# cgges.f - Man Page

## Synopsis

### Functions/Subroutines

subroutine **cgges** (JOBVSL, JOBVSR, SORT, SELCTG, **N**, A, **LDA**, B, **LDB**, SDIM, ALPHA, BETA, VSL, LDVSL, VSR, LDVSR, WORK, LWORK, RWORK, BWORK, INFO)

**CGGES computes the eigenvalues, the Schur form, and, optionally, the matrix of Schur vectors for GE matrices**

## Function/Subroutine Documentation

### subroutine cgges (character JOBVSL, character JOBVSR, character SORT, external SELCTG, integer N, complex, dimension( lda, * ) A, integer LDA, complex, dimension( ldb, * ) B, integer LDB, integer SDIM, complex, dimension( * ) ALPHA, complex, dimension( * ) BETA, complex, dimension( ldvsl, * ) VSL, integer LDVSL, complex, dimension( ldvsr, * ) VSR, integer LDVSR, complex, dimension( * ) WORK, integer LWORK, real, dimension( * ) RWORK, logical, dimension( * ) BWORK, integer INFO)

**CGGES computes the eigenvalues, the Schur form, and, optionally, the matrix of Schur vectors for GE matrices**

**Purpose:**

CGGES computes for a pair of N-by-N complex nonsymmetric matrices (A,B), the generalized eigenvalues, the generalized complex Schur form (S, T), and optionally left and/or right Schur vectors (VSL and VSR). This gives the generalized Schur factorization (A,B) = ( (VSL)*S*(VSR)**H, (VSL)*T*(VSR)**H ) where (VSR)**H is the conjugate-transpose of VSR. Optionally, it also orders the eigenvalues so that a selected cluster of eigenvalues appears in the leading diagonal blocks of the upper triangular matrix S and the upper triangular matrix T. The leading columns of VSL and VSR then form an unitary basis for the corresponding left and right eigenspaces (deflating subspaces). (If only the generalized eigenvalues are needed, use the driver CGGEV instead, which is faster.) A generalized eigenvalue for a pair of matrices (A,B) is a scalar w or a ratio alpha/beta = w, such that A - w*B is singular. It is usually represented as the pair (alpha,beta), as there is a reasonable interpretation for beta=0, and even for both being zero. A pair of matrices (S,T) is in generalized complex Schur form if S and T are upper triangular and, in addition, the diagonal elements of T are non-negative real numbers.

**Parameters:***JOBVSL*JOBVSL is CHARACTER*1 = 'N': do not compute the left Schur vectors; = 'V': compute the left Schur vectors.

*JOBVSR*JOBVSR is CHARACTER*1 = 'N': do not compute the right Schur vectors; = 'V': compute the right Schur vectors.

*SORT*SORT is CHARACTER*1 Specifies whether or not to order the eigenvalues on the diagonal of the generalized Schur form. = 'N': Eigenvalues are not ordered; = 'S': Eigenvalues are ordered (see SELCTG).

*SELCTG*SELCTG is a LOGICAL FUNCTION of two COMPLEX arguments SELCTG must be declared EXTERNAL in the calling subroutine. If SORT = 'N', SELCTG is not referenced. If SORT = 'S', SELCTG is used to select eigenvalues to sort to the top left of the Schur form. An eigenvalue ALPHA(j)/BETA(j) is selected if SELCTG(ALPHA(j),BETA(j)) is true. Note that a selected complex eigenvalue may no longer satisfy SELCTG(ALPHA(j),BETA(j)) = .TRUE. after ordering, since ordering may change the value of complex eigenvalues (especially if the eigenvalue is ill-conditioned), in this case INFO is set to N+2 (See INFO below).

*N*N is INTEGER The order of the matrices A, B, VSL, and VSR. N >= 0.

*A*A is COMPLEX array, dimension (LDA, N) On entry, the first of the pair of matrices. On exit, A has been overwritten by its generalized Schur form S.

*LDA*LDA is INTEGER The leading dimension of A. LDA >= max(1,N).

*B*B is COMPLEX array, dimension (LDB, N) On entry, the second of the pair of matrices. On exit, B has been overwritten by its generalized Schur form T.

*LDB*LDB is INTEGER The leading dimension of B. LDB >= max(1,N).

*SDIM*SDIM is INTEGER If SORT = 'N', SDIM = 0. If SORT = 'S', SDIM = number of eigenvalues (after sorting) for which SELCTG is true.

*ALPHA*ALPHA is COMPLEX array, dimension (N)

*BETA*BETA is COMPLEX array, dimension (N) On exit, ALPHA(j)/BETA(j), j=1,...,N, will be the generalized eigenvalues. ALPHA(j), j=1,...,N and BETA(j), j=1,...,N are the diagonals of the complex Schur form (A,B) output by CGGES. The BETA(j) will be non-negative real. Note: the quotients ALPHA(j)/BETA(j) may easily over- or underflow, and BETA(j) may even be zero. Thus, the user should avoid naively computing the ratio alpha/beta. However, ALPHA will be always less than and usually comparable with norm(A) in magnitude, and BETA always less than and usually comparable with norm(B).

*VSL*VSL is COMPLEX array, dimension (LDVSL,N) If JOBVSL = 'V', VSL will contain the left Schur vectors. Not referenced if JOBVSL = 'N'.

*LDVSL*LDVSL is INTEGER The leading dimension of the matrix VSL. LDVSL >= 1, and if JOBVSL = 'V', LDVSL >= N.

*VSR*VSR is COMPLEX array, dimension (LDVSR,N) If JOBVSR = 'V', VSR will contain the right Schur vectors. Not referenced if JOBVSR = 'N'.

*LDVSR*LDVSR is INTEGER The leading dimension of the matrix VSR. LDVSR >= 1, and if JOBVSR = 'V', LDVSR >= N.

*WORK*WORK is COMPLEX array, dimension (MAX(1,LWORK)) On exit, if INFO = 0, WORK(1) returns the optimal LWORK.

*LWORK*LWORK is INTEGER The dimension of the array WORK. LWORK >= max(1,2*N). For good performance, LWORK must generally be larger. If LWORK = -1, then a workspace query is assumed; the routine only calculates the optimal size of the WORK array, returns this value as the first entry of the WORK array, and no error message related to LWORK is issued by XERBLA.

*RWORK*RWORK is REAL array, dimension (8*N)

*BWORK*BWORK is LOGICAL array, dimension (N) Not referenced if SORT = 'N'.

*INFO*INFO is INTEGER = 0: successful exit < 0: if INFO = -i, the i-th argument had an illegal value. =1,...,N: The QZ iteration failed. (A,B) are not in Schur form, but ALPHA(j) and BETA(j) should be correct for j=INFO+1,...,N. > N: =N+1: other than QZ iteration failed in CHGEQZ =N+2: after reordering, roundoff changed values of some complex eigenvalues so that leading eigenvalues in the Generalized Schur form no longer satisfy SELCTG=.TRUE. This could also be caused due to scaling. =N+3: reordering failed in CTGSEN.

**Author:**Univ. of Tennessee

Univ. of California Berkeley

Univ. of Colorado Denver

NAG Ltd.

**Date:**December 2016

Definition at line 272 of file cgges.f.

## Author

Generated automatically by Doxygen for LAPACK from the source code.

## Referenced By

The man page cgges(3) is an alias of cgges.f(3).

Tue Nov 14 2017 Version 3.8.0 LAPACK