virt-alignment-scan man page

virt-alignment-scan — Check alignment of virtual machine partitions

Synopsis

virt-alignment-scan [--options] -d domname
virt-alignment-scan [--options] -a disk.img [-a disk.img ...]
virt-alignment-scan [--options]

Description

When older operating systems install themselves, the partitioning tools place partitions at a sector misaligned with the underlying storage (commonly the first partition starts on sector 63). Misaligned partitions can result in an operating system issuing more I/O than should be necessary.

The virt-alignment-scan tool checks the alignment of partitions in virtual machines and disk images and warns you if there are alignment problems.

Currently there is no virt tool for fixing alignment problems. You can only reinstall the guest operating system. The following NetApp document summarises the problem and possible solutions: http://media.netapp.com/documents/tr-37…

Output

To run this tool on a disk image directly, use the -a option:

$ virt-alignment-scan -a winxp.img
/dev/sda1        32256          512    bad (alignment < 4K)
$ virt-alignment-scan -a fedora16.img
/dev/sda1      1048576         1024K   ok
/dev/sda2      2097152         2048K   ok
/dev/sda3    526385152         2048K   ok

To run the tool on a guest known to libvirt, use the -d option and possibly the -c option:

# virt-alignment-scan -d RHEL5
/dev/sda1        32256          512    bad (alignment < 4K)
/dev/sda2    106928640          512    bad (alignment < 4K)
$ virt-alignment-scan -c qemu:///system -d Win7TwoDisks
/dev/sda1      1048576         1024K   ok
/dev/sda2    105906176         1024K   ok
/dev/sdb1        65536           64K   ok

Run virt-alignment-scan without any -a or -d options to scan all libvirt domains.

# virt-alignment-scan
F16x64:/dev/sda1      1048576         1024K   ok
F16x64:/dev/sda2      2097152         2048K   ok
F16x64:/dev/sda3    526385152         2048K   ok

The output consists of 4 or more whitespace-separated columns. Only the first 4 columns are significant if you want to parse this from a program. The columns are:

col 1
The device and partition name (eg. /dev/sda1 meaning the first partition on the first block device).

When listing all libvirt domains (no -a or -d option given) this column is prefixed by the libvirt name or UUID (if --uuid is given). eg: "WinXP:/dev/sda1"
col 2
the start of the partition in bytes
col 3
the alignment in bytes or Kbytes (eg. 512 or "4K")
col 4
"ok" if the alignment is best for performance, or "bad" if the alignment can cause performance problems
cols 5+
optional free-text explanation.

The exit code from the program changes depending on whether poorly aligned partitions were found. See "Exit Status" below.

If you just want the exit code with no output, use the -q option.

Options

--help
Display brief help.
-a file
--add file
Add file which should be a disk image from a virtual machine.

The format of the disk image is auto-detected. To override this and force a particular format use the --format=.. option.
-a URI
--add URI
Add a remote disk. See "ADDING REMOTE STORAGE" in guestfish(1).
-c URI
--connect URI
If using libvirt, connect to the given URI. If omitted, then we connect to the default libvirt hypervisor.

If you specify guest block devices directly (-a), then libvirt is not used at all.
-d guest
--domain guest
Add all the disks from the named libvirt guest. Domain UUIDs can be used instead of names.
--format=raw|qcow2|..
--format

The default for the -a option is to auto-detect the format of the disk image. Using this forces the disk format for -a options which follow on the command line. Using --format with no argument switches back to auto-detection for subsequent -a options.

For example:

virt-alignment-scan --format=raw -a disk.img

forces raw format (no auto-detection) for disk.img.

virt-alignment-scan --format=raw -a disk.img --format -a another.img

forces raw format (no auto-detection) for disk.img and reverts to auto-detection for another.img.

If you have untrusted raw-format guest disk images, you should use this option to specify the disk format. This avoids a possible security problem with malicious guests (CVE-2010-3851).

-P nr_threads
Since libguestfs 1.22, virt-alignment-scan is multithreaded and examines guests in parallel. By default the number of threads to use is chosen based on the amount of free memory available at the time that virt-alignment-scan is started. You can force virt-alignment-scan to use at most "nr_threads" by using the -P option.

Note that -P 0 means to autodetect, and -P 1 means to use a single thread.
-q
--quiet
Don't produce any output. Just set the exit code (see "Exit Status" below).
--uuid
Print UUIDs instead of names. This is useful for following a guest even when the guest is migrated or renamed, or when two guests happen to have the same name.

This option only applies when listing all libvirt domains (when no -a or -d options are specified).
-v
--verbose
Enable verbose messages for debugging.
-V
--version
Display version number and exit.
-x
Enable tracing of libguestfs API calls.

Exit Status

This program returns:

·
0

successful exit, all partitions are aligned ≥ 64K for best performance
·
1

an error scanning the disk image or guest
·
2

successful exit, some partitions have alignment < 64K which can result in poor performance on high end network storage
·
3

successful exit, some partitions have alignment < 4K which can result in poor performance on most hypervisors

See Also

guestfs(3), guestfish(1), virt-filesystems(1), virt-rescue(1), virt-resize(1), http://libguestfs.org/.

Author

Richard W.M. Jones http://people.redhat.com/~rjones/

License

This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or (at your option) any later version.

This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU General Public License for more details.

You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along with this program; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation, Inc., 51 Franklin Street, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA.

Bugs

To get a list of bugs against libguestfs, use this link: https://bugzilla.redhat.com/buglist.cgi…

To report a new bug against libguestfs, use this link: https://bugzilla.redhat.com/enter_bug.c…

When reporting a bug, please supply:

·
The version of libguestfs.
·
Where you got libguestfs (eg. which Linux distro, compiled from source, etc)
·
Describe the bug accurately and give a way to reproduce it.
·
Run libguestfs-test-tool(1) and paste the complete, unedited output into the bug report.

Referenced By

guestfish(1), guestfs(3), guestfs-hacking(1), guestfs-testing(1), virt-resize(1).

2016-10-25 libguestfs-1.35.14 Virtualization Support