Section 1p: POSIX Commands

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Man pages in this section:

alias
The alias utility shall create or redefine alias definitions or write the values of existing alias definitions to standard output. An alias definition provides...
ar
The ar utility is part of the Software Development Utilities option. The ar utility can be used to create and maintain groups of files combined into an archive...
asa
The asa utility shall write its input files to standard output, mapping carriage-control characters from the text files to line-printer control sequences in an...
at
The at utility shall read commands from standard input and group them together as an at-job, to be executed at a later time. The at-job shall be executed in a...
awk
The awk utility shall execute programs written in the awk programming language, which is specialized for textual data manipulation. An awk program is a sequence...
basename
The string operand shall be treated as a pathname, as defined in the Base Definitions volume of POSIX.1‐2008, Section 3.267, Pathname. The string string shall...
batch
The batch utility shall read commands from standard input and schedule them for execution in a batch queue.
bc
The bc utility shall implement an arbitrary precision calculator. It shall take input from any files given, then read from the standard input. If the standard...
bg
If job control is enabled (see the description of set -m), the bg utility shall resume suspended jobs from the current environment (see Section 2.12, Shell...
break
The break utility shall exit from the smallest enclosing for, while, or until loop, if any; or from the nth enclosing loop if n is specified. The value of n is...
c99
The c99 utility is an interface to the standard C compilation system; it shall accept source code conforming to the ISO C standard. The system conceptually...
cal
The cal utility shall write a calendar to standard output using the Julian calendar for dates from January 1, 1 through September 2, 1752 and the Gregorian...
cat
The cat utility shall read files in sequence and shall write their contents to the standard output in the same sequence.
cd
The cd utility shall change the working directory of the current shell execution environment (see Section 2.12, Shell Execution Environment) by executing the...
cflow
The cflow utility shall analyze a collection of object files or assembler, C-language, lex, or yacc source files, and attempt to build a graph, written to...
chgrp
The chgrp utility shall set the group ID of the file named by each file operand to the group ID specified by the group operand.
chmod
The chmod utility shall change any or all of the file mode bits of the file named by each file operand in the way specified by the mode operand. It is...
chown
The chown utility shall set the user ID of the file named by each file operand to the user ID specified by the owner operand.
cksum
The cksum utility shall calculate and write to standard output a cyclic redundancy check (CRC) for each input file, and also write to standard output the number...
cmp
The cmp utility shall compare two files. The cmp utility shall write no output if the files are the same. Under default options, if they differ, it shall write...
colon
This utility shall only expand command arguments. It is used when a command is needed, as in the then condition of an if command, but nothing is to be done by...
comm
The comm utility shall read file1 and file2, which should be ordered in the current collating sequence, and produce three text columns as output: lines only in...
command
The command utility shall cause the shell to treat the arguments as a simple command, suppressing the shell function lookup that is described in Section...
compress
The compress utility shall attempt to reduce the size of the named files by using adaptive Lempel-Ziv coding algorithm.
continue
The continue utility shall return to the top of the smallest enclosing for, while, or until loop, or to the top of the nth enclosing loop, if n is specified...
cp
The first synopsis form is denoted by two operands, neither of which are existing files of type directory. The cp utility shall copy the contents of source_file...
crontab
The crontab utility shall create, replace, or edit a user's crontab entry; a crontab entry is a list of commands and the times at which they shall be executed...
csplit
The csplit utility shall read the file named by the file operand, write all or part of that file into other files as directed by the arg operands, and write the...
ctags
The ctags utility shall be provided on systems that support the the Software Development Utilities option, and either or both of the C-Language Development...
cut
The cut utility shall cut out bytes (-b option), characters (-c option), or character-delimited fields (-f option) from each line in one or more files...
cxref
The cxref utility shall analyze a collection of C-language files and attempt to build a cross-reference table. Information from #define lines shall be included...
date
The date utility shall write the date and time to standard output or attempt to set the system date and time. By default, the current date and time shall be...
dd
The dd utility shall copy the specified input file to the specified output file with possible conversions using specific input and output block sizes. It shall...
df
The df utility shall write the amount of available space and file slots for file systems on which the invoking user has appropriate read access. File systems...
diff
The diff utility shall compare the contents of file1 and file2 and write to standard output a list of changes necessary to convert file1 into file2. This list...
dirname
The string operand shall be treated as a pathname, as defined in the Base Definitions volume of POSIX.1‐2008, Section 3.267, Pathname.
dot
The shell shall execute commands from the file in the current environment. If file does not contain a <slash>, the shell shall use the search path specified by...
du
By default, the du utility shall write to standard output the size of the file space allocated to, and the size of the file space allocated to each subdirectory...
echo
The echo utility writes its arguments to standard output, followed by a <newline>. If there are no arguments, only the <newline> is written.
ed
The ed utility is a line-oriented text editor that uses two modes: command mode and input mode. In command mode the input characters shall be interpreted as...
env
The env utility shall obtain the current environment, modify it according to its arguments, then invoke the utility named by the utility operand with the...
eval
The eval utility shall construct a command by concatenating arguments together, separating each with a <space> character. The constructed command shall be read...
ex
The ex utility is a line-oriented text editor. There are two other modes of the editor—open and visual—in which screen-oriented editing is available. This is...
exec
The exec utility shall open, close, and/or copy file descriptors as specified by any redirections as part of the command. If exec is specified without command...
exit
The exit utility shall cause the shell to exit with the exit status specified by the unsigned decimal integer n. If n is specified, but its value is not between...
expand
The expand utility shall write files or the standard input to the standard output with <tab> characters replaced with one or more <space> characters needed to...
export
The shell shall give the export attribute to the variables corresponding to the specified names, which shall cause them to be in the environment of subsequently...
expr
The expr utility shall evaluate an expression and write the result to standard output.
false
The false utility shall return with a non-zero exit code.
fc
The fc utility shall list, or shall edit and re-execute, commands previously entered to an interactive sh. The command history list shall reference commands by...
fg
If job control is enabled (see the description of set -m), the fg utility shall move a background job from the current environment (see Section 2.12, Shell...
file
determine file type
find
The find utility shall recursively descend the directory hierarchy from each file specified by path, evaluating a Boolean expression composed of the primaries...
fold
The fold utility is a filter that shall fold lines from its input files, breaking the lines to have a maximum of width column positions (or bytes, if the -b...
fort77
The fort77 utility is the interface to the FORTRAN compilation system; it shall accept the full FORTRAN-77 language defined by the ANSI X3.9‐1978 standard. The...
fuser
The fuser utility shall write to standard output the process IDs of processes running on the local system that have one or more named files open. For block...
gencat
The gencat utility shall merge the message text source file msgfile into a formatted message catalog catfile. The file catfile shall be created if it does not...
getconf
In the first synopsis form, the getconf utility shall write to the standard output the value of the variable specified by the system_var operand. In the second...
getopts
The getopts utility shall retrieve options and option-arguments from a list of parameters. It shall support the Utility Syntax Guidelines 3 to 10, inclusive...
grep
The grep utility shall search the input files, selecting lines matching one or more patterns; the types of patterns are controlled by the options specified. The...
hash
The hash utility shall affect the way the current shell environment remembers the locations of utilities found as described in Section 2.9.1.1, Command Search...
head
The head utility shall copy its input files to the standard output, ending the output for each file at a designated point. Copying shall end at the point in...
iconv
The iconv utility shall convert the encoding of characters in file from one codeset to another and write the results to standard output. When the options...
id
If no user operand is provided, the id utility shall write the user and group IDs and the corresponding user and group names of the invoking process to standard...
ipcrm
The ipcrm utility shall remove zero or more message queues, semaphore sets, or shared memory segments. The interprocess communication facilities to be removed...
ipcs
The ipcs utility shall write information about active interprocess communication facilities. Without options, information shall be written in short format for...
jobs
The jobs utility shall display the status of jobs that were started in the current shell environment; see Section 2.12, Shell Execution Environment. When jobs...
join
The join utility shall perform an equality join on the files file1 and file2. The joined files shall be written to the standard output. The join field is a...
kill
The kill utility shall send a signal to the process or processes specified by each pid operand.
lex
The lex utility shall generate C programs to be used in lexical processing of character input, and that can be used as an interface to yacc. The C programs...
link
call link() function
ln
In the first synopsis form, the ln utility shall create a new directory entry (link) at the destination path specified by the target_file operand. If the -s...
locale
The locale utility shall write information about the current locale environment, or all public locales, to the standard output. For the purposes of this...
localedef
The localedef utility shall convert source definitions for locale categories into a format usable by the functions and utilities whose operational behavior is...
logger
The logger utility saves a message, in an unspecified manner and format, containing the string operands provided by the user. The messages are expected to be...
logname
The logname utility shall write the user's login name to standard output. The login name shall be the string that would be returned by the getlogin() function...
lp
The lp utility shall copy the input files to an output destination in an unspecified manner. The default output destination should be to a hardcopy device, such...
ls
For each operand that names a file of a type other than directory or symbolic link to a directory, ls shall write the name of the file as well as any requested...
m4
The m4 utility is a macro processor that shall read one or more text files, process them according to their included macro statements, and write the results to...
mailx
The mailx utility provides a message sending and receiving facility. It has two major modes, selected by the options used: Send Mode and Receive Mode. On...
make
The make utility shall update files that are derived from other files. A typical case is one where object files are derived from the corresponding source files...
man
The man utility shall write information about each of the name operands. If name is the name of a standard utility, man at a minimum shall write a message...
mesg
The mesg utility shall control whether other users are allowed to send messages via write, talk, or other utilities to a terminal device. The terminal device...
mkdir
The mkdir utility shall create the directories specified by the operands, in the order specified.
mkfifo
The mkfifo utility shall create the FIFO special files specified by the operands, in the order specified.
more
The more utility shall read files and either write them to the terminal on a page-by-page basis or filter them to standard output. If standard output is not a...
mv
In the first synopsis form, the mv utility shall move the file named by the source_file operand to the destination specified by the target_file. This first...
newgrp
The newgrp utility shall create a new shell execution environment with a new real and effective group identification. Of the attributes listed in Section 2.12...
nice
The nice utility shall invoke a utility, requesting that it be run with a different nice value (see the Base Definitions volume of POSIX.1‐2008, Section 3.240...
nl
The nl utility shall read lines from the named file or the standard input if no file is named and shall reproduce the lines to standard output. Lines shall be...
nm
The nm utility shall display symbolic information appearing in the object file, executable file, or object-file library named by file. If no symbolic...
nohup
The nohup utility shall invoke the utility named by the utility operand with arguments supplied as the argument operands. At the time the named utility is...
od
The od utility shall write the contents of its input files to standard output in a user-specified format.
paste
The paste utility shall concatenate the corresponding lines of the given input files, and write the resulting lines to standard output. The default operation of...
patch
The patch utility shall read a source (patch) file containing any of four forms of difference (diff) listings produced by the diff utility (normal, copied...
pathchk
The pathchk utility shall check that one or more pathnames are valid (that is, they could be used to access or create a file without causing syntax errors) and...
pax
The pax utility shall read, write, and write lists of the members of archive files and copy directory hierarchies. A variety of archive formats shall be...
pr
The pr utility is a printing and pagination filter. If multiple input files are specified, each shall be read, formatted, and written to standard output.
printf
The printf utility shall write formatted operands to the standard output. The argument operands shall be formatted under control of the format operand.
ps
The ps utility shall write information about processes, subject to having appropriate privileges to obtain information about those processes. By default, ps...
pwd
The pwd utility shall write to standard output an absolute pathname of the current working directory, which does not contain the filenames dot or dot-dot.
qalter
The attributes of a batch job are altered by a request to the batch server that manages the batch job. The qalter utility is a user-accessible batch client that...
qdel
A batch job is deleted by sending a request to the batch server that manages the batch job. A batch job that has been deleted is no longer subject to management...
qhold
A hold is placed on a batch job by a request to the batch server that manages the batch job. A batch job that has one or more holds is not eligible for...
qmove
To move a batch job is to remove the batch job from the batch queue in which it resides and instantiate the batch job in another batch queue. A batch job is...
qmsg
To send a message to a batch job is to request that a server write a message string into one or more output files of the batch job. A message is sent to a batch...
qrerun
To rerun a batch job is to terminate the session leader of the batch job, delete any associated checkpoint files, and return the batch job to the batch queued...
qrls
A batch job might have one or more holds, which prevent the batch job from executing. A batch job from which all the holds have been removed becomes eligible...
qselect
To select a set of batch jobs is to return the batch job_identifiers for each batch job that meets a list of selection criteria. A set of batch jobs is selected...
qsig
To signal a batch job is to send a signal to the session leader of the batch job. A batch job is signaled by sending a request to the batch server that manages...
qstat
The status of a batch job, batch queue, or batch server is obtained by a request to the server. The qstat utility is a user-accessible batch client that...
qsub
To submit a script is to create a batch job that executes the script. A script is submitted by a request to a batch server. The qsub utility is a...
read
The read utility shall read a single line from standard input. By default, unless the -r option is specified, <backslash> shall act as an escape character. An...
readonly
The variables whose names are specified shall be given the readonly attribute. The values of variables with the readonly attribute cannot be changed by...
renice
The renice utility shall request that the nice values (see the Base Definitions volume of POSIX.1‐2008, Section 3.240, Nice Value) of one or more running...
return
The return utility shall cause the shell to stop executing the current function or dot script. If the shell is not currently executing a function or dot script...
rm
The rm utility shall remove the directory entry specified by each file argument. If either of the files dot or dot-dot are specified as the basename portion of...
rmdir
The rmdir utility shall remove the directory entry specified by each dir operand. For each dir operand, the rmdir utility shall perform actions equivalent to...
sed
The sed utility is a stream editor that shall read one or more text files, make editing changes according to a script of editing commands, and write the results...
set
If no options or arguments are specified, set shall write the names and values of all shell variables in the collation sequence of the current locale.
sh
The sh utility is a command language interpreter that shall execute commands read from a command line string, the standard input, or a specified file. The...
shift
The positional parameters shall be shifted. Positional parameter 1 shall be assigned the value of parameter (1+n), parameter 2 shall be assigned the value of...
sleep
The sleep utility shall suspend execution for at least the integral number of seconds specified by the time operand.
sort
sort, merge, or sequence check text files
split
The split utility shall read an input file and write one or more output files. The default size of each output file shall be 1000 lines. The size of the output...
strings
The strings utility shall look for printable strings in regular files and shall write those strings to standard output. A printable string is any sequence of...
strip
A strippable file is defined as a relocatable, object, or executable file. On XSI-conformant systems, a strippable file can also be an archive of object or...
stty
The stty utility shall set or report on terminal I/O characteristics for the device that is its standard input. Without options or operands specified, it shall...
tabs
The tabs utility shall display a series of characters that first clears the hardware terminal tab settings and then initializes the tab stops at the specified...
tail
The tail utility shall copy its input file to the standard output beginning at a designated place. Copying shall begin at the point in the file indicated by the...
talk
The talk utility is a two-way, screen-oriented communication program.
tee
The tee utility shall copy standard input to standard output, making a copy in zero or more files. The tee utility shall not buffer output. If the -a option is...
test
The test utility shall evaluate the expression and indicate the result of the evaluation by its exit status. An exit status of zero indicates that the...
time
The time utility shall invoke the utility named by the utility operand with arguments supplied as the argument operands and write a message to standard error...
times
write process times
touch
The touch utility shall change the last data modification timestamps, the last data access timestamps, or both. The time used can be specified by the -t time...
tput
The tput utility shall display terminal-dependent information. The manner in which this information is retrieved is unspecified. The information displayed shall...
tr
The tr utility shall copy the standard input to the standard output with substitution or deletion of selected characters. The options specified and the string1...
trap
If the first operand is an unsigned decimal integer, the shell shall treat all operands as conditions, and shall reset each condition to the default value...
true
The true utility shall return with exit code zero.
tsort
The tsort utility shall write to standard output a totally ordered list of items consistent with a partial ordering of items contained in the input. The...
tty
The tty utility shall write to the standard output the name of the terminal that is open as standard input. The name that is used shall be equivalent to the...
type
The type utility shall indicate how each argument would be interpreted if used as a command name.
ulimit
The ulimit utility shall set or report the file-size writing limit imposed on files written by the shell and its child processes (files of any size may be...
umask
The umask utility shall set the file mode creation mask of the current shell execution environment (see Section 2.12, Shell Execution Environment) to the value...
unalias
The unalias utility shall remove the definition for each alias name specified. See Section 2.3.1, Alias Substitution. The aliases shall be removed from the...
uname
By default, the uname utility shall write the operating system name to standard output. When options are specified, symbols representing one or more system...
uncompress
The uncompress utility shall restore files to their original state after they have been compressed using the compress utility. If no files are specified, the...
unexpand
The unexpand utility shall copy files or standard input to standard output, converting <blank> characters at the beginning of each line into the maximum number...
uniq
The uniq utility shall read an input file comparing adjacent lines, and write one copy of each input line on the output. The second and succeeding copies of...
unlink
call the unlink() function
unset
Each variable or function specified by name shall be unset. If -v is specified, name refers to a variable name and the shell shall unset it and remove it from...
uucp
The uucp utility shall copy files named by the source-file argument to the destination-file argument. The files named can be on local or remote systems. The...
uudecode
The uudecode utility shall read a file, or standard input if no file is specified, that includes data created by the uuencode utility. The uudecode utility...
uuencode
The uuencode utility shall write an encoded version of the named input file, or standard input if no file is specified, to standard output. The output shall be...
uustat
The uustat utility shall display the status of, or cancel, previously specified uucp requests, or provide general status on uucp connections to other systems...
uux
The uux utility shall gather zero or more files from various systems, execute a shell pipeline (see Section 2.9, Shell Commands) on a specified system, and then...
vi
This utility shall be provided on systems that both support the User Portability Utilities option and define the POSIX2_CHAR_TERM symbol. On other systems it is...
wait
When an asynchronous list (see Section 2.9.3.1, Examples) is started by the shell, the process ID of the last command in each element of the asynchronous list...
wc
The wc utility shall read one or more input files and, by default, write the number of <newline> characters, words, and bytes contained in each input file to...
who
The who utility shall list various pieces of information about accessible users. The domain of accessibility is implementation-defined. Based on the options...
write
The write utility shall read lines from the standard input and write them to the terminal of the specified user.
xargs
The xargs utility shall construct a command line consisting of the utility and argument operands specified followed by as many arguments read in sequence from...
yacc
The yacc utility shall read a description of a context-free grammar in grammar and write C source code, conforming to the ISO C standard, to a code file, and...
zcat
The zcat utility shall write to standard output the uncompressed form of files that have been compressed using the compress utility. It is the equivalent of...