std::deque man page

std::deque< _Tp, _Alloc > — A standard container using fixed-size memory allocation and constant-time manipulation of elements at either end.

Synopsis

Inherits std::_Deque_base< _Tp, _Alloc >.

Public Types

typedef _Alloc allocator_type

typedef _Base::const_iterator const_iterator

typedef _Alloc_traits::const_pointer const_pointer

typedef _Alloc_traits::const_reference const_reference

typedef std::reverse_iterator< const_iterator > const_reverse_iterator

typedef ptrdiff_t difference_type

typedef _Base::iterator iterator

typedef _Alloc_traits::pointer pointer

typedef _Alloc_traits::reference reference

typedef std::reverse_iterator< iterator > reverse_iterator

typedef size_t size_type

typedef _Tp value_type

Public Member Functions

deque ()
Creates a deque with no elements.
deque (const allocator_type &__a)
Creates a deque with no elements.
deque (size_type __n, const allocator_type &__a=allocator_type())
Creates a deque with default constructed elements.
deque (size_type __n, const value_type &__value, const allocator_type &__a=allocator_type())
Creates a deque with copies of an exemplar element.
deque (const deque &__x)
Deque copy constructor.
deque (deque &&__x)
Deque move constructor.
deque (const deque &__x, const allocator_type &__a)
Copy constructor with alternative allocator.
deque (deque &&__x, const allocator_type &__a)
Move constructor with alternative allocator.
deque (initializer_list< value_type > __l, const allocator_type &__a=allocator_type())
Builds a deque from an initializer list.
template<typename _InputIterator , typename = std::_RequireInputIter<_InputIterator>> deque (_InputIterator __first, _InputIterator __last, const allocator_type &__a=allocator_type())
Builds a deque from a range.
~deque ()

void assign (size_type __n, const value_type &__val)
Assigns a given value to a deque.
template<typename _InputIterator , typename = std::_RequireInputIter<_InputIterator>> void assign (_InputIterator __first, _InputIterator __last)
Assigns a range to a deque.
void assign (initializer_list< value_type > __l)
Assigns an initializer list to a deque.
reference at (size_type __n)
Provides access to the data contained in the deque.
const_reference at (size_type __n) const
Provides access to the data contained in the deque.
reference back () noexcept

const_reference back () const noexcept

iterator begin () noexcept

const_iterator begin () const noexcept

const_iterator cbegin () const noexcept

const_iterator cend () const noexcept

void clear () noexcept

const_reverse_iterator crbegin () const noexcept

const_reverse_iterator crend () const noexcept

template<typename... _Args> iterator emplace (const_iterator __position, _Args &&... __args)
Inserts an object in deque before specified iterator.
template<typename... _Args> void emplace_back (_Args &&... __args)

template<typename... _Args> void emplace_front (_Args &&... __args)

bool empty () const noexcept

iterator end () noexcept

const_iterator end () const noexcept

iterator erase (const_iterator __position)
Remove element at given position.
iterator erase (const_iterator __first, const_iterator __last)
Remove a range of elements.
reference front () noexcept

const_reference front () const noexcept

allocator_type get_allocator () const noexcept
Get a copy of the memory allocation object.
iterator insert (const_iterator __position, const value_type &__x)
Inserts given value into deque before specified iterator.
iterator insert (const_iterator __position, value_type &&__x)
Inserts given rvalue into deque before specified iterator.
iterator insert (const_iterator __p, initializer_list< value_type > __l)
Inserts an initializer list into the deque.
iterator insert (const_iterator __position, size_type __n, const value_type &__x)
Inserts a number of copies of given data into the deque.
template<typename _InputIterator , typename = std::_RequireInputIter<_InputIterator>> iterator insert (const_iterator __position, _InputIterator __first, _InputIterator __last)
Inserts a range into the deque.
size_type max_size () const noexcept

deque & operator= (const deque &__x)
Deque assignment operator.
deque & operator= (deque &&__x) noexcept(_Alloc_traits::_S_always_equal())
Deque move assignment operator.
deque & operator= (initializer_list< value_type > __l)
Assigns an initializer list to a deque.
reference operator[] (size_type __n) noexcept
Subscript access to the data contained in the deque.
const_reference operator[] (size_type __n) const noexcept
Subscript access to the data contained in the deque.
void pop_back () noexcept
Removes last element.
void pop_front () noexcept
Removes first element.
void push_back (const value_type &__x)
Add data to the end of the deque.
void push_back (value_type &&__x)

void push_front (const value_type &__x)
Add data to the front of the deque.
void push_front (value_type &&__x)

reverse_iterator rbegin () noexcept

const_reverse_iterator rbegin () const noexcept

reverse_iterator rend () noexcept

const_reverse_iterator rend () const noexcept

void resize (size_type __new_size)
Resizes the deque to the specified number of elements.
void resize (size_type __new_size, const value_type &__x)
Resizes the deque to the specified number of elements.
void shrink_to_fit () noexcept

size_type size () const noexcept

void swap (deque &__x) noexcept
Swaps data with another deque.

Protected Types

enum { _S_initial_map_size }

typedef __gnu_cxx::__alloc_traits< _Map_alloc_type > _Map_alloc_traits

typedef _Alloc_traits::template rebind< _Ptr >::other _Map_alloc_type

typedef _Alloc_traits::pointer _Ptr

typedef _Alloc_traits::const_pointer _Ptr_const

Protected Member Functions

_Map_pointer _M_allocate_map (size_t __n)

_Ptr _M_allocate_node ()

template<typename _InputIterator > void _M_assign_aux (_InputIterator __first, _InputIterator __last, std::input_iterator_tag)

template<typename _ForwardIterator > void _M_assign_aux (_ForwardIterator __first, _ForwardIterator __last, std::forward_iterator_tag)

template<typename _Integer > void _M_assign_dispatch (_Integer __n, _Integer __val, __true_type)

template<typename _InputIterator > void _M_assign_dispatch (_InputIterator __first, _InputIterator __last, __false_type)

void _M_create_nodes (_Map_pointer __nstart, _Map_pointer __nfinish)

void _M_deallocate_map (_Map_pointer __p, size_t __n) noexcept

void _M_deallocate_node (_Ptr __p) noexcept

void _M_default_append (size_type __n)

void _M_default_initialize ()

template<typename _Alloc1 > void _M_destroy_data (iterator __first, iterator __last, const _Alloc1 &)

void _M_destroy_data (iterator __first, iterator __last, const std::allocator< _Tp > &)

void _M_destroy_data_aux (iterator __first, iterator __last)

void _M_destroy_nodes (_Map_pointer __nstart, _Map_pointer __nfinish) noexcept

iterator _M_erase (iterator __pos)

iterator _M_erase (iterator __first, iterator __last)

void _M_erase_at_begin (iterator __pos)

void _M_erase_at_end (iterator __pos)

void _M_fill_assign (size_type __n, const value_type &__val)

void _M_fill_initialize (const value_type &__value)
Fills the deque with copies of value.
void _M_fill_insert (iterator __pos, size_type __n, const value_type &__x)

_Map_alloc_type _M_get_map_allocator () const noexcept

_Tp_alloc_type & _M_get_Tp_allocator () noexcept

const _Tp_alloc_type & _M_get_Tp_allocator () const noexcept

template<typename _Integer > void _M_initialize_dispatch (_Integer __n, _Integer __x, __true_type)

template<typename _InputIterator > void _M_initialize_dispatch (_InputIterator __first, _InputIterator __last, __false_type)

void _M_initialize_map (size_t)
Layout storage.
template<typename... _Args> iterator _M_insert_aux (iterator __pos, _Args &&... __args)

void _M_insert_aux (iterator __pos, size_type __n, const value_type &__x)

template<typename _ForwardIterator > void _M_insert_aux (iterator __pos, _ForwardIterator __first, _ForwardIterator __last, size_type __n)

template<typename _Integer > void _M_insert_dispatch (iterator __pos, _Integer __n, _Integer __x, __true_type)

template<typename _InputIterator > void _M_insert_dispatch (iterator __pos, _InputIterator __first, _InputIterator __last, __false_type)

void _M_move_assign1 (deque &&__x, true_type) noexcept

void _M_move_assign1 (deque &&__x, false_type)

void _M_move_assign2 (deque &&__x, true_type)

void _M_move_assign2 (deque &&__x, false_type)

void _M_range_check (size_type __n) const
Safety check used only from at().
template<typename _InputIterator > void _M_range_insert_aux (iterator __pos, _InputIterator __first, _InputIterator __last, std::input_iterator_tag)

template<typename _ForwardIterator > void _M_range_insert_aux (iterator __pos, _ForwardIterator __first, _ForwardIterator __last, std::forward_iterator_tag)

template<typename... _Args> void _M_replace_map (_Args &&... __args)

bool _M_shrink_to_fit ()
template<typename _InputIterator > void _M_range_initialize (_InputIterator __first, _InputIterator __last, std::input_iterator_tag)
Fills the deque with whatever is in [first,last).
template<typename _ForwardIterator > void _M_range_initialize (_ForwardIterator __first, _ForwardIterator __last, std::forward_iterator_tag)
Fills the deque with whatever is in [first,last).
template<typename... _Args> void _M_push_back_aux (_Args &&... __args)
Helper functions for push_* and pop_*.
template<typename... _Args> void _M_push_front_aux (_Args &&... __args)
Helper functions for push_* and pop_*.
void _M_pop_back_aux ()
Helper functions for push_* and pop_*.
void _M_pop_front_aux ()
Helper functions for push_* and pop_*.
iterator _M_reserve_elements_at_front (size_type __n)
Memory-handling helpers for the previous internal insert functions.
iterator _M_reserve_elements_at_back (size_type __n)
Memory-handling helpers for the previous internal insert functions.
void _M_new_elements_at_front (size_type __new_elements)
Memory-handling helpers for the previous internal insert functions.
void _M_new_elements_at_back (size_type __new_elements)
Memory-handling helpers for the previous internal insert functions.
void _M_reserve_map_at_back (size_type __nodes_to_add=1)
Memory-handling helpers for the major map.
void _M_reserve_map_at_front (size_type __nodes_to_add=1)
Memory-handling helpers for the major map.
void _M_reallocate_map (size_type __nodes_to_add, bool __add_at_front)
Memory-handling helpers for the major map.

Static Protected Member Functions

static size_t _S_buffer_size () noexcept

Protected Attributes

_Deque_impl _M_impl

Detailed Description

template<typename _Tp, typename _Alloc = std::allocator<_Tp>>

class std::deque< _Tp, _Alloc >" A standard container using fixed-size memory allocation and constant-time manipulation of elements at either end.

Template Parameters:

_Tp Type of element.
_Alloc Allocator type, defaults to allocator<_Tp>.

Meets the requirements of a container, a reversible container, and a sequence, including the optional sequence requirements.

In previous HP/SGI versions of deque, there was an extra template parameter so users could control the node size. This extension turned out to violate the C++ standard (it can be detected using template template parameters), and it was removed.

Here's how a deque<Tp> manages memory. Each deque has 4 members:

·
Tp** _M_map
·
size_t _M_map_size
·
iterator _M_start, _M_finish

map_size is at least 8. map is an array of map_size pointers-to-nodes. (The name map has nothing to do with the std::map class, and nodes should not be confused with std::list's usage of node.)

A node has no specific type name as such, but it is referred to as node in this file. It is a simple array-of-Tp. If Tp is very large, there will be one Tp element per node (i.e., an array of one). For non-huge Tp's, node size is inversely related to Tp size: the larger the Tp, the fewer Tp's will fit in a node. The goal here is to keep the total size of a node relatively small and constant over different Tp's, to improve allocator efficiency.

Not every pointer in the map array will point to a node. If the initial number of elements in the deque is small, the /middle/ map pointers will be valid, and the ones at the edges will be unused. This same situation will arise as the map grows: available map pointers, if any, will be on the ends. As new nodes are created, only a subset of the map's pointers need to be copied outward.

Class invariants:

·
For any nonsingular iterator i:
·
i.node points to a member of the map array. (Yes, you read that correctly: i.node does not actually point to a node.) The member of the map array is what actually points to the node.
·
i.first == *(i.node) (This points to the node (first Tp element).)
·
i.last == i.first + node_size
·
i.cur is a pointer in the range [i.first, i.last). NOTE: the implication of this is that i.cur is always a dereferenceable pointer, even if i is a past-the-end iterator.
·
Start and Finish are always nonsingular iterators. NOTE: this means that an empty deque must have one node, a deque with <N elements (where N is the node buffer size) must have one node, a deque with N through (2N-1) elements must have two nodes, etc.
·
For every node other than start.node and finish.node, every element in the node is an initialized object. If start.node == finish.node, then [start.cur, finish.cur) are initialized objects, and the elements outside that range are uninitialized storage. Otherwise, [start.cur, start.last) and [finish.first, finish.cur) are initialized objects, and [start.first, start.cur) and [finish.cur, finish.last) are uninitialized storage.
·
[map, map + map_size) is a valid, non-empty range.
·
[start.node, finish.node] is a valid range contained within [map, map + map_size).
·
A pointer in the range [map, map + map_size) points to an allocated node if and only if the pointer is in the range [start.node, finish.node].

Here's the magic: nothing in deque is aware of the discontiguous storage!

The memory setup and layout occurs in the parent, _Base, and the iterator class is entirely responsible for leaping from one node to the next. All the implementation routines for deque itself work only through the start and finish iterators. This keeps the routines simple and sane, and we can use other standard algorithms as well.

Definition at line 829 of file stl_deque.h.

Constructor & Destructor Documentation

template<typename _Tp, typename _Alloc = std::allocator<_Tp>> std::deque< _Tp, _Alloc >::deque () [inline]

Creates a deque with no elements.

Definition at line 884 of file stl_deque.h.

template<typename _Tp, typename _Alloc = std::allocator<_Tp>> std::deque< _Tp, _Alloc >::deque (const allocator_type & __a) [inline], [explicit]

Creates a deque with no elements.

Parameters:

__a An allocator object.

Definition at line 891 of file stl_deque.h.

template<typename _Tp, typename _Alloc = std::allocator<_Tp>> std::deque< _Tp, _Alloc >::deque (size_type __n, const allocator_type & __a = allocator_type()) [inline], [explicit]

Creates a deque with default constructed elements.

Parameters:

__n The number of elements to initially create.
__a An allocator.

This constructor fills the deque with n default constructed elements.

Definition at line 904 of file stl_deque.h.

template<typename _Tp, typename _Alloc = std::allocator<_Tp>> std::deque< _Tp, _Alloc >::deque (size_type __n, const value_type & __value, const allocator_type & __a = allocator_type()) [inline]

Creates a deque with copies of an exemplar element.

Parameters:

__n The number of elements to initially create.
__value An element to copy.
__a An allocator.

This constructor fills the deque with __n copies of __value.

Definition at line 916 of file stl_deque.h.

template<typename _Tp, typename _Alloc = std::allocator<_Tp>> std::deque< _Tp, _Alloc >::deque (const deque< _Tp, _Alloc > & __x) [inline]

Deque copy constructor.

Parameters:

__x A deque of identical element and allocator types.

The newly-created deque uses a copy of the allocation object used by __x.

Definition at line 943 of file stl_deque.h.

template<typename _Tp, typename _Alloc = std::allocator<_Tp>> std::deque< _Tp, _Alloc >::deque (deque< _Tp, _Alloc > && __x) [inline]

Deque move constructor.

Parameters:

__x A deque of identical element and allocator types.

The newly-created deque contains the exact contents of __x. The contents of __x are a valid, but unspecified deque.

Definition at line 958 of file stl_deque.h.

template<typename _Tp, typename _Alloc = std::allocator<_Tp>> std::deque< _Tp, _Alloc >::deque (const deque< _Tp, _Alloc > & __x, const allocator_type & __a) [inline]

Copy constructor with alternative allocator.

Definition at line 962 of file stl_deque.h.

template<typename _Tp, typename _Alloc = std::allocator<_Tp>> std::deque< _Tp, _Alloc >::deque (deque< _Tp, _Alloc > && __x, const allocator_type & __a) [inline]

Move constructor with alternative allocator.

Definition at line 969 of file stl_deque.h.

template<typename _Tp, typename _Alloc = std::allocator<_Tp>> std::deque< _Tp, _Alloc >::deque (initializer_list< value_type > __l, const allocator_type & __a = allocator_type()) [inline]

Builds a deque from an initializer list.

Parameters:

__l An initializer_list.
__a An allocator object.

Create a deque consisting of copies of the elements in the initializer_list __l.

This will call the element type's copy constructor N times (where N is __l.size()) and do no memory reallocation.

Definition at line 992 of file stl_deque.h.

template<typename _Tp, typename _Alloc = std::allocator<_Tp>> template<typename _InputIterator , typename = std::_RequireInputIter<_InputIterator>> std::deque< _Tp, _Alloc >::deque (_InputIterator __first, _InputIterator __last, const allocator_type & __a = allocator_type()) [inline]

Builds a deque from a range.

Parameters:

__first An input iterator.
__last An input iterator.
__a An allocator object.

Create a deque consisting of copies of the elements from [__first, __last).

If the iterators are forward, bidirectional, or random-access, then this will call the elements' copy constructor N times (where N is distance(__first,__last)) and do no memory reallocation. But if only input iterators are used, then this will do at most 2N calls to the copy constructor, and logN memory reallocations.

Definition at line 1019 of file stl_deque.h.

template<typename _Tp, typename _Alloc = std::allocator<_Tp>> std::deque< _Tp, _Alloc >::~deque () [inline]

The dtor only erases the elements, and note that if the elements themselves are pointers, the pointed-to memory is not touched in any way. Managing the pointer is the user's responsibility.

Definition at line 1040 of file stl_deque.h.

Member Function Documentation

template<typename _Tp , typename _Alloc > void deque::_M_fill_initialize (const value_type & __value) [protected]

Fills the deque with copies of value.

Parameters:

__value Initial value.

Returns:

Nothing.

Precondition:

_M_start and _M_finish have already been initialized, but none of the deque's elements have yet been constructed.

This function is called only when the user provides an explicit size (with or without an explicit exemplar value).

Definition at line 375 of file deque.tcc.

template<typename _Tp , typename _Alloc > void std::_Deque_base< _Tp, _Alloc >::_M_initialize_map (size_t __num_elements) [protected], [inherited]

Layout storage.

Parameters:

__num_elements The count of T's for which to allocate space at first.

Returns:

Nothing.

The initial underlying memory layout is a bit complicated...

Definition at line 680 of file stl_deque.h.

template<typename _Tp , typename _Alloc > void deque::_M_new_elements_at_back (size_type __new_elements) [protected]

Memory-handling helpers for the previous internal insert functions.

Definition at line 877 of file deque.tcc.

template<typename _Tp , typename _Alloc > void deque::_M_new_elements_at_front (size_type __new_elements) [protected]

Memory-handling helpers for the previous internal insert functions.

Definition at line 852 of file deque.tcc.

template<typename _Tp , typename _Alloc > void deque::_M_pop_back_aux () [protected]

Helper functions for push_* and pop_*.

Definition at line 531 of file deque.tcc.

template<typename _Tp , typename _Alloc > void deque::_M_pop_front_aux () [protected]

Helper functions for push_* and pop_*.

Definition at line 547 of file deque.tcc.

Referenced by std::deque< _StateSeqT >::_M_pop_back_aux().

template<typename _Tp , typename _Alloc > template<typename... _Args> void deque::_M_push_back_aux (_Args &&... __args) [protected]

Helper functions for push_* and pop_*.

Definition at line 463 of file deque.tcc.

template<typename _Tp , typename _Alloc > template<typename... _Args> void deque::_M_push_front_aux (_Args &&... __args) [protected]

Helper functions for push_* and pop_*.

Definition at line 498 of file deque.tcc.

template<typename _Tp, typename _Alloc = std::allocator<_Tp>> void std::deque< _Tp, _Alloc >::_M_range_check (size_type __n) const [inline], [protected]

Safety check used only from at().

Definition at line 1387 of file stl_deque.h.

template<typename _Tp , typename _Alloc > template<typename _InputIterator > void deque::_M_range_initialize (_InputIterator __first, _InputIterator __last, std::input_iterator_tag) [protected]

Fills the deque with whatever is in [first,last).

Parameters:

__first An input iterator.
__last An input iterator.

Returns:

Nothing.

If the iterators are actually forward iterators (or better), then the memory layout can be done all at once. Else we move forward using push_back on each value from the iterator.

Definition at line 401 of file deque.tcc.

template<typename _Tp , typename _Alloc > template<typename _ForwardIterator > void deque::_M_range_initialize (_ForwardIterator __first, _ForwardIterator __last, std::forward_iterator_tag) [protected]

Fills the deque with whatever is in [first,last).

Parameters:

__first An input iterator.
__last An input iterator.

Returns:

Nothing.

If the iterators are actually forward iterators (or better), then the memory layout can be done all at once. Else we move forward using push_back on each value from the iterator.

Definition at line 425 of file deque.tcc.

template<typename _Tp , typename _Alloc > void deque::_M_reallocate_map (size_type __nodes_to_add, bool __add_at_front) [protected]

Memory-handling helpers for the major map. Makes sure the _M_map has space for new nodes. Does not actually add the nodes. Can invalidate _M_map pointers. (And consequently, deque iterators.)

Definition at line 902 of file deque.tcc.

template<typename _Tp, typename _Alloc = std::allocator<_Tp>> iterator std::deque< _Tp, _Alloc >::_M_reserve_elements_at_back (size_type __n) [inline], [protected]

Memory-handling helpers for the previous internal insert functions.

Definition at line 2086 of file stl_deque.h.

template<typename _Tp, typename _Alloc = std::allocator<_Tp>> iterator std::deque< _Tp, _Alloc >::_M_reserve_elements_at_front (size_type __n) [inline], [protected]

Memory-handling helpers for the previous internal insert functions.

Definition at line 2076 of file stl_deque.h.

template<typename _Tp, typename _Alloc = std::allocator<_Tp>> void std::deque< _Tp, _Alloc >::_M_reserve_map_at_back (size_type __nodes_to_add = 1) [inline], [protected]

Memory-handling helpers for the major map. Makes sure the _M_map has space for new nodes. Does not actually add the nodes. Can invalidate _M_map pointers. (And consequently, deque iterators.)

Definition at line 2112 of file stl_deque.h.

template<typename _Tp, typename _Alloc = std::allocator<_Tp>> void std::deque< _Tp, _Alloc >::_M_reserve_map_at_front (size_type __nodes_to_add = 1) [inline], [protected]

Memory-handling helpers for the major map. Makes sure the _M_map has space for new nodes. Does not actually add the nodes. Can invalidate _M_map pointers. (And consequently, deque iterators.)

Definition at line 2120 of file stl_deque.h.

template<typename _Tp, typename _Alloc = std::allocator<_Tp>> void std::deque< _Tp, _Alloc >::assign (size_type __n, const value_type & __val) [inline]

Assigns a given value to a deque.

Parameters:

__n Number of elements to be assigned.
__val Value to be assigned.

This function fills a deque with n copies of the given value. Note that the assignment completely changes the deque and that the resulting deque's size is the same as the number of elements assigned. Old data may be lost.

Definition at line 1100 of file stl_deque.h.

template<typename _Tp, typename _Alloc = std::allocator<_Tp>> template<typename _InputIterator , typename = std::_RequireInputIter<_InputIterator>> void std::deque< _Tp, _Alloc >::assign (_InputIterator __first, _InputIterator __last) [inline]

Assigns a range to a deque.

Parameters:

__first An input iterator.
__last An input iterator.

This function fills a deque with copies of the elements in the range [__first,__last).

Note that the assignment completely changes the deque and that the resulting deque's size is the same as the number of elements assigned. Old data may be lost.

Definition at line 1119 of file stl_deque.h.

template<typename _Tp, typename _Alloc = std::allocator<_Tp>> void std::deque< _Tp, _Alloc >::assign (initializer_list< value_type > __l) [inline]

Assigns an initializer list to a deque.

Parameters:

__l An initializer_list.

This function fills a deque with copies of the elements in the initializer_list __l.

Note that the assignment completely changes the deque and that the resulting deque's size is the same as the number of elements assigned. Old data may be lost.

Definition at line 1144 of file stl_deque.h.

template<typename _Tp, typename _Alloc = std::allocator<_Tp>> reference std::deque< _Tp, _Alloc >::at (size_type __n) [inline]

Provides access to the data contained in the deque.

Parameters:

__n The index of the element for which data should be accessed.

Returns:

Read/write reference to data.

Exceptions:

std::out_of_range If __n is an invalid index.

This function provides for safer data access. The parameter is first checked that it is in the range of the deque. The function throws out_of_range if the check fails.

Definition at line 1409 of file stl_deque.h.

template<typename _Tp, typename _Alloc = std::allocator<_Tp>> const_reference std::deque< _Tp, _Alloc >::at (size_type __n) const [inline]

Provides access to the data contained in the deque.

Parameters:

__n The index of the element for which data should be accessed.

Returns:

Read-only (constant) reference to data.

Exceptions:

std::out_of_range If __n is an invalid index.

This function provides for safer data access. The parameter is first checked that it is in the range of the deque. The function throws out_of_range if the check fails.

Definition at line 1427 of file stl_deque.h.

template<typename _Tp, typename _Alloc = std::allocator<_Tp>> reference std::deque< _Tp, _Alloc >::back () [inline], [noexcept]

Returns a read/write reference to the data at the last element of the deque.

Definition at line 1454 of file stl_deque.h.

template<typename _Tp, typename _Alloc = std::allocator<_Tp>> const_reference std::deque< _Tp, _Alloc >::back () const [inline], [noexcept]

Returns a read-only (constant) reference to the data at the last element of the deque.

Definition at line 1466 of file stl_deque.h.

template<typename _Tp, typename _Alloc = std::allocator<_Tp>> iterator std::deque< _Tp, _Alloc >::begin () [inline], [noexcept]

Returns a read/write iterator that points to the first element in the deque. Iteration is done in ordinary element order.

Definition at line 1159 of file stl_deque.h.

Referenced by std::deque< _StateSeqT >::deque(), std::deque< _StateSeqT >::operator=(), and std::operator==().

template<typename _Tp, typename _Alloc = std::allocator<_Tp>> const_iterator std::deque< _Tp, _Alloc >::begin () const [inline], [noexcept]

Returns a read-only (constant) iterator that points to the first element in the deque. Iteration is done in ordinary element order.

Definition at line 1167 of file stl_deque.h.

template<typename _Tp, typename _Alloc = std::allocator<_Tp>> const_iterator std::deque< _Tp, _Alloc >::cbegin () const [inline], [noexcept]

Returns a read-only (constant) iterator that points to the first element in the deque. Iteration is done in ordinary element order.

Definition at line 1230 of file stl_deque.h.

template<typename _Tp, typename _Alloc = std::allocator<_Tp>> const_iterator std::deque< _Tp, _Alloc >::cend () const [inline], [noexcept]

Returns a read-only (constant) iterator that points one past the last element in the deque. Iteration is done in ordinary element order.

Definition at line 1239 of file stl_deque.h.

template<typename _Tp, typename _Alloc = std::allocator<_Tp>> void std::deque< _Tp, _Alloc >::clear () [inline], [noexcept]

Erases all the elements. Note that this function only erases the elements, and that if the elements themselves are pointers, the pointed-to memory is not touched in any way. Managing the pointer is the user's responsibility.

Definition at line 1798 of file stl_deque.h.

template<typename _Tp, typename _Alloc = std::allocator<_Tp>> const_reverse_iterator std::deque< _Tp, _Alloc >::crbegin () const [inline], [noexcept]

Returns a read-only (constant) reverse iterator that points to the last element in the deque. Iteration is done in reverse element order.

Definition at line 1248 of file stl_deque.h.

template<typename _Tp, typename _Alloc = std::allocator<_Tp>> const_reverse_iterator std::deque< _Tp, _Alloc >::crend () const [inline], [noexcept]

Returns a read-only (constant) reverse iterator that points to one before the first element in the deque. Iteration is done in reverse element order.

Definition at line 1257 of file stl_deque.h.

template<typename _Tp , typename _Alloc > template<typename... _Args> deque< _Tp, _Alloc >::iterator deque::emplace (const_iterator __position, _Args &&... __args)

Inserts an object in deque before specified iterator.

Parameters:

__position A const_iterator into the deque.
__args Arguments.

Returns:

An iterator that points to the inserted data.

This function will insert an object of type T constructed with T(std::forward<Args>(args)...) before the specified location.

Definition at line 170 of file deque.tcc.

Referenced by std::deque< _StateSeqT >::operator=().

template<typename _Tp, typename _Alloc = std::allocator<_Tp>> bool std::deque< _Tp, _Alloc >::empty () const [inline], [noexcept]

Returns true if the deque is empty. (Thus begin() would equal end().)

Definition at line 1350 of file stl_deque.h.

template<typename _Tp, typename _Alloc = std::allocator<_Tp>> iterator std::deque< _Tp, _Alloc >::end () [inline], [noexcept]

Returns a read/write iterator that points one past the last element in the deque. Iteration is done in ordinary element order.

Definition at line 1176 of file stl_deque.h.

Referenced by std::deque< _StateSeqT >::deque(), std::deque< _StateSeqT >::operator=(), and std::operator==().

template<typename _Tp, typename _Alloc = std::allocator<_Tp>> const_iterator std::deque< _Tp, _Alloc >::end () const [inline], [noexcept]

Returns a read-only (constant) iterator that points one past the last element in the deque. Iteration is done in ordinary element order.

Definition at line 1185 of file stl_deque.h.

template<typename _Tp, typename _Alloc = std::allocator<_Tp>> iterator std::deque< _Tp, _Alloc >::erase (const_iterator __position) [inline]

Remove element at given position.

Parameters:

__position Iterator pointing to element to be erased.

Returns:

An iterator pointing to the next element (or end()).

This function will erase the element at the given position and thus shorten the deque by one.

The user is cautioned that this function only erases the element, and that if the element is itself a pointer, the pointed-to memory is not touched in any way. Managing the pointer is the user's responsibility.

Definition at line 1744 of file stl_deque.h.

template<typename _Tp, typename _Alloc = std::allocator<_Tp>> iterator std::deque< _Tp, _Alloc >::erase (const_iterator __first, const_iterator __last) [inline]

Remove a range of elements.

Parameters:

__first Iterator pointing to the first element to be erased.
__last Iterator pointing to one past the last element to be erased.

Returns:

An iterator pointing to the element pointed to by last prior to erasing (or end()).

This function will erase the elements in the range [__first,__last) and shorten the deque accordingly.

The user is cautioned that this function only erases the elements, and that if the elements themselves are pointers, the pointed-to memory is not touched in any way. Managing the pointer is the user's responsibility.

Definition at line 1768 of file stl_deque.h.

template<typename _Tp, typename _Alloc = std::allocator<_Tp>> reference std::deque< _Tp, _Alloc >::front () [inline], [noexcept]

Returns a read/write reference to the data at the first element of the deque.

Definition at line 1438 of file stl_deque.h.

template<typename _Tp, typename _Alloc = std::allocator<_Tp>> const_reference std::deque< _Tp, _Alloc >::front () const [inline], [noexcept]

Returns a read-only (constant) reference to the data at the first element of the deque.

Definition at line 1446 of file stl_deque.h.

template<typename _Tp, typename _Alloc = std::allocator<_Tp>> allocator_type std::deque< _Tp, _Alloc >::get_allocator () const [inline], [noexcept]

Get a copy of the memory allocation object.

Definition at line 1150 of file stl_deque.h.

Referenced by std::deque< _StateSeqT >::operator=().

template<typename _Tp , typename _Alloc > deque< _Tp, _Alloc >::iterator deque::insert (const_iterator __position, const value_type & __x)

Inserts given value into deque before specified iterator.

Parameters:

__position A const_iterator into the deque.
__x Data to be inserted.

Returns:

An iterator that points to the inserted data.

This function will insert a copy of the given value before the specified location.

Definition at line 194 of file deque.tcc.

template<typename _Tp, typename _Alloc = std::allocator<_Tp>> iterator std::deque< _Tp, _Alloc >::insert (const_iterator __position, value_type && __x) [inline]

Inserts given rvalue into deque before specified iterator.

Parameters:

__position A const_iterator into the deque.
__x Data to be inserted.

Returns:

An iterator that points to the inserted data.

This function will insert a copy of the given rvalue before the specified location.

Definition at line 1634 of file stl_deque.h.

template<typename _Tp, typename _Alloc = std::allocator<_Tp>> iterator std::deque< _Tp, _Alloc >::insert (const_iterator __p, initializer_list< value_type > __l) [inline]

Inserts an initializer list into the deque.

Parameters:

__p An iterator into the deque.
__l An initializer_list.

This function will insert copies of the data in the initializer_list __l into the deque before the location specified by __p. This is known as list insert.

Definition at line 1647 of file stl_deque.h.

template<typename _Tp, typename _Alloc = std::allocator<_Tp>> iterator std::deque< _Tp, _Alloc >::insert (const_iterator __position, size_type __n, const value_type & __x) [inline]

Inserts a number of copies of given data into the deque.

Parameters:

__position A const_iterator into the deque.
__n Number of elements to be inserted.
__x Data to be inserted.

Returns:

An iterator that points to the inserted data.

This function will insert a specified number of copies of the given data before the location specified by __position.

Definition at line 1663 of file stl_deque.h.

template<typename _Tp, typename _Alloc = std::allocator<_Tp>> template<typename _InputIterator , typename = std::_RequireInputIter<_InputIterator>> iterator std::deque< _Tp, _Alloc >::insert (const_iterator __position, _InputIterator __first, _InputIterator __last) [inline]

Inserts a range into the deque.

Parameters:

__position A const_iterator into the deque.
__first An input iterator.
__last An input iterator.

Returns:

An iterator that points to the inserted data.

This function will insert copies of the data in the range [__first,__last) into the deque before the location specified by __position. This is known as range insert.

Definition at line 1699 of file stl_deque.h.

template<typename _Tp, typename _Alloc = std::allocator<_Tp>> size_type std::deque< _Tp, _Alloc >::max_size () const [inline], [noexcept]

Returns the size() of the largest possible deque.

Definition at line 1269 of file stl_deque.h.

template<typename _Tp , typename _Alloc > deque< _Tp, _Alloc > & deque::operator= (const deque< _Tp, _Alloc > & __x)

Deque assignment operator.

Parameters:

__x A deque of identical element and allocator types.

All the elements of x are copied, but unlike the copy constructor, the allocator object is not copied.

Definition at line 93 of file deque.tcc.

template<typename _Tp, typename _Alloc = std::allocator<_Tp>> deque& std::deque< _Tp, _Alloc >::operator= (deque< _Tp, _Alloc > && __x) [inline], [noexcept]

Deque move assignment operator.

Parameters:

__x A deque of identical element and allocator types.

The contents of __x are moved into this deque (without copying, if the allocators permit it). __x is a valid, but unspecified deque.

Definition at line 1063 of file stl_deque.h.

template<typename _Tp, typename _Alloc = std::allocator<_Tp>> deque& std::deque< _Tp, _Alloc >::operator= (initializer_list< value_type > __l) [inline]

Assigns an initializer list to a deque.

Parameters:

__l An initializer_list.

This function fills a deque with copies of the elements in the initializer_list __l.

Note that the assignment completely changes the deque and that the resulting deque's size is the same as the number of elements assigned. Old data may be lost.

Definition at line 1082 of file stl_deque.h.

template<typename _Tp, typename _Alloc = std::allocator<_Tp>> reference std::deque< _Tp, _Alloc >::operator[] (size_type __n) [inline], [noexcept]

Subscript access to the data contained in the deque.

Parameters:

__n The index of the element for which data should be accessed.

Returns:

Read/write reference to data.

This operator allows for easy, array-style, data access. Note that data access with this operator is unchecked and out_of_range lookups are not defined. (For checked lookups see at().)

Definition at line 1366 of file stl_deque.h.

template<typename _Tp, typename _Alloc = std::allocator<_Tp>> const_reference std::deque< _Tp, _Alloc >::operator[] (size_type __n) const [inline], [noexcept]

Subscript access to the data contained in the deque.

Parameters:

__n The index of the element for which data should be accessed.

Returns:

Read-only (constant) reference to data.

This operator allows for easy, array-style, data access. Note that data access with this operator is unchecked and out_of_range lookups are not defined. (For checked lookups see at().)

Definition at line 1381 of file stl_deque.h.

template<typename _Tp, typename _Alloc = std::allocator<_Tp>> void std::deque< _Tp, _Alloc >::pop_back () [inline], [noexcept]

Removes last element. This is a typical stack operation. It shrinks the deque by one.

Note that no data is returned, and if the last element's data is needed, it should be retrieved before pop_back() is called.

Definition at line 1571 of file stl_deque.h.

template<typename _Tp, typename _Alloc = std::allocator<_Tp>> void std::deque< _Tp, _Alloc >::pop_front () [inline], [noexcept]

Removes first element. This is a typical stack operation. It shrinks the deque by one.

Note that no data is returned, and if the first element's data is needed, it should be retrieved before pop_front() is called.

Definition at line 1549 of file stl_deque.h.

template<typename _Tp, typename _Alloc = std::allocator<_Tp>> void std::deque< _Tp, _Alloc >::push_back (const value_type & __x) [inline]

Add data to the end of the deque.

Parameters:

__x Data to be added.

This is a typical stack operation. The function creates an element at the end of the deque and assigns the given data to it. Due to the nature of a deque this operation can be done in constant time.

Definition at line 1517 of file stl_deque.h.

template<typename _Tp, typename _Alloc = std::allocator<_Tp>> void std::deque< _Tp, _Alloc >::push_front (const value_type & __x) [inline]

Add data to the front of the deque.

Parameters:

__x Data to be added.

This is a typical stack operation. The function creates an element at the front of the deque and assigns the given data to it. Due to the nature of a deque this operation can be done in constant time.

Definition at line 1484 of file stl_deque.h.

template<typename _Tp, typename _Alloc = std::allocator<_Tp>> reverse_iterator std::deque< _Tp, _Alloc >::rbegin () [inline], [noexcept]

Returns a read/write reverse iterator that points to the last element in the deque. Iteration is done in reverse element order.

Definition at line 1194 of file stl_deque.h.

template<typename _Tp, typename _Alloc = std::allocator<_Tp>> const_reverse_iterator std::deque< _Tp, _Alloc >::rbegin () const [inline], [noexcept]

Returns a read-only (constant) reverse iterator that points to the last element in the deque. Iteration is done in reverse element order.

Definition at line 1203 of file stl_deque.h.

template<typename _Tp, typename _Alloc = std::allocator<_Tp>> reverse_iterator std::deque< _Tp, _Alloc >::rend () [inline], [noexcept]

Returns a read/write reverse iterator that points to one before the first element in the deque. Iteration is done in reverse element order.

Definition at line 1212 of file stl_deque.h.

template<typename _Tp, typename _Alloc = std::allocator<_Tp>> const_reverse_iterator std::deque< _Tp, _Alloc >::rend () const [inline], [noexcept]

Returns a read-only (constant) reverse iterator that points to one before the first element in the deque. Iteration is done in reverse element order.

Definition at line 1221 of file stl_deque.h.

template<typename _Tp, typename _Alloc = std::allocator<_Tp>> void std::deque< _Tp, _Alloc >::resize (size_type __new_size) [inline]

Resizes the deque to the specified number of elements.

Parameters:

__new_size Number of elements the deque should contain.

This function will resize the deque to the specified number of elements. If the number is smaller than the deque's current size the deque is truncated, otherwise default constructed elements are appended.

Definition at line 1283 of file stl_deque.h.

template<typename _Tp, typename _Alloc = std::allocator<_Tp>> void std::deque< _Tp, _Alloc >::resize (size_type __new_size, const value_type & __x) [inline]

Resizes the deque to the specified number of elements.

Parameters:

__new_size Number of elements the deque should contain.
__x Data with which new elements should be populated.

This function will resize the deque to the specified number of elements. If the number is smaller than the deque's current size the deque is truncated, otherwise the deque is extended and new elements are populated with given data.

Definition at line 1305 of file stl_deque.h.

template<typename _Tp, typename _Alloc = std::allocator<_Tp>> void std::deque< _Tp, _Alloc >::shrink_to_fit () [inline], [noexcept]

A non-binding request to reduce memory use.

Definition at line 1341 of file stl_deque.h.

template<typename _Tp, typename _Alloc = std::allocator<_Tp>> size_type std::deque< _Tp, _Alloc >::size () const [inline], [noexcept]

Returns the number of elements in the deque.

Definition at line 1264 of file stl_deque.h.

Referenced by std::deque< _StateSeqT >::operator=(), and std::operator==().

template<typename _Tp, typename _Alloc = std::allocator<_Tp>> void std::deque< _Tp, _Alloc >::swap (deque< _Tp, _Alloc > & __x) [inline], [noexcept]

Swaps data with another deque.

Parameters:

__x A deque of the same element and allocator types.

This exchanges the elements between two deques in constant time. (Four pointers, so it should be quite fast.) Note that the global std::swap() function is specialized such that std::swap(d1,d2) will feed to this function.

Definition at line 1784 of file stl_deque.h.

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