tan man page
Prolog
This manual page is part of the POSIX Programmer's Manual. The Linux implementation of this interface may differ (consult the corresponding Linux manual page for details of Linux behavior), or the interface may not be implemented on Linux.
tan, tanf, tanl — tangent function
Synopsis
#include <math.h> double tan(double x); float tanf(float x); long double tanl(long double x);
Description
The functionality described on this reference page is aligned with the ISO C standard. Any conflict between the requirements described here and the ISO C standard is unintentional. This volume of POSIX.1‐2008 defers to the ISO C standard.
These functions shall compute the tangent of their argument x, measured in radians.
An application wishing to check for error situations should set errno to zero and call feclearexcept(FE_ALL_EXCEPT) before calling these functions. On return, if errno is nonzero or fetestexcept(FE_INVALID  FE_DIVBYZERO  FE_OVERFLOW  FE_UNDERFLOW) is nonzero, an error has occurred.
Return Value
Upon successful completion, these functions shall return the tangent of x.
If the correct value would cause underflow, and is not representable, a range error may occur, and tan(), tanf(), and tanl() shall return 0.0, or (if IEC 60559 FloatingPoint is not supported) an implementationdefined value no greater in magnitude than DBL_MIN, FLT_MIN, and LDBL_MIN, respectively.
If x is NaN, a NaN shall be returned.
If x is ±0, x shall be returned.
If x is subnormal, a range error may occur
and x should be returned.
If x is not returned, tan(), tanf(), and tanl() shall return an implementationdefined value no greater in magnitude than DBL_MIN, FLT_MIN, and LDBL_MIN, respectively.
If x is ±Inf, a domain error shall occur, and either a NaN (if supported), or an implementationdefined value shall be returned.
If the correct value would cause underflow, and is representable, a range error may occur and the correct value shall be returned.
If the correct value would cause overflow, a range error shall occur and tan(), tanf(), and tanl() shall return ±HUGE_VAL, ±HUGE_VALF, and ±HUGE_VALL, respectively, with the same sign as the correct value of the function.
Errors
These functions shall fail if:
 Domain Error

The value of x is ±Inf.
If the integer expression (math_errhandling & MATH_ERRNO) is nonzero, then errno shall be set to [EDOM]. If the integer expression (math_errhandling & MATH_ERREXCEPT) is nonzero, then the invalid floatingpoint exception shall be raised.
 Range Error

The result overflows
If the integer expression (math_errhandling & MATH_ERRNO) is nonzero, then errno shall be set to [ERANGE]. If the integer expression (math_errhandling & MATH_ERREXCEPT) is nonzero, then the overflow floatingpoint exception shall be raised.
These functions may fail if:
 Range Error

The result underflows, or the value of x is subnormal.
If the integer expression (math_errhandling & MATH_ERRNO) is nonzero, then errno shall be set to [ERANGE]. If the integer expression (math_errhandling & MATH_ERREXCEPT) is nonzero, then the underflow floatingpoint exception shall be raised.
The following sections are informative.
Examples
Taking the Tangent of a 45Degree Angle
#include <math.h> ... double radians = 45.0 * M_PI / 180; double result; ... result = tan (radians);
Application Usage
There are no known floatingpoint representations such that for a normal argument, tan(x) is either overflow or underflow.
These functions may lose accuracy when their argument is near a multiple of π/2 or is far from 0.0.
On error, the expressions (math_errhandling & MATH_ERRNO) and (math_errhandling & MATH_ERREXCEPT) are independent of each other, but at least one of them must be nonzero.
Rationale
None.
Future Directions
None.
See Also
atan(), feclearexcept(), fetestexcept(), isnan()
The Base Definitions volume of POSIX.1‐2008, Section 4.19, Treatment of Error Conditions for Mathematical Functions, <math.h>
Copyright
Portions of this text are reprinted and reproduced in electronic form from IEEE Std 1003.1, 2013 Edition, Standard for Information Technology  Portable Operating System Interface (POSIX), The Open Group Base Specifications Issue 7, Copyright (C) 2013 by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc and The Open Group. (This is POSIX.12008 with the 2013 Technical Corrigendum 1 applied.) In the event of any discrepancy between this version and the original IEEE and The Open Group Standard, the original IEEE and The Open Group Standard is the referee document. The original Standard can be obtained online at http://www.unix.org/online.html .
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