ck_elide - Man Page

lock elision wrappers


Concurrency Kit (libck, -lck)


#include <ck_elide.h>

ck_elide_stat_t stat = CK_ELIDE_STAT_INITIALIZER;

ck_elide_stat_init(ck_elide_stat_t *);

struct ck_elide_config config = CK_ELIDE_CONFIG_DEFAULT_INITIALIZER;

struct ck_elide_config {
	unsigned short skip_busy;
	short retry_busy;
	unsigned short skip_other;
	short retry_other;
	unsigned short skip_conflict;
	short retry_conflict;


CK_ELIDE_LOCK_ADAPTIVE(NAME, ck_elide_stat_t *, struct ck_elide_config *, TYPE *);

CK_ELIDE_UNLOCK_ADAPTIVE(NAME, ck_elide_stat_t *, TYPE *);





These macros implement lock elision wrappers for a user-specified single-argument lock interface. The wrappers will attempt to elide lock acquisition, allowing concurrent execution of critical sections that do not issue conflicting memory operations. If any threads have successfully elided a lock acquisition, conflicting memory operations will roll-back any side-effects of the critical section and force every thread to retry the lock acquisition regularly.

CK_ELIDE_LOCK(), CK_ELIDE_UNLOCK(), CK_ELIDE_LOCK_ADAPTIVE(), and CK_ELIDE_UNLOCK_ADAPTIVE() macros require a previous CK_ELIDE_PROTOTYPE() with the same NAME. Elision is attempted if the LOCK_PREDICATE function returns false. If LOCK_PREDICATE returns true then elision is aborted and LOCK_FUNCTION is executed instead. If any threads are in an elided critical section, LOCK_FUNCTION must force them to rollback through a conflicting memory operation. The UNLOCK_PREDICATE function must return true if the lock is acquired by the caller, meaning that the lock was not successfully elided. If UNLOCK_PREDICATE returns true, then the UNLOCK_FUNCTION is executed. If RTM is unsupported (no CK_F_PR_RTM macro) then CK_ELIDE_LOCK() and CK_ELIDE_LOCK_ADAPTIVE() will immediately call LOCK_FUNCTION(). CK_ELIDE_UNLOCK() and CK_ELIDE_UNLOCK_ADAPTIVE() will immediately call UNLOCK_FUNCTION().

CK_ELIDE_TRYLOCK() requires a previous CK_ELIDE_TRYLOCK_PROTOTYPE() with the same name. Elision is attempted if the LOCK_PREDICATE function returns false. If LOCK_PREDICATE returns true or if elision fails then the operation is aborted. If RTM is unsupported (no CK_F_PR_RTM macro) then CK_ELIDE_TRYLOCK() will immediately call TRYLOCK_FUNCTION().

CK_ELIDE_LOCK_ADAPTIVE() and CK_ELIDE_UNLOCK_ADAPTIVE() will adapt the elision behavior associated with lock operations according to the run-time behavior of the program. This behavior is defined by the ck_elide_config structure pointer passed to CK_ELIDE_LOCK_ADAPTIVE(). A thread-local ck_elide_stat structure must be passed to both CK_ELIDE_LOCK_ADAPTIVE() and CK_ELIDE_UNLOCK_ADAPTIVE(). This structure is expected to be unique for different workloads, may not be re-used in recursive acquisitions and must match the lifetime of the lock it is associated with. It is safe to mix adaptive calls with best-effort calls.

Both ck_spinlock.h and ck_rwlock.h define ck_elide wrappers under the ck_spinlock and ck_rwlock namespace, respectively.


This example utilizes built-in lock elision facilities in ck_rwlock and ck_spinlock.

#include <ck_rwlock.h>
#include <ck_spinlock.h>

static ck_rwlock_t rw = CK_RWLOCK_INITIALIZER;
static struct ck_elide_config rw_config =
static __thread ck_elide_stat_t rw_stat =

static ck_spinlock_t spinlock = CK_SPINLOCK_INITIALIZER;
static struct ck_elide_config spinlock_config =
static __thread ck_elide_stat_t spinlock_stat =


	/* Lock-unlock write-side lock in weak best-effort manner. */
	CK_ELIDE_LOCK(ck_rwlock_write, &rw);
	CK_ELIDE_UNLOCK(ck_rwlock_write, &rw);

	/* Attempt to acquire the write-side lock. */
	if (CK_ELIDE_TRYLOCK(ck_rwlock_write, &rw) == true)
		CK_ELIDE_UNLOCK(ck_rwlock_write, &rw);

	/* Lock-unlock read-side lock in weak best-effort manner. */
	CK_ELIDE_LOCK(ck_rwlock_read, &rw);
	CK_ELIDE_UNLOCK(ck_rwlock_read, &rw);

	/* Attempt to acquire the read-side lock. */
	if (CK_ELIDE_TRYLOCK(ck_rwlock_read, &rw) == true)
		CK_ELIDE_UNLOCK(ck_rwlock_read, &rw);

	/* Lock-unlock write-side lock in an adaptive manner. */
	CK_ELIDE_LOCK_ADAPTIVE(ck_rwlock_write, &rw_stat,
	    &rw_config, &rw);
	CK_ELIDE_UNLOCK_ADAPTIVE(ck_rwlock_write, &rw_stat,
	    &rw_config, &rw);

	/* Lock-unlock read-side lock in an adaptive manner. */
	CK_ELIDE_LOCK_ADAPTIVE(ck_rwlock_read, &rw_stat,
	    &rw_config, &rw);
	CK_ELIDE_UNLOCK_ADAPTIVE(ck_rwlock_read, &rw_stat,
	    &rw_config, &rw);

	/* Lock-unlock spinlock in weak best-effort manner. */
	CK_ELIDE_LOCK(ck_spinlock, &spinlock);
	CK_ELIDE_UNLOCK(ck_spinlock, &spinlock);

	/* Attempt to acquire the lock. */
	if (CK_ELIDE_TRYLOCK(ck_spinlock, &lock) == true)
		CK_ELIDE_UNLOCK(ck_spinlock, &spinlock);

	/* Lock-unlock spinlock in an adaptive manner. */
	CK_ELIDE_LOCK_ADAPTIVE(ck_spinlock, &spinlock_stat,
	    &spinlock_config, &spinlock);
	CK_ELIDE_UNLOCK_ADAPTIVE(ck_spinlock, &spinlock_stat,
	    &spinlock_config, &spinlock);

In this example, user-defined locking functions are provided an elision implementation.

/* Assume lock_t has been previously defined. */
#include <ck_elide.h>

 * This function returns true if the lock is unavailable at the time
 * it was called or false if the lock is available.
bool is_locked(lock_t *);

 * This function acquires the supplied lock.
void lock(lock_t *);

 * This function releases the lock.
void unlock(lock_t *);

CK_ELIDE_PROTOTYPE(my_lock, lock_t, is_locked, lock, is_locked, unlock)

static lock_t lock;


	CK_ELIDE_LOCK(my_lock, &lock);
	CK_ELIDE_UNLOCK(my_lock, &lock);

See Also

ck_rwlock(3), ck_spinlock(3)

Ravi Rajwar and James R. Goodman. 2001. Speculative lock elision: enabling highly concurrent multithreaded execution. In Proceedings of the 34th annual ACM/IEEE international symposium on Microarchitecture (MICRO 34). IEEE Computer Society, Washington, DC, USA, 294-305.

Additional information available at and

Referenced By

ck_rwlock(3), ck_spinlock(3), ck_swlock(3).

July 13, 2013.