sendto man page

Prolog

This manual page is part of the POSIX Programmer's Manual. The Linux implementation of this interface may differ (consult the corresponding Linux manual page for details of Linux behavior), or the interface may not be implemented on Linux.

sendto — send a message on a socket

Synopsis

#include <sys/socket.h>

ssize_t sendto(int socket, const void *message, size_t length,
    int flags, const struct sockaddr *dest_addr,
    socklen_t dest_len);

Description

The sendto() function shall send a message through a connection-mode or connectionless-mode socket.

If the socket is a connectionless-mode socket, the message shall be sent to the address specified by dest_addr if no pre-specified peer address has been set. If a peer address has been pre-specified, either the message shall be sent to the address specified by dest_addr (overriding the pre-specified peer address), or the function shall return -1 and set errno to [EISCONN].

If the socket is connection-mode, dest_addr shall be ignored.

The sendto() function takes the following arguments:

socket
Specifies the socket file descriptor.
message
Points to a buffer containing the message to be sent.
length
Specifies the size of the message in bytes.
flags

Specifies the type of message transmission. Values of this argument are formed by logically OR'ing zero or more of the following flags:

MSG_EOR
Terminates a record (if supported by the protocol).
MSG_OOB
Sends out-of-band data on sockets that support out-of-band data. The significance and semantics of out-of-band data are protocol-specific.
MSG_NOSIGNAL
Requests not to send the SIGPIPE signal if an attempt to send is made on a stream-oriented socket that is no longer connected. The [EPIPE] error shall still be returned.
dest_addr
Points to a sockaddr structure containing the destination address. The length and format of the address depend on the address family of the socket.
dest_len
Specifies the length of the sockaddr structure pointed to by the dest_addr argument.

If the socket protocol supports broadcast and the specified address is a broadcast address for the socket protocol, sendto() shall fail if the SO_BROADCAST option is not set for the socket.

The dest_addr argument specifies the address of the target.

The length argument specifies the length of the message.

Successful completion of a call to sendto() does not guarantee delivery of the message. A return value of -1 indicates only locally-detected errors.

If space is not available at the sending socket to hold the message to be transmitted and the socket file descriptor does not have O_NONBLOCK set, sendto() shall block until space is available. If space is not available at the sending socket to hold the message to be transmitted and the socket file descriptor does have O_NONBLOCK set, sendto() shall fail.

The socket in use may require the process to have appropriate privileges to use the sendto() function.

Return Value

Upon successful completion, sendto() shall return the number of bytes sent. Otherwise, -1 shall be returned and errno set to indicate the error.

Errors

The sendto() function shall fail if:

EAFNOSUPPORT
Addresses in the specified address family cannot be used with this socket.
EAGAIN or EWOULDBLOCK
The socket's file descriptor is marked O_NONBLOCK and the requested operation would block.
EBADF
The socket argument is not a valid file descriptor.
ECONNRESET
A connection was forcibly closed by a peer.
EINTR
A signal interrupted sendto() before any data was transmitted.
EMSGSIZE
The message is too large to be sent all at once, as the socket requires.
ENOTCONN
The socket is connection-mode but is not connected.
ENOTSOCK
The socket argument does not refer to a socket.
EOPNOTSUPP
The socket argument is associated with a socket that does not support one or more of the values set in flags.
EPIPE
The socket is shut down for writing, or the socket is connection-mode and is no longer connected. In the latter case, and if the socket is of type SOCK_STREAM or SOCK_SEQPACKET and the MSG_NOSIGNAL flag is not set, the SIGPIPE signal is generated to the calling thread.

If the address family of the socket is AF_UNIX, then sendto() shall fail if:

EIO
An I/O error occurred while reading from or writing to the file system.
ELOOP
A loop exists in symbolic links encountered during resolution of the pathname in the socket address.
ENAMETOOLONG
The length of a component of a pathname is longer than {NAME_MAX}.
ENOENT
A component of the pathname does not name an existing file or the pathname is an empty string.
ENOTDIR
A component of the path prefix of the pathname in the socket address names an existing file that is neither a directory nor a symbolic link to a directory, or the pathname in the socket address contains at least one non-<slash> character and ends with one or more trailing <slash> characters and the last pathname component names an existing file that is neither a directory nor a symbolic link to a directory.

The sendto() function may fail if:

EACCES
Search permission is denied for a component of the path prefix; or write access to the named socket is denied.
EDESTADDRREQ
The socket is not connection-mode and does not have its peer address set, and no destination address was specified.
EHOSTUNREACH
The destination host cannot be reached (probably because the host is down or a remote router cannot reach it).
EINVAL
The dest_len argument is not a valid length for the address family.
EIO
An I/O error occurred while reading from or writing to the file system.
EISCONN
A destination address was specified and the socket is already connected.
ENETDOWN
The local network interface used to reach the destination is down.
ENETUNREACH
No route to the network is present.
ENOBUFS
Insufficient resources were available in the system to perform the operation.
ENOMEM
Insufficient memory was available to fulfill the request.

If the address family of the socket is AF_UNIX, then sendto() may fail if:

ELOOP
More than {SYMLOOP_MAX} symbolic links were encountered during resolution of the pathname in the socket address.
ENAMETOOLONG
The length of a pathname exceeds {PATH_MAX}, or pathname resolution of a symbolic link produced an intermediate result with a length that exceeds {PATH_MAX}.

The following sections are informative.

Application Usage

The select() and poll() functions can be used to determine when it is possible to send more data.

See Also

getsockopt(), poll(), pselect(), recv(), recvfrom(), recvmsg(), send(), sendmsg(), setsockopt(), shutdown(), socket()

The Base Definitions volume of POSIX.1‐2008, <sys_socket.h>

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2013 IEEE/The Open Group POSIX Programmer's Manual