tgamma man page

Prolog

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tgamma, tgammaf, tgammal — compute gamma() function

Synopsis

#include <math.h>

double tgamma(double x);
float tgammaf(float x);
long double tgammal(long double x);

Description

The functionality described on this reference page is aligned with the ISO C standard. Any conflict between the requirements described here and the ISO C standard is unintentional. This volume of POSIX.1‐2008 defers to the ISO C standard.

These functions shall compute the gamma function of x.

An application wishing to check for error situations should set errno to zero and call feclearexcept(FE_ALL_EXCEPT) before calling these functions. On return, if errno is non-zero or fetestexcept(FE_INVALID | FE_DIVBYZERO | FE_OVERFLOW | FE_UNDERFLOW) is non-zero, an error has occurred.

Return Value

Upon successful completion, these functions shall return Gamma(x).

If x is a negative integer, a domain error may occur and either a NaN (if supported) or an implementation-defined value shall be returned. On systems that support the IEC 60559 Floating-Point option, a domain error shall occur and a NaN shall be returned.

If x is ±0, tgamma(), tgammaf(), and tgammal() shall return ±HUGE_VAL, ±HUGE_VALF, and ±HUGE_VALL, respectively. On systems that support the IEC 60559 Floating-Point option, a pole error shall occur; otherwise, a pole error may occur.

If the correct value would cause overflow, a range error shall occur and tgamma(), tgammaf(), and tgammal() shall return ±HUGE_VAL, ±HUGE_VALF, or ±HUGE_VALL, respectively, with the same sign as the correct value of the function.

If the correct value would cause underflow, and is not representable, a range error may occur, and tgamma(), tgammaf(), and tgammal() shall return 0.0, or (if IEC 60559 Floating-Point is not supported) an implementation-defined value no greater in magnitude than DBL_MIN, FLT_MIN, and LDBL_MIN, respectively.

If the correct value would cause underflow, and is representable, a range error may occur and the correct value shall be returned.

If x is NaN, a NaN shall be returned.

If x is +Inf, x shall be returned.

If x is -Inf, a domain error shall occur, and a NaN shall be returned.

Errors

These functions shall fail if:

Domain Error

The value of x is a negative integer, or x is -Inf.

If the integer expression (math_errhandling & MATH_ERRNO) is non-zero, then errno shall be set to [EDOM]. If the integer expression (math_errhandling & MATH_ERREXCEPT) is non-zero, then the invalid floating-point exception shall be raised.

Pole Error

The value of x is zero.

If the integer expression (math_errhandling & MATH_ERRNO) is non-zero, then errno shall be set to [ERANGE]. If the integer expression (math_errhandling & MATH_ERREXCEPT) is non-zero, then the divide-by-zero floating-point exception shall be raised.

Range Error

The value overflows.

If the integer expression (math_errhandling & MATH_ERRNO) is non-zero, then errno shall be set to [ERANGE]. If the integer expression (math_errhandling & MATH_ERREXCEPT) is non-zero, then the overflow floating-point exception shall be raised.

These functions may fail if:

Domain Error

The value of x is a negative integer.

If the integer expression (math_errhandling & MATH_ERRNO) is non-zero, then errno shall be set to [EDOM]. If the integer expression (math_errhandling & MATH_ERREXCEPT) is non-zero, then the invalid floating-point exception shall be raised.

Pole Error

The value of x is zero.

If the integer expression (math_errhandling & MATH_ERRNO) is non-zero, then errno shall be set to [ERANGE]. If the integer expression (math_errhandling & MATH_ERREXCEPT) is non-zero, then the divide-by-zero floating-point exception shall be raised.

Range Error

The result underflows.

If the integer expression (math_errhandling & MATH_ERRNO) is non-zero, then errno shall be set to [ERANGE]. If the integer expression (math_errhandling & MATH_ERREXCEPT) is non-zero, then the underflow floating-point exception shall be raised.

The following sections are informative.

Application Usage

For IEEE Std 754‐1985 double, overflow happens when 0 < x < 1/DBL_MAX, and 171.7 < x.

On error, the expressions (math_errhandling & MATH_ERRNO) and (math_errhandling & MATH_ERREXCEPT) are independent of each other, but at least one of them must be non-zero.

Rationale

This function is named tgamma() in order to avoid conflicts with the historical gamma() and lgamma() functions.

Future Directions

It is possible that the error response for a negative integer argument may be changed to a pole error and a return value of ±Inf.

See Also

feclearexcept(), fetestexcept(), lgamma()

The Base Definitions volume of POSIX.1‐2008, Section 4.19, Treatment of Error Conditions for Mathematical Functions, <math.h>

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2013 IEEE/The Open Group POSIX Programmer's Manual