fread - Man Page

binary stream input/output


#include <stdio.h>

size_t fread(void *restrict ptr, size_t size, size_t nmemb,
             FILE *restrict stream);
size_t fwrite(const void *restrict ptr, size_t size, size_t nmemb,
             FILE *restrict stream);


The function fread() reads nmemb items of data, each size bytes long, from the stream pointed to by stream, storing them at the location given by ptr.

The function fwrite() writes nmemb items of data, each size bytes long, to the stream pointed to by stream, obtaining them from the location given by ptr.

For nonlocking counterparts, see unlocked_stdio(3).

Return Value

On success, fread() and fwrite() return the number of items read or written. This number equals the number of bytes transferred only when size is 1. If an error occurs, or the end of the file is reached, the return value is a short item count (or zero).

The file position indicator for the stream is advanced by the number of bytes successfully read or written.

fread() does not distinguish between end-of-file and error, and callers must use feof(3) and ferror(3) to determine which occurred.


For an explanation of the terms used in this section, see attributes(7).

fread(), fwrite()Thread safetyMT-Safe

Conforming to

POSIX.1-2001, POSIX.1-2008, C89.


The program below demonstrates the use of fread() by parsing /bin/sh ELF executable in binary mode and printing its magic and class:

$ ./a.out
ELF magic: 0x7f454c46
Class: 0x02

Program source

#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>

#define ARRAY_SIZE(arr) (sizeof(arr) / sizeof((arr)[0]))

    FILE *fp = fopen("/bin/sh", "rb");
    if (!fp) {
        return EXIT_FAILURE;

    unsigned char buffer[4];

    size_t ret = fread(buffer, sizeof(*buffer), ARRAY_SIZE(buffer), fp);
    if (ret != ARRAY_SIZE(buffer)) {
        fprintf(stderr, "fread() failed: %zu\n", ret);

    printf("ELF magic: %#04x%02x%02x%02x\n", buffer[0], buffer[1],
           buffer[2], buffer[3]);

    ret = fread(buffer, 1, 1, fp);
    if (ret != 1) {
        fprintf(stderr, "fread() failed: %zu\n", ret);

    printf("Class: %#04x\n", buffer[0]);



See Also

read(2), write(2), feof(3), ferror(3), unlocked_stdio(3)


This page is part of release 5.11 of the Linux man-pages project. A description of the project, information about reporting bugs, and the latest version of this page, can be found at

Referenced By

cgi_register_parse_cb(3), CURLOPT_WRITEDATA(3), dispatch_io_read(3), dispatch_read(3), fgetc(3), getline(3), gets(3), getw(3), libraptor(3), perlfunc(1), pmlogger(1), puts(3), read(2), setbuf(3), stdin(3), stdio(3), system_data_types(7), write(2).

The man page fwrite(3) is an alias of fread(3).

2021-03-22 GNU Linux Programmer's Manual