The csv1 zone file format is supported primarily for MaraDNS users who already have zone files in the csv1 format. MaraDNS now supports a csv2 zone file format. Note that the csv1 zone file format will continue to function as long as I am MaraDNS' maintainer.
This delimits fields
This signifies a comment. Lines starting with this are ignored, otherwise it has no significance
This, in domain names, signifies that the rest of the domain name should be the name of this zone
This is translated to mean "any host name that otherwise does not resolve". It must be at the beginning of a domain name.
This is used as an escape character, either to escape octal values such as '\045' for %, or to escape the '%' character so it has no special meaning, or to escape the backslash character.
Notes on Processing
All domain-name labels are converted to their lower-case equivalents before processing is done. This is because domain-name literals in the database with one or more upper-case letters in them are case-sensitive. This is my way to resolve RFC1035 schizophrenic desire to both allow binary domain labels, and its desire to be case-insensitive.
The file must first have a SOA record, followed by one or more NS records, followed by other records. The initial NS and SOA records must be RR for this zone. NS records after any non-NS record must be part of another zone. The resolution algorithm will not break if non-CNAME records share records with a CNAME record, but this is not a good idea to do.
A domain name is a one-letter designation of its type, followed by the domain name separated by dots, ending with either a % or a trailing dot. If the domain name does not end with a % or trailing dot, an error is returned.
Supported RR Types
MaraDNS only supports the following types of resource records (RRs) in csv1 files. More resource records types are supported in csv2 zone files; see csv2(5) for details.
Letter Type RFC1035 section 3.2.2 value
A A 1
N NS 2
C CNAME 5
S SOA 6
P PTR 12
@ MX 15
T TXT 16
U any determined in third field of line
Format of Supported RR Types
Here are the formats, shown by letter name:
A: Has three fields field one: the domain name field two: the ttl for the name in seconds field three: the ip address, in dotted decimal notation Example: Ahost.example.com.|7200|10.1.2.3
A records are described with grueling detail in RFC1035. In short, an A record is an IP address for a given host name.
N: Has three fields field one: the domain name of the record field two: the ttl for the name in seconds field three: the domain name this NS points to. Example: Nexample.com.|86400|ns.example.com.
NS (N here) records are described in RFC1035
C: Has three fields field one: the domain name of the record field two: the ttl for the name in seconds field three: the domain this CNAME record points to Example: Calias.example.org.|3200|realname.example.org.
CNAME (which C is short for) records are described in RFC1035
S: Has nine fields field one: the domain name of the record field two: the TTL of the record field three: the origin of the domain. In other words, the name of the primary name server for the domain. field four: the email address for this domain (in the RFC822, not BIND format) field five: the serial for the domain field six: the refresh (how often to see updates) for the domain field seven: the retry (how often to try when down) for the domain field eight: the expire (how long before the slave gives up) for the domain field nine: the minimum (and default) TTL for the domain Example: Sexample.net.|86400|%|hostmaster@%|19771108|7200|3600|604800|1800
SOA (S here) records are described in RFC1035
P: has three fields field one: the IP we wish to point to (in in-addr.arpa form) field two: the ttl for the name in seconds field three: the FQDN for the IP in question Example: P220.127.116.11.in-addr.arpa.|86400|ns.example.com.
PTR (P here) records, which are used for reverse DNS lookups, are described in RFC1035. Note that one needs control of the appropriate in-addr.arpa subdomain to make PTR records visible on the internet at large.
@: has four fields field one: The host that people send email to field two: the ttl for this record field three: The preference for this MX host field four: The name of this MX host Example: @example.com.|86400|10|mail.example.com.
MX (@ here) records are described in RFC1035
T: has three fields field one: The host someone wants to get additional information about field two: the ttl for this record field three: The desired text. Any data becomes the record up until a new line is reached. The new line is not part of the TXT record Example: Texample.com.|86400|Example.com: Buy example products online
TXT (T here) records are described in RFC1035
U: has four fields field one: The host someone wants a data type normally unsupported by MaraDNS for field two: the ttl for this record field three: The numeric code for this data type (33 for SRV, etc.) field four: The raw binary data for this data type Example: Uexample.com.|3600|40|\010\001\002Kitchen sink data
The above example is a "Kitchen Sink" RR (see draft-ietf-dnsind-kitchen-sink-02.txt) with a "meaning" of 8, a "coding" of 1, a "subcoding" of 2, and a data string of "Kitchen sink data". Since this particular data type is not formalized in a RFC at this time, the most appropriate method of storing this data is by using the catch-all "unsupported" syntax.
Example CSV1 Zone File
# Example CSV1 zone file # This is what is known as a SOA record. All zone files need to have one # of these S%|86400|%|hostmaster@%|19771108|7200|3600|604800|1800 # These are known as authoritative NS records. All zone files need one or # more of these N%|86400|ns1.% N%|86400|ns2.% # Some IP addresses Ans1.%|86400|10.0.0.1 Ans2.%|86400|192.168.0.1 A%|86400|10.1.2.3 Amx.%|86400|10.1.2.4 # An 'IN MX' record @%|86400|10|mx.%
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Sam Trenholme http://www.samiam.org/