String.3o - Man Page

Strings.

Module

Module   String

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Module String
: sig end

Strings.

A string s of length n is an indexable and immutable sequence of n bytes. For historical reasons these bytes are referred to as characters.

The semantics of string functions is defined in terms of indices and positions. These are depicted and described as follows.

positions  0   1   2   3   4    n-1    n +---+---+---+---+     +-----+ indices  | 0 | 1 | 2 | 3 | ... | n-1 | +---+---+---+---+     +-----+

-An index i of s is an integer in the range [ 0 ; n-1 ]. It represents the i th byte (character) of s which can be accessed using the constant time string indexing operator s.[i] .

-A position i of s is an integer in the range [ 0 ; n ]. It represents either the point at the beginning of the string, or the point between two indices, or the point at the end of the string. The i th byte index is between position i and i+1 .

Two integers start and len are said to define a valid substring of s if len >= 0 and start , start+len are positions of s .

Unicode text. Strings being arbitrary sequences of bytes, they can hold any kind of textual encoding. However the recommended encoding for storing Unicode text in OCaml strings is UTF-8. This is the encoding used by Unicode escapes in string literals. For example the string "\u{1F42B}" is the UTF-8 encoding of the Unicode character U+1F42B.

Past mutability. OCaml strings used to be modifiable in place, for instance via the String.set and String.blit functions. This use is nowadays only possible when the compiler is put in "unsafe-string" mode by giving the -unsafe-string command-line option. This compatibility mode makes the types string and bytes (see Bytes.t ) interchangeable so that functions expecting byte sequences can also accept strings as arguments and modify them.

The distinction between bytes and string was introduced in OCaml 4.02, and the "unsafe-string" compatibility mode was the default until OCaml 4.05. Starting with 4.06, the compatibility mode is opt-in; we intend to remove the option in the future.

The labeled version of this module can be used as described in the StdLabels module.

Strings

type t = string

The type for strings.

val make : int -> char -> string

make n c is a string of length n with each index holding the character c .

Raises Invalid_argument if n < 0 or n > Sys.max_string_length .

val init : int -> (int -> char) -> string

init n f is a string of length n with index i holding the character f i (called in increasing index order).

Since 4.02.0

Raises Invalid_argument if n < 0 or n > Sys.max_string_length .

val empty : string

The empty string.

Since 4.13.0

val of_bytes : bytes -> string

Return a new string that contains the same bytes as the given byte sequence.

Since 4.13.0

val to_bytes : string -> bytes

Return a new byte sequence that contains the same bytes as the given string.

Since 4.13.0

val length : string -> int

length s is the length (number of bytes/characters) of s .

val get : string -> int -> char

get s i is the character at index i in s . This is the same as writing s.[i] .

Raises Invalid_argument if i not an index of s .

Concatenating

Note. The (^) binary operator concatenates two strings.

val concat : string -> string list -> string

concat sep ss concatenates the list of strings ss , inserting the separator string sep between each.

Raises Invalid_argument if the result is longer than Sys.max_string_length bytes.

val cat : string -> string -> string

cat s1 s2 concatenates s1 and s2 ( s1 ^ s2 ).

Since 4.13.0

Raises Invalid_argument if the result is longer then than Sys.max_string_length bytes.

Predicates and comparisons

val equal : t -> t -> bool

equal s0 s1 is true if and only if s0 and s1 are character-wise equal.

Since 4.03.0 (4.05.0 in StringLabels)

val compare : t -> t -> int

compare s0 s1 sorts s0 and s1 in lexicographical order. compare behaves like compare on strings but may be more efficient.

val starts_with : prefix:string -> string -> bool

starts_with ~ prefix s is true if and only if s starts with prefix .

Since 4.13.0

val ends_with : suffix:string -> string -> bool

ends_with suffix s is true if and only if s ends with suffix .

Since 4.13.0

val contains_from : string -> int -> char -> bool

contains_from s start c is true if and only if c appears in s after position start .

Raises Invalid_argument if start is not a valid position in s .

val rcontains_from : string -> int -> char -> bool

rcontains_from s stop c is true if and only if c appears in s before position stop+1 .

Raises Invalid_argument if stop < 0 or stop+1 is not a valid position in s .

val contains : string -> char -> bool

contains s c is String.contains_from s 0 c .

Extracting substrings

val sub : string -> int -> int -> string

sub s pos len is a string of length len , containing the substring of s that starts at position pos and has length len .

Raises Invalid_argument if pos and len do not designate a valid substring of s .

val split_on_char : char -> string -> string list

split_on_char sep s is the list of all (possibly empty) substrings of s that are delimited by the character sep .

The function's result is specified by the following invariants:

-The list is not empty.

-Concatenating its elements using sep as a separator returns a string equal to the input ( concat (make 1 sep)
     (split_on_char sep s) = s ).

-No string in the result contains the sep character.

Since 4.04.0 (4.05.0 in StringLabels)

Transforming

val map : (char -> char) -> string -> string

map f s is the string resulting from applying f to all the characters of s in increasing order.

Since 4.00.0

val mapi : (int -> char -> char) -> string -> string

mapi f s is like String.map but the index of the character is also passed to f .

Since 4.02.0

val fold_left : ('a -> char -> 'a) -> 'a -> string -> 'a

fold_left f x s computes f (... (f (f x s.[0]) s.[1]) ...) s.[n-1] , where n is the length of the string s .

Since 4.13.0

val fold_right : (char -> 'a -> 'a) -> string -> 'a -> 'a

fold_right f s x computes f s.[0] (f s.[1] ( ... (f s.[n-1] x) ...)) , where n is the length of the string s .

Since 4.13.0

val for_all : (char -> bool) -> string -> bool

for_all p s checks if all characters in s satisfy the predicate p .

Since 4.13.0

val exists : (char -> bool) -> string -> bool

exists p s checks if at least one character of s satisfies the predicate p .

Since 4.13.0

val trim : string -> string

trim s is s without leading and trailing whitespace. Whitespace characters are: ' ' , '\x0C' (form feed), '\n' , '\r' , and '\t' .

Since 4.00.0

val escaped : string -> string

escaped s is s with special characters represented by escape sequences, following the lexical conventions of OCaml.

All characters outside the US-ASCII printable range [0x20;0x7E] are escaped, as well as backslash (0x2F) and double-quote (0x22).

The function Scanf.unescaped is a left inverse of escaped , i.e. Scanf.unescaped (escaped s) = s for any string s (unless escaped s fails).

Raises Invalid_argument if the result is longer than Sys.max_string_length bytes.

val uppercase_ascii : string -> string

uppercase_ascii s is s with all lowercase letters translated to uppercase, using the US-ASCII character set.

Since 4.03.0 (4.05.0 in StringLabels)

val lowercase_ascii : string -> string

lowercase_ascii s is s with all uppercase letters translated to lowercase, using the US-ASCII character set.

Since 4.03.0 (4.05.0 in StringLabels)

val capitalize_ascii : string -> string

capitalize_ascii s is s with the first character set to uppercase, using the US-ASCII character set.

Since 4.03.0 (4.05.0 in StringLabels)

val uncapitalize_ascii : string -> string

uncapitalize_ascii s is s with the first character set to lowercase, using the US-ASCII character set.

Since 4.03.0 (4.05.0 in StringLabels)

Traversing

val iter : (char -> unit) -> string -> unit

iter f s applies function f in turn to all the characters of s . It is equivalent to f s.[0]; f s.[1]; ...; f s.[length s - 1]; () .

val iteri : (int -> char -> unit) -> string -> unit

iteri is like String.iter , but the function is also given the corresponding character index.

Since 4.00.0

Searching

val index_from : string -> int -> char -> int

index_from s i c is the index of the first occurrence of c in s after position i .

Raises Not_found if c does not occur in s after position i .

Raises Invalid_argument if i is not a valid position in s .

val index_from_opt : string -> int -> char -> int option

index_from_opt s i c is the index of the first occurrence of c in s after position i (if any).

Since 4.05

Raises Invalid_argument if i is not a valid position in s .

val rindex_from : string -> int -> char -> int

rindex_from s i c is the index of the last occurrence of c in s before position i+1 .

Raises Not_found if c does not occur in s before position i+1 .

Raises Invalid_argument if i+1 is not a valid position in s .

val rindex_from_opt : string -> int -> char -> int option

rindex_from_opt s i c is the index of the last occurrence of c in s before position i+1 (if any).

Since 4.05

Raises Invalid_argument if i+1 is not a valid position in s .

val index : string -> char -> int

index s c is String.index_from s 0 c .

val index_opt : string -> char -> int option

index_opt s c is String.index_from_opt s 0 c .

Since 4.05

val rindex : string -> char -> int

rindex s c is String.rindex_from s (length s - 1) c .

val rindex_opt : string -> char -> int option

rindex_opt s c is String.rindex_from_opt s (length s - 1) c .

Since 4.05

Strings and Sequences

val to_seq : t -> char Seq.t

to_seq s is a sequence made of the string's characters in increasing order. In "unsafe-string" mode, modifications of the string during iteration will be reflected in the sequence.

Since 4.07

val to_seqi : t -> (int * char) Seq.t

to_seqi s is like String.to_seq but also tuples the corresponding index.

Since 4.07

val of_seq : char Seq.t -> t

of_seq s is a string made of the sequence's characters.

Since 4.07

Deprecated functions

val create : int -> bytes

Deprecated. This is a deprecated alias of Bytes.create / BytesLabels.create .

create n returns a fresh byte sequence of length n . The sequence is uninitialized and contains arbitrary bytes.

Raises Invalid_argument if n < 0 or n > Sys.max_string_length .

val set : bytes -> int -> char -> unit

Deprecated. This is a deprecated alias of Bytes.set / BytesLabels.set .

set s n c modifies byte sequence s in place, replacing the byte at index n with c . You can also write s.[n] <- c instead of set s n c .

Raises Invalid_argument if n is not a valid index in s .

val blit : string -> int -> bytes -> int -> int -> unit

blit src src_pos dst dst_pos len copies len bytes from the string src , starting at index src_pos , to byte sequence dst , starting at character number dst_pos .

Raises Invalid_argument if src_pos and len do not designate a valid range of src , or if dst_pos and len do not designate a valid range of dst .

val copy : string -> string

Deprecated. Because strings are immutable, it doesn't make much sense to make identical copies of them.

Return a copy of the given string.

val fill : bytes -> int -> int -> char -> unit

Deprecated. This is a deprecated alias of Bytes.fill / BytesLabels.fill .

fill s pos len c modifies byte sequence s in place, replacing len bytes by c , starting at pos .

Raises Invalid_argument if pos and len do not designate a valid substring of s .

val uppercase : string -> string

Deprecated. Functions operating on Latin-1 character set are deprecated.

Return a copy of the argument, with all lowercase letters translated to uppercase, including accented letters of the ISO Latin-1 (8859-1) character set.

val lowercase : string -> string

Deprecated. Functions operating on Latin-1 character set are deprecated.

Return a copy of the argument, with all uppercase letters translated to lowercase, including accented letters of the ISO Latin-1 (8859-1) character set.

val capitalize : string -> string

Deprecated. Functions operating on Latin-1 character set are deprecated.

Return a copy of the argument, with the first character set to uppercase, using the ISO Latin-1 (8859-1) character set..

val uncapitalize : string -> string

Deprecated. Functions operating on Latin-1 character set are deprecated.

Return a copy of the argument, with the first character set to lowercase, using the ISO Latin-1 (8859-1) character set.

Binary decoding of integers

The functions in this section binary decode integers from strings.

All following functions raise Invalid_argument if the characters needed at index i to decode the integer are not available.

Little-endian (resp. big-endian) encoding means that least (resp. most) significant bytes are stored first.  Big-endian is also known as network byte order.  Native-endian encoding is either little-endian or big-endian depending on Sys.big_endian .

32-bit and 64-bit integers are represented by the int32 and int64 types, which can be interpreted either as signed or unsigned numbers.

8-bit and 16-bit integers are represented by the int type, which has more bits than the binary encoding.  These extra bits are sign-extended (or zero-extended) for functions which decode 8-bit or 16-bit integers and represented them with int values.

val get_uint8 : string -> int -> int

get_uint8 b i is b 's unsigned 8-bit integer starting at character index i .

Since 4.13.0

val get_int8 : string -> int -> int

get_int8 b i is b 's signed 8-bit integer starting at character index i .

Since 4.13.0

val get_uint16_ne : string -> int -> int

get_uint16_ne b i is b 's native-endian unsigned 16-bit integer starting at character index i .

Since 4.13.0

val get_uint16_be : string -> int -> int

get_uint16_be b i is b 's big-endian unsigned 16-bit integer starting at character index i .

Since 4.13.0

val get_uint16_le : string -> int -> int

get_uint16_le b i is b 's little-endian unsigned 16-bit integer starting at character index i .

Since 4.13.0

val get_int16_ne : string -> int -> int

get_int16_ne b i is b 's native-endian signed 16-bit integer starting at character index i .

Since 4.13.0

val get_int16_be : string -> int -> int

get_int16_be b i is b 's big-endian signed 16-bit integer starting at character index i .

Since 4.13.0

val get_int16_le : string -> int -> int

get_int16_le b i is b 's little-endian signed 16-bit integer starting at character index i .

Since 4.13.0

val get_int32_ne : string -> int -> int32

get_int32_ne b i is b 's native-endian 32-bit integer starting at character index i .

Since 4.13.0

val get_int32_be : string -> int -> int32

get_int32_be b i is b 's big-endian 32-bit integer starting at character index i .

Since 4.13.0

val get_int32_le : string -> int -> int32

get_int32_le b i is b 's little-endian 32-bit integer starting at character index i .

Since 4.13.0

val get_int64_ne : string -> int -> int64

get_int64_ne b i is b 's native-endian 64-bit integer starting at character index i .

Since 4.13.0

val get_int64_be : string -> int -> int64

get_int64_be b i is b 's big-endian 64-bit integer starting at character index i .

Since 4.13.0

val get_int64_le : string -> int -> int64

get_int64_le b i is b 's little-endian 64-bit integer starting at character index i .

Since 4.13.0

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2021-10-04 OCamldoc OCaml library