slist - Man Page

implementation of a singly linked list

Synopsis

#include <sys/queue.h>

SLIST_ENTRY(TYPE);

SLIST_HEAD(HEADNAME, TYPE);
SLIST_HEAD SLIST_HEAD_INITIALIZER(SLIST_HEAD head);
void SLIST_INIT(SLIST_HEAD *head);

int SLIST_EMPTY(SLIST_HEAD *head);

void SLIST_INSERT_HEAD(SLIST_HEAD *head,
                        struct TYPE *elm, SLIST_ENTRY NAME);
void SLIST_INSERT_AFTER(struct TYPE *listelm,
                        struct TYPE *elm, SLIST_ENTRY NAME);

struct TYPE *SLIST_FIRST(SLIST_HEAD *head);
struct TYPE *SLIST_NEXT(struct TYPE *elm, SLIST_ENTRY NAME);

SLIST_FOREACH(struct TYPE *var, SLIST_HEAD *head, SLIST_ENTRY NAME);

void SLIST_REMOVE(SLIST_HEAD *head, struct TYPE *elm,
                        SLIST_ENTRY NAME);
void SLIST_REMOVE_HEAD(SLIST_HEAD *head,
                        SLIST_ENTRY NAME);

Description

These macros define and operate on doubly linked lists.

In the macro definitions, TYPE is the name of a user-defined structure, that must contain a field of type SLIST_ENTRY, named NAME. The argument HEADNAME is the name of a user-defined structure that must be declared using the macro SLIST_HEAD().

Creation

A singly linked list is headed by a structure defined by the SLIST_HEAD() macro. This structure contains a single pointer to the first element on the list. The elements are singly linked for minimum space and pointer manipulation overhead at the expense of O(n) removal for arbitrary elements. New elements can be added to the list after an existing element or at the head of the list. An SLIST_HEAD structure is declared as follows:

SLIST_HEAD(HEADNAME, TYPE) head;

where struct HEADNAME is the structure to be defined, and struct TYPE is the type of the elements to be linked into the list. A pointer to the head of the list can later be declared as:

struct HEADNAME *headp;

(The names head and headp are user selectable.)

SLIST_ENTRY() declares a structure that connects the elements in the list.

SLIST_HEAD_INITIALIZER() evaluates to an initializer for the list head.

SLIST_INIT() initializes the list referenced by head.

SLIST_EMPTY() evaluates to true if there are no elements in the list.

Insertion

SLIST_INSERT_HEAD() inserts the new element elm at the head of the list.

SLIST_INSERT_AFTER() inserts the new element elm after the element listelm.

Traversal

SLIST_FIRST() returns the first element in the list, or NULL if the list is empty.

SLIST_NEXT() returns the next element in the list.

SLIST_FOREACH() traverses the list referenced by head in the forward direction, assigning each element in turn to var.

Removal

SLIST_REMOVE() removes the element elm from the list.

SLIST_REMOVE_HEAD() removes the element elm from the head of the list. For optimum efficiency, elements being removed from the head of the list should explicitly use this macro instead of the generic SLIST_REMOVE().

Return Value

SLIST_EMPTY() returns nonzero if the list is empty, and zero if the list contains at least one entry.

SLIST_FIRST(), and SLIST_NEXT() return a pointer to the first or next TYPE structure, respectively.

SLIST_HEAD_INITIALIZER() returns an initializer that can be assigned to the list head.

Conforming to

Not in POSIX.1, POSIX.1-2001, or POSIX.1-2008. Present on the BSDs (SLIST macros first appeared in 4.4BSD).

Bugs

SLIST_FOREACH() doesn't allow var to be removed or freed within the loop, as it would interfere with the traversal. SLIST_FOREACH_SAFE(), which is present on the BSDs but is not present in glibc, fixes this limitation by allowing var to safely be removed from the list and freed from within the loop without interfering with the traversal.

Examples

#include <stddef.h>
#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <sys/queue.h>

struct entry {
    int data;
    SLIST_ENTRY(entry) entries;             /* Singly linked list */
};

SLIST_HEAD(slisthead, entry);

int
main(void)
{
    struct entry *n1, *n2, *n3, *np;
    struct slisthead head;                  /* Singly linked list
                                               head */

    SLIST_INIT(&head);                      /* Initialize the queue */

    n1 = malloc(sizeof(struct entry));      /* Insert at the head */
    SLIST_INSERT_HEAD(&head, n1, entries);

    n2 = malloc(sizeof(struct entry));      /* Insert after */
    SLIST_INSERT_AFTER(n1, n2, entries);

    SLIST_REMOVE(&head, n2, entry, entries);/* Deletion */
    free(n2);

    n3 = SLIST_FIRST(&head);
    SLIST_REMOVE_HEAD(&head, entries);      /* Deletion from the head */
    free(n3);

    for (int i = 0; i < 5; i++) {
        n1 = malloc(sizeof(struct entry));
        SLIST_INSERT_HEAD(&head, n1, entries);
        n1->data = i;
    }

                                            /* Forward traversal */
    SLIST_FOREACH(np, &head, entries)
        printf("%i\n", np->data);

    while (!SLIST_EMPTY(&head)) {           /* List deletion */
        n1 = SLIST_FIRST(&head);
        SLIST_REMOVE_HEAD(&head, entries);
        free(n1);
    }
    SLIST_INIT(&head);

    exit(EXIT_SUCCESS);
}

See Also

insque(3), queue(7)

Colophon

This page is part of release 5.11 of the Linux man-pages project. A description of the project, information about reporting bugs, and the latest version of this page, can be found at https://www.kernel.org/doc/man-pages/.

Referenced By

queue(7).

The man pages SLIST_EMPTY(3), SLIST_ENTRY(3), SLIST_FIRST(3), SLIST_FOREACH(3), SLIST_HEAD(3), SLIST_HEAD_INITIALIZER(3), SLIST_INIT(3), SLIST_INSERT_AFTER(3), SLIST_INSERT_HEAD(3), SLIST_NEXT(3), SLIST_REMOVE(3) and SLIST_REMOVE_HEAD(3) are aliases of slist(3).

2021-03-22 GNU Linux Programmer's Manual