mkfifo man page

Prolog

This manual page is part of the POSIX Programmer's Manual. The Linux implementation of this interface may differ (consult the corresponding Linux manual page for details of Linux behavior), or the interface may not be implemented on Linux.

mkfifo, mkfifoat — make a FIFO special file relative to directory file descriptor

Synopsis

#include <sys/stat.h>

int mkfifo(const char *path, mode_t mode);
int mkfifoat(int fd, const char *path, mode_t mode);

Description

The mkfifo() function shall create a new FIFO special file named by the pathname pointed to by path. The file permission bits of the new FIFO shall be initialized from mode. The file permission bits of the mode argument shall be modified by the process' file creation mask.

When bits in mode other than the file permission bits are set, the effect is implementation-defined.

If path names a symbolic link, mkfifo() shall fail and set errno to [EEXIST].

The FIFO's user ID shall be set to the process' effective user ID. The FIFO's group ID shall be set to the group ID of the parent directory or to the effective group ID of the process. Implementations shall provide a way to initialize the FIFO's group ID to the group ID of the parent directory. Implementations may, but need not, provide an implementation-defined way to initialize the FIFO's group ID to the effective group ID of the calling process.

Upon successful completion, mkfifo() shall mark for update the last data access, last data modification, and last file status change timestamps of the file. Also, the last data modification and last file status change timestamps of the directory that contains the new entry shall be marked for update.

The mkfifoat() function shall be equivalent to the mkfifo() function except in the case where path specifies a relative path. In this case the newly created FIFO is created relative to the directory associated with the file descriptor fd instead of the current working directory. If the file descriptor was opened without O_SEARCH, the function shall check whether directory searches are permitted using the current permissions of the directory underlying the file descriptor. If the file descriptor was opened with O_SEARCH, the function shall not perform the check.

If mkfifoat() is passed the special value AT_FDCWD in the fd parameter, the current working directory shall be used and the behavior shall be identical to a call to mkfifo().

Return Value

Upon successful completion, these functions shall return 0. Otherwise, these functions shall return -1 and set errno to indicate the error. If -1 is returned, no FIFO shall be created.

Errors

These functions shall fail if:

EACCES
A component of the path prefix denies search permission, or write permission is denied on the parent directory of the FIFO to be created.
EEXIST
The named file already exists.
ELOOP
A loop exists in symbolic links encountered during resolution of the path argument.
ENAMETOOLONG
The length of a component of a pathname is longer than {NAME_MAX}.
ENOENT
A component of the path prefix of path does not name an existing file or path is an empty string.
ENOENT or ENOTDIR
The path argument contains at least one non-<slash> character and ends with one or more trailing <slash> characters. If path names an existing file, an [ENOENT] error shall not occur.
ENOSPC
The directory that would contain the new file cannot be extended or the file system is out of file-allocation resources.
ENOTDIR
A component of the path prefix names an existing file that is neither a directory nor a symbolic link to a directory.
EROFS
The named file resides on a read-only file system.

The mkfifoat() function shall fail if:

EACCES
fd was not opened with O_SEARCH and the permissions of the directory underlying fd do not permit directory searches.
EBADF
The path argument does not specify an absolute path and the fd argument is neither AT_FDCWD nor a valid file descriptor open for reading or searching.
ENOTDIR
The path argument is not an absolute path and fd is a file descriptor associated with a non-directory file.

These functions may fail if:

ELOOP
More than {SYMLOOP_MAX} symbolic links were encountered during resolution of the path argument.
ENAMETOOLONG
The length of a pathname exceeds {PATH_MAX}, or pathname resolution of a symbolic link produced an intermediate result with a length that exceeds {PATH_MAX}.

The following sections are informative.

Examples

Creating a FIFO File

The following example shows how to create a FIFO file named /home/cnd/mod_done, with read/write permissions for owner, and with read permissions for group and others.

#include <sys/types.h>
#include <sys/stat.h>

int status;
...
status = mkfifo("/home/cnd/mod_done", S_IWUSR | S_IRUSR |
    S_IRGRP | S_IROTH);

Rationale

The syntax of this function is intended to maintain compatibility with historical implementations of mknod(). The latter function was included in the 1984 /usr/group standard but only for use in creating FIFO special files. The mknod() function was originally excluded from the POSIX.1‐1988 standard as implementation-defined and replaced by mkdir() and mkfifo(). The mknod() function is now included for alignment with the Single UNIX Specification.

The POSIX.1‐1990 standard required that the group ID of a newly created FIFO be set to the group ID of its parent directory or to the effective group ID of the creating process. FIPS 151‐2 required that implementations provide a way to have the group ID be set to the group ID of the containing directory, but did not prohibit implementations also supporting a way to set the group ID to the effective group ID of the creating process. Conforming applications should not assume which group ID will be used. If it matters, an application can use chown() to set the group ID after the FIFO is created, or determine under what conditions the implementation will set the desired group ID.

The purpose of the mkfifoat() function is to create a FIFO special file in directories other than the current working directory without exposure to race conditions. Any part of the path of a file could be changed in parallel to a call to mkfifo(), resulting in unspecified behavior. By opening a file descriptor for the target directory and using the mkfifoat() function it can be guaranteed that the newly created FIFO is located relative to the desired directory.

See Also

chmod(), mknod(), umask()

The Base Definitions volume of POSIX.1‐2008, <sys_stat.h>, <sys_types.h>

Info

2013 IEEE/The Open Group POSIX Programmer's Manual