mongoc_guides man page

mongoc_guides — Guides

Common Tasks

Drivers for some other languages provide helper functions to perform certain common tasks. In the C Driver we must explicitly build commands to send to the server.

This snippet contains example code for the explain, copydb and cloneCollection commands.

Setup

First we’ll write some code to insert sample data: doc-common-insert.c.INDENT 0.0

/* Don't try to compile this file on its own. It's meant to be #included
   by example code */

/* Insert some sample data */
bool
insert_data (mongoc_collection_t *collection)
{
   mongoc_bulk_operation_t *bulk;
   enum N { ndocs = 4 };
   bson_t *docs[ndocs];
   bson_error_t error;
   int i = 0;
   bool ret;

   bulk = mongoc_collection_create_bulk_operation (collection, true, NULL);

   docs[0] = BCON_NEW ("x", BCON_DOUBLE (1.0), "tags", "[", "dog", "cat", "]");
   docs[1] = BCON_NEW ("x", BCON_DOUBLE (2.0), "tags", "[", "cat", "]");
   docs[2] = BCON_NEW (
      "x", BCON_DOUBLE (2.0), "tags", "[", "mouse", "cat", "dog", "]");
   docs[3] = BCON_NEW ("x", BCON_DOUBLE (3.0), "tags", "[", "]");

   for (i = 0; i < ndocs; i++) {
      mongoc_bulk_operation_insert (bulk, docs[i]);
      bson_destroy (docs[i]);
      docs[i] = NULL;
   }

   ret = mongoc_bulk_operation_execute (bulk, NULL, &error);

   if (!ret) {
      fprintf (stderr, "Error inserting data: %s\n", error.message);
   }

   mongoc_bulk_operation_destroy (bulk);
   return ret;
}

/* A helper which we'll use a lot later on */
void
print_res (const bson_t *reply)
{
   BSON_ASSERT (reply);
   char *str = bson_as_canonical_extended_json (reply, NULL);
   printf ("%s\n", str);
   bson_free (str);
}

“explain” Command

This is how to use the explain command in MongoDB 3.2+: explain.c.INDENT 0.0

bool
explain (mongoc_collection_t *collection)
{
   bson_t *command;
   bson_t reply;
   bson_error_t error;
   bool res;

   command = BCON_NEW ("explain",
                       "{",
                       "find",
                       BCON_UTF8 (COLLECTION_NAME),
                       "filter",
                       "{",
                       "x",
                       BCON_INT32 (1),
                       "}",
                       "}");
   res = mongoc_collection_command_simple (
      collection, command, NULL, &reply, &error);
   if (!res) {
      fprintf (stderr, "Error with explain: %s\n", error.message);
      goto cleanup;
   }

   /* Do something with the reply */
   print_res (&reply);

cleanup:
   bson_destroy (&reply);
   bson_destroy (command);
   return res;
}

“copydb” Command

This example requires two instances of mongo to be running.

Here’s how to use the copydb command to copy a database from another instance of MongoDB: copydb.c.INDENT 0.0

bool
copydb (mongoc_client_t *client, const char *other_host_and_port)
{
   mongoc_database_t *admindb;
   bson_t *command;
   bson_t reply;
   bson_error_t error;
   bool res;

   BSON_ASSERT (other_host_and_port);
   /* Must do this from the admin db */
   admindb = mongoc_client_get_database (client, "admin");

   command = BCON_NEW ("copydb",
                       BCON_INT32 (1),
                       "fromdb",
                       BCON_UTF8 ("test"),
                       "todb",
                       BCON_UTF8 ("test2"),

                       /* If you want from a different host */
                       "fromhost",
                       BCON_UTF8 (other_host_and_port));
   res =
      mongoc_database_command_simple (admindb, command, NULL, &reply, &error);
   if (!res) {
      fprintf (stderr, "Error with copydb: %s\n", error.message);
      goto cleanup;
   }

   /* Do something with the reply */
   print_res (&reply);

cleanup:
   bson_destroy (&reply);
   bson_destroy (command);
   mongoc_database_destroy (admindb);

   return res;
}

“cloneCollection” Command

This example requires two instances of mongo to be running.

Here’s an example of the cloneCollection command to clone a collection from another instance of MongoDB: clone-collection.c.INDENT 0.0

bool
clone_collection (mongoc_database_t *database, const char *other_host_and_port)
{
   bson_t *command;
   bson_t reply;
   bson_error_t error;
   bool res;

   BSON_ASSERT (other_host_and_port);
   command = BCON_NEW ("cloneCollection",
                       BCON_UTF8 ("test.remoteThings"),
                       "from",
                       BCON_UTF8 (other_host_and_port),
                       "query",
                       "{",
                       "x",
                       BCON_INT32 (1),
                       "}");
   res =
      mongoc_database_command_simple (database, command, NULL, &reply, &error);
   if (!res) {
      fprintf (stderr, "Error with clone: %s\n", error.message);
      goto cleanup;
   }

   /* Do something with the reply */
   print_res (&reply);

cleanup:
   bson_destroy (&reply);
   bson_destroy (command);

   return res;
}

Running the Examples

common-operations.c.INDENT 0.0

/*
 * Copyright 2016 MongoDB, Inc.
 *
 * Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
 * you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
 * You may obtain a copy of the License at
 *
 *   http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
 *
 * Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
 * distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
 * WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
 * See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
 * limitations under the License.
 */


#include <mongoc.h>
#include <stdio.h>


const char *COLLECTION_NAME = "things";

#include "../doc-common-insert.c"
#include "explain.c"
#include "copydb.c"
#include "clone-collection.c"


int
main (int argc, char *argv[])
{
   mongoc_database_t *database = NULL;
   mongoc_client_t *client = NULL;
   mongoc_collection_t *collection = NULL;
   char *host_and_port;
   int res = 0;
   char *other_host_and_port = NULL;

   if (argc < 2 || argc > 3) {
      fprintf (stderr,
               "usage: %s MONGOD-1-CONNECTION-STRING "
               "[MONGOD-2-HOST-NAME:MONGOD-2-PORT]\n",
               argv[0]);
      fprintf (stderr,
               "MONGOD-1-CONNECTION-STRING can be "
               "of the following forms:\n");
      fprintf (stderr, "localhost\t\t\t\tlocal machine\n");
      fprintf (stderr, "localhost:27018\t\t\t\tlocal machine on port 27018\n");
      fprintf (stderr,
               "mongodb://user:pass@localhost:27017\t"
               "local machine on port 27017, and authenticate with username "
               "user and password pass\n");
      return 1;
   }

   mongoc_init ();

   if (strncmp (argv[1], "mongodb://", 10) == 0) {
      host_and_port = bson_strdup (argv[1]);
   } else {
      host_and_port = bson_strdup_printf ("mongodb://%s", argv[1]);
   }
   other_host_and_port = argc > 2 ? argv[2] : NULL;

   client = mongoc_client_new (host_and_port);

   if (!client) {
      fprintf (stderr, "Invalid hostname or port: %s\n", host_and_port);
      res = 2;
      goto cleanup;
   }

   mongoc_client_set_error_api (client, 2);
   database = mongoc_client_get_database (client, "test");
   collection = mongoc_database_get_collection (database, COLLECTION_NAME);

   printf ("Inserting data\n");
   if (!insert_data (collection)) {
      res = 3;
      goto cleanup;
   }

   printf ("explain\n");
   if (!explain (collection)) {
      res = 4;
      goto cleanup;
   }

   if (other_host_and_port) {
      printf ("copydb\n");
      if (!copydb (client, other_host_and_port)) {
         res = 5;
         goto cleanup;
      }

      printf ("clone collection\n");
      if (!clone_collection (database, other_host_and_port)) {
         res = 6;
         goto cleanup;
      }
   }

cleanup:
   if (collection) {
      mongoc_collection_destroy (collection);
   }

   if (database) {
      mongoc_database_destroy (database);
   }

   if (client) {
      mongoc_client_destroy (client);
   }

   bson_free (host_and_port);
   mongoc_cleanup ();
   return res;
}

First launch two separate instances of mongod (must be done from separate shells):

$ mongod
$ mkdir /tmp/db2$ mongod --dbpath /tmp/db2 --port 27018 # second instance

Now compile and run the example program:

$ cd examples/common_operations/$ gcc -Wall -o example common-operations.c $(pkg-config --cflags --libs libmongoc-1.0)$ ./example localhost:27017 localhost:27018
Inserting data
explain
{
   "executionStats" : {
      "allPlansExecution" : [],
      "executionStages" : {
         "advanced" : 19,
         "direction" : "forward" ,
         "docsExamined" : 76,
         "executionTimeMillisEstimate" : 0,
         "filter" : {
            "x" : {
               "$eq" : 1
            }
         },
         "invalidates" : 0,
         "isEOF" : 1,
         "nReturned" : 19,
         "needTime" : 58,
         "needYield" : 0,
         "restoreState" : 0,
         "saveState" : 0,
         "stage" : "COLLSCAN" ,
         "works" : 78
      },
      "executionSuccess" : true,
      "executionTimeMillis" : 0,
      "nReturned" : 19,
      "totalDocsExamined" : 76,
      "totalKeysExamined" : 0
   },
   "ok" : 1,
   "queryPlanner" : {
      "indexFilterSet" : false,
      "namespace" : "test.things",
      "parsedQuery" : {
         "x" : {
            "$eq" : 1
         }
      },
      "plannerVersion" : 1,
      "rejectedPlans" : [],
      "winningPlan" : {
         "direction" : "forward" ,
         "filter" : {
            "x" : {
               "$eq" : 1
            }
         },
         "stage" : "COLLSCAN"
      }
   },
   "serverInfo" : {
      "gitVersion" : "05552b562c7a0b3143a729aaa0838e558dc49b25" ,
      "host" : "MacBook-Pro-57.local",
      "port" : 27017,
      "version" : "3.2.6"
   }
}
copydb
{ "ok" : 1 }
clone collection
{ "ok" : 1 }

Advanced Connections

The following guide contains information specific to certain types of MongoDB configurations.

For an example of connecting to a simple standalone server, see the Tutorial. To establish a connection with authentication options enabled, see the Authentication page.

Connecting to a Replica Set

Connecting to a replica set is much like connecting to a standalone MongoDB server. Simply specify the replica set name using the ?replicaSet=myreplset URI option.

#include <bson.h>
#include <mongoc.h>

int
main (int argc, char *argv[])
{
   mongoc_client_t *client;

   mongoc_init ();

   /* Create our MongoDB Client */
   client = mongoc_client_new (
      "mongodb://host01:27017,host02:27017,host03:27017/?replicaSet=myreplset");

   /* Do some work */
   /* TODO */

   /* Clean up */
   mongoc_client_destroy (client);
   mongoc_cleanup ();

   return 0;
}
TIP:

Multiple hostnames can be specified in the MongoDB connection string URI, with a comma separating hosts in the seed list.

It is recommended to use a seed list of members of the replica set to allow the driver to connect to any node.

Connecting to a Sharded Cluster

To connect to a sharded cluster, specify the mongos nodes the client should connect to. The C Driver will automatically detect that it has connected to a mongos sharding server.

If more than one hostname is specified, a seed list will be created to attempt failover between the mongos instances.

WARNING:

Specifying the replicaSet parameter when connecting to a mongos sharding server is invalid.

#include <bson.h>
#include <mongoc.h>

int
main (int argc, char *argv[])
{
   mongoc_client_t *client;

   mongoc_init ();

   /* Create our MongoDB Client */
   client = mongoc_client_new ("mongodb://myshard01:27017/");

   /* Do something with client ... */

   /* Free the client */
   mongoc_client_destroy (client);

   mongoc_cleanup ();

   return 0;
}

Connecting to an IPv6 Address

The MongoDB C Driver will automatically resolve IPv6 addresses from host names. However, to specify an IPv6 address directly, wrap the address in [].

mongoc_uri_t *uri = mongoc_uri_new ("mongodb://[::1]:27017");

Connecting to a UNIX Domain Socket

On UNIX-like systems, the C Driver can connect directly to a MongoDB server using a UNIX domain socket. Pass the URL-encoded path to the socket, which must be suffixed with .sock. For example, to connect to a domain socket at /tmp/mongodb-27017.sock:

mongoc_uri_t *uri = mongoc_uri_new ("mongodb://%2Ftmp%2Fmongodb-27017.sock");

Include username and password like so:

mongoc_uri_t *uri = mongoc_uri_new ("mongodb://user:pass@%2Ftmp%2Fmongodb-27017.sock");

Connecting to a server over SSL

These are instructions for configuring TLS/SSL connections.

To run a server locally (on port 27017, for example):

$ mongod --port 27017 --sslMode requireSSL --sslPEMKeyFile server.pem --sslCAFile ca.pem

Add /?ssl=true to the end of a client URI.

mongoc_client_t *client = NULL;
client = mongoc_client_new ("mongodb://localhost:27017/?ssl=true");

MongoDB requires client certificates by default, unless the --sslAllowConnectionsWithoutCertificates is provided. The C Driver can be configured to present a client certificate using a mongoc_ssl_opt_t:

const mongoc_ssl_opt_t *ssl_default = mongoc_ssl_opt_get_default ();
mongoc_ssl_opt_t ssl_opts = { 0 };

/* optionally copy in a custom trust directory or file; otherwise the default is used. */
memcpy (&ssl_opts, ssl_default, sizeof ssl_opts);
ssl_opts.pem_file = "client.pem"

mongoc_client_set_ssl_opts (client, &ssl_opts);

The client certificate provided by pem_file must be issued by one of the server trusted Certificate Authorities listed in --sslCAFile, or issued by a CA in the native certificate store on the server when omitted.

To verify the server certificate against a specific CA, provide a PEM armored file with a CA certificate, or concatenated list of CA certificates using the ca_file option, or c_rehash directory structure of CAs, pointed to using the ca_dir option. When no ca_file or ca_dir is provided, the driver will use CAs provided by the native platform certificate store.

See mongoc_ssl_opt_t for more information on the various SSL related options.

Compressing data to and from MongoDB

MongoDB 3.4 added Snappy compression support, and zlib compression in 3.6. To enable compression support the client must be configured with which compressors to use:

mongoc_client_t *client = NULL;
client = mongoc_client_new ("mongodb://localhost:27017/?compressors=snappy,zlib");

The compressors option specifies the priority order of compressors the client wants to use. Messages are compressed if the client and server share any compressors in common.

Note that the compressor used by the server might not be the same compressor as the client used.  For example, if the client uses the connection string compressors=zlib,snappy the client will use zlib compression to send data (if possible), but the server might still reply using snappy, depending on how the server was configured.

The driver must be built with zlib and/or snappy support to enable compression support, any unknown (or not compiled in) compressor value will be ignored.

Additional Connection Options

The full list of connection options can be found in the mongoc_uri_t docs.

Certain socket/connection related options are not configurable:

Option Description Value
SO_KEEPALIVE TCP Keep Alive Enabled
TCP_KEEPIDLE How long a connection needs to remain idle before TCP starts sending keepalive probes 300 seconds
TCP_KEEPINTVL The time in seconds between TCP probes 10 seconds
TCP_KEEPCNT How many probes to send, without acknowledgement, before dropping the connection 9 probes
TCP_NODELAY Send packets as soon as possible or buffer small packets (Nagle algorithm) Enabled (no buffering)

Connection Pooling

The MongoDB C driver has two connection modes: single-threaded and pooled. Single-threaded mode is optimized for embedding the driver within languages like PHP. Multi-threaded programs should use pooled mode: this mode minimizes the total connection count, and in pooled mode a background thread monitors the MongoDB server topology, so the program need not block to scan it.

Single Mode

In single mode, your program creates a mongoc_client_t directly:

mongoc_client_t *client = mongoc_client_new (
   "mongodb://hostA,hostB/?replicaSet=my_rs");

The client connects on demand when your program first uses it for a MongoDB operation. Using a non-blocking socket per server, it begins a check on each server concurrently, and uses the asynchronous poll or select function to receive events from the sockets, until all have responded or timed out. Put another way, in single-threaded mode the C Driver fans out to begin all checks concurrently, then fans in once all checks have completed or timed out. Once the scan completes, the client executes your program’s operation and returns.

In single mode, the client re-scans the server topology roughly once per minute. If more than a minute has elapsed since the previous scan, the next operation on the client will block while the client completes its scan. This interval is configurable with heartbeatFrequencyMS in the connection string. (See mongoc_uri_t.)

A single client opens one connection per server in your topology: these connections are used both for scanning the topology and performing normal operations.

Pooled Mode

To activate pooled mode, create a mongoc_client_pool_t:

mongoc_uri_t *uri = mongoc_uri_new (
   "mongodb://hostA,hostB/?replicaSet=my_rs");

mongoc_client_pool_t *pool = mongoc_client_pool_new (uri);

When your program first calls mongoc_client_pool_pop, the pool launches a background thread for monitoring. The thread fans out and connects to all servers in the connection string, using non-blocking sockets and a simple event loop. As it receives ismaster responses from the servers, it updates its view of the server topology. Each time the thread discovers a new server it begins connecting to it, and adds the new socket to the list of non-blocking sockets in the event loop.

Each thread that executes MongoDB operations must check out a client from the pool:

mongoc_client_t *client = mongoc_client_pool_pop (pool);

/* use the client for operations ... */

mongoc_client_pool_push (pool, client);

The mongoc_client_t object is not thread-safe, only the mongoc_client_pool_t is.

When the driver is in pooled mode, your program’s operations are unblocked as soon as monitoring discovers a usable server. For example, if a thread in your program is waiting to execute an “insert” on the primary, it is unblocked as soon as the primary is discovered, rather than waiting for all secondaries to be checked as well.

The pool opens one connection per server for monitoring, and each client opens its own connection to each server it uses for application operations. The background thread re-scans the server topology roughly every 10 seconds. This interval is configurable with heartbeatFrequencyMS in the connection string. (See mongoc_uri_t.)

See connection_pool_options to configure pool size and behavior, and see mongoc_client_pool_t for an extended example of a multi-threaded program that uses the driver in pooled mode.

Cursors

Handling Cursor Failures

Cursors exist on a MongoDB server. However, the mongoc_cursor_t structure gives the local process a handle to the cursor. It is possible for errors to occur on the server while iterating a cursor on the client. Even a network partition may occur. This means that applications should be robust in handling cursor failures.

While iterating cursors, you should check to see if an error has occurred. See the following example for how to robustly check for errors.

static void
print_all_documents (mongoc_collection_t *collection)
{
   mongoc_cursor_t *cursor;
   const bson_t *doc;
   bson_error_t error;
   bson_t query = BSON_INITIALIZER;
   char *str;

   cursor = mongoc_collection_find_with_opts (collection, query, NULL, NULL);

   while (mongoc_cursor_next (cursor, &doc)) {
      str = bson_as_canonical_extended_json (doc, NULL);
      printf ("%s\n", str);
      bson_free (str);
   }

   if (mongoc_cursor_error (cursor, &error)) {
      fprintf (stderr, "Failed to iterate all documents: %s\n", error.message);
   }

   mongoc_cursor_destroy (cursor);
}

Destroying Server-Side Cursors

The MongoDB C driver will automatically destroy a server-side cursor when mongoc_cursor_destroy() is called. Failure to call this function when done with a cursor will leak memory client side as well as consume extra memory server side. If the cursor was configured to never timeout, it will become a memory leak on the server.

Tailable Cursors

Tailable cursors are cursors that remain open even after they’ve returned a final result. This way, if more documents are added to a collection (i.e., to the cursor’s result set), then you can continue to call mongoc_cursor_next() to retrieve those additional results.

Here’s a complete test case that demonstrates the use of tailable cursors.

NOTE:

Tailable cursors are for capped collections only.

An example to tail the oplog from a replica set. mongoc-tail.c.INDENT 0.0

#include <bson.h>
#include <mongoc.h>
#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>

#ifdef _WIN32
#define sleep(_n) Sleep ((_n) *1000)
#endif


static void
print_bson (const bson_t *b)
{
   char *str;

   str = bson_as_canonical_extended_json (b, NULL);
   fprintf (stdout, "%s\n", str);
   bson_free (str);
}


static mongoc_cursor_t *
query_collection (mongoc_collection_t *collection, uint32_t last_time)
{
   mongoc_cursor_t *cursor;
   bson_t query;
   bson_t gt;
   bson_t opts;

   BSON_ASSERT (collection);

   bson_init (&query);
   BSON_APPEND_DOCUMENT_BEGIN (&query, "ts", &gt);
   BSON_APPEND_TIMESTAMP (&gt, "$gt", last_time, 0);
   bson_append_document_end (&query, &gt);

   bson_init (&opts);
   BSON_APPEND_BOOL (&opts, "tailable", true);
   BSON_APPEND_BOOL (&opts, "awaitData", true);

   cursor = mongoc_collection_find_with_opts (collection, &query, &opts, NULL);

   bson_destroy (&query);
   bson_destroy (&opts);

   return cursor;
}


static void
tail_collection (mongoc_collection_t *collection)
{
   mongoc_cursor_t *cursor;
   uint32_t last_time;
   const bson_t *doc;
   bson_error_t error;
   bson_iter_t iter;

   BSON_ASSERT (collection);

   last_time = (uint32_t) time (NULL);

   while (true) {
      cursor = query_collection (collection, last_time);
      while (!mongoc_cursor_error (cursor, &error) &&
             mongoc_cursor_more (cursor)) {
         if (mongoc_cursor_next (cursor, &doc)) {
            if (bson_iter_init_find (&iter, doc, "ts") &&
                BSON_ITER_HOLDS_TIMESTAMP (&iter)) {
               bson_iter_timestamp (&iter, &last_time, NULL);
            }
            print_bson (doc);
         }
      }
      if (mongoc_cursor_error (cursor, &error)) {
         if (error.domain == MONGOC_ERROR_SERVER) {
            fprintf (stderr, "%s\n", error.message);
            exit (1);
         }
      }

      mongoc_cursor_destroy (cursor);
      sleep (1);
   }
}


int
main (int argc, char *argv[])
{
   mongoc_collection_t *collection;
   mongoc_client_t *client;

   if (argc != 2) {
      fprintf (stderr, "usage: %s MONGO_URI\n", argv[0]);
      return EXIT_FAILURE;
   }

   mongoc_init ();

   client = mongoc_client_new (argv[1]);
   if (!client) {
      fprintf (stderr, "Invalid URI: \"%s\"\n", argv[1]);
      return EXIT_FAILURE;
   }

   mongoc_client_set_error_api (client, 2);

   collection = mongoc_client_get_collection (client, "local", "oplog.rs");

   tail_collection (collection);

   mongoc_collection_destroy (collection);
   mongoc_client_destroy (client);

   return 0;
}

Let’s compile and run this example against a replica set to see updates as they are made.

$ gcc -Wall -o mongoc-tail mongoc-tail.c $(pkg-config --cflags --libs libmongoc-1.0)
$ ./mongoc-tail mongodb://example.com/?replicaSet=myReplSet
{
    "h" : -8458503739429355503,
    "ns" : "test.test",
    "o" : {
        "_id" : {
            "$oid" : "5372ab0a25164be923d10d50"
        }
    },
    "op" : "i",
    "ts" : {
        "$timestamp" : {
            "i" : 1,
            "t" : 1400023818
        }
    },
    "v" : 2
}

The line of output is a sample from performing db.test.insert({}) from the mongo shell on the replica set.

See also mongoc_cursor_set_max_await_time_ms.

Bulk Write Operations

This tutorial explains how to take advantage of MongoDB C driver bulk write operation features. Executing write operations in batches reduces the number of network round trips, increasing write throughput.

Bulk Insert

First we need to fetch a bulk operation handle from the mongoc_collection_t. This can be performed in either ordered or unordered mode. Unordered mode allows for greater parallelization when working with sharded clusters.

mongoc_bulk_operation_t *bulk =
   mongoc_collection_create_bulk_operation (collection, true, write_concern);

We can now start inserting documents to the bulk operation. These will be buffered until we execute the operation.

The bulk operation will coalesce insertions as a single batch for each consecutive call to mongoc_bulk_operation_insert(). This creates a pipelined effect when possible.

TIP:

The bulk operation API will automatically handle MongoDB servers < 2.6 by speaking the old wire protocol. However, some performance degradation may occur.

To execute the bulk operation and receive the result we call mongoc_bulk_operation_execute(). bulk1.c.INDENT 0.0

#include <assert.h>
#include <bcon.h>
#include <mongoc.h>
#include <stdio.h>

static void
bulk1 (mongoc_collection_t *collection)
{
   mongoc_bulk_operation_t *bulk;
   bson_error_t error;
   bson_t *doc;
   bson_t reply;
   char *str;
   bool ret;
   int i;

   bulk = mongoc_collection_create_bulk_operation (collection, true, NULL);

   for (i = 0; i < 10000; i++) {
      doc = BCON_NEW ("i", BCON_INT32 (i));
      mongoc_bulk_operation_insert (bulk, doc);
      bson_destroy (doc);
   }

   ret = mongoc_bulk_operation_execute (bulk, &reply, &error);

   str = bson_as_canonical_extended_json (&reply, NULL);
   printf ("%s\n", str);
   bson_free (str);

   if (!ret) {
      fprintf (stderr, "Error: %s\n", error.message);
   }

   bson_destroy (&reply);
   mongoc_bulk_operation_destroy (bulk);
}

int
main (int argc, char *argv[])
{
   mongoc_client_t *client;
   mongoc_collection_t *collection;

   mongoc_init ();

   client = mongoc_client_new ("mongodb://localhost/?appname=bulk1-example");
   mongoc_client_set_error_api (client, 2);
   collection = mongoc_client_get_collection (client, "test", "test");

   bulk1 (collection);

   mongoc_collection_destroy (collection);
   mongoc_client_destroy (client);

   mongoc_cleanup ();

   return 0;
}

Example reply document:

{"nInserted"   : 10000,
 "nMatched"    : 0,
 "nModified"   : 0,
 "nRemoved"    : 0,
 "nUpserted"   : 0,
 "writeErrors" : []
 "writeConcernErrors" : [] }

Mixed Bulk Write Operations

MongoDB C driver also supports executing mixed bulk write operations. A batch of insert, update, and remove operations can be executed together using the bulk write operations API.

TIP:

Though the following API will work with all versions of MongoDB, it is designed to be used with MongoDB versions >= 2.6. Much better bulk insert performance can be achieved with older versions of MongoDB through the deprecated mongoc_collection_insert_bulk() method.

Ordered Bulk Write Operations

Ordered bulk write operations are batched and sent to the server in the order provided for serial execution. The reply document describes the type and count of operations performed. bulk2.c.INDENT 0.0

#include <assert.h>
#include <bcon.h>
#include <mongoc.h>
#include <stdio.h>

static void
bulk2 (mongoc_collection_t *collection)
{
   mongoc_bulk_operation_t *bulk;
   bson_error_t error;
   bson_t *query;
   bson_t *doc;
   bson_t *opts;
   bson_t reply;
   char *str;
   bool ret;
   int i;

   bulk = mongoc_collection_create_bulk_operation (collection, true, NULL);

   /* Remove everything */
   query = bson_new ();
   mongoc_bulk_operation_remove (bulk, query);
   bson_destroy (query);

   /* Add a few documents */
   for (i = 1; i < 4; i++) {
      doc = BCON_NEW ("_id", BCON_INT32 (i));
      mongoc_bulk_operation_insert (bulk, doc);
      bson_destroy (doc);
   }

   /* {_id: 1} => {$set: {foo: "bar"}} */
   query = BCON_NEW ("_id", BCON_INT32 (1));
   doc = BCON_NEW ("$set", "{", "foo", BCON_UTF8 ("bar"), "}");
   mongoc_bulk_operation_update_many_with_opts (bulk, query, doc, NULL, &error);
   bson_destroy (query);
   bson_destroy (doc);

   /* {_id: 4} => {'$inc': {'j': 1}} (upsert) */
   opts = BCON_NEW ("upsert", BCON_BOOL (true));
   query = BCON_NEW ("_id", BCON_INT32 (4));
   doc = BCON_NEW ("$inc", "{", "j", BCON_INT32 (1), "}");
   mongoc_bulk_operation_update_many_with_opts (bulk, query, doc, opts, &error);
   bson_destroy (query);
   bson_destroy (doc);
   bson_destroy (opts);

   /* replace {j:1} with {j:2} */
   query = BCON_NEW ("j", BCON_INT32 (1));
   doc = BCON_NEW ("j", BCON_INT32 (2));
   mongoc_bulk_operation_replace_one_with_opts (bulk, query, doc, NULL, &error);
   bson_destroy (query);
   bson_destroy (doc);

   ret = mongoc_bulk_operation_execute (bulk, &reply, &error);

   str = bson_as_canonical_extended_json (&reply, NULL);
   printf ("%s\n", str);
   bson_free (str);

   if (!ret) {
      printf ("Error: %s\n", error.message);
   }

   bson_destroy (&reply);
   mongoc_bulk_operation_destroy (bulk);
}

int
main (int argc, char *argv[])
{
   mongoc_client_t *client;
   mongoc_collection_t *collection;

   mongoc_init ();

   client = mongoc_client_new ("mongodb://localhost/?appname=bulk2-example");
   mongoc_client_set_error_api (client, 2);
   collection = mongoc_client_get_collection (client, "test", "test");

   bulk2 (collection);

   mongoc_collection_destroy (collection);
   mongoc_client_destroy (client);

   mongoc_cleanup ();

   return 0;
}

Example reply document:

{ "nInserted"   : 3,
  "nMatched"    : 2,
  "nModified"   : 2,
  "nRemoved"    : 10000,
  "nUpserted"   : 1,
  "upserted"    : [{"index" : 5, "_id" : 4}],
  "writeErrors" : []
  "writeConcernErrors" : [] }

The index field in the upserted array is the 0-based index of the upsert operation; in this example, the sixth operation of the overall bulk operation was an upsert, so its index is 5.

nModified is only reported when using MongoDB 2.6 and later, otherwise the field is omitted.

Unordered Bulk Write Operations

Unordered bulk write operations are batched and sent to the server in arbitrary order where they may be executed in parallel. Any errors that occur are reported after all operations are attempted.

In the next example the first and third operations fail due to the unique constraint on _id. Since we are doing unordered execution the second and fourth operations succeed. bulk3.c.INDENT 0.0

#include <assert.h>
#include <bcon.h>
#include <mongoc.h>
#include <stdio.h>

static void
bulk3 (mongoc_collection_t *collection)
{
   mongoc_bulk_operation_t *bulk;
   bson_error_t error;
   bson_t *query;
   bson_t *doc;
   bson_t reply;
   char *str;
   bool ret;

   /* false indicates unordered */
   bulk = mongoc_collection_create_bulk_operation (collection, false, NULL);

   /* Add a document */
   doc = BCON_NEW ("_id", BCON_INT32 (1));
   mongoc_bulk_operation_insert (bulk, doc);
   bson_destroy (doc);

   /* remove {_id: 2} */
   query = BCON_NEW ("_id", BCON_INT32 (2));
   mongoc_bulk_operation_remove_one (bulk, query);
   bson_destroy (query);

   /* insert {_id: 3} */
   doc = BCON_NEW ("_id", BCON_INT32 (3));
   mongoc_bulk_operation_insert (bulk, doc);
   bson_destroy (doc);

   /* replace {_id:4} {'i': 1} */
   query = BCON_NEW ("_id", BCON_INT32 (4));
   doc = BCON_NEW ("i", BCON_INT32 (1));
   mongoc_bulk_operation_replace_one (bulk, query, doc, false);
   bson_destroy (query);
   bson_destroy (doc);

   ret = mongoc_bulk_operation_execute (bulk, &reply, &error);

   str = bson_as_canonical_extended_json (&reply, NULL);
   printf ("%s\n", str);
   bson_free (str);

   if (!ret) {
      printf ("Error: %s\n", error.message);
   }

   bson_destroy (&reply);
   mongoc_bulk_operation_destroy (bulk);
}

int
main (int argc, char *argv[])
{
   mongoc_client_t *client;
   mongoc_collection_t *collection;

   mongoc_init ();

   client = mongoc_client_new ("mongodb://localhost/?appname=bulk3-example");
   mongoc_client_set_error_api (client, 2);
   collection = mongoc_client_get_collection (client, "test", "test");

   bulk3 (collection);

   mongoc_collection_destroy (collection);
   mongoc_client_destroy (client);

   mongoc_cleanup ();

   return 0;
}

Example reply document:

{ "nInserted"    : 0,
  "nMatched"     : 1,
  "nModified"    : 1,
  "nRemoved"     : 1,
  "nUpserted"    : 0,
  "writeErrors"  : [
    { "index"  : 0,
      "code"   : 11000,
      "errmsg" : "E11000 duplicate key error index: test.test.$_id_ dup key: { : 1 }" },
    { "index"  : 2,
      "code"   : 11000,
      "errmsg" : "E11000 duplicate key error index: test.test.$_id_ dup key: { : 3 }" } ],
  "writeConcernErrors" : [] }

Error: E11000 duplicate key error index: test.test.$_id_ dup key: { : 1 }

The bson_error_t domain is MONGOC_ERROR_COMMAND and its code is 11000.

Bulk Operation Bypassing Document Validation

This feature is only available when using MongoDB 3.2 and later.

By default bulk operations are validated against the schema, if any is defined. In certain cases however it may be necessary to bypass the document validation. bulk5.c.INDENT 0.0

#include <assert.h>
#include <bcon.h>
#include <mongoc.h>
#include <stdio.h>

static void
bulk5_fail (mongoc_collection_t *collection)
{
   mongoc_bulk_operation_t *bulk;
   bson_error_t error;
   bson_t *doc;
   bson_t reply;
   char *str;
   bool ret;

   bulk = mongoc_collection_create_bulk_operation (collection, true, NULL);

   /* Two inserts */
   doc = BCON_NEW ("_id", BCON_INT32 (31));
   mongoc_bulk_operation_insert (bulk, doc);
   bson_destroy (doc);

   doc = BCON_NEW ("_id", BCON_INT32 (32));
   mongoc_bulk_operation_insert (bulk, doc);
   bson_destroy (doc);

   /* The above documents do not comply to the schema validation rules
    * we created previously, so this will result in an error */
   ret = mongoc_bulk_operation_execute (bulk, &reply, &error);

   str = bson_as_canonical_extended_json (&reply, NULL);
   printf ("%s\n", str);
   bson_free (str);

   if (!ret) {
      printf ("Error: %s\n", error.message);
   }

   bson_destroy (&reply);
   mongoc_bulk_operation_destroy (bulk);
}

static void
bulk5_success (mongoc_collection_t *collection)
{
   mongoc_bulk_operation_t *bulk;
   bson_error_t error;
   bson_t *doc;
   bson_t reply;
   char *str;
   bool ret;

   bulk = mongoc_collection_create_bulk_operation (collection, true, NULL);

   /* Allow this document to bypass document validation.
    * NOTE: When authentication is enabled, the authenticated user must have
    * either the "dbadmin" or "restore" roles to bypass document validation */
   mongoc_bulk_operation_set_bypass_document_validation (bulk, true);

   /* Two inserts */
   doc = BCON_NEW ("_id", BCON_INT32 (31));
   mongoc_bulk_operation_insert (bulk, doc);
   bson_destroy (doc);

   doc = BCON_NEW ("_id", BCON_INT32 (32));
   mongoc_bulk_operation_insert (bulk, doc);
   bson_destroy (doc);

   ret = mongoc_bulk_operation_execute (bulk, &reply, &error);

   str = bson_as_canonical_extended_json (&reply, NULL);
   printf ("%s\n", str);
   bson_free (str);

   if (!ret) {
      printf ("Error: %s\n", error.message);
   }

   bson_destroy (&reply);
   mongoc_bulk_operation_destroy (bulk);
}

int
main (int argc, char *argv[])
{
   bson_t *options;
   bson_error_t error;
   mongoc_client_t *client;
   mongoc_collection_t *collection;
   mongoc_database_t *database;

   mongoc_init ();

   client = mongoc_client_new ("mongodb://localhost/?appname=bulk5-example");
   mongoc_client_set_error_api (client, 2);
   database = mongoc_client_get_database (client, "testasdf");

   /* Create schema validator */
   options = BCON_NEW (
      "validator", "{", "number", "{", "$gte", BCON_INT32 (5), "}", "}");
   collection =
      mongoc_database_create_collection (database, "collname", options, &error);

   if (collection) {
      bulk5_fail (collection);
      bulk5_success (collection);
      mongoc_collection_destroy (collection);
   } else {
      fprintf (stderr, "Couldn't create collection: '%s'\n", error.message);
   }

   bson_free (options);
   mongoc_database_destroy (database);
   mongoc_client_destroy (client);

   mongoc_cleanup ();

   return 0;
}

Running the above example will result in:

{ "nInserted" : 0,
  "nMatched" : 0,
  "nModified" : 0,
  "nRemoved" : 0,
  "nUpserted" : 0,
  "writeErrors" : [
    { "index" : 0,
      "code" : 121,
      "errmsg" : "Document failed validation" } ] }

Error: Document failed validation

{ "nInserted" : 2,
  "nMatched" : 0,
  "nModified" : 0,
  "nRemoved" : 0,
  "nUpserted" : 0,
  "writeErrors" : [] }

The bson_error_t domain is MONGOC_ERROR_COMMAND.

Bulk Operation Write Concerns

By default bulk operations are executed with the write_concern of the collection they are executed against. A custom write concern can be passed to the mongoc_collection_create_bulk_operation() method. Write concern errors (e.g. wtimeout) will be reported after all operations are attempted, regardless of execution order. bulk4.c.INDENT 0.0

#include <assert.h>
#include <bcon.h>
#include <mongoc.h>
#include <stdio.h>

static void
bulk4 (mongoc_collection_t *collection)
{
   mongoc_write_concern_t *wc;
   mongoc_bulk_operation_t *bulk;
   bson_error_t error;
   bson_t *doc;
   bson_t reply;
   char *str;
   bool ret;

   wc = mongoc_write_concern_new ();
   mongoc_write_concern_set_w (wc, 4);
   mongoc_write_concern_set_wtimeout (wc, 100); /* milliseconds */

   bulk = mongoc_collection_create_bulk_operation (collection, true, wc);

   /* Two inserts */
   doc = BCON_NEW ("_id", BCON_INT32 (10));
   mongoc_bulk_operation_insert (bulk, doc);
   bson_destroy (doc);

   doc = BCON_NEW ("_id", BCON_INT32 (11));
   mongoc_bulk_operation_insert (bulk, doc);
   bson_destroy (doc);

   ret = mongoc_bulk_operation_execute (bulk, &reply, &error);

   str = bson_as_canonical_extended_json (&reply, NULL);
   printf ("%s\n", str);
   bson_free (str);

   if (!ret) {
      printf ("Error: %s\n", error.message);
   }

   bson_destroy (&reply);
   mongoc_bulk_operation_destroy (bulk);
   mongoc_write_concern_destroy (wc);
}

int
main (int argc, char *argv[])
{
   mongoc_client_t *client;
   mongoc_collection_t *collection;

   mongoc_init ();

   client = mongoc_client_new ("mongodb://localhost/?appname=bulk4-example");
   mongoc_client_set_error_api (client, 2);
   collection = mongoc_client_get_collection (client, "test", "test");

   bulk4 (collection);

   mongoc_collection_destroy (collection);
   mongoc_client_destroy (client);

   mongoc_cleanup ();

   return 0;
}

Example reply document and error message:

{ "nInserted"    : 2,
  "nMatched"     : 0,
  "nModified"    : 0,
  "nRemoved"     : 0,
  "nUpserted"    : 0,
  "writeErrors"  : [],
  "writeConcernErrors" : [
    { "code"   : 64,
      "errmsg" : "waiting for replication timed out" }
] }

Error: waiting for replication timed out

The bson_error_t domain is MONGOC_ERROR_WRITE_CONCERN if there are write concern errors and no write errors. Write errors indicate failed operations, so they take precedence over write concern errors, which mean merely that the write concern is not satisfied yet.

Setting Collation Order

This feature is only available when using MongoDB 3.4 and later. bulk-collation.c.INDENT 0.0

#include <bcon.h>
#include <mongoc.h>
#include <stdio.h>

static void
bulk_collation (mongoc_collection_t *collection)
{
   mongoc_bulk_operation_t *bulk;
   bson_t *opts;
   bson_t *doc;
   bson_t *selector;
   bson_t *update;
   bson_error_t error;
   bson_t reply;
   char *str;
   uint32_t ret;

   /* insert {_id: "one"} and {_id: "One"} */
   bulk = mongoc_collection_create_bulk_operation (collection, true, NULL);
   doc = BCON_NEW ("_id", BCON_UTF8 ("one"));
   mongoc_bulk_operation_insert (bulk, doc);
   bson_destroy (doc);

   doc = BCON_NEW ("_id", BCON_UTF8 ("One"));
   mongoc_bulk_operation_insert (bulk, doc);
   bson_destroy (doc);

   /* "One" normally sorts before "one"; make "one" come first */
   opts = BCON_NEW ("collation",
                    "{",
                    "locale",
                    BCON_UTF8 ("en_US"),
                    "caseFirst",
                    BCON_UTF8 ("lower"),
                    "}");

   /* set x=1 on the document with _id "One", which now sorts after "one" */
   update = BCON_NEW ("$set", "{", "x", BCON_INT64 (1), "}");
   selector = BCON_NEW ("_id", "{", "$gt", BCON_UTF8 ("one"), "}");
   mongoc_bulk_operation_update_one_with_opts (
      bulk, selector, update, opts, &error);

   ret = mongoc_bulk_operation_execute (bulk, &reply, &error);

   str = bson_as_canonical_extended_json (&reply, NULL);
   printf ("%s\n", str);
   bson_free (str);

   if (!ret) {
      printf ("Error: %s\n", error.message);
   }

   bson_destroy (&reply);
   bson_destroy (update);
   bson_destroy (selector);
   bson_destroy (opts);
   mongoc_bulk_operation_destroy (bulk);
}

int
main (int argc, char *argv[])
{
   mongoc_client_t *client;
   mongoc_collection_t *collection;

   mongoc_init ();

   client = mongoc_client_new ("mongodb://localhost/?appname=bulk-collation");
   mongoc_client_set_error_api (client, 2);
   collection = mongoc_client_get_collection (client, "db", "collection");
   bulk_collation (collection);

   mongoc_collection_destroy (collection);
   mongoc_client_destroy (client);

   mongoc_cleanup ();

   return 0;
}

Running the above example will result in:

{ "nInserted" : 2,
   "nMatched" : 1,
   "nModified" : 1,
   "nRemoved" : 0,
   "nUpserted" : 0,
   "writeErrors" : [  ]
}

Unacknowledged Bulk Writes

Set “w” to zero for an unacknowledged write. The driver sends unacknowledged writes using the legacy opcodes OP_INSERT, OP_UPDATE, and OP_DELETE. bulk6.c.INDENT 0.0

#include <bcon.h>
#include <mongoc.h>
#include <stdio.h>

static void
bulk6 (mongoc_collection_t *collection)
{
   mongoc_write_concern_t *wc;
   mongoc_bulk_operation_t *bulk;
   bson_error_t error;
   bson_t *doc;
   bson_t *selector;
   bson_t reply;
   char *str;
   bool ret;

   wc = mongoc_write_concern_new ();
   mongoc_write_concern_set_w (wc, 0);

   bulk = mongoc_collection_create_bulk_operation (collection, true, wc);

   doc = BCON_NEW ("_id", BCON_INT32 (10));
   mongoc_bulk_operation_insert (bulk, doc);
   bson_destroy (doc);

   selector = BCON_NEW ("_id", BCON_INT32 (11));
   mongoc_bulk_operation_remove_one (bulk, selector);
   bson_destroy (selector);

   ret = mongoc_bulk_operation_execute (bulk, &reply, &error);

   str = bson_as_canonical_extended_json (&reply, NULL);
   printf ("%s\n", str);
   bson_free (str);

   if (!ret) {
      printf ("Error: %s\n", error.message);
   }

   bson_destroy (&reply);
   mongoc_bulk_operation_destroy (bulk);
   mongoc_write_concern_destroy (wc);
}

int
main (int argc, char *argv[])
{
   mongoc_client_t *client;
   mongoc_collection_t *collection;

   mongoc_init ();

   client = mongoc_client_new ("mongodb://localhost/?appname=bulk6-example");
   mongoc_client_set_error_api (client, 2);
   collection = mongoc_client_get_collection (client, "test", "test");

   bulk6 (collection);

   mongoc_collection_destroy (collection);
   mongoc_client_destroy (client);

   mongoc_cleanup ();

   return 0;
}

The reply document is empty:

{ }

Further Reading

See the Driver Bulk API Spec, which describes bulk write operations for all MongoDB drivers.

Aggregation Framework Examples

This document provides a number of practical examples that display the capabilities of the aggregation framework.

The Aggregations using the Zip Codes Data Set examples uses a publicly available data set of all zipcodes and populations in the United States. These data are available at: zips.json.

Requirements

MongoDB, version 2.2.0 or later. MongoDB C driver, version 0.96.0 or later.

Let’s check if everything is installed.

Use the following command to load zips.json data set into mongod instance:

$ mongoimport --drop -d test -c zipcodes zips.json

Let’s use the MongoDB shell to verify that everything was imported successfully.

$ mongo testMongoDB shell version: 2.6.1
connecting to: test> db.zipcodes.count()29467> db.zipcodes.findOne(){
      "_id" : "35004",
      "city" : "ACMAR",
      "loc" : [
              -86.51557,
              33.584132
      ],
      "pop" : 6055,
      "state" : "AL"
}

Aggregations using the Zip Codes Data Set

Each document in this collection has the following form:

{
  "_id" : "35004",
  "city" : "Acmar",
  "state" : "AL",
  "pop" : 6055,
  "loc" : [-86.51557, 33.584132]
}

In these documents:

  • The _id field holds the zipcode as a string.
  • The city field holds the city name.
  • The state field holds the two letter state abbreviation.
  • The pop field holds the population.
  • The loc field holds the location as a [latitude, longitude] array.

States with Populations Over 10 Million

To get all states with a population greater than 10 million, use the following aggregation pipeline: aggregation1.c.INDENT 0.0

#include <mongoc.h>
#include <stdio.h>

static void
print_pipeline (mongoc_collection_t *collection)
{
   mongoc_cursor_t *cursor;
   bson_error_t error;
   const bson_t *doc;
   bson_t *pipeline;
   char *str;

   pipeline = BCON_NEW ("pipeline",
                        "[",
                        "{",
                        "$group",
                        "{",
                        "_id",
                        "$state",
                        "total_pop",
                        "{",
                        "$sum",
                        "$pop",
                        "}",
                        "}",
                        "}",
                        "{",
                        "$match",
                        "{",
                        "total_pop",
                        "{",
                        "$gte",
                        BCON_INT32 (10000000),
                        "}",
                        "}",
                        "}",
                        "]");

   cursor = mongoc_collection_aggregate (
      collection, MONGOC_QUERY_NONE, pipeline, NULL, NULL);

   while (mongoc_cursor_next (cursor, &doc)) {
      str = bson_as_canonical_extended_json (doc, NULL);
      printf ("%s\n", str);
      bson_free (str);
   }

   if (mongoc_cursor_error (cursor, &error)) {
      fprintf (stderr, "Cursor Failure: %s\n", error.message);
   }

   mongoc_cursor_destroy (cursor);
   bson_destroy (pipeline);
}

int
main (int argc, char *argv[])
{
   mongoc_client_t *client;
   mongoc_collection_t *collection;

   mongoc_init ();

   client = mongoc_client_new (
      "mongodb://localhost:27017?appname=aggregation-example");
   mongoc_client_set_error_api (client, 2);
   collection = mongoc_client_get_collection (client, "test", "zipcodes");

   print_pipeline (collection);

   mongoc_collection_destroy (collection);
   mongoc_client_destroy (client);

   mongoc_cleanup ();

   return 0;
}

You should see a result like the following:

{ "_id" : "PA", "total_pop" : 11881643 }
{ "_id" : "OH", "total_pop" : 10847115 }
{ "_id" : "NY", "total_pop" : 17990455 }
{ "_id" : "FL", "total_pop" : 12937284 }
{ "_id" : "TX", "total_pop" : 16986510 }
{ "_id" : "IL", "total_pop" : 11430472 }
{ "_id" : "CA", "total_pop" : 29760021 }

The above aggregation pipeline is build from two pipeline operators: $group and $match.

The $group pipeline operator requires _id field where we specify grouping; remaining fields specify how to generate composite value and must use one of the group aggregation functions: $addToSet, $first, $last, $max, $min, $avg, $push, $sum. The $match pipeline operator syntax is the same as the read operation query syntax.

The $group process reads all documents and for each state it creates a separate document, for example:

{ "_id" : "WA", "total_pop" : 4866692 }

The total_pop field uses the $sum aggregation function to sum the values of all pop fields in the source documents.

Documents created by $group are piped to the $match pipeline operator. It returns the documents with the value of total_pop field greater than or equal to 10 million.

Average City Population by State

To get the first three states with the greatest average population per city, use the following aggregation:

pipeline = BCON_NEW ("pipeline", "[",
   "{", "$group", "{", "_id", "{", "state", "$state", "city", "$city", "}", "pop", "{", "$sum", "$pop", "}", "}", "}",
   "{", "$group", "{", "_id", "$_id.state", "avg_city_pop", "{", "$avg", "$pop", "}", "}", "}",
   "{", "$sort", "{", "avg_city_pop", BCON_INT32 (-1), "}", "}",
   "{", "$limit", BCON_INT32 (3) "}",
"]");

This aggregate pipeline produces:

{ "_id" : "DC", "avg_city_pop" : 303450.0 }
{ "_id" : "FL", "avg_city_pop" : 27942.29805615551 }
{ "_id" : "CA", "avg_city_pop" : 27735.341099720412 }

The above aggregation pipeline is build from three pipeline operators: $group, $sort and $limit.

The first $group operator creates the following documents:

{ "_id" : { "state" : "WY", "city" : "Smoot" }, "pop" : 414 }

Note, that the $group operator can’t use nested documents except the _id field.

The second $group uses these documents to create the following documents:

{ "_id" : "FL", "avg_city_pop" : 27942.29805615551 }

These documents are sorted by the avg_city_pop field in descending order. Finally, the $limit pipeline operator returns the first 3 documents from the sorted set.

“Distinct” and “Mapreduce”

This document provides some practical, simple, examples to demonstrate the distinct and mapReduce commands.

Setup

First we’ll write some code to insert sample data: doc-common-insert.c.INDENT 0.0

/* Don't try to compile this file on its own. It's meant to be #included
   by example code */

/* Insert some sample data */
bool
insert_data (mongoc_collection_t *collection)
{
   mongoc_bulk_operation_t *bulk;
   enum N { ndocs = 4 };
   bson_t *docs[ndocs];
   bson_error_t error;
   int i = 0;
   bool ret;

   bulk = mongoc_collection_create_bulk_operation (collection, true, NULL);

   docs[0] = BCON_NEW ("x", BCON_DOUBLE (1.0), "tags", "[", "dog", "cat", "]");
   docs[1] = BCON_NEW ("x", BCON_DOUBLE (2.0), "tags", "[", "cat", "]");
   docs[2] = BCON_NEW (
      "x", BCON_DOUBLE (2.0), "tags", "[", "mouse", "cat", "dog", "]");
   docs[3] = BCON_NEW ("x", BCON_DOUBLE (3.0), "tags", "[", "]");

   for (i = 0; i < ndocs; i++) {
      mongoc_bulk_operation_insert (bulk, docs[i]);
      bson_destroy (docs[i]);
      docs[i] = NULL;
   }

   ret = mongoc_bulk_operation_execute (bulk, NULL, &error);

   if (!ret) {
      fprintf (stderr, "Error inserting data: %s\n", error.message);
   }

   mongoc_bulk_operation_destroy (bulk);
   return ret;
}

/* A helper which we'll use a lot later on */
void
print_res (const bson_t *reply)
{
   BSON_ASSERT (reply);
   char *str = bson_as_canonical_extended_json (reply, NULL);
   printf ("%s\n", str);
   bson_free (str);
}

“distinct” command

This is how to use the distinct command to get the distinct values of x which are greater than 1: distinct.c.INDENT 0.0

bool
distinct (mongoc_database_t *database)
{
   bson_t *command;
   bson_t reply;
   bson_error_t error;
   bool res;
   bson_iter_t iter;
   bson_iter_t array_iter;
   double val;

   command = BCON_NEW ("distinct",
                       BCON_UTF8 (COLLECTION_NAME),
                       "key",
                       BCON_UTF8 ("x"),
                       "query",
                       "{",
                       "x",
                       "{",
                       "$gt",
                       BCON_DOUBLE (1.0),
                       "}",
                       "}");
   res =
      mongoc_database_command_simple (database, command, NULL, &reply, &error);
   if (!res) {
      fprintf (stderr, "Error with distinct: %s\n", error.message);
      goto cleanup;
   }

   /* Do something with reply (in this case iterate through the values) */
   if (!(bson_iter_init_find (&iter, &reply, "values") &&
         BSON_ITER_HOLDS_ARRAY (&iter) &&
         bson_iter_recurse (&iter, &array_iter))) {
      fprintf (stderr, "Couldn't extract \"values\" field from response\n");
      goto cleanup;
   }

   while (bson_iter_next (&array_iter)) {
      if (BSON_ITER_HOLDS_DOUBLE (&array_iter)) {
         val = bson_iter_double (&array_iter);
         printf ("Next double: %f\n", val);
      }
   }

cleanup:
   /* cleanup */
   bson_destroy (command);
   bson_destroy (&reply);
   return res;
}

“mapReduce” - basic example

A simple example using the map reduce framework. It simply adds up the number of occurrences of each “tag”.

First define the map and reduce functions: constants.c.INDENT 0.0

const char *const COLLECTION_NAME = "things";

/* Our map function just emits a single (key, 1) pair for each tag
   in the array: */
const char *const MAPPER = "function () {"
                           "this.tags.forEach(function(z) {"
                           "emit(z, 1);"
                           "});"
                           "}";

/* The reduce function sums over all of the emitted values for a
   given key: */
const char *const REDUCER = "function (key, values) {"
                            "var total = 0;"
                            "for (var i = 0; i < values.length; i++) {"
                            "total += values[i];"
                            "}"
                            "return total;"
                            "}";
/* Note We can't just return values.length as the reduce function
   might be called iteratively on the results of other reduce
   steps. */

Run the mapReduce command: map-reduce-basic.c.INDENT 0.0

bool
map_reduce_basic (mongoc_database_t *database)
{
   bson_t reply;
   bson_t *command;
   bool res;
   bson_error_t error;
   mongoc_cursor_t *cursor;
   const bson_t *doc;

   bool map_reduce_done = false;
   bool query_done = false;

   const char *out_collection_name = "outCollection";
   mongoc_collection_t *out_collection;

   /* Empty find query */
   bson_t find_query = BSON_INITIALIZER;

   /* Construct the mapReduce command */

   /* Other arguments can also be specified here, like "query" or
      "limit" and so on */
   command = BCON_NEW ("mapReduce",
                       BCON_UTF8 (COLLECTION_NAME),
                       "map",
                       BCON_CODE (MAPPER),
                       "reduce",
                       BCON_CODE (REDUCER),
                       "out",
                       BCON_UTF8 (out_collection_name));
   res =
      mongoc_database_command_simple (database, command, NULL, &reply, &error);
   map_reduce_done = true;

   if (!res) {
      fprintf (stderr, "MapReduce failed: %s\n", error.message);
      goto cleanup;
   }

   /* Do something with the reply (it doesn't contain the mapReduce results) */
   print_res (&reply);

   /* Now we'll query outCollection to see what the results are */
   out_collection =
      mongoc_database_get_collection (database, out_collection_name);
   cursor = mongoc_collection_find_with_opts (
      out_collection, &find_query, NULL, NULL);
   query_done = true;

   /* Do something with the results */
   while (mongoc_cursor_next (cursor, &doc)) {
      print_res (doc);
   }

   if (mongoc_cursor_error (cursor, &error)) {
      fprintf (stderr, "ERROR: %s\n", error.message);
      res = false;
      goto cleanup;
   }

cleanup:
   /* cleanup */
   if (query_done) {
      mongoc_cursor_destroy (cursor);
      mongoc_collection_destroy (out_collection);
   }

   if (map_reduce_done) {
      bson_destroy (&reply);
      bson_destroy (command);
   }

   return res;
}

“mapReduce” - more complicated example

You must have replica set running for this.

In this example we contact a secondary in the replica set and do an “inline” map reduce, so the results are returned immediately: map-reduce-advanced.c.INDENT 0.0

bool
map_reduce_advanced (mongoc_database_t *database)
{
   bson_t *command;
   bson_error_t error;
   bool res = true;
   mongoc_cursor_t *cursor;
   mongoc_read_prefs_t *read_pref;
   const bson_t *doc;

   /* Construct the mapReduce command */
   /* Other arguments can also be specified here, like "query" or "limit"
      and so on */

   /* Read the results inline from a secondary replica */
   command = BCON_NEW ("mapReduce",
                       BCON_UTF8 (COLLECTION_NAME),
                       "map",
                       BCON_CODE (MAPPER),
                       "reduce",
                       BCON_CODE (REDUCER),
                       "out",
                       "{",
                       "inline",
                       "1",
                       "}");

   read_pref = mongoc_read_prefs_new (MONGOC_READ_SECONDARY);
   cursor = mongoc_database_command (
      database, MONGOC_QUERY_NONE, 0, 0, 0, command, NULL, read_pref);

   /* Do something with the results */
   while (mongoc_cursor_next (cursor, &doc)) {
      print_res (doc);
   }

   if (mongoc_cursor_error (cursor, &error)) {
      fprintf (stderr, "ERROR: %s\n", error.message);
      res = false;
   }

   mongoc_cursor_destroy (cursor);
   mongoc_read_prefs_destroy (read_pref);
   bson_destroy (command);

   return res;
}

Running the Examples

Here’s how to run the example code basic-aggregation.c.INDENT 0.0

/*
 * Copyright 2016 MongoDB, Inc.
 *
 * Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
 * you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
 * You may obtain a copy of the License at
 *
 *   http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
 *
 * Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
 * distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
 * WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
 * See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
 * limitations under the License.
 */


#include <mongoc.h>
#include <stdio.h>


#include "constants.c"

#include "../doc-common-insert.c"
#include "distinct.c"
#include "map-reduce-basic.c"
#include "map-reduce-advanced.c"


int
main (int argc, char *argv[])
{
   mongoc_database_t *database = NULL;
   mongoc_client_t *client = NULL;
   mongoc_collection_t *collection = NULL;
   char *host_and_port = NULL;
   int res = 0;

   if (argc != 2) {
      fprintf (stderr, "usage: %s CONNECTION-STRING\n", argv[0]);
      fprintf (stderr,
               "the connection string can be of the following forms:\n");
      fprintf (stderr, "localhost\t\t\t\tlocal machine\n");
      fprintf (stderr, "localhost:27018\t\t\t\tlocal machine on port 27018\n");
      fprintf (stderr,
               "mongodb://user:pass@localhost:27017\t"
               "local machine on port 27017, and authenticate with username "
               "user and password pass\n");
      return 1;
   }

   mongoc_init ();

   if (strncmp (argv[1], "mongodb://", 10) == 0) {
      host_and_port = bson_strdup (argv[1]);
   } else {
      host_and_port = bson_strdup_printf ("mongodb://%s", argv[1]);
   }

   client = mongoc_client_new (host_and_port);

   if (!client) {
      fprintf (stderr, "Invalid hostname or port: %s\n", host_and_port);
      res = 2;
      goto cleanup;
   }

   mongoc_client_set_error_api (client, 2);
   database = mongoc_client_get_database (client, "test");
   collection = mongoc_database_get_collection (database, COLLECTION_NAME);

   printf ("Inserting data\n");
   if (!insert_data (collection)) {
      res = 3;
      goto cleanup;
   }

   printf ("distinct\n");
   if (!distinct (database)) {
      res = 4;
      goto cleanup;
   }

   printf ("map reduce\n");
   if (!map_reduce_basic (database)) {
      res = 5;
      goto cleanup;
   }

   printf ("more complicated map reduce\n");
   if (!map_reduce_advanced (database)) {
      res = 6;
      goto cleanup;
   }

cleanup:
   if (collection) {
      mongoc_collection_destroy (collection);
   }

   if (database) {
      mongoc_database_destroy (database);
   }

   if (client) {
      mongoc_client_destroy (client);
   }

   if (host_and_port) {
      bson_free (host_and_port);
   }

   mongoc_cleanup ();
   return res;
}

If you want to try the advanced map reduce example with a secondary, start a replica set (instructions for how to do this can be found here).

Otherwise, just start an instance of MongoDB:

$ mongod

Now compile and run the example program:

$ cd examples/basic_aggregation/
$ gcc -Wall -o agg-example basic-aggregation.c $(pkg-config --cflags --libs libmongoc-1.0)
$ ./agg-example localhost

Inserting data
distinct
Next double: 2.000000
Next double: 3.000000
map reduce
{ "result" : "outCollection", "timeMillis" : 155, "counts" : { "input" : 84, "emit" : 126, "reduce" : 3, "output" : 3 }, "ok" : 1 }
{ "_id" : "cat", "value" : 63 }
{ "_id" : "dog", "value" : 42 }
{ "_id" : "mouse", "value" : 21 }
more complicated map reduce
{ "results" : [ { "_id" : "cat", "value" : 63 }, { "_id" : "dog", "value" : 42 }, { "_id" : "mouse", "value" : 21 } ], "timeMillis" : 14, "counts" : { "input" : 84, "emit" : 126, "reduce" : 3, "output" : 3 }, "ok" : 1 }

Using Libmongoc in a Microsoft Visual Studio Project

Download and install libmongoc on your system, then open Visual Studio, select “File→New→Project…”, and create a new Win32 Console Application. [image]

Remember to switch the platform from 32-bit to 64-bit: [image]

Right-click on your console application in the Solution Explorer and select “Properties”. Choose to edit properties for “All Configurations”, expand the “C/C++” options and choose “General”. Add to the “Additional Include Directories” these paths:

C:\mongo-c-driver\include\libbson-1.0
C:\mongo-c-driver\include\libmongoc-1.0

[image]

(If you chose a different CMAKE_INSTALL_PREFIX when you ran CMake, your include paths will be different.)

Also in the Properties dialog, expand the “Linker” options and choose “Input”, and add to the “Additional Dependencies” these libraries:

C:\mongo-c-driver\lib\bson-1.0.lib
C:\mongo-c-driver\lib\mongoc-1.0.lib

[image]

Adding these libraries as dependencies provides linker symbols to build your application, but to actually run it, libbson’s and libmongoc’s DLLs must be in your executable path. Select “Debugging” in the Properties dialog, and set the “Environment” option to:

PATH=c:/mongo-c-driver/bin

[image]

Finally, include “mongoc.h” in your project’s “stdafx.h”:

#include <mongoc.h>

Static linking

Following the instructions above, you have dynamically linked your application to the libbson and libmongoc DLLs. This is usually the right choice. If you want to link statically instead, update your “Additional Dependencies” list by removing bson-1.0.lib and mongoc-1.0.lib and replacing them with these libraries:

C:\mongo-c-driver\lib\bson-static-1.0.lib
C:\mongo-c-driver\lib\mongoc-static-1.0.lib
ws2_32.lib
Secur32.lib
Crypt32.lib
BCrypt.lib

[image]

(To explain the purpose of each library: bson-static-1.0.lib and mongoc-static-1.0.lib are static archives of the driver code. The socket library ws2_32 is required by libbson, which uses the socket routine gethostname to help guarantee ObjectId uniqueness. The BCrypt library is used by libmongoc for SSL connections to MongoDB, and Secur32 and Crypt32 are required for enterprise authentication methods like Kerberos.)

Finally, define two preprocessor symbols before including mongoc.h in your stdafx.h:

#define BSON_STATIC
#define MONGOC_STATIC
#include <mongoc.h>

Making these changes to your project is only required for static linking; for most people, the dynamic-linking instructions above are preferred.

Next Steps

Now you can build and debug applications in Visual Studio that use libbson and libmongoc. Proceed to making-a-connection in the tutorial to learn how connect to MongoDB and perform operations.

Creating Indexes

To create indexes on a MongoDB collection, execute the createIndexes command with mongoc_database_write_command_with_opts. See the MongoDB Manual entry for the createIndexes command for details.

Example

example-create-indexes.c.INDENT 0.0

/* gcc example-create-indexes.c -o example-create-indexes $(pkg-config --cflags
 * --libs libmongoc-1.0) */

/* ./example-create-indexes [CONNECTION_STRING [COLLECTION_NAME]] */

#include <mongoc.h>
#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>

int
main (int argc, char *argv[])
{
   mongoc_client_t *client;
   mongoc_database_t *db;
   const char *uristr = "mongodb://127.0.0.1/?appname=create-indexes-example";
   const char *collection_name = "test";
   bson_t keys;
   char *index_name;
   bson_t *create_indexes;
   bson_t reply;
   char *reply_str;
   bson_error_t error;
   bool r;

   mongoc_init ();

   if (argc > 1) {
      uristr = argv[1];
   }

   if (argc > 2) {
      collection_name = argv[2];
   }

   client = mongoc_client_new (uristr);

   if (!client) {
      fprintf (stderr, "Failed to parse URI.\n");
      return EXIT_FAILURE;
   }

   mongoc_client_set_error_api (client, 2);
   db = mongoc_client_get_database (client, "test");

   /* ascending index on field "x" */
   bson_init (&keys);
   BSON_APPEND_INT32 (&keys, "x", 1);
   index_name = mongoc_collection_keys_to_index_string (&keys);
   create_indexes = BCON_NEW ("createIndexes",
                              BCON_UTF8 (collection_name),
                              "indexes",
                              "[",
                              "{",
                              "key",
                              BCON_DOCUMENT (&keys),
                              "name",
                              BCON_UTF8 (index_name),
                              "}",
                              "]");

   r = mongoc_database_write_command_with_opts (
      db, create_indexes, NULL /* opts */, &reply, &error);

   reply_str = bson_as_json (&reply, NULL);
   printf ("%s\n", reply_str);

   if (!r) {
      fprintf (stderr, "Error in createIndexes: %s\n", error.message);
   }

   bson_free (index_name);
   bson_free (reply_str);
   bson_destroy (&reply);
   bson_destroy (create_indexes);
   mongoc_database_destroy (db);
   mongoc_client_destroy (client);

   mongoc_cleanup ();

   return r ? EXIT_SUCCESS : EXIT_FAILURE;
}

Author

MongoDB, Inc

Info

Nov 17, 2017 1.8.2 MongoDB C Driver