This document describes the Alliance VHDL subset for Finite State Machine description.
This FSM subset is neither accepted by the logic simulator asimut(1), nor the formal prover proof(1).
This VHDL subset is defined to enable classical MOORE and MEALEY synchronous finite state machine description as well as stack FSM description (see syf(1) for further information about this kind of FSM).
A FSM description is made of two and only two processes. Connectors and signals can only be of in, out, and two user defined enumerated types. Vectors of in and out types are also allowed.
FSM's states and stack control signals must be declared as enumerated type.
For the scan-path, three more signals are required :
- scan_test: in bit
- scan_in: in bit
- scan_out: out bit
For a ROM implementation, the vdd and vss signals must be explicitly declared as :
- rom_vdd : in bit
- rom_vss : in bit
These signals, declared in the interface, are not used or assigned in the FSM description.
The '-P' option of syf(1) allows scan-path implementation.
A pragma is a comment that gives necessary information to the synthesis and formal proof tools.
Three pragmas are used, their generic names are :
- CLOCK : External clock signal name.
- CURRENT_STATE : Current State name.
- NEXT_STATE : Next State name.
Ten other pragmas are optional.
Three pragmas are required only for scan-path implementation.
- SCAN_TEST : Enable test mode (scan-path).
- SCAN_IN : scan-path input.
- SCAN_OUT : scan-path output.
Five others are used only in a STACK FSM.
- RETURN_STATE : Return State name.
- CONTROL : Stack Control signal name.
- POP : POP operation on the stack.
- PUSH : PUSH operation on the stack.
- NOP : NOP operation on the stack.
The last ones for ROM implementation
- ROM_VDD : Name of the vdd signal of the ROM.
ROM_VSS :Name of the vss signal of the ROM.
Two different processes are used : The first process, called state process, allows to describe state transition and outputs generation. It is not controlled by the clock. The second process is controlled by the clock and describes the state register and stack registers modifications.
State process sensitivity list contains inputs and CURRENT_STATE, it means that the state process is activated when the CURRENT_STATE or an input signal changes. A case statement is used to describe, for each state, the next state and outputs.
The second process sensitivity list contains the clock signal, so this process is enabled whenever clock changes. Both Level sensitive latches, and edge triggered flip flops can be used for state registers and stack implementation.
Entity FSM_EX is port( ck : in bit ; reset :in bit; t_mode:in bit; s_in :in bit; i :in bit; s_out :out bit; o :out bit ); End FSM_EX; architecture auto of FSM_EX is type STATE_TYPE is (S0,S1,S2,S3,S4,S5); type CONTROL is (PUSH,POP,NOP); -- pragma CLOCK ck -- pragma CURRENT_STATE CURRENT_STATE -- pragma NEXT_STATE NEXT_STATE -- pragma RETURN_STATE RETURN_STATE -- pragma CONTROL CTRL -- pragma PUSH PUSH -- pragma POP POP -- pragma NOP NOP -- pragma SCAN_TEST t_mode -- pragma SCAN_IN s_in -- pragma SCAN_OUT s_out signal CURRENT_STATE, NEXT_STATE, RETURN_STATE : STATE_TYPE; signal CTRL : CONTROL; signal STACK_0, STACK_1 : STATE_TYPE ; begin PROCESS(CURRENT_STATE,I,reset) begin if(reset) then NEXT_STATE <= S0 ; o <= '0' ; else case CURRENT_STATE is WHEN S0 => NEXT_STATE <= S1; RETURN_STATE <= S5; CTRL <= PUSH; o <= '0'; WHEN S1 => if (I = '1') then NEXT_STATE <= S2; CTRL <= NOP; else NEXT_STATE <= S3; CTRL <= NOP; end if; o <= '0'; WHEN S2 => NEXT_STATE <= S4; CTRL <= NOP; o <= '0'; WHEN S3 => NEXT_STATE <= S4; CTRL <= NOP; o <= '0'; WHEN S4 => NEXT_STATE <= STACK_0; CTRL <= POP; o <= '1'; WHEN S5 => if (I = '1') then NEXT_STATE <= S1; RETURN_STATE <= S0 ; CTRL <= PUSH; else NEXT_STATE <= S5; CTRL <= NOP; end if ; o <= '0'; WHEN others => assert ('1') report "illegal state"; end case; end if ; end process; process(ck) begin if(ck = '0' and not ck' stable) then CURRENT_STATE <= NEXT_STATE; case CTRL is WHEN POP => STACK_0 <= STACK_1; WHEN PUSH => STACK_1 <= STACK_0; STACK_0 <= RETURN_STATE; WHEN NOP => NULL; end case; end if; end process; end auto;
Multi FSM Example
It is possible to describe in the same description two or more FSM communicating each others throw internal signals as shown below. It is also possible to incorporate concurrent statements using VBE(5) VHDL coding style.
ENTITY multi_fsm is PORT ( ck : in BIT; data_in : in BIT; reset : in BIT; data_out : out BIT ); END multi_fsm; ARCHITECTURE FSM OF multi_fsm is TYPE A_ETAT_TYPE IS (A_E0, A_E1); SIGNAL A_NS, A_CS : A_ETAT_TYPE; TYPE B_ETAT_TYPE IS (B_E0, B_E1); SIGNAL B_NS, B_CS : B_ETAT_TYPE; --PRAGMA CURRENT_STATE A_CS FSM_A --PRAGMA NEXT_STATE A_NS FSM_A --PRAGMA CLOCK ck FSM_A --PRAGMA FIRST_STATE A_E0 FSM_A --PRAGMA CURRENT_STATE B_CS FSM_B --PRAGMA NEXT_STATE B_NS FSM_B --PRAGMA CLOCK ck FSM_B --PRAGMA FIRST_STATE B_E0 FSM_B SIGNAL ACK, REQ, DATA_INT : BIT; BEGIN A_1 : PROCESS ( A_CS, ACK ) BEGIN IF ( reset = '1' ) THEN A_NS <= A_E0; DATA_OUT <= '0'; REQ <= '0'; ELSE CASE A_CS is WHEN A_E0 => IF ( ACK ='1') THEN A_NS <= A_E1; ELSE A_NS <= A_E0; END IF; DATA_OUT <= '0'; REQ <= '1'; WHEN A_E1 => IF ( ACK ='1') THEN A_NS <= A_E1; ELSE A_NS <= A_E0; END IF; DATA_OUT <= DATA_INT; REQ <= '0'; END CASE; END IF; END PROCESS A_1; A_2 : PROCESS( ck ) BEGIN IF ( ck = '1' AND NOT ck'STABLE ) THEN A_CS <= A_NS; END IF; END PROCESS A_2; ------- B_1 : PROCESS ( B_CS, ACK ) BEGIN IF ( reset = '1' ) THEN B_NS <= B_E0; DATA_INT <= '0'; ACK <= '0'; ELSE CASE B_CS is WHEN B_E0 => IF ( REQ ='1') THEN B_NS <= B_E1; ELSE B_NS <= B_E0; END IF; DATA_INT <= '0'; ACK <= '0'; WHEN B_E1 => IF ( REQ ='1') THEN B_NS <= B_E1; ELSE B_NS <= B_E0; END IF; DATA_INT <= DATA_IN; ACK <= '1'; END CASE; END IF; END PROCESS B_1; B_2 : PROCESS( ck ) BEGIN IF ( ck = '1' AND NOT ck'STABLE ) THEN B_CS <= B_NS; END IF; END PROCESS B_2; END FSM;