fuser man page

Prolog

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fuser — list process IDs of all processes that have one or more files open

Synopsis

fuser [-cfu] file...

Description

The fuser utility shall write to standard output the process IDs of processes running on the local system that have one or more named files open. For block special devices, all processes using any file on that device are listed.

The fuser utility shall write to standard error additional information about the named files indicating how the file is being used.

Any output for processes running on remote systems that have a named file open is unspecified.

A user may need appropriate privileges to invoke the fuser utility.

Options

The fuser utility shall conform to the Base Definitions volume of POSIX.1‐2008, Section 12.2, Utility Syntax Guidelines.

The following options shall be supported:

-c
The file is treated as a mount point and the utility shall report on any files open in the file system.
-f
The report shall be only for the named files.
-u
The user name, in parentheses, associated with each process ID written to standard output shall be written to standard error.

Operands

The following operand shall be supported:

file
A pathname on which the file or file system is to be reported.

Stdin

Not used.

Input Files

The user database.

Environment Variables

The following environment variables shall affect the execution of fuser:

LANG
Provide a default value for the internationalization variables that are unset or null. (See the Base Definitions volume of POSIX.1‐2008, Section 8.2, Internationalization Variables for the precedence of internationalization variables used to determine the values of locale categories.)
LC_ALL
If set to a non-empty string value, override the values of all the other internationalization variables.
LC_CTYPE
Determine the locale for the interpretation of sequences of bytes of text data as characters (for example, single-byte as opposed to multi-byte characters in arguments).
LC_MESSAGES
Determine the locale that should be used to affect the format and contents of diagnostic messages written to standard error.
NLSPATH
Determine the location of message catalogs for the processing of LC_MESSAGES.

Asynchronous Events

Default.

Stdout

The fuser utility shall write the process ID for each process using each file given as an operand to standard output in the following format:

"%d", <process_id>

Stderr

The fuser utility shall write diagnostic messages to standard error.

The fuser utility also shall write the following to standard error:

*
The pathname of each named file is written followed immediately by a <colon>.
*
For each process ID written to standard output, the character 'c' shall be written to standard error if the process is using the file as its current directory and the character 'r' shall be written to standard error if the process is using the file as its root directory. Implementations may write other alphabetic characters to indicate other uses of files.
*
When the -u option is specified, characters indicating the use of the file shall be followed immediately by the user name, in parentheses, corresponding to the real user ID of the process. If the user name cannot be resolved from the real user ID of the process, the real user ID of the process shall be written instead of the user name.

When standard output and standard error are directed to the same file, the output shall be interleaved so that the filename appears at the start of each line, followed by the process ID and characters indicating the use of the file. Then, if the -u option is specified, the user name or user ID for each process using that file shall be written.

A <newline> shall be written to standard error after the last output described above for each file operand.

Exit Status

The following exit values shall be returned:

0
Successful completion.
>0
An error occurred.

Consequences of Errors

Default.

The following sections are informative.

Examples

The command:

fuser -fu .

writes to standard output the process IDs of processes that are using the current directory and writes to standard error an indication of how those processes are using the directory and the user names associated with the processes that are using the current directory.

fuser -c <mount point>

writes to standard output the process IDs of processes that are using any file in the file system which is mounted on <mount point> and writes to standard error an indication of how those processes are using the files.

fuser <mount point>

writes to standard output the process IDs of processes that are using the file which is named by <mount point> and writes to standard error an indication of how those processes are using the file.

fuser <block device>

writes to standard output the process IDs of processes that are using any file which is on the device named by <block device> and writes to standard error an indication of how those processes are using the file.

fuser -f <block device>

writes to standard output the process IDs of processes that are using the file <block device> itself and writes to standard error an indication of how those processes are using the file.

Rationale

The definition of the fuser utility follows existing practice.

See Also

The Base Definitions volume of POSIX.1‐2008, Chapter 8, Environment Variables, Section 12.2, Utility Syntax Guidelines

Info

2013 IEEE/The Open Group POSIX Programmer's Manual