASE  salt
  WITH ENCODING 'utf-8';

--
-- Table structure for table `jids`
--
DROP TABLE IF EXISTS jids;
CREATE TABLE jids (
   jid varchar(255) NOT NULL primary key,
   load jsonb NOT NULL
);
CREATE INDEX idx_jids_jsonb on jids
       USING gin (load)
       WITH (fastupdate=on);

--
-- Table structure for table `salt_returns`
--

DROP TABLE IF EXISTS salt_returns;
CREATE TABLE salt_returns (
  fun varchar(50) NOT NULL,
  jid varchar(255) NOT NULL,
  return jsonb NOT NULL,
  id varchar(255) NOT NULL,
  success varchar(10) NOT NULL,
  full_ret jsonb NOT NULL,
  alter_time TIMESTAMP WITH TIME ZONE DEFAULT NOW());

CREATE INDEX idx_salt_returns_id ON salt_returns (id);
CREATE INDEX idx_salt_returns_jid ON salt_returns (jid);
CREATE INDEX idx_salt_returns_fun ON salt_returns (fun);
CREATE INDEX idx_salt_returns_return ON salt_returns
    USING gin (return) with (fastupdate=on);
CREATE INDEX idx_salt_returns_full_ret ON salt_returns
    USING gin (full_ret) with (fastupdate=on);

--
-- Table structure for table `salt_events`
--

DROP TABLE IF EXISTS salt_events;
DROP SEQUENCE IF EXISTS seq_salt_events_id;
CREATE SEQUENCE seq_salt_events_id;
CREATE TABLE salt_events (
    id BIGINT NOT NULL UNIQUE DEFAULT nextval('seq_salt_events_id'),
    tag varchar(255) NOT NULL,
    data jsonb NOT NULL,
    alter_time TIMESTAMP WITH TIME ZONE DEFAULT NOW(),
    master_id varchar(255) NOT NULL);

CREATE INDEX idx_salt_events_tag on
    salt_events (tag);
CREATE INDEX idx_salt_events_data ON salt_events
    USING gin (data) with (fastupdate=on);

Required python modules: Psycopg2

To use this returner, append '--return pgjsonb' to the salt command.

salt '*' test.ping --return pgjsonb

To use the alternative configuration, append '--return_config alternative' to the salt command.

New in version 2015.5.0.

salt '*' test.ping --return pgjsonb --return_config alternative

To override individual configuration items, append --return_kwargs '{"key:": "value"}' to the salt command.

New in version 2016.3.0.

salt '*' test.ping --return pgjsonb --return_kwargs '{"db": "another-salt"}'
salt.returners.pgjsonb.event_return(events)
Return event to Pg server

Requires that configuration be enabled via 'event_return' option in master config.
salt.returners.pgjsonb.get_fun(fun)
Return a dict of the last function called for all minions
salt.returners.pgjsonb.get_jid(jid)
Return the information returned when the specified job id was executed
salt.returners.pgjsonb.get_jids()
Return a list of all job ids
salt.returners.pgjsonb.get_load(jid)
Return the load data that marks a specified jid
salt.returners.pgjsonb.get_minions()
Return a list of minions
salt.returners.pgjsonb.prep_jid(nocache=False, passed_jid=None)
Do any work necessary to prepare a JID, including sending a custom id
salt.returners.pgjsonb.returner(ret)
Return data to a Pg server
salt.returners.pgjsonb.save_load(jid, load, minions=None)
Save the load to the specified jid id

salt.returners.postgres

Return data to a postgresql server

NOTE:

returners.postgres_local_cache is recommended instead of this module when using PostgreSQL as a master job cache. These two modules provide different functionality so you should compare each to see which module best suits your particular needs.

maintainer
None
maturity
New
depends
psycopg2
platform
all

To enable this returner the minion will need the psycopg2 installed and the following values configured in the minion or master config:

returner.postgres.host: 'salt'
returner.postgres.user: 'salt'
returner.postgres.passwd: 'salt'
returner.postgres.db: 'salt'
returner.postgres.port: 5432

Alternative configuration values can be used by prefacing the configuration. Any values not found in the alternative configuration will be pulled from the default location:

alternative.returner.postgres.host: 'salt'
alternative.returner.postgres.user: 'salt'
alternative.returner.postgres.passwd: 'salt'
alternative.returner.postgres.db: 'salt'
alternative.returner.postgres.port: 5432

Running the following commands as the postgres user should create the database correctly:

psql << EOF
CREATE ROLE salt WITH PASSWORD 'salt';
CREATE DATABASE salt WITH OWNER salt;
EOF

psql -h localhost -U salt << EOF
--
-- Table structure for table 'jids'
--

DROP TABLE IF EXISTS jids;
CREATE TABLE jids (
  jid   varchar(20) PRIMARY KEY,
  load  text NOT NULL
);

--
-- Table structure for table 'salt_returns'
--

DROP TABLE IF EXISTS salt_returns;
CREATE TABLE salt_returns (
  fun       varchar(50) NOT NULL,
  jid       varchar(255) NOT NULL,
  return    text NOT NULL,
  full_ret  text,
  id        varchar(255) NOT NULL,
  success   varchar(10) NOT NULL,
  alter_time   TIMESTAMP WITH TIME ZONE DEFAULT now()
);

CREATE INDEX idx_salt_returns_id ON salt_returns (id);
CREATE INDEX idx_salt_returns_jid ON salt_returns (jid);
CREATE INDEX idx_salt_returns_fun ON salt_returns (fun);
CREATE INDEX idx_salt_returns_updated ON salt_returns (alter_time);

--
-- Table structure for table `salt_events`
--

DROP TABLE IF EXISTS salt_events;
DROP SEQUENCE IF EXISTS seq_salt_events_id;
CREATE SEQUENCE seq_salt_events_id;
CREATE TABLE salt_events (
    id BIGINT NOT NULL UNIQUE DEFAULT nextval('seq_salt_events_id'),
    tag varchar(255) NOT NULL,
    data text NOT NULL,
    alter_time TIMESTAMP WITH TIME ZONE DEFAULT NOW(),
    master_id varchar(255) NOT NULL
);

CREATE INDEX idx_salt_events_tag on salt_events (tag);

EOF

Required python modules: psycopg2

To use the postgres returner, append '--return postgres' to the salt command.

salt '*' test.ping --return postgres

To use the alternative configuration, append '--return_config alternative' to the salt command.

New in version 2015.5.0.

salt '*' test.ping --return postgres --return_config alternative

To override individual configuration items, append --return_kwargs '{"key:": "value"}' to the salt command.

New in version 2016.3.0.

salt '*' test.ping --return postgres --return_kwargs '{"db": "another-salt"}'
salt.returners.postgres.event_return(events)
Return event to Pg server

Requires that configuration be enabled via 'event_return' option in master config.
salt.returners.postgres.get_fun(fun)
Return a dict of the last function called for all minions
salt.returners.postgres.get_jid(jid)
Return the information returned when the specified job id was executed
salt.returners.postgres.get_jids()
Return a list of all job ids
salt.returners.postgres.get_load(jid)
Return the load data that marks a specified jid
salt.returners.postgres.get_minions()
Return a list of minions
salt.returners.postgres.prep_jid(nocache=False, passed_jid=None)
Do any work necessary to prepare a JID, including sending a custom id
salt.returners.postgres.returner(ret)
Return data to a postgres server
salt.returners.postgres.save_load(jid, load, minions=None)
Save the load to the specified jid id

salt.returners.postgres_local_cache

Use a postgresql server for the master job cache. This helps the job cache to cope with scale.

NOTE:

returners.postgres is also available if you are not using PostgreSQL as a master job cache. These two modules provide different functionality so you should compare each to see which module best suits your particular needs.

maintainer
gjredelinghuys@gmail.com
maturity
New
depends
psycopg2
platform
all

To enable this returner the minion will need the psycopg2 installed and the following values configured in the master config:

master_job_cache: postgres_local_cache
master_job_cache.postgres.host: 'salt'
master_job_cache.postgres.user: 'salt'
master_job_cache.postgres.passwd: 'salt'
master_job_cache.postgres.db: 'salt'
master_job_cache.postgres.port: 5432

Running the following command as the postgres user should create the database correctly:

psql << EOF
CREATE ROLE salt WITH PASSWORD 'salt';
CREATE DATABASE salt WITH OWNER salt;
EOF

In case the postgres database is a remote host, you'll need this command also:

ALTER ROLE salt WITH LOGIN;

and then:

psql -h localhost -U salt << EOF
--
-- Table structure for table 'jids'
--

DROP TABLE IF EXISTS jids;
CREATE TABLE jids (
  jid   varchar(20) PRIMARY KEY,
  started TIMESTAMP WITH TIME ZONE DEFAULT now(),
  tgt_type text NOT NULL,
  cmd text NOT NULL,
  tgt text NOT NULL,
  kwargs text NOT NULL,
  ret text NOT NULL,
  username text NOT NULL,
  arg text NOT NULL,
  fun text NOT NULL
);

--
-- Table structure for table 'salt_returns'
--
-- note that 'success' must not have NOT NULL constraint, since
-- some functions don't provide it.

DROP TABLE IF EXISTS salt_returns;
CREATE TABLE salt_returns (
  added     TIMESTAMP WITH TIME ZONE DEFAULT now(),
  fun       text NOT NULL,
  jid       varchar(20) NOT NULL,
  return    text NOT NULL,
  id        text NOT NULL,
  success   boolean
);
CREATE INDEX ON salt_returns (added);
CREATE INDEX ON salt_returns (id);
CREATE INDEX ON salt_returns (jid);
CREATE INDEX ON salt_returns (fun);

DROP TABLE IF EXISTS salt_events;
CREATE TABLE salt_events (
  id SERIAL,
  tag text NOT NULL,
  data text NOT NULL,
  alter_time TIMESTAMP WITH TIME ZONE DEFAULT now(),
  master_id text NOT NULL
);
CREATE INDEX ON salt_events (tag);
CREATE INDEX ON salt_events (data);
CREATE INDEX ON salt_events (id);
CREATE INDEX ON salt_events (master_id);
EOF

Required python modules: psycopg2

salt.returners.postgres_local_cache.clean_old_jobs()
Clean out the old jobs from the job cache
salt.returners.postgres_local_cache.event_return(events)
Return event to a postgres server

Require that configuration be enabled via 'event_return' option in master config.
salt.returners.postgres_local_cache.get_jid(jid)
Return the information returned when the specified job id was executed
salt.returners.postgres_local_cache.get_jids()
Return a list of all job ids For master job cache this also formats the output and returns a string
salt.returners.postgres_local_cache.get_load(jid)
Return the load data that marks a specified jid
salt.returners.postgres_local_cache.prep_jid(nocache=False, passed_jid=None)
Return a job id and prepare the job id directory This is the function responsible for making sure jids don't collide (unless its passed a jid). So do what you have to do to make sure that stays the case
salt.returners.postgres_local_cache.returner(load)
Return data to a postgres server
salt.returners.postgres_local_cache.save_load(jid, clear_load, minions=None)
Save the load to the specified jid id

salt.returners.pushover_returner

Return salt data via pushover (http://www.pushover.net)

New in version 2016.3.0.

The following fields can be set in the minion conf file:

pushover.user (required)
pushover.token (required)
pushover.title (optional)
pushover.device (optional)
pushover.priority (optional)
pushover.expire (optional)
pushover.retry (optional)
pushover.profile (optional)

Alternative configuration values can be used by prefacing the configuration. Any values not found in the alternative configuration will be pulled from the default location:

alternative.pushover.user
alternative.pushover.token
alternative.pushover.title
alternative.pushover.device
alternative.pushover.priority
alternative.pushover.expire
alternative.pushover.retry

PushOver settings may also be configured as:

pushover:
    user: xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
    token: xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
    title: Salt Returner
    device: phone
    priority: -1
    expire: 3600
    retry: 5

  alternative.pushover:
      user: xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
      token: xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
      title: Salt Returner
      device: phone
      priority: 1
      expire: 4800
      retry: 2

  pushover_profile:
      pushover.token: xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx

  pushover:
      user: xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
      profile: pushover_profile

  alternative.pushover:
      user: xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
      profile: pushover_profile

To use the PushOver returner, append '--return pushover' to the salt command. ex:

.. code-block:: bash

  salt '*' test.ping --return pushover

To use the alternative configuration, append '--return_config alternative' to the salt command. ex:

  salt '*' test.ping --return pushover --return_config alternative

To override individual configuration items, append --return_kwargs '{"key:": "value"}' to the salt command.

salt '*' test.ping --return pushover --return_kwargs '{"title": "Salt is awesome!"}'
salt.returners.pushover_returner.__virtual__()

Return virtual name of the module.

Returns
The virtual name of the module.
salt.returners.pushover_returner.returner(ret)
Send an PushOver message with the data

salt.returners.rawfile_json

Take data from salt and "return" it into a raw file containing the json, with one line per event.

Add the following to the minion or master configuration file.

rawfile_json.filename: <path_to_output_file>

Default is /var/log/salt/events.

Common use is to log all events on the master. This can generate a lot of noise, so you may wish to configure batch processing and/or configure the event_return_whitelist or event_return_blacklist to restrict the events that are written.

salt.returners.rawfile_json.event_return(event)
Write event return data to a file on the master.
salt.returners.rawfile_json.returner(ret)
Write the return data to a file on the minion.

salt.returners.redis_return

Return data to a redis server

To enable this returner the minion will need the python client for redis installed and the following values configured in the minion or master config, these are the defaults:

redis.db: '0'
redis.host: 'salt'
redis.port: 6379

Alternative configuration values can be used by prefacing the configuration. Any values not found in the alternative configuration will be pulled from the default location:

alternative.redis.db: '0'
alternative.redis.host: 'salt'
alternative.redis.port: 6379

To use the redis returner, append '--return redis' to the salt command.

salt '*' test.ping --return redis

To use the alternative configuration, append '--return_config alternative' to the salt command.

New in version 2015.5.0.

salt '*' test.ping --return redis --return_config alternative

To override individual configuration items, append --return_kwargs '{"key:": "value"}' to the salt command.

New in version 2016.3.0.

salt '*' test.ping --return redis --return_kwargs '{"db": "another-salt"}'
salt.returners.redis_return.clean_old_jobs()
Clean out minions's return data for old jobs.

Normally, hset 'ret:<jid>' are saved with a TTL, and will eventually get cleaned by redis.But for jobs with some very late minion return, the corresponding hset's TTL will be refreshed to a too late timestamp, we'll do manually cleaning here.
salt.returners.redis_return.get_fun(fun)
Return a dict of the last function called for all minions
salt.returners.redis_return.get_jid(jid)
Return the information returned when the specified job id was executed
salt.returners.redis_return.get_jids()
Return a dict mapping all job ids to job information
salt.returners.redis_return.get_load(jid)
Return the load data that marks a specified jid
salt.returners.redis_return.get_minions()
Return a list of minions
salt.returners.redis_return.prep_jid(nocache=False, passed_jid=None)
Do any work necessary to prepare a JID, including sending a custom id
salt.returners.redis_return.returner(ret)
Return data to a redis data store
salt.returners.redis_return.save_load(jid, load, minions=None)
Save the load to the specified jid

salt.returners.sentry_return

Salt returner that reports execution results back to sentry. The returner will inspect the payload to identify errors and flag them as such.

Pillar needs something like:

raven:
  servers:
    - http://192.168.1.1
    - https://sentry.example.com
  public_key: deadbeefdeadbeefdeadbeefdeadbeef
  secret_key: beefdeadbeefdeadbeefdeadbeefdead
  project: 1
  tags:
    - os
    - master
    - saltversion
    - cpuarch

or using a dsn:

raven:
  dsn: https://aaaa:bbbb@app.getsentry.com/12345
  tags:
    - os
    - master
    - saltversion
    - cpuarch

https://pypi.python.org/pypi/raven must be installed.

The pillar can be hidden on sentry return by setting hide_pillar: true.

The tags list (optional) specifies grains items that will be used as sentry tags, allowing tagging of events in the sentry ui.

To report only errors to sentry, set report_errors_only: true.

salt.returners.sentry_return.prep_jid(nocache=False, passed_jid=None)
Do any work necessary to prepare a JID, including sending a custom id
salt.returners.sentry_return.returner(ret)
Log outcome to sentry. The returner tries to identify errors and report them as such. All other messages will be reported at info level. Failed states will be appended as separate list for convenience.

salt.returners.slack_returner

Return salt data via slack

New in version 2015.5.0.

The following fields can be set in the minion conf file:

.. code-block:: yaml

slack.channel (required) slack.api_key (required) slack.username (required) slack.as_user (required to see the profile picture of your bot) slack.profile (optional) slack.changes(optional, only show changes and failed states) slack.yaml_format(optional, format the json in yaml format)

Alternative configuration values can be used by prefacing the configuration. Any values not found in the alternative configuration will be pulled from the default location:

slack.channel
slack.api_key
slack.username
slack.as_user

Slack settings may also be configured as:

slack:
    channel: RoomName
    api_key: xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
    username: user
    as_user: true

alternative.slack:
    room_id: RoomName
    api_key: xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
    from_name: user@email.com

slack_profile:
    slack.api_key: xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
    slack.from_name: user@email.com

slack:
    profile: slack_profile
    channel: RoomName

alternative.slack:
    profile: slack_profile
    channel: RoomName

To use the Slack returner, append '--return slack' to the salt command.

salt '*' test.ping --return slack

To use the alternative configuration, append '--return_config alternative' to the salt command.

salt '*' test.ping --return slack --return_config alternative

To override individual configuration items, append --return_kwargs '{"key:": "value"}' to the salt command.

New in version 2016.3.0.

salt '*' test.ping --return slack --return_kwargs '{"channel": "#random"}'
salt.returners.slack_returner.__virtual__()

Return virtual name of the module.

Returns
The virtual name of the module.
salt.returners.slack_returner.returner(ret)
Send an slack message with the data

salt.returners.sms_return

Return data by SMS.

New in version 2015.5.0.

maintainer
Damian Myerscough
maturity
new
depends
twilio
platform
all

To enable this returner the minion will need the python twilio library installed and the following values configured in the minion or master config:

twilio.sid: 'XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX'
twilio.token: 'XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX'
twilio.to: '+1415XXXXXXX'
twilio.from: '+1650XXXXXXX'

To use the sms returner, append '--return sms' to the salt command.

salt '*' test.ping --return sms
salt.returners.sms_return.returner(ret)
Return a response in an SMS message

salt.returners.smtp_return

Return salt data via email

The following fields can be set in the minion conf file. Fields are optional unless noted otherwise.

·
from (required) The name/address of the email sender.
·
to (required) The names/addresses of the email recipients;
comma-delimited. For example: you@example.com,someoneelse@example.com.
·
host (required) The SMTP server hostname or address.
·
port The SMTP server port; defaults to 25.
·
username The username used to authenticate to the server. If specified a
password is also required. It is recommended but not required to also use TLS with this option.
·
password The password used to authenticate to the server.
·
tls Whether to secure the connection using TLS; defaults to False
·
subject The email subject line.
·
fields Which fields from the returned data to include in the subject line
of the email; comma-delimited. For example: id,fun. Please note, the subject line is not encrypted.
·
gpgowner A user's ~/.gpg directory. This must contain a gpg
public key matching the address the mail is sent to. If left unset, no encryption will be used. Requires python-gnupg to be installed.
·
template The path to a file to be used as a template for the email body.
·
renderer A Salt renderer, or render-pipe, to use to render the email
template. Default jinja.

Below is an example of the above settings in a Salt Minion configuration file:

smtp.from: me@example.net
smtp.to: you@example.com
smtp.host: localhost
smtp.port: 1025

Alternative configuration values can be used by prefacing the configuration. Any values not found in the alternative configuration will be pulled from the default location. For example:

alternative.smtp.username: saltdev
alternative.smtp.password: saltdev
alternative.smtp.tls: True

To use the SMTP returner, append '--return smtp' to the salt command.

salt '*' test.ping --return smtp

To use the alternative configuration, append '--return_config alternative' to the salt command.

New in version 2015.5.0.

salt '*' test.ping --return smtp --return_config alternative

To override individual configuration items, append --return_kwargs '{"key:": "value"}' to the salt command.

New in version 2016.3.0.

salt '*' test.ping --return smtp --return_kwargs '{"to": "user@domain.com"}'

An easy way to test the SMTP returner is to use the development SMTP server built into Python. The command below will start a single-threaded SMTP server that prints any email it receives to the console.

python -m smtpd -n -c DebuggingServer localhost:1025

New in version 2016.11.0.

It is possible to send emails with selected Salt events by configuring event_return option for Salt Master. For example:

event_return: smtp

event_return_whitelist:
  - salt/key

smtp.from: me@example.net
smtp.to: you@example.com
smtp.host: localhost
smtp.subject: 'Salt Master {{act}}ed key from Minion ID: {{id}}'
smtp.template: /srv/salt/templates/email.j2

Also you need to create additional file /srv/salt/templates/email.j2 with email body template:

act: {{act}}
id: {{id}}
result: {{result}}

This configuration enables Salt Master to send an email when accepting or rejecting minions keys.

salt.returners.smtp_return.event_return(events)
Return event data via SMTP
salt.returners.smtp_return.prep_jid(nocache=False, passed_jid=None)
Do any work necessary to prepare a JID, including sending a custom id
salt.returners.smtp_return.returner(ret)
Send an email with the data

salt.returners.splunk module

Send json response data to Splunk via the HTTP Event Collector Requires the following config values to be specified in config or pillar:

splunk_http_forwarder:
  token: <splunk_http_forwarder_token>
  indexer: <hostname/IP of Splunk indexer>
  sourcetype: <Destination sourcetype for data>
  index: <Destination index for data>

Run a test by using salt-call test.ping --return splunk

Written by Scott Pack (github.com/scottjpack)

salt.returners.splunk.__virtual__()
Return virtual name of the module. :return: The virtual name of the module.
salt.returners.splunk.returner(ret)
Send a message to Splunk via the HTTP Event Collector

salt.returners.sqlite3

Insert minion return data into a sqlite3 database

maintainer
Mickey Malone <mickey.malone@gmail.com>
maturity
New
depends
None
platform
All

Sqlite3 is a serverless database that lives in a single file. In order to use this returner the database file must exist, have the appropriate schema defined, and be accessible to the user whom the minion process is running as. This returner requires the following values configured in the master or minion config:

sqlite3.database: /usr/lib/salt/salt.db
sqlite3.timeout: 5.0

Alternative configuration values can be used by prefacing the configuration. Any values not found in the alternative configuration will be pulled from the default location:

alternative.sqlite3.database: /usr/lib/salt/salt.db
alternative.sqlite3.timeout: 5.0

Use the commands to create the sqlite3 database and tables:

sqlite3 /usr/lib/salt/salt.db << EOF
--
-- Table structure for table 'jids'
--

CREATE TABLE jids (
  jid TEXT PRIMARY KEY,
  load TEXT NOT NULL
  );

--
-- Table structure for table 'salt_returns'
--

CREATE TABLE salt_returns (
  fun TEXT KEY,
  jid TEXT KEY,
  id TEXT KEY,
  fun_args TEXT,
  date TEXT NOT NULL,
  full_ret TEXT NOT NULL,
  success TEXT NOT NULL
  );
EOF

To use the sqlite returner, append '--return sqlite3' to the salt command.

salt '*' test.ping --return sqlite3

To use the alternative configuration, append '--return_config alternative' to the salt command.

New in version 2015.5.0.

salt '*' test.ping --return sqlite3 --return_config alternative

To override individual configuration items, append --return_kwargs '{"key:": "value"}' to the salt command.

New in version 2016.3.0.

salt '*' test.ping --return sqlite3 --return_kwargs '{"db": "/var/lib/salt/another-salt.db"}'
salt.returners.sqlite3_return.get_fun(fun)
Return a dict of the last function called for all minions
salt.returners.sqlite3_return.get_jid(jid)
Return the information returned from a specified jid
salt.returners.sqlite3_return.get_jids()
Return a list of all job ids
salt.returners.sqlite3_return.get_load(jid)
Return the load from a specified jid
salt.returners.sqlite3_return.get_minions()
Return a list of minions
salt.returners.sqlite3_return.prep_jid(nocache=False, passed_jid=None)
Do any work necessary to prepare a JID, including sending a custom id
salt.returners.sqlite3_return.returner(ret)
Insert minion return data into the sqlite3 database
salt.returners.sqlite3_return.save_load(jid, load, minions=None)
Save the load to the specified jid

salt.returners.syslog_return

Return data to the host operating system's syslog facility

To use the syslog returner, append '--return syslog' to the salt command.

salt '*' test.ping --return syslog

The following fields can be set in the minion conf file:

syslog.level (optional, Default: LOG_INFO)
syslog.facility (optional, Default: LOG_USER)
syslog.tag (optional, Default: salt-minion)
syslog.options (list, optional, Default: [])

Available levels, facilities, and options can be found in the syslog docs for your python version.

NOTE:

The default tag comes from sys.argv[0] which is usually "salt-minion" but could be different based on the specific environment.

Configuration example:

syslog.level: 'LOG_ERR'
syslog.facility: 'LOG_DAEMON'
syslog.tag: 'mysalt'
syslog.options:
  - LOG_PID

Of course you can also nest the options:

syslog:
  level: 'LOG_ERR'
  facility: 'LOG_DAEMON'
  tag: 'mysalt'
  options:
    - LOG_PID

Alternative configuration values can be used by prefacing the configuration. Any values not found in the alternative configuration will be pulled from the default location:

alternative.syslog.level: 'LOG_WARN'
alternative.syslog.facility: 'LOG_NEWS'

To use the alternative configuration, append --return_config alternative to the salt command.

New in version 2015.5.0.

salt '*' test.ping --return syslog --return_config alternative

To override individual configuration items, append --return_kwargs '{"key:": "value"}' to the salt command.

New in version 2016.3.0.

salt '*' test.ping --return syslog --return_kwargs '{"level": "LOG_DEBUG"}'

NOTE:

Syslog server implementations may have limits on the maximum record size received by the client. This may lead to job return data being truncated in the syslog server's logs. For example, for rsyslog on RHEL-based systems, the default maximum record size is approximately 2KB (which return data can easily exceed). This is configurable in rsyslog.conf via the $MaxMessageSize config parameter. Please consult your syslog implmentation's documentation to determine how to adjust this limit.

salt.returners.syslog_return.prep_jid(nocache=False, passed_jid=None)
Do any work necessary to prepare a JID, including sending a custom id
salt.returners.syslog_return.returner(ret)
Return data to the local syslog

salt.returners.xmpp_return

Return salt data via xmpp

The following fields can be set in the minion conf file:

xmpp.jid (required)
xmpp.password (required)
xmpp.recipient (required)
xmpp.profile (optional)

Alternative configuration values can be used by prefacing the configuration. Any values not found in the alternative configuration will be pulled from the default location:

xmpp.jid
xmpp.password
xmpp.recipient
xmpp.profile

XMPP settings may also be configured as:

xmpp:
    jid: user@xmpp.domain.com/resource
    password: password
    recipient: user@xmpp.example.com

alternative.xmpp:
    jid: user@xmpp.domain.com/resource
    password: password
    recipient: someone@xmpp.example.com

xmpp_profile:
    xmpp.jid: user@xmpp.domain.com/resource
    xmpp.password: password

xmpp:
    profile: xmpp_profile
    recipient: user@xmpp.example.com

alternative.xmpp:
    profile: xmpp_profile
    recipient: someone-else@xmpp.example.com

To use the XMPP returner, append '--return xmpp' to the salt command.

salt '*' test.ping --return xmpp

To use the alternative configuration, append '--return_config alternative' to the salt command.

New in version 2015.5.0.

salt '*' test.ping --return xmpp --return_config alternative

To override individual configuration items, append --return_kwargs '{"key:": "value"}' to the salt command.

New in version 2016.3.0.

salt '*' test.ping --return xmpp --return_kwargs '{"recipient": "someone-else@xmpp.example.com"}'
salt.returners.xmpp_return.__virtual__()
Only load this module if right version of sleekxmpp is installed on this minion.
salt.returners.xmpp_return.returner(ret)
Send an xmpp message with the data

Renderers

The Salt state system operates by gathering information from common data types such as lists, dictionaries, and strings that would be familiar to any developer.

SLS files are translated from whatever data templating format they are written in back into Python data types to be consumed by Salt.

By default SLS files are rendered as Jinja templates and then parsed as YAML documents. But since the only thing the state system cares about is raw data, the SLS files can be any structured format that can be dreamed up.

Currently there is support for Jinja + YAML, Mako + YAML, Wempy + YAML, Jinja + json, Mako + json and Wempy + json.

Renderers can be written to support any template type. This means that the Salt states could be managed by XML files, HTML files, Puppet files, or any format that can be translated into the Pythonic data structure used by the state system.

Multiple Renderers

A default renderer is selected in the master configuration file by providing a value to the renderer key.

When evaluating an SLS, more than one renderer can be used.

When rendering SLS files, Salt checks for the presence of a Salt-specific shebang line.

The shebang line directly calls the name of the renderer as it is specified within Salt. One of the most common reasons to use multiple renderers is to use the Python or py renderer.

Below, the first line is a shebang that references the py renderer.

#!py

def run():
    '''
    Install the python-mako package
    '''
    return {'include': ['python'],
            'python-mako': {'pkg': ['installed']}}

Composing Renderers

A renderer can be composed from other renderers by connecting them in a series of pipes(|).

In fact, the default Jinja + YAML renderer is implemented by connecting a YAML renderer to a Jinja renderer. Such renderer configuration is specified as: jinja | yaml.

Other renderer combinations are possible:

yaml
i.e, just YAML, no templating.
mako | yaml
pass the input to the mako renderer, whose output is then fed into the yaml renderer.
jinja | mako | yaml
This one allows you to use both jinja and mako templating syntax in the input and then parse the final rendered output as YAML.

The following is a contrived example SLS file using the jinja | mako | yaml renderer:

#!jinja|mako|yaml

An_Example:
  cmd.run:
    - name: |
        echo "Using Salt ${grains['saltversion']}" \
             "from path {{grains['saltpath']}}."
    - cwd: /

<%doc> ${...} is Mako's notation, and so is this comment. </%doc>
{#     Similarly, {{...}} is Jinja's notation, and so is this comment. #}

For backward compatibility, jinja | yaml can also be written as yaml_jinja, and similarly, the yaml_mako, yaml_wempy, json_jinja, json_mako, and json_wempy renderers are all supported.

Keep in mind that not all renderers can be used alone or with any other renderers. For example, the template renderers shouldn't be used alone as their outputs are just strings, which still need to be parsed by another renderer to turn them into highstate data structures.

For example, it doesn't make sense to specify yaml | jinja because the output of the YAML renderer is a highstate data structure (a dict in Python), which cannot be used as the input to a template renderer. Therefore, when combining renderers, you should know what each renderer accepts as input and what it returns as output.

Writing Renderers

A custom renderer must be a Python module placed in the renderers directory and the module implement the render function.

The render function will be passed the path of the SLS file as an argument.

The purpose of of render function is to parse the passed file and to return the Python data structure derived from the file.

Custom renderers must be placed in a _renderers directory within the file_roots specified by the master config file.

Custom renderers are distributed when any of the following are run:

·
state.apply
·
saltutil.sync_renderers
·
saltutil.sync_all

Any custom renderers which have been synced to a minion, that are named the same as one of Salt's default set of renderers, will take the place of the default renderer with the same name.

Examples

The best place to find examples of renderers is in the Salt source code.

Documentation for renderers included with Salt can be found here:

https://github.com/saltstack/salt/blob/…

Here is a simple YAML renderer example:

import yaml
def render(yaml_data, saltenv='', sls='', **kws):
    if not isinstance(yaml_data, basestring):
        yaml_data = yaml_data.read()
    data = yaml.load(yaml_data)
    return data if data else {}