libwget-net - Man Page

TCP sockets

Synopsis

Functions

int wget_net_init (void)
int wget_net_deinit (void)
void wget_tcp_set_dns (wget_tcp *tcp, wget_dns *dns)
void wget_tcp_set_tcp_fastopen (wget_tcp *tcp, bool tcp_fastopen)
bool wget_tcp_get_tcp_fastopen (wget_tcp *tcp)
void wget_tcp_set_tls_false_start (wget_tcp *tcp, bool false_start)
bool wget_tcp_get_tls_false_start (wget_tcp *tcp)
void wget_tcp_set_protocol (wget_tcp *tcp, int protocol)
int wget_tcp_get_protocol (wget_tcp *tcp)
void wget_tcp_set_preferred_family (wget_tcp *tcp, int family)
int wget_tcp_get_preferred_family (wget_tcp *tcp)
void wget_tcp_set_family (wget_tcp *tcp, int family)
int wget_tcp_get_family (wget_tcp *tcp)
int wget_tcp_get_local_port (wget_tcp *tcp)
void wget_tcp_set_connect_timeout (wget_tcp *tcp, int timeout)
void wget_tcp_set_timeout (wget_tcp *tcp, int timeout)
int wget_tcp_get_timeout (wget_tcp *tcp)
void wget_tcp_set_bind_address (wget_tcp *tcp, const char *bind_address)
void wget_tcp_set_bind_interface (wget_tcp *tcp, const char *bind_interface)
void wget_tcp_set_ssl (wget_tcp *tcp, bool ssl)
bool wget_tcp_get_ssl (wget_tcp *tcp)
const char * wget_tcp_get_ip (wget_tcp *tcp)
void wget_tcp_set_ssl_hostname (wget_tcp *tcp, const char *hostname)
const char * wget_tcp_get_ssl_hostname (wget_tcp *tcp)
wget_tcp * wget_tcp_init (void)
void wget_tcp_deinit (wget_tcp **_tcp)
int wget_tcp_ready_2_transfer (wget_tcp *tcp, int flags)
int wget_tcp_connect (wget_tcp *tcp, const char *host, uint16_t port)
int wget_tcp_tls_start (wget_tcp *tcp)
void wget_tcp_tls_stop (wget_tcp *tcp)
ssize_t wget_tcp_read (wget_tcp *tcp, char *buf, size_t count)
ssize_t wget_tcp_write (wget_tcp *tcp, const char *buf, size_t count)
ssize_t wget_tcp_vprintf (wget_tcp *tcp, const char *fmt, va_list args)
ssize_t wget_tcp_printf (wget_tcp *tcp, const char *fmt,...)
void wget_tcp_close (wget_tcp *tcp)

Detailed Description

TCP sockets and DNS cache management functions.

The following features are supported:

Most functions here take a wget_tcp structure as argument.

The wget_tcp structure represents a TCP connection. You create it with wget_tcp_init() and destroy it with wget_tcp_deinit(). You can connect to a remote host with wget_tcp_connect(), or listen for incoming connections (and accept them) with wget_tcp_listen() and wget_tcp_accept(). You end a connection with wget_tcp_close().

There are several knobs you can use to customize the behavior of most functions here. The list that follows describes the most important parameters, although you can look at the getter and setter functions here to see them all (wget_tcp_get_xxx, wget_tcp_set_xxx).

When you create a new wget_tcp with wget_tcp_init(), it is initialized with the following parameters:

Function Documentation

int wget_net_init (void)

Returns

0 for success, else failure

Initialize the resources needed for network operations.

int wget_net_deinit (void)

Returns

0 for success, else failure

Free the resources allocated by wget_net_init().

void wget_tcp_set_dns (wget_tcp * tcp, wget_dns * dns)

Parameters

tcp A wget_tcp structure representing a TCP connection, returned by wget_tcp_init().
protocol The protocol, either WGET_PROTOCOL_HTTP_2_0 or WGET_PROTOCOL_HTTP_1_1.

Set the protocol for the connection provided, or globally.

If tcp is NULL, theprotocol will be set globally (for all connections). Otherwise, only for the provided connection (tcp).

void wget_tcp_set_tcp_fastopen (wget_tcp * tcp, bool tcp_fastopen)

Parameters

tcp A wget_tcp structure representing a TCP connection, returned by wget_tcp_init(). Might be NULL.
tcp_fastopen 1 or 0, whether to enable or disable TCP Fast Open.

Enable or disable TCP Fast Open (RFC 7413), if available.

This function is a no-op on systems where TCP Fast Open is not supported.

If tcp is NULL, TCP Fast Open is enabled or disabled globally.

bool wget_tcp_get_tcp_fastopen (wget_tcp * tcp)

Parameters

tcp A wget_tcp structure representing a TCP connection, returned by wget_tcp_init(). Might be NULL.

Returns

1 if TCP Fast Open is enabled, 0 otherwise.

Tells whether TCP Fast Open is enabled or not.

You can enable and disable it with wget_tcp_set_tcp_fastopen().

void wget_tcp_set_tls_false_start (wget_tcp * tcp, bool false_start)

Parameters

tcp A wget_tcp structure representing a TCP connection, returned by wget_tcp_init(). Might be NULL.
false_start 1 or 0, whether to enable or disable TLS False Start.

Enable or disable TLS False Start (RFC 7918).

If tcp is NULL, TLS False Start is enabled or disabled globally.

bool wget_tcp_get_tls_false_start (wget_tcp * tcp)

Parameters

tcp A wget_tcp structure representing a TCP connection, returned by wget_tcp_init(). Might be NULL.

Returns

1 if TLS False Start is enabled, 0 otherwise.

Tells whether TLS False Start is enabled or not.

You can enable and disable it with wget_tcp_set_tls_false_start().

void wget_tcp_set_protocol (wget_tcp * tcp, int protocol)

Parameters

tcp A wget_tcp structure representing a TCP connection, returned by wget_tcp_init().
protocol The protocol, either WGET_PROTOCOL_HTTP_2_0 or WGET_PROTOCOL_HTTP_1_1.

Set the protocol for the connection provided, or globally.

If tcp is NULL, theprotocol will be set globally (for all connections). Otherwise, only for the provided connection (tcp).

int wget_tcp_get_protocol (wget_tcp * tcp)

Parameters

tcp A wget_tcp structure representing a TCP connection, returned by wget_tcp_init().

Returns

The protocol with this connection, currently WGET_PROTOCOL_HTTP_2_0 or WGET_PROTOCOL_HTTP_1_1.

Get protocol used with the provided connection, or globally (if tcp is NULL).

void wget_tcp_set_preferred_family (wget_tcp * tcp, int family)

Parameters

tcp A wget_tcp structure representing a TCP connection, returned by wget_tcp_init(). Might be NULL.
family One of the socket families defined in <socket.h>, such as AF_INET or AF_INET6.

Tells the preferred address family that should be used when establishing a TCP connection.

wget_tcp_resolve() will favor that and pick an address of that family if possible.

If tcp is NULL, the preferred address family will be set globally.

int wget_tcp_get_preferred_family (wget_tcp * tcp)

Parameters

tcp A wget_tcp structure representing a TCP connection, returned by wget_tcp_init(). Might be NULL.

Returns

One of the socket families defined in <socket.h>, such as AF_INET or AF_INET6.

Get the preferred address family that was previously set with wget_tcp_set_preferred_family().

void wget_tcp_set_family (wget_tcp * tcp, int family)

Parameters

tcp A wget_tcp structure representing a TCP connection, returned by wget_tcp_init(). Might be NULL.
family One of the socket families defined in <socket.h>, such as AF_INET or AF_INET6.

Tell the address family that will be used when establishing a TCP connection.

wget_tcp_resolve() will pick an address of that family, or fail if it cannot find one.

If tcp is NULL, the address family will be set globally.

int wget_tcp_get_family (wget_tcp * tcp)

Parameters

tcp A wget_tcp structure representing a TCP connection, returned by wget_tcp_init(). Might be NULL.

Returns

One of the socket families defined in <socket.h>, such as AF_INET or AF_INET6.

Get the address family that was previously set with wget_tcp_set_family().

int wget_tcp_get_local_port (wget_tcp * tcp)

Parameters

tcp A wget_tcp structure representing a TCP connection, returned by wget_tcp_init(). Might be NULL.

Returns

The local port.

Get the port number the TCP connection tcp is bound to on the local machine.

void wget_tcp_set_connect_timeout (wget_tcp * tcp, int timeout)

Parameters

tcp A TCP connection.
timeout The timeout value.

Set the timeout for the TCP connection.

This is the maximum time to wait until the remote host accepts our connection.

The following two values are special:

  • 0: No timeout, immediate.
  • -1: Infinite timeout. Wait indefinitely.

void wget_tcp_set_timeout (wget_tcp * tcp, int timeout)

Parameters

tcp A TCP connection.
timeout The timeout value.

Set the timeout (in milliseconds) for wget_tcp_read(), wget_tcp_write() and wget_tcp_accept().

The following two values are special:

  • 0: No timeout, immediate.
  • -1: Infinite timeout. Wait indefinitely.

int wget_tcp_get_timeout (wget_tcp * tcp)

Parameters

tcp A TCP connection.

Returns

The timeout value that was set with wget_tcp_set_timeout().

Get the timeout value that was set with wget_tcp_set_timeout().

void wget_tcp_set_bind_address (wget_tcp * tcp, const char * bind_address)

Parameters

tcp A TCP connection. Might be NULL.
bind_address An IP address or host name.

Set the IP address/hostname the socket tcp will bind to on the local machine when connecting to a remote host.

The hostname can explicitly set the port after a colon (':').

This is mainly relevant to wget_tcp_connect().

void wget_tcp_set_bind_interface (wget_tcp * tcp, const char * bind_interface)

Parameters

tcp A TCP connection. Might be NULL.
bind_interface A network interface name.

Set the Network Interface the socket tcp will bind to on the local machine when connecting to a remote host.

This is mainly relevant to wget_tcp_connect().

void wget_tcp_set_ssl (wget_tcp * tcp, bool ssl)

Parameters

tcp A wget_tcp structure representing a TCP connection, returned by wget_tcp_init().
ssl Flag to enable or disable SSL/TLS on the given connection.

Enable or disable SSL/TLS.

If tcp is NULL, TLS will be enabled globally. Otherwise, TLS will be enabled only for the provided connection.

bool wget_tcp_get_ssl (wget_tcp * tcp)

Parameters

tcp A wget_tcp structure representing a TCP connection, returned by wget_tcp_init().

Returns

1 if TLs is enabled, 0 otherwise.

Tells whether TLS is enabled or not.

const char * wget_tcp_get_ip (wget_tcp * tcp)

Parameters

tcp A wget_tcp structure representing a TCP connection, returned by wget_tcp_init().

Returns

IP address as string, NULL if not available.

Returns the IP address of a wget_tcp instance.

void wget_tcp_set_ssl_hostname (wget_tcp * tcp, const char * hostname)

Parameters

tcp A wget_tcp structure representing a TCP connection, returned by wget_tcp_init(). Might be NULL.
hostname A hostname. The value of the SNI field.

Sets the TLS Server Name Indication (SNI). For more info see RFC 6066, sect. 3.

SNI basically does at the TLS layer what the Host: header field does at the application (HTTP) layer. The server might use this information to locate an appropriate X.509 certificate from a pool of certificates, or to direct the request to a specific virtual host, for instance.

const char * wget_tcp_get_ssl_hostname (wget_tcp * tcp)

Parameters

tcp A wget_tcp structure representing a TCP connection, returned by wget_tcp_init(). Might be NULL.

Returns

A hostname. The value of the SNI field.

Returns the value that was set to SNI with a previous call to wget_tcp_set_ssl_hostname().

wget_tcp * wget_tcp_init (void)

Returns

A new wget_tcp structure, with pre-defined parameters.

Create a new wget_tcp structure, that represents a TCP connection. It can be destroyed with wget_tcp_deinit().

This function does not establish or modify a TCP connection in any way. That can be done with the other functions in this file, such as wget_tcp_connect() or wget_tcp_listen() and wget_tcp_accept().

void wget_tcp_deinit (wget_tcp ** _tcp)

Parameters

_tcp A pointer to a wget_tcp structure representing a TCP connection, returned by wget_tcp_init(). Might be NULL.

Release a TCP connection (created with wget_tcp_init()).

The wget_tcp structure will be freed and _tcp will be set to NULL.

If _tcp is NULL, the SNI field will be cleared.

Does not free the internal DNS cache, so that other connections can re-use it. Call wget_dns_cache_free() if you want to free it.

int wget_tcp_ready_2_transfer (wget_tcp * tcp, int flags)

Test whether the given connection (tcp) is ready to read or write.

The parameter flags can have one or both (with bitwise OR) of the following values:

  • WGET_IO_READABLE: Is data available for reading?
  • WGET_IO_WRITABLE: Can we write immediately (without having to wait until the TCP buffer frees)?

int wget_tcp_connect (wget_tcp * tcp, const char * host, uint16_t port)

Parameters

tcp A wget_tcp structure representing a TCP connection, returned by wget_tcp_init().
host Hostname or IP address to connect to.
port port number

Returns

WGET_E_SUCCESS (0) on success, or a negative integer on error (some of WGET_E_XXX defined in <wget.h>).

Open a TCP connection with a remote host.

This function will use TLS if it has been enabled for this wget_tcp. You can enable it with wget_tcp_set_ssl(). Additionally, you can also use wget_tcp_set_ssl_hostname() to set the Server Name Indication (SNI).

You can set which IP address and port on the local machine will the socket be bound to with wget_tcp_set_bind_address(). Otherwise the socket will bind to any address and port chosen by the operating system.

You can also set which Network Interface on the local machine will the socket be bound to with wget_tcp_bind_interface().

This function will try to use TCP Fast Open if enabled and available. If TCP Fast Open fails, it will fall back to the normal TCP handshake, without raising an error. You can enable TCP Fast Open with wget_tcp_set_tcp_fastopen().

If the connection fails, WGET_E_CONNECT is returned.

int wget_tcp_tls_start (wget_tcp * tcp)

Parameters

tcp An active connection.

Returns

WGET_E_SUCCESS (0) on success, or a negative integer on error (one of WGET_E_XXX, defined in <wget.h>). Start TLS for this connection.

This will typically be called by wget_tcp_accept().

If the socket is listening (e.g. wget_tcp_listen(), wget_tcp_accept()), it will expect the client to perform a TLS handshake, and fail if it doesn't.

If this is a client connection (e.g. wget_tcp_connect()), it will try perform a TLS handshake with the server.

void wget_tcp_tls_stop (wget_tcp * tcp)

Parameters

tcp An active connection.

Stops TLS, but does not close the connection. Data will be transmitted in the clear from now on.

ssize_t wget_tcp_read (wget_tcp * tcp, char * buf, size_t count)

Parameters

tcp An active TCP connection.
buf Destination buffer, at least count bytes long.
count Length of the buffer buf.

Returns

Number of bytes read

Read count bytes of data from the TCP connection represented by tcp and store them in the buffer buf.

This function knows whether the provided connection is over TLS or not and it will do the right thing.

The tcp->timeout parameter is taken into account by this function as well. It specifies how long should this function wait until there's data available to read (in milliseconds). The default timeout is -1, which means to wait indefinitely.

The following two values are special:

  • 0: No timeout, immediate.
  • -1: Infinite timeout. Wait indefinitely until a new connection comes.

You can set the timeout with wget_tcp_set_timeout().

In particular, the returned value will be zero if no data was available for reading before the timeout elapsed.

ssize_t wget_tcp_write (wget_tcp * tcp, const char * buf, size_t count)

Parameters

tcp An active TCP connection.
buf A buffer, at least count bytes long.
count Number of bytes from buf to send through tcp.

Returns

The number of bytes written, or -1 on error.

Write count bytes of data from the buffer buf to the TCP connection represented by tcp.

This function knows whether the provided connection is over TLS or not and it will do the right thing.

TCP Fast Open will be used if it's available and enabled. You can enable TCP Fast Open with wget_tcp_set_tcp_fastopen().

This function honors the timeout parameter. If the write operation fails because the socket buffer is full, then it will wait at most that amount of milliseconds. If after the timeout the socket is still unavailable for writing, this function returns zero.

The following two values are special:

  • 0: No timeout. The socket must be available immediately.
  • -1: Infinite timeout. Wait indefinitely until the socket becomes available.

You can set the timeout with wget_tcp_set_timeout().

ssize_t wget_tcp_vprintf (wget_tcp * tcp, const char * fmt, va_list args)

Parameters

tcp An active TCP connection.
fmt Format string (like in printf(3)).
args va_args argument list (like in vprintf(3))

Write data in vprintf-style format, to the connection tcp.

It uses wget_tcp_write().

ssize_t wget_tcp_printf (wget_tcp * tcp, const char * fmt,  ...)

Parameters

tcp An active TCP connection.
fmt Format string (like in printf(3)).

Write data in printf-style format, to the connection tcp.

It uses wget_tcp_vprintf(), which in turn uses wget_tcp_write().

void wget_tcp_close (wget_tcp * tcp)

Parameters

tcp An active TCP connection

Close a TCP connection.

Author

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Info

Sat Jul 23 2022 Version 2.0.0 wget2