Configuration file main.conf
The main.conf configuration file configures the system-wide settings for iwd. This file lives in the configuration directory specified by the environment variable $CONFIGURATION_DIRECTORY, which is normally provided by systemd. In the absence of such an environment variable it defaults to /etc/iwd. If no main.conf is present, then default values are chosen. The presence of main.conf is not required.
See iwd.network for details on the file format.
The settings are split into several categories. Each category has a group associated with it and described in separate tables below. The group [General] contains general settings. The group [Network] contains network configuration related settings. The group [Blacklist] contains settings related to blacklisting of BSSes. If iwd determines that a connection to a BSS fails for a reason that indicates the BSS is currently misbehaving or misconfigured (e.g. timeouts, unexpected status/reason codes, etc), then iwd will blacklist this BSS and avoid connecting to it for a period of time. These options let the user control how long a misbehaved BSS spends on the blacklist. The group [Rank] contains settings related to ranking of networks for autoconnect purposes. The group [Scan] contains settings related to scanning functionality. No modification from defaults is normally required.
EnableNetworkConfiguration Values: true, false
Enable network configuration.
Setting this option to true enables iwd to configure the network interfaces with the IP addresses. There are two types IP addressing supported by iwd: static and dynamic. The static IP addresses are configured through the network configuration files. If no static IP configuration has been provided for a network, iwd will attempt to obtain the dynamic addresses from the network through the built-in DHCP client.
The network configuration feature is disabled by default. See [Network] settings for additional settings related to network configuration.
UseDefaultInterface Values: true, false
Do not allow iwd to destroy / recreate wireless interfaces at startup, including default interfaces. Enable this behavior if your wireless card driver is buggy or does not allow such an operation, or if you do not want iwd to manage netdevs for another reason. For most users with an upstream driver it should be safe to omit/disable this setting.
AddressRandomization Values: disabled, once, network
If AddressRandomization is set to disabled, the default kernel behavior is used. This means the kernel will assign a mac address from the permanent mac address range provided by the hardware / driver. Thus it is possible for networks to track the user by the mac address which is permanent.
If AddressRandomization is set to once, MAC address is randomized a single time when iwd starts or when the hardware is detected for the first time (due to hotplug, etc.)
If AddressRandomization is set to network, the MAC address is randomized on each connection to a network. The MAC is generated based on the SSID and permanent address of the adapter. This allows the same MAC to be generated each time connecting to a given SSID while still hiding the permanent address.
AddressRandomizationRange Values: full, nic
One can control which part of the address is randomized using this setting.
When using AddressRandomizationRange set to nic, only the NIC specific octets (last 3 octets) are randomized. Note that the randomization range is limited to 00:00:01 to 00:00:FE. The permanent mac address of the card is used for the initial 3 octets.
When using AddressRandomizationRange set to full, all 6 octets of the address are randomized. The locally-administered bit will be set.
RoamThreshold Value: rssi dBm value, from -100 to 1, default: -70
This can be used to control how aggressively iwd roams.
ManagementFrameProtection Values: 0, 1 or 2
When ManagementFrameProtection is 0, MFP is completely turned off, even if the hardware is capable. This setting is not recommended.
When ManagementFrameProtection is 1, MFP is enabled if the local hardware and remote AP both support it.
When ManagementFrameProtection is 2, MFP is always required. This can prevent successful connection establishment on some hardware or to some networks.
ControlPortOverNL80211 Values: false, true
Enable/Disable sending EAPoL packets over NL80211. Enabled by default if kernel support is available. Doing so sends all EAPoL traffic over directly to the supplicant process (iwd) instead of putting these on the Ethernet device. Since only the supplicant can usually make sense / decrypt these packets, enabling this option can save some CPU cycles on your system and avoids certain long-standing race conditions.
DisableANQP Values: false, true
Enable/disable ANQP queries. The way IWD does ANQP queries is dependent on a recent kernel patch (available in Kernel 5.3). If your kernel does not have this functionality this should be disabled (default). Some drivers also do a terrible job of sending public action frames (freezing or crashes) which is another reason why this has been turned off by default. If you want to easily utilize Hotspot 2.0 networks, then setting DisableANQP to false is recommended.
NameResolvingService Values: resolvconf, systemd
Configures a DNS resolution method used by the system.
This configuration option must be used in conjunction with EnableNetworkConfiguration and provides the choice of system resolver integration.
If not specified, systemd is used as default.
RoutePriorityOffset Values: uint32 value (default: 300)
Configures a route priority offset used by the system to prioritize the default routes. The route with lower priority offset is preferred.
If not specified, 300 is used as default.
InitialTimeout Values: uint64 value in seconds (default: 60)
The initial time that a BSS spends on the blacklist.
Multiplier Values: unsigned int value in seconds (default: 30)
If the BSS was blacklisted previously and another connection attempt has failed after the initial timeout has expired, then the BSS blacklist time will be extended by a multiple of Multiplier for each unsuccessful attempt up to MaxiumTimeout time in seconds.
MaximumTimeout Values: uint64 value in seconds (default: 86400)
Maximum time that a BSS is blacklisted.
BandModifier5Ghz Values: floating point value (default: 1.0)
Increase or decrease the preference for 5GHz access points by increasing or decreasing the value of this modifier. 5GHz networks are already preferred due to their increase throughput / data rate. However, 5GHz networks are highly RSSI sensitive, so it is still possible for IWD to prefer 2.4Ghz APs in certain circumstances.
DisablePeriodicScan Values: true, false
Disable periodic scan. Setting this option to 'true' will prevent iwd from issuing the periodic scans for the available networks while disconnected. The behavior of the user-initiated scans isn't affected. The periodic scan is enabled by default.
DisableRoamingScan Values: true, false
Disable roaming scan. Setting this option to 'true' will prevent iwd from trying to scan when roaming decisions are activated. This can prevent iwd from roaming properly, but can be useful for networks operating under extremely low rssi levels where roaming isn't possible.
The group [General] contains general settings.
The group [Network] contains network configuration related settings.
The group [Blacklist] contains settings related to blacklisting of BSSes. If iwd determines that a connection to a BSS fails for a reason that indicates the BSS is currently misbehaving or misconfigured (e.g. timeouts, unexpected status/reason codes, etc), then iwd will blacklist this BSS and avoid connecting to it for a period of time. These options let the user control how long a misbehaved BSS spends on the blacklist.
The group [Rank] contains settings related to ranking of networks for autoconnect purposes.
The group [Scan] contains settings related to scanning functionality. No modification from defaults is normally required.
Marcel Holtmann <email@example.com>, Denis Kenzior <firstname.lastname@example.org>, Andrew Zaborowski <email@example.com>, Tim Kourt <firstname.lastname@example.org>, James Prestwood <email@example.com>
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