groff_char - Man Page

groff glyph names


This manual page lists the standard groff glyph names and the default input mapping, latin1. The glyphs in this document look different depending on which output device was chosen (with option -T for the man(1) program or the roff formatter). Glyphs not available for the device that is being used to print or view this manual page are marked with ‘(N/A)’; the device currently used is ‘ps’.

In the actual version, groff provides only 8-bit characters for direct input and named entities for further glyphs. On ASCII platforms, input character codes in the range 0 to 127 (decimal) represent the usual 7-bit ASCII characters, while codes between 127 and 255 are interpreted as the corresponding characters in the latin1 (ISO-8859-1) code set by default. This mapping is contained in the file latin1.tmac and can be changed by loading a different input encoding. Note that some of the input characters are reserved by groff, either for internal use or for special input purposes. On EBCDIC platforms, only code page cp1047 is supported (which contains the same characters as latin1; the input encoding file is called cp1047.tmac). Again, some input characters are reserved for internal and special purposes.

All roff systems provide the concept of named glyphs. In traditional roff systems, only names of length 2 were used, while groff also provides support for longer names. It is strongly suggested that only named glyphs are used for all character representations outside of the printable 7-bit ASCII range.

Some of the predefined groff escape sequences (with names of length 1) also produce single glyphs; these exist for historical reasons or are printable versions of syntactical characters. They include ‘\\’, ‘\'’, ‘\`’, ‘\-’, ‘\.’, and ‘\e’; see groff(7).

In groff, all of these different types of characters and glyphs can be tested positively with the ‘.if c’ conditional.


In this section, the glyphs in groff are specified in tabular form. The meaning of the columns is as follows.


shows how the glyph is printed for the current device; although this can have quite a different shape on other devices, it always represents the same glyph.


specifies how the glyph is input either directly by a key on the keyboard, or by a groff escape sequence.


applies to glyphs which can be input with a single character, and gives the ISO latin1 decimal code of that input character. Note that this code is equivalent to the lowest 256 Unicode characters, including 7-bit ASCII in the range 0 to 127.


gives the usual PostScript name of the glyph.


is the glyph name used in composite glyph names. The names in the Unicode column look like u0021 or u0041_0300. In groff, the corresponding Unicode characters can be constructed by adding a backslash and a pair of square brackets, for example \[u0021] or \[u0041_0300].

7-bit Character Codes 32–126

These are the basic glyphs having 7-bit ASCII code values assigned. They are identical to the printable characters of the character standards ISO-8859-1 (latin1) and Unicode (range Basic Latin). The glyph names used in composite glyph names are ‘u0020’ up to ‘u007E’.

Note that input characters in the range 0-31 and character 127 are not printable characters. Most of them are invalid input characters for groff anyway, and the valid ones have special meaning. For EBCDIC, the printable characters are in the range 66-255.


Decimal digits 0 to 9 (print as themselves).


Upper case letters A-Z (print as themselves).


Lower case letters a–z (print as themselves).

Most of the remaining characters not in the just described ranges print as themselves; the only exceptions are the following characters:


the ISO latin1 ‘Grave Accent’ (code 96) prints as ‘, a left single quotation mark (Unicode u2018). The same output glyph can be requested explicitly with ‘\(oq’. The original character can be obtained with ‘\`’ (Unicode u0060).


the ISO latin1 ‘Apostrophe’ (code 39) prints as ’, a right single quotation mark (Unicode u2019). The same output glyph is commonly used in typography to represent a punctation apostrophe, for example in contractions. It can be requested explicitly with ‘\(cq’. The original character can be obtained with ‘\(aq’ (Unicode u0027).


the ISO latin1 ‘Hyphen, Minus Sign’ (code 45) prints as a hyphen (Unicode u2010). The same output glyph can be requested explicitly with ‘\(hy’. A minus sign can be obtained with ‘\-’ (Unicode u2212).


the ISO latin1 ‘Tilde’ (code 126) is reduced in size to be usable as a diacritic (Unicode u02DC). A larger glyph can be obtained with ‘\(ti’ (Unicode u007E).


the ISO latin1 ‘Circumflex Accent’ (code 94) is reduced in size to be usable as a diacritic (Unicode u02C6); a larger glyph can be obtained with ‘\(ha’ (Unicode u005E).

!!33exclamu0021exclamation mark (bang)
""34quotedblu0022double quote
##35numbersignu0023number sign
$$36dollaru0024currency dollar sign
'39quoterightu2019right quote
'\(aqquotesingleu0027apostrophe quote
((40parenleftu0028parentheses left
))41parenrightu0029parentheses right
-\-minusu2212minus sign
..46periodu002Eperiod, dot
<<60lessu003Cless than
>>62greateru003Egreater than
??63questionu003Fquestion mark
[[91bracketleftu005Bsquare bracket left
]]93bracketrightu005Dsquare bracket right
^^94circumflexu02C6modifier circumflex
^\(haasciicircumu005Ecircumflex accent
`96quoteleftu2018left quote
`\(gagraveu0060grave accent
{{123braceleftu007Bcurly brace left
}}125bracerightu007Dcurly brace right
˜~126tildeu02DCsmall tilde

8-bit Character Codes 160 to 255

They are interpreted as printable characters according to the latin1 (ISO-8859-1) code set, being identical to the Unicode range Latin-1 Supplement.

Input characters in range 128-159 (on non-EBCDIC hosts) are not printable characters.


the ISO latin1 no-break space is mapped to ‘\~’, the stretchable space character.


the soft hyphen control character. groff never uses this character for output (thus it is omitted in the table below); the input character 173 is mapped onto ‘\%’.

The remaining ranges (161-172, 174-255) are printable characters that print as themselves. Although they can be specified directly with the keyboard on systems with a latin1 code page, it is better to use their glyph names; see the next section.

¡¡161exclamdownu00A1inverted exclamation mark
¢¢162centu00A2currency unit
££163sterlingu00A3pound sterling
¤¤164currencyu00A4generic currency symbol
¥¥165yenu00A5Japanese currency symbol
¦¦166brokenbaru00A6broken bar
§§167sectionu00A7section sign
¨¨168dieresisu00A8dieresis (umlaut)
©©169copyrightu00A9copyright symbol
ªª170ordfeminineu00AAfeminine ordinal (Spanish)
««171guillemotleftu00ABleft guillemet [sic]
¬¬172logicalnotu00AClogical not
®®174registeredu00AEregistered mark symbol
¯¯175macronu00AFoverbar accent
°°176degreeu00B0degree sign
±±177plusminusu00B1plus-minus sign
²²178twosuperioru00B2superscript 2
³³179threesuperioru00B3superscript 3
´´180acuteu00B4acute accent
µµ181muu00B5micro sign
182paragraphu00B6end of paragraphs marker
··183periodcenteredu00B7centered period
¸¸184cedillau00B8cedilla accent
¹¹185onesuperioru00B9superscript 1
ºº186ordmasculineu00BAmasculine ordinal (Spanish)
»»187guillemotrightu00BBright guillemet [sic]
¼¼188onequarteru00BC1/4 symbol
½½189onehalfu00BD1/2 symbol
¾¾190threequartersu00BE3/4 symbol
¿¿191questiondownu00BFinverted question mark
ÀÀ192Agraveu0041_0300A grave
ÁÁ193Aacuteu0041_0301A acute
ÂÂ194Acircumflexu0041_0302A circumflex
ÃÃ195Atildeu0041_0303A tilde
ÄÄ196Adieresisu0041_0308A dieresis (umlaut)
ÅÅ197Aringu0041_030AA ring
ÆÆ198AEu00C6A+E combined
ÇÇ199Ccedillau0043_0327C cedilla
ÈÈ200Egraveu0045_0300E grave
ÉÉ201Eacuteu0045_0301E acute
ÊÊ202Ecircumflexu0045_0302E circumflex
ËË203Edieresisu0045_0308E dieresis (umlaut)
ÌÌ204Igraveu0049_0300I grave
ÍÍ205Iacuteu0049_0301I acute
ÎÎ206Icircumflexu0049_0302I circumflex
ÏÏ207Idieresisu0049_0308I dieresis
ÐÐ208Ethu00D0E th
ÑÑ209Ntildeu004E_0303N tilde
ÒÒ210Ograveu004F_0300O grave
ÓÓ211Oacuteu004F_0301O acute
ÔÔ212Ocircumflexu004F_0302O circumflex
ÕÕ213Otildeu004F_0303O tilde
ÖÖ214Odieresisu004F_0308O dieresis (umlaut)
ØØ216Oslashu00D8O slash
ÙÙ217Ugraveu0055_0300U grave
ÚÚ218Uacuteu0055_0301U acute
ÛÛ219Ucircumflexu0055_0302U circumflex
ÜÜ220Udieresisu0055_0308U dieresis (umlaut)
ÝÝ221Yacuteu0059_0301Y acute
ßß223germandblsu00DFGerman double s (sharp s)
àà224agraveu0061_0300a grave
áá225aacuteu0061_0301a acute
ââ226acircumflexu0061_0302a circumflex
ãã227atildeu0061_0303a tilde
ää228adieresisu0061_0308a dieresis (umlaut)
åå229aringu0061_030Aa ring
ææ230aeu00E6a+e combined
çç231ccedillau0063_0327c cedilla
èè232egraveu0065_0300e grave
éé233eacuteu0065_0301e acute
êê234ecircumflexu0065_0302e circumflex
ëë235edieresisu0065_0308e dieresis (umlaut)
ìì236igraveu0069_0300i grave
íí237iacuteu0069_0301i acute
îî238icircumflexu0069_0302i circumflex
ïï239idieresisu0069_0308i dieresis (umlaut)
ðð240ethu00F0e th
ññ241ntildeu006E_0303n tilde
òò242ograveu006F_0300o grave
óó243oacuteu006F_0301o acute
ôô244ocircumflexu006F_0302o circumflex
õõ245otildeu006F_0303o tilde
öö246odieresisu006F_0308o dieresis (umlaut)
øø248oslashu00F8o slash
ùù249ugraveu0075_0300u grave
úú250uacuteu0075_0301u acute
ûû251ucircumflexu0075_0302u circumflex
üü252udieresisu0075_0308u dieresis (umlaut)
ýý253yacuteu0079_0301y acute
ÿÿ255ydieresisu0079_0308y dieresis (umlaut)

Named Glyphs

Glyph names can be embedded into the document text by using escape sequences. groff(7) describes how these escape sequences look. Glyph names can consist of quite arbitrary characters from the ASCII or latin1 code set, not only alphanumeric characters. Here some examples:


A glyph having the 2-character name ch.


A glyph having the name char_name (having length 1, 2, 3, ...). Note that ‘c’ is not the same as ‘\[c]’ (c a single character): The latter is internally mapped to glyph name ‘\c’. By default, groff defines a single glyph name starting with a backslash, namely ‘\-’, which can be either accessed as ‘\-’ or ‘\[-]’.

\[base_glyph composite_1 composite_2 ...]

A composite glyph; see below for a more detailed description.

In groff, each 8-bit input character can also referred to by the construct ‘\[charn]’ where n is the decimal code of the character, a number between 0 and 255 without leading zeros (those entities are not glyph names). They are normally mapped onto glyphs using the .trin request.

Another special convention is the handling of glyphs with names directly derived from a Unicode code point; this is shown in the ‘Unicode’ column of the table below. In general, all glyphs not having a name as listed in this manual page can be accessed with the ‘\[uXXXX]’ construct. Refer to section “Using Symbols” in Groff: The GNU Implementation of troff, the groff Texinfo manual, which describes how groff glyph names are constructed.

Moreover, new glyph names can be created by the .char request; see groff(7).

In the following, a plus sign ‘+’ in the ‘Notes’ column indicates that this particular glyph name appears in the PS version of the original troff documentation, CSTR 54.

Entries marked with ‘***’ denote glyphs for mathematical purposes (mainly used for DVI output). Normally, such glyphs have metrics which make them unusable in normal text.

Ð\[-D]Ethu00D0uppercase eth
ð\[Sd]ethu00F0lowercase eth
Þ\[TP]Thornu00DEuppercase thorn
þ\[Tp]thornu00FElowercase thorn
ß\[ss]germandblsu00DFGerman double s (sharp s)

Ligatures and Other Latin Glyphs

ff\[ff]ffu0066_0066ff ligature +
fi\[fi]fiu0066_0069fi ligature +
fl\[fl]flu0066_006Cfl ligature +
ffi\[Fi]ffiu0066_0066_0069ffi ligature +
ffl\[Fl]fflu0066_0066_006Cffl ligature +
Ł\[/L]Lslashu0141L slash (Polish)
ł\[/l]lslashu0142l slash (Polish)
Ø\[/O]Oslashu00D8O slash (Scandinavian)
ø\[/o]oslashu00F8o slash (Scandinavian)
Æ\[AE]AEu00C6A+E combined
æ\[ae]aeu00E6a+e combined
Œ\[OE]OEu0152O+E combined
œ\[oe]oeu0153o+e combined
IJ\[IJ]IJu0132I+J combined (Dutch)
ij\[ij]iju0133i+j combined(Dutch)
ı\[.i]dotlessiu0131i without a dot (Turkish)
ȷ\[.j]dotlessju0237j without a dot

Accented Characters

Á\['A]Aacuteu0041_0301A acute
Ć\['C]Cacuteu0043_0301C acute
É\['E]Eacuteu0045_0301E acute
Í\['I]Iacuteu0049_0301I acute
Ó\['O]Oacuteu004F_0301O acute
Ú\['U]Uacuteu0055_0301U acute
Ý\['Y]Yacuteu0059_0301Y acute
á\['a]aacuteu0061_0301a acute
ć\['c]cacuteu0063_0301c acute
é\['e]eacuteu0065_0301e acute
í\['i]iacuteu0069_0301i acute
ó\['o]oacuteu006F_0301o acute
ú\['u]uacuteu0075_0301u acute
ý\['y]yacuteu0079_0301y acute
Ä\[:A]Adieresisu0041_0308A dieresis (umlaut)
Ë\[:E]Edieresisu0045_0308E dieresis (umlaut)
Ï\[:I]Idieresisu0049_0308I dieresis (umlaut)
Ö\[:O]Odieresisu004F_0308O dieresis (umlaut)
Ü\[:U]Udieresisu0055_0308U dieresis (umlaut)
Ÿ\[:Y]Ydieresisu0059_0308Y dieresis (umlaut)
ä\[:a]adieresisu0061_0308a dieresis (umlaut)
ë\[:e]edieresisu0065_0308e dieresis (umlaut)
ï\[:i]idieresisu0069_0308i dieresis (umlaut)
ö\[:o]odieresisu006F_0308o dieresis (umlaut)
ü\[:u]udieresisu0075_0308u dieresis (umlaut)
ÿ\[:y]ydieresisu0079_0308y dieresis (umlaut)
Â\[^A]Acircumflexu0041_0302A circumflex
Ê\[^E]Ecircumflexu0045_0302E circumflex
Î\[^I]Icircumflexu0049_0302I circumflex
Ô\[^O]Ocircumflexu004F_0302O circumflex
Û\[^U]Ucircumflexu0055_0302U circumflex
â\[^a]acircumflexu0061_0302a circumflex
ê\[^e]ecircumflexu0065_0302e circumflex
î\[^i]icircumflexu0069_0302i circumflex
ô\[^o]ocircumflexu006F_0302o circumflex
û\[^u]ucircumflexu0075_0302u circumflex
À\[`A]Agraveu0041_0300A grave
È\[`E]Egraveu0045_0300E grave
Ì\[`I]Igraveu0049_0300I grave
Ò\[`O]Ograveu004F_0300O grave
Ù\[`U]Ugraveu0055_0300U grave
à\[`a]agraveu0061_0300a grave
è\[`e]egraveu0065_0300e grave
ì\[`i]igraveu0069_0300i grave
ò\[`o]ograveu006F_0300o grave
ù\[`u]ugraveu0075_0300u grave
Ã\[~A]Atildeu0041_0303A tilde
Ñ\[~N]Ntildeu004E_0303N tilde
Õ\[~O]Otildeu004F_0303O tilde
ã\[~a]atildeu0061_0303a tilde
ñ\[~n]ntildeu006E_0303n tilde
õ\[~o]otildeu006F_0303o tilde
Š\[vS]Scaronu0053_030CS caron
š\[vs]scaronu0073_030Cs caron
Ž\[vZ]Zcaronu005A_030CZ caron
ž\[vz]zcaronu007A_030Cz caron
Ç\[,C]Ccedillau0043_0327C cedilla
ç\[,c]ccedillau0063_0327c cedilla
Å\[oA]Aringu0041_030AA ring
å\[oa]aringu0061_030Aa ring


The composite request is used to map most of the accents to non-spacing glyph names; the values given in parentheses are the original (spacing) ones.

˝\[a"]hungarumlautu030B (u02DD)Hungarian umlaut
¯\[a-]macronu0304 (u00AF)overbar accent
˙\[a.]dotaccentu0307 (u02D9)dot accent
^\[a^]circumflexu0302 (u005E)circumflex accent
´\[aa]acuteu0301 (u00B4)acute accent +
`\[ga]graveu0300 (u0060)grave accent +
˘\[ab]breveu0306 (u02D8)breve accent
¸\[ac]cedillau0327 (u00B8)cedilla accent
¨\[ad]dieresisu0308 (u00A8)umlaut accent
ˇ\[ah]caronu030C (u02C7)caron accent
˚\[ao]ringu030A (u02DA)small circle, ring accent
~\[a~]tildeu0303 (u007E)tilde accent
˛\[ho]ogoneku0328 (u02DB)hook accent
^\[ha]asciicircumu005Ehigh circumflex, ASCII character, in mathematics the power sign
~\[ti]asciitildeu007Etilde in vertical middle, ASCII, in Unix-like the home directory


\[Bq]quotedblbaseu201Elow double comma quote
\[bq]quotesinglbaseu201Alow single comma quote
\[lq]quotedblleftu201Cleft double quote
\[rq]quotedblrightu201Dright double quote
\[oq]quoteleftu2018single open (left) quote
\[cq]quoterightu2019single closing (right) quote
'\[aq]quotesingleu0027apostrophe quote (ASCII 39)
"\[dq]quotedblu0022double quote (ASCII 34)
«\[Fo]guillemotleftu00ABleft guillemet [sic]
»\[Fc]guillemotrightu00BBright guillemet [sic]
\[fo]guilsinglleftu2039single left-pointing angle quotation mark
\[fc]guilsinglrightu203Asingle right-pointing angle quotation mark


¡\[r!]exclamdownu00A1inverted exclamation mark
¿\[r?]questiondownu00BFinverted question mark
\[em]emdashu2014em-dash symbol +
\[en]endashu2013en-dash symbol
-\[hy]hyphenu2010hyphen symbol +


The extensible bracket pieces are font-invariant glyphs. In classical troff only one glyph was available to vertically extend brackets, braces, and parentheses: ‘bv’. We map it rather arbitrarily to u23AA.

Note that not all devices contain extensible bracket pieces which can be piled up with ‘\b’ due to the restrictions of the escape's piling algorithm. A general solution to build brackets out of pieces is the following macro:

    .\" Make a pile centered vertically 0.5em
    .\" above the baseline.
    .\" The first argument is placed at the top.
    .\" The pile is returned in string 'pile'
    .de pile-make
    .  nr pile-wd 0
    .  nr pile-ht 0
    .  ds pile-args
    .  nr pile-# \n[.$]
    .  while \n[pile-#] \{\
    .    nr pile-wd (\n[pile-wd] >? \w'\$[\n[pile-#]]')
    .    nr pile-ht +(\n[rst] - \n[rsb])
    .    as pile-args \v'\n[rsb]u'\"
    .    as pile-args \Z'\$[\n[pile-#]]'\"
    .    as pile-args \v'-\n[rst]u'\"
    .    nr pile-# -1
    .  \}
    .  ds pile \v'(-0.5m + (\n[pile-ht]u / 2u))'\"
    .  as pile \*[pile-args]\"
    .  as pile \v'((\n[pile-ht]u / 2u) + 0.5m)'\"
    .  as pile \h'\n[pile-wd]u'\"

Another complication is the fact that some glyphs which represent bracket pieces in original troff can be used for other mathematical symbols also, for example ‘lf’ and ‘rf’ which provide the ‘floor’ operator. Other devices (most notably for DVI output) don't unify such glyphs. For this reason, the four glyphs ‘lf’, ‘rf’, ‘lc’, and ‘rc’ are not unified with similarly looking bracket pieces. In groff, only glyphs with long names are guaranteed to pile up correctly for all devices (provided those glyphs exist).

[\[lB]bracketleftu005Bleft square bracket
]\[rB]bracketrightu005Dright square bracket
{\[lC]braceleftu007Bleft curly brace
}\[rC]bracerightu007Dright curly brace
\[la]angleleftu27E8left angle bracket
\[ra]anglerightu27E9right angle bracket
\[bv]braceexu23AAcurly brace vertical extension *** +
\[braceex]braceexu23AAcurly brace vertical extension
\[bracketlefttp]bracketlefttpu23A1left square bracket top
\[bracketleftbt]bracketleftbtu23A3left square bracket bottom
\[bracketleftex]bracketleftexu23A2left square bracket extension
\[bracketrighttp]bracketrighttpu23A4right square bracket top
\[bracketrightbt]bracketrightbtu23A6right square bracket bottom
\[bracketrightex]bracketrightexu23A5right square bracket extension
\[lt]bracelefttpu23A7left curly brace top +
\[bracelefttp]bracelefttpu23A7left curly brace top
\[lk]braceleftmidu23A8left curly brace middle +
\[braceleftmid]braceleftmidu23A8left curly brace middle
\[lb]braceleftbtu23A9left curly brace bottom +
\[braceleftbt]braceleftbtu23A9left curly brace bottom
\[braceleftex]braceleftexu23AAleft curly brace extension
\[rt]bracerighttpu23ABright curly brace top +
\[bracerighttp]bracerighttpu23ABright curly brace top
\[rk]bracerightmidu23ACright curly brace middle +
\[bracerightmid]bracerightmidu23ACright curly brace middle
\[rb]bracerightbtu23ADright curly brace bottom +
\[bracerightbt]bracerightbtu23ADright curly brace bottom
\[bracerightex]bracerightexu23AAright curly brace extension
\[parenlefttp]parenlefttpu239Bleft parenthesis top
\[parenleftbt]parenleftbtu239Dleft parenthesis bottom
\[parenleftex]parenleftexu239Cleft parenthesis extension
\[parenrighttp]parenrighttpu239Eright parenthesis top
\[parenrightbt]parenrightbtu23A0right parenthesis bottoom
\[parenrightex]parenrightexu239Fright parenthesis extension


\[<-]arrowleftu2190horizontal arrow left +
\[->]arrowrightu2192horizontal arrow right +
\[<>]arrowbothu2194horizontal arrow in both directions
\[da]arrowdownu2193vertical arrow down +
\[ua]arrowupu2191vertical arrow up +
\[va]arrowupdnu2195vertical arrow in both directions
\[lA]arrowdblleftu21D0horizontal double arrow left
\[rA]arrowdblrightu21D2horizontal double arrow right
\[hA]arrowdblbothu21D4horizontal double arrow in both directions
\[dA]arrowdbldownu21D3vertical double arrow down
\[uA]arrowdblupu21D1vertical double arrow up
\[vA]uni21D5u21D5vertical double arrow in both directions
\[an]arrowhorizexu23AFhorizontal arrow extension


The font-invariant glyphs ‘br’, ‘ul’, and ‘rn’ form corners; they can be used to build boxes. Note that both the PostScript and the Unicode-derived names of these three glyphs are just rough approximations.

‘rn’ also serves in classical troff as the horizontal extension of the square root sign.

‘ru’ is a font-invariant glyph, namely a rule of length 0.5m.

\[br]SF110000u2502box rule +
_\[ru]------baseline rule +
\\[rs]backslashu005Creverse solidus

Use ‘\[radicalex]’, not ‘\[overline]’, for continuation of square root.

Text markers

\[dd]daggerdblu2021double dagger sign +
\[dg]daggeru2020dagger +
\[lz]lozengeu25CAlozenge, diamond, pound key
\[sq]uni25A1u25A1white square +
\[ps]paragraphu00B6end of paragraph marker
§\[sc]sectionu00A7section sign +
\[lh]uni261Cu261Chand pointing left +
\[rh]a14u261Ehand pointing right +
#\[sh]numbersignu0023number sign
\[CR]carriagereturnu21B5carriage return
\[OK]a19u2713check mark, tick

Legal Symbols

\[bs]------AT&T Bell Labs logo +

The Bell Labs logo is not supported in groff.

Currency symbols

¢\[ct]centu00A2cent +
\[eu]---u20ACofficial Euro symbol
\[Eu]Eurou20ACfont-specific Euro glyph variant
¥\[Ye]yenu00A5Japanese Yen
£\[Po]sterlingu00A3pound sterling (British)
¤\[Cs]currencyu00A4Scandinavian currency sign
ƒ\[Fn]florinu0192Dutch currency sign


°\[de]degreeu00B0degree +
\[%0]perthousandu2030per thousand, per mille sign
\[fm]minuteu2032arc minute sign +
\[sd]secondu2033acr second sign
µ\[mc]muu00B5mu, micro sign
ª\[Of]ordfeminineu00AAfeminine ordinal (Spanish)
º\[Om]ordmasculineu00BAmasculine ordinal (Spanish)

Logical Symbols

\[AN]logicalandu2227logical and
\[OR]logicaloru2228logical or
¬\[no]logicalnotu00AClogical not + ***
\[tno]logicalnotu00ACtext variant of ‘no’
\[te]existentialu2203there exists
\[fa]universalu2200for all
\[st]suchthatu220Bsucht that
|\[or]baru007Cbitwise OR operator (as used in C) +

Mathematical Symbols

½\[12]onehalfu00BD1/2 symbol +
¼\[14]onequarteru00BC1/4 symbol +
¾\[34]threequartersu00BE3/4 symbol +
\[18]oneeighthu215B1/8 symbol
\[38]threeeighthsu215C3/8 symbol
\[58]fiveeighthsu215D5/8 symbol
\[78]seveneighthsu215E7/8 symbol
¹\[S1]onesuperioru00B9superscript 1
²\[S2]twosuperioru00B2superscript 2
³\[S3]threesuperioru00B3superscript 3
+\[pl]plusu002Bplus in special font +
-\[mi]minusu2212minus in special font +
±\[+-]plusminusu00B1plus-minus + ***
\[t+-]plusminusu00B1text variant of \[+-]
·\[pc]periodcenteredu00B7period centered
\[md]dotmathu22C5multiplication dot
×\[mu]multiplyu00D7multiply sign + ***
×\[tmu]multiplyu00D7text variant of \[mu]
\[c*]circlemultiplyu2297multiply sign in circle
\[c+]circleplusu2295plus sign in circle
÷\[di]divideu00F7division sign + ***
÷\[tdi]divideu00F7text variant of \[di]
\[f/]fractionu2044bar for fractions
\[**]asteriskmathu2217mathematical asterisk +
\[<=]lessequalu2264less or equal +
\[>=]greaterequalu2265greater or equal +
\[<<]uni226Au226Amuch less
\[>>]uni226Bu226Bmuch greater
=\[eq]equalu003Dequals in special font +
\[!=]notequalu003D_0338not equal +
\[==]equivalenceu2261equivalent +
\[ne]uni2262u2261_0338not equivalent
\[=~]congruentu2245congruent, approx. equal
\[|=]uni2243u2243asymptot. equal to +
\[ap]similaru223Csimilar +
\[~~]approxequalu2248almost equal to
\[~=]approxequalu2248almost equal to
\[pt]proportionalu221Dproportional +
\[es]emptysetu2205empty set +
\[mo]elementu2208element of a set +
\[nm]notelementu2208_0338not element of set
\[sb]propersubsetu2282proper subset +
\[nb]notsubsetu2282_0338not supset
\[sp]propersupersetu2283proper superset +
\[nc]uni2285u2283_0338not superset
\[ib]reflexsubsetu2286subset or equal +
\[ip]reflexsupersetu2287superset or equal +
\[ca]intersectionu2229intersection, cap +
\[cu]unionu222Aunion, cup +
\[is]integralu222Bintegral +
\[integral]integralu222Bintegral ***
\[sum]summationu2211summation ***
\[product]productu220Fproduct ***
\[coproduct]uni2210u2210coproduct ***
\[gr]gradientu2207gradient +
\[sr]radicalu221Asquare root +
\[sqrt]radicalu221Asquare root
\[radicalex]radicalex---square root continuation ***
\[sqrtex]radicalex---square root continuation ***
\[lc]uni2308u2308left ceiling +
\[rc]uni2309u2309right ceiling +
\[lf]uni230Au230Aleft floor +
\[rf]uni230Bu230Bright floor +
\[if]infinityu221Einfinity +
\[Im]Ifrakturu2111Gothic I, imaginary
\[Re]Rfrakturu211CGothic R, real
\[wp]weierstrassu2118Weierstrass p
\[pd]partialdiffu2202partial differentiation +
\[-h]uni210Fu210FPlanck constant / 2pi (h-bar)
\[hbar]uni210Fu210FPlanck constant / 2pi (h-bar)

Greek glyphs

These glyphs are intended for technical use, not for real Greek; normally, the uppercase letters have upright shape, and the lowercase ones are slanted. There is a problem with the mapping of letter phi to Unicode. Prior to Unicode version 3.0, the difference between U+03C6, GREEK SMALL LETTER PHI, and U+03D5, GREEK PHI SYMBOL, was not clearly described; only the glyph shapes in the Unicode book could be used as a reference. Starting with Unicode 3.0, the reference glyphs have been exchanged and described verbally also: In mathematical context, U+03D5 is the stroked variant and U+03C6 the curly glyph. Unfortunately, most font vendors didn't update their fonts to this (incompatible) change in Unicode. At the time of this writing (January 2006), it is not clear yet whether the Adobe Glyph Names ‘phi’ and ‘phi1’ also change its meaning if used for mathematics, thus compatibility problems are likely to happen – being conservative, groff currently assumes that ‘phi’ in a PostScript symbol font is the stroked version.

In groff, symbol ‘\[*f]’ always denotes the stroked version of phi, and ‘\[+f]’ the curly variant.

ς\[ts]sigma1u03C2terminal sigma +
ϕ\[*f]phiu03D5(stroked glyph) +
ϑ\[+h]theta1u03D1variant theta
φ\[+f]phi1u03C6variant phi (curly shape)
ϖ\[+p]omega1u03D6variant pi, looking like omega
ϵ\[+e]uni03F5u03F5variant epsilon

Card symbols

\[CL]clubu2663black club suit
\[SP]spadeu2660black spade suit
\[HE]heartu2665black heart suit
\[u2661]uni2661u2661white heart suit
\[DI]diamondu2666black diamond suit
\[u2662]uni2662u2662white diamond suit


This document was written by James Clark, with additions by Werner Lemberg and Bernd Warken, and revised to use real tables by Eric S. Raymond.

See Also

Groff: The GNU Implementation of troff, by Trent A. Fisher and Werner Lemberg, is the primary groff manual. Section “Using Symbols” may be of particular note. You can browse it interactively with “info '(groff)Using Symbols'”.


the GNU roff formatter


a short reference of the groff formatting language

An extension to the troff character set for Europe, E.G. Keizer, K.J. Simonsen, J. Akkerhuis; EUUG Newsletter, Volume 9, No. 2, Summer 1989

The Unicode Standard

Referenced By

addftinfo(1), gpinyin(1), grodvi(1), groff(1), groff(7), groff_diff(7), groffer(1), groff_man(7), grohtml(1), grolbp(1), grolj4(1), grops(1), grotty(1), hpftodit(1).

22 July 2021 groff 1.22.4