# stapex.3stap man page

stapex — systemtap examples

## Language Basics

These examples give a feel for basic systemtap syntax and control structures.

```global odds, evens

probe begin {
# "no" and "ne" are local integers
for (i=0; i<10; i++) {
if (i % 2) odds [no++] = i
else evens [ne++] = i
}
delete odds
delete evens
exit ()
}

probe end {
foreach (x+ in odds) {
printf ("odds[%d] = %d\n", x, odds[x])
}
foreach (x in evens-) {
printf ("evens[%d] = %d\n", x, evens[x])
}
}```

This prints:

```odds = 1
odds = 5
odds = 7
odds = 9
evens = 8
evens = 6
evens = 2
evens = 0```

Note that all variables types are inferred, and that all locals and globals are automatically initialized.

This script prints the primes between 0 and 49.

```function isprime (x) {
if (x < 2) return 0
for (i=2; i<x; i++) {
if (x % i == 0) return 0
if (i * i > x) break
}
return 1
}
probe begin {
for (i=0; i<50; i++)
if (isprime (i)) printf("%d\n", i)
exit()
}```

This script demonstrates recursive functions.

```function fibonacci(i) {
if (i < 1) error ("bad number")
if (i == 1) return 1
if (i == 2) return 2
return fibonacci (i-1) + fibonacci (i-2)
}
probe begin {
printf ("11th fibonacci number: %d\n", fibonacci (11))
exit ()
}```

Any larger number may exceed the MAXACTION or MAXNESTING limits, and result in an error.

## Probing

To trace entry and exit from a function, use a pair of probes:

```probe kernel.function("sys_mkdir") { println ("enter") }
probe kernel.function("sys_mkdir").return { println ("exit") }```

To list the probeable functions in the kernel, use the listings mode.

`% stap -l 'kernel.function("*")'`

To list the probeable functions and local variables in the kernel, use another listings mode.

`% stap -L 'kernel.function("*")'`

## More Examples

The directory to find more examples can be found in the stappaths (7) manual page, and online at http://sourceware.org/systemtap/examples/

```stap(1)