# pow - Man Page

power functions

## Library

Math library (*libm*, *-lm*)

## Synopsis

#include <math.h> double pow(doublex, doubley); float powf(floatx, floaty); long double powl(long doublex, long doubley);

Feature Test Macro Requirements for glibc (see feature_test_macros(7)):

**powf**(), **powl**():

_ISOC99_SOURCE || _POSIX_C_SOURCE >= 200112L || /* Since glibc 2.19: */ _DEFAULT_SOURCE || /* glibc <= 2.19: */ _BSD_SOURCE || _SVID_SOURCE

## Description

These functions return the value of *x* raised to the power of *y*.

## Return Value

On success, these functions return the value of *x* to the power of *y*.

If the result overflows, a range error occurs, and the functions return **HUGE_VAL**, **HUGE_VALF**, or **HUGE_VALL**, respectively, with the mathematically correct sign.

If result underflows, and is not representable, a range error occurs, and 0.0 with the appropriate sign is returned.

If *x* is +0 or -0, and *y* is an odd integer less than 0, a pole error occurs and **HUGE_VAL**, **HUGE_VALF**, or **HUGE_VALL**, is returned, with the same sign as *x*.

If *x* is +0 or -0, and *y* is less than 0 and not an odd integer, a pole error occurs and +**HUGE_VAL**, +**HUGE_VALF**, or +**HUGE_VALL**, is returned.

If *x* is +0 (-0), and *y* is an odd integer greater than 0, the result is +0 (-0).

If *x* is 0, and *y* greater than 0 and not an odd integer, the result is +0.

If *x* is -1, and *y* is positive infinity or negative infinity, the result is 1.0.

If *x* is +1, the result is 1.0 (even if *y* is a NaN).

If *y* is 0, the result is 1.0 (even if *x* is a NaN).

If *x* is a finite value less than 0, and *y* is a finite noninteger, a domain error occurs, and a NaN is returned.

If the absolute value of *x* is less than 1, and *y* is negative infinity, the result is positive infinity.

If the absolute value of *x* is greater than 1, and *y* is negative infinity, the result is +0.

If the absolute value of *x* is less than 1, and *y* is positive infinity, the result is +0.

If the absolute value of *x* is greater than 1, and *y* is positive infinity, the result is positive infinity.

If *x* is negative infinity, and *y* is an odd integer less than 0, the result is -0.

If *x* is negative infinity, and *y* less than 0 and not an odd integer, the result is +0.

If *x* is negative infinity, and *y* is an odd integer greater than 0, the result is negative infinity.

If *x* is negative infinity, and *y* greater than 0 and not an odd integer, the result is positive infinity.

If *x* is positive infinity, and *y* less than 0, the result is +0.

If *x* is positive infinity, and *y* greater than 0, the result is positive infinity.

Except as specified above, if *x* or *y* is a NaN, the result is a NaN.

## Errors

See math_error(7) for information on how to determine whether an error has occurred when calling these functions.

The following errors can occur:

- Domain error:
*x*is negative, and*y*is a finite noninteger *errno*is set to**EDOM**. An invalid floating-point exception (**FE_INVALID**) is raised.- Pole error:
*x*is zero, and*y*is negative *errno*is set to**ERANGE**(but see Bugs). A divide-by-zero floating-point exception (**FE_DIVBYZERO**) is raised.- Range error: the result overflows
*errno*is set to**ERANGE**. An overflow floating-point exception (**FE_OVERFLOW**) is raised.- Range error: the result underflows
*errno*is set to**ERANGE**. An underflow floating-point exception (**FE_UNDERFLOW**) is raised.

## Attributes

For an explanation of the terms used in this section, see attributes(7).

Interface | Attribute | Value |
---|---|---|

pow(), powf(), powl() | Thread safety | MT-Safe |

## Standards

C11, POSIX.1-2008.

## History

C99, POSIX.1-2001.

The variant returning *double* also conforms to SVr4, 4.3BSD, C89.

## Bugs

### Historical bugs (now fixed)

Before glibc 2.28, on some architectures (e.g., x86-64) **pow**() may be more than 10,000 times slower for some inputs than for other nearby inputs. This affects only **pow**(), and not **powf**() nor **powl**(). This problem was fixed in glibc 2.28.

A number of bugs in the glibc implementation of **pow**() were fixed in glibc 2.16.

In glibc 2.9 and earlier, when a pole error occurs, *errno* is set to **EDOM** instead of the POSIX-mandated **ERANGE**. Since glibc 2.10, glibc does the right thing.

In glibc 2.3.2 and earlier, when an overflow or underflow error occurs, glibc's **pow**() generates a bogus invalid floating-point exception (**FE_INVALID**) in addition to the overflow or underflow exception.

## See Also

## Referenced By

cbrt(3), cpow(3), perlop(1), pow10(3), procmailsc(5).

The man pages powf(3) and powl(3) are aliases of pow(3).