digraph.3erl man page

digraph — Directed graphs.

Description

This module provides a version of labeled directed graphs ("digraphs").

The digraphs managed by this module are stored in ETS tables. That implies the following:

What makes the graphs provided here non-proper directed graphs is that multiple edges between vertices are allowed. However, the customary definition of directed graphs is used here.

Data Types

d_type() = d_cyclicity() | d_protection()
d_cyclicity() = acyclic | cyclic
d_protection() = private | protected
graph()

A digraph as returned by new/0,1.

edge()
label() = term()
vertex()

Exports

add_edge(G, V1, V2) -> edge() | {error, add_edge_err_rsn()}
add_edge(G, V1, V2, Label) -> edge() | {error, add_edge_err_rsn()}
add_edge(G, E, V1, V2, Label) ->
            edge() | {error, add_edge_err_rsn()}
Types:

G = graph()
E = edge()
V1 = V2 = vertex()
Label = label()

add_edge_err_rsn() = 
    {bad_edge, Path :: [vertex()]} | {bad_vertex, V :: vertex()}

add_edge/5 creates (or modifies) edge E of digraph G, using Label as the (new) label of the edge. The edge is emanating from V1 and incident on V2. Returns E.

add_edge(G, V1, V2, Label) is equivalent to add_edge(G, E, V1, V2, Label), where E is a created edge. The created edge is represented by term ['$e' | N], where N is an integer >= 0.

add_edge(G, V1, V2) is equivalent to add_edge(G, V1, V2, []).

If the edge would create a cycle in an acyclic digraph, {error, {bad_edge, Path}} is returned. If G already has an edge with value E connecting a different pair of vertices, {error, {bad_edge, [V1, V2]}} is returned. If either of V1 or V2 is not a vertex of digraph G, {error, {bad_vertex, V}} is returned, V = V1 or V = V2.

add_vertex(G) -> vertex()
add_vertex(G, V) -> vertex()
add_vertex(G, V, Label) -> vertex()
Types:

G = graph()
V = vertex()
Label = label()

add_vertex/3 creates (or modifies) vertex V of digraph G, using Label as the (new) label of the vertex. Returns V.

add_vertex(G, V) is equivalent to add_vertex(G, V, []).

add_vertex/1 creates a vertex using the empty list as label, and returns the created vertex. The created vertex is represented by term ['$v' | N], where N is an integer >= 0.

del_edge(G, E) -> true
Types:

G = graph()
E = edge()

Deletes edge E from digraph G.

del_edges(G, Edges) -> true
Types:

G = graph()
Edges = [edge()]

Deletes the edges in list Edges from digraph G.

del_path(G, V1, V2) -> true
Types:

G = graph()
V1 = V2 = vertex()

Deletes edges from digraph G until there are no paths from vertex V1 to vertex V2.

A sketch of the procedure employed:

  • Find an arbitrary simple path v[1], v[2], ..., v[k] from V1 to V2 in G.
  • Remove all edges of G emanating from v[i] and incident to v[i+1] for 1 <= i < k (including multiple edges).
  • Repeat until there is no path between V1 and V2.
del_vertex(G, V) -> true
Types:

G = graph()
V = vertex()

Deletes vertex V from digraph G. Any edges emanating from V or incident on V are also deleted.

del_vertices(G, Vertices) -> true
Types:

G = graph()
Vertices = [vertex()]

Deletes the vertices in list Vertices from digraph G.

delete(G) -> true
Types:

G = graph()

Deletes digraph G. This call is important as digraphs are implemented with ETS. There is no garbage collection of ETS tables. However, the digraph is deleted if the process that created the digraph terminates.

edge(G, E) -> {E, V1, V2, Label} | false
Types:

G = graph()
E = edge()
V1 = V2 = vertex()
Label = label()

Returns {E, V1, V2, Label}, where Label is the label of edge E emanating from V1 and incident on V2 of digraph G. If no edge E of digraph G exists, false is returned.

edges(G) -> Edges
Types:

G = graph()
Edges = [edge()]

Returns a list of all edges of digraph G, in some unspecified order.

edges(G, V) -> Edges
Types:

G = graph()
V = vertex()
Edges = [edge()]

Returns a list of all edges emanating from or incident onV of digraph G, in some unspecified order.

get_cycle(G, V) -> Vertices | false
Types:

G = graph()
V = vertex()
Vertices = [vertex(), ...]

If a simple cycle of length two or more exists through vertex V, the cycle is returned as a list [V, ..., V] of vertices. If a loop through V exists, the loop is returned as a list [V]. If no cycles through V exist, false is returned.

get_path/3 is used for finding a simple cycle through V.

get_path(G, V1, V2) -> Vertices | false
Types:

G = graph()
V1 = V2 = vertex()
Vertices = [vertex(), ...]

Tries to find a simple path from vertex V1 to vertex V2 of digraph G. Returns the path as a list [V1, ..., V2] of vertices, or false if no simple path from V1 to V2 of length one or more exists.

Digraph G is traversed in a depth-first manner, and the first found path is returned.

get_short_cycle(G, V) -> Vertices | false
Types:

G = graph()
V = vertex()
Vertices = [vertex(), ...]

Tries to find an as short as possible simple cycle through vertex V of digraph G. Returns the cycle as a list [V, ..., V] of vertices, or false if no simple cycle through V exists. Notice that a loop through V is returned as list [V, V].

get_short_path/3 is used for finding a simple cycle through V.

get_short_path(G, V1, V2) -> Vertices | false
Types:

G = graph()
V1 = V2 = vertex()
Vertices = [vertex(), ...]

Tries to find an as short as possible simple path from vertex V1 to vertex V2 of digraph G. Returns the path as a list [V1, ..., V2] of vertices, or false if no simple path from V1 to V2 of length one or more exists.

Digraph G is traversed in a breadth-first manner, and the first found path is returned.

in_degree(G, V) -> integer() >= 0
Types:

G = graph()
V = vertex()

Returns the in-degree of vertex V of digraph G.

in_edges(G, V) -> Edges
Types:

G = graph()
V = vertex()
Edges = [edge()]

Returns a list of all edges incident on V of digraph G, in some unspecified order.

in_neighbours(G, V) -> Vertex
Types:

G = graph()
V = vertex()
Vertex = [vertex()]

Returns a list of all in-neighbors of V of digraph G, in some unspecified order.

info(G) -> InfoList
Types:

G = graph()
InfoList =
   [{cyclicity, Cyclicity :: d_cyclicity()} |
    {memory, NoWords :: integer() >= 0} |
    {protection, Protection :: d_protection()}]

d_cyclicity() = acyclic | cyclic
d_protection() = private | protected

Returns a list of {Tag, Value} pairs describing digraph G. The following pairs are returned:

  • {cyclicity, Cyclicity}, where Cyclicity is cyclic or acyclic, according to the options given to new.
  • {memory, NoWords}, where NoWords is the number of words allocated to the ETS tables.
  • {protection, Protection}, where Protection is protected or private, according to the options given to new.
new() -> graph()

Equivalent to new([]).

new(Type) -> graph()
Types:

Type = [d_type()]

d_type() = d_cyclicity() | d_protection()
d_cyclicity() = acyclic | cyclic
d_protection() = private | protected

Returns an empty digraph with properties according to the options in Type:

cyclic:

Allows cycles in the digraph (default).

acyclic:

The digraph is to be kept acyclic.

protected:

Other processes can read the digraph (default).

private:

The digraph can be read and modified by the creating process only.

If an unrecognized type option T is specified or Type is not a proper list, a badarg exception is raised.

no_edges(G) -> integer() >= 0
Types:

G = graph()

Returns the number of edges of digraph G.

no_vertices(G) -> integer() >= 0
Types:

G = graph()

Returns the number of vertices of digraph G.

out_degree(G, V) -> integer() >= 0
Types:

G = graph()
V = vertex()

Returns the out-degree of vertex V of digraph G.

out_edges(G, V) -> Edges
Types:

G = graph()
V = vertex()
Edges = [edge()]

Returns a list of all edges emanating from V of digraph G, in some unspecified order.

out_neighbours(G, V) -> Vertices
Types:

G = graph()
V = vertex()
Vertices = [vertex()]

Returns a list of all out-neighbors of V of digraph G, in some unspecified order.

vertex(G, V) -> {V, Label} | false
Types:

G = graph()
V = vertex()
Label = label()

Returns {V, Label}, where Label is the label of the vertex V of digraph G, or false if no vertex V of digraph G exists.

vertices(G) -> Vertices
Types:

G = graph()
Vertices = [vertex()]

Returns a list of all vertices of digraph G, in some unspecified order.

See Also

digraph_utils(3), ets(3)

Referenced By

digraph_utils.3erl(3), sofs.3erl(3), xref.3erl(3).

stdlib 3.11.2 Ericsson AB Erlang Module Definition