iv_examples man page

iv_examples — ivykis examples

Example

ivykis is initialised by calling iv_init(3). This function is the first function to call when dealing with ivykis -- it has to be called before registering file descriptors or timers.

The ivykis main event loop is started by calling iv_main(3). This function generally does not return, except when iv_quit(3) is called somewhere during execution of the program.

An application asks ivykis to monitor a certain file descriptor by filling out a structure of type 'struct iv_fd' with a file descriptor number and a callback function, and calling the function iv_fd_register.

The first example program waits for data from standard input, and writes a message to standard out whenever something is received:

#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <iv.h>

struct iv_fd fd_stdin;

static void callback(void *dummy)
{
        char buf[1024];
        int len;

        len = read(fd_stdin.fd, buf, sizeof(buf));
        if (len <= 0) {
                if (len < 0) {
                        if (errno == EAGAIN)
                                return;
                        perror("read");
                }
                exit(1);
        }

        printf("read %d bytes of data from stdin\n", len);
}

int main()
{
        iv_init();

        IV_FD_INIT(&fd_stdin);
        fd_stdin.fd = 0;
        fd_stdin.handler_in = callback;
        iv_fd_register(&fd_stdin);

        iv_main();

        iv_deinit();

        return 0;
}

The application is responsible for memory management of 'struct iv_fd's passed to ivykis. For example, it should not free memory that contains such structures that are still registered with ivykis (i.e. haven't had iv_fd_unregister called on them).

iv_fd_register transparently sets the passed file descriptor to nonblocking mode, in anticipation of its future usage.

File descriptor callbacks are called in a level-triggered fashion. Therefore, the way of dealing with fd_stdin in the example callback function is safe. In case there arrives data between read and detecting EAGAIN, ivykis will re-call the callback function after it returns. Also, if there are more than 1024 bytes waiting in the input buffer, ivykis will re-call the callback function until all data from stdin have been drained.

Example 2

The second example accepts connections on TCP port 6667, and waits on each of the connections for data. When data is received on any connection, a message is printed to standard out.

#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <iv.h>
#include <netinet/in.h>

struct connection
{
        struct iv_fd            fd;
        /* other per-connection data goes here */
};

struct listening_socket
{
        struct iv_fd            fd;
        /* other per-listening socket data goes here */
};

static void connection_handler(void *_conn)
{
        struct connection *conn = (struct connection *)_conn;
        char buf[1024];
        int len;

        len = read(conn->fd.fd, buf, sizeof(buf));
        if (len <= 0) {
                if (len < 0 && errno == EAGAIN)
                        return;
                iv_fd_unregister(&conn->fd);
                close(conn->fd.fd);
                free(conn);
                return;
        }

        printf("got %d bytes of data from %p\n", len, conn);
}

static void listening_socket_handler(void *_sock)
{
        struct listening_socket *sock = (struct listening_socket *)_sock;
        struct sockaddr_in addr;
        socklen_t addrlen;
        struct connection *conn;
        int fd;

        addrlen = sizeof(addr);
        fd = accept(sock->fd.fd, (struct sockaddr *)&addr, &addrlen);
        if (fd < 0) {
                if (errno == EAGAIN)
                        return;
                perror("accept");
                exit(1);
        }

        conn = malloc(sizeof(*conn));
        if (conn == NULL) {
                fprintf(stderr, "listening_socket_handler: memory allocation error, dropping connection");
                close(fd);
                return;
        }

        IV_FD_INIT(&conn->fd);
        conn->fd.fd = fd;
        conn->fd.cookie = (void *)conn;
        conn->fd.handler_in = connection_handler;
        iv_fd_register(&conn->fd);
}

int main()
{
        struct listening_socket s;
        struct sockaddr_in addr;
        int fd;

        fd = socket(AF_INET, SOCK_STREAM, 0);
        if (fd < 0) {
                perror("socket");
                exit(1);
        }

        addr.sin_family = AF_INET;
        addr.sin_addr.s_addr = htonl(INADDR_ANY);
        addr.sin_port = htons(6667);
        if (bind(fd, (struct sockaddr *)&addr, sizeof(addr)) < 0) {
                perror("bind");
                exit(1);
        }

        if (listen(fd, 4) < 0) {
                perror("listen");
                exit(1);
        }

        iv_init();

        IV_FD_INIT(&s.fd);
        s.fd.fd = fd;
        s.fd.cookie = (void *)&s;
        s.fd.handler_in = listening_socket_handler;
        iv_fd_register(&s.fd);

        iv_main();

        iv_deinit();

        return 0;
}

As illustrated, it is possible to pass cookies into callback functions. This is useful for conveying information on which higher-level entity (such as 'connection' or 'listening socket') generated the event for which the callback was called.

Note how it is possible to unregister and even free a 'struct iv_fd' in its own callback function. There is logic in ivykis to deal with this case.

Example 3

This example extends the previous example by a per-connection timer that disconnects the client after too long a period of inactivity. Lines not present in example 2 or different than in example 2 are indicated by '//XXXX' in the right-hand margin.

#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <iv.h>
#include <netinet/in.h>

#define CONNECTION_TIMEOUT      (10)

struct connection
{
        struct iv_fd            fd;
        struct iv_timer         disconnect_timeout;              //XXXX
        /* other per-connection data goes here */
};

struct listening_socket
{
        struct iv_fd            fd;
        /* other per-listening socket data goes here */
};

static void connection_handler(void *_conn)
{
        struct connection *conn = (struct connection *)_conn;
        char buf[1024];
        int len;

        len = read(conn->fd.fd, buf, sizeof(buf));
        if (len <= 0) {
                if (len < 0 && errno == EAGAIN)
                        return;
                iv_timer_unregister(&conn->disconnect_timeout);  //XXXX
                iv_fd_unregister(&conn->fd);
                close(conn->fd.fd);
                free(conn);
                return;
        }

        printf("got %d bytes of data from %p\n", len, conn);

        iv_timer_unregister(&conn->disconnect_timeout);          //XXXX
        iv_validate_now();                                       //XXXX
        conn->disconnect_timeout.expires = iv_now;               //XXXX
        conn->disconnect_timeout.expires.tv_sec += CONNECTION_TIMEOUT;//XXXX
        iv_timer_register(&conn->disconnect_timeout);            //XXXX
}

static void disconnect_timeout_expired(void *_conn)              //XXXX
{                                                                //XXXX
        struct connection *conn = (struct connection *)_conn;    //XXXX
        iv_fd_unregister(&conn->fd);                             //XXXX
        close(conn->fd.fd);                                      //XXXX
        free(conn);                                              //XXXX
}                                                                //XXXX

static void listening_socket_handler(void *_sock)
{
        struct listening_socket *sock = (struct listening_socket *)_sock;
        struct sockaddr_in addr;
        socklen_t addrlen;
        struct connection *conn;
        int fd;

        addrlen = sizeof(addr);
        fd = accept(sock->fd.fd, (struct sockaddr *)&addr, &addrlen);
        if (fd < 0) {
                if (errno == EAGAIN)
                        return;
                perror("accept");
                exit(1);
        }

        conn = malloc(sizeof(*conn));
        if (conn == NULL) {
                fprintf(stderr, "listening_socket_handler: memory allocation error, dropping connection");
                close(fd);
                return;
        }

        IV_FD_INIT(&conn->fd);
        conn->fd.fd = fd;
        conn->fd.cookie = (void *)conn;
        conn->fd.handler_in = connection_handler;
        iv_fd_register(&conn->fd);

        IV_TIMER_INIT(&conn->disconnect_timeout);                //XXXX
        iv_validate_now();                                       //XXXX
        conn->disconnect_timeout.cookie = (void *)conn;          //XXXX
        conn->disconnect_timeout.handler = disconnect_timeout_expired;//XXXX
        conn->disconnect_timeout.expires = iv_now;               //XXXX
        conn->disconnect_timeout.expires.tv_sec += CONNECTION_TIMEOUT;//XXXX
        iv_timer_register(&conn->disconnect_timeout);            //XXXX
}

int main()
{
        struct listening_socket s;
        struct sockaddr_in addr;
        int fd;

        fd = socket(AF_INET, SOCK_STREAM, 0);
        if (fd < 0) {
                perror("socket");
                exit(1);
        }

        addr.sin_family = AF_INET;
        addr.sin_addr.s_addr = htonl(INADDR_ANY);
        addr.sin_port = htons(6667);
        if (bind(fd, (struct sockaddr *)&addr, sizeof(addr)) < 0) {
                perror("bind");
                exit(1);
        }

        if (listen(fd, 4) < 0) {
                perror("listen");
                exit(1);
        }

        iv_init();

        IV_FD_INIT(&s.fd);
        s.fd.fd = fd;
        s.fd.cookie = (void *)&s;
        s.fd.handler_in = listening_socket_handler;
        iv_fd_register(&s.fd);

        iv_main();

        iv_deinit();

        return 0;
}

The global variable 'iv_now' represents a monotonic timer. However, it is updated lazily, and its contents might be stale at any given time. Before using it, iv_validate_now(3) must be called.

Example 4

The fourth example demonstrates how to use a custom fatal error handler that does not write the message to syslog.

#include <stdio.h>
#include <iv.h>

static void fatal_error(const char *msg)
{
        fprintf(stderr, "ivykis: FATAL ERROR: %s\n", msg);
}

int main()
{
        iv_init();
        iv_set_fatal_msg_handler(fatal_error);

        iv_fatal("Programmatically triggered fatal error %d.", 42);
        printf("This code is never reached.\n");

        iv_deinit();

        return 0;
}

This program will abort immediately, with the error message printed to the standard error stream.

See Also

ivykis(3), iv_fatal(3), iv_fd(3), iv_timer(3), iv_task(3), iv_init(3), iv_time(3)

Referenced By

iv_fatal(3), iv_fd(3), iv_init(3), iv_main(3), iv_quit(3), iv_task(3), iv_time(3), iv_timer(3), ivykis(3).

2003-03-29 ivykis ivykis programmer's manual