v.label.1grass - Man Page

Creates paint labels for a vector map from attached attributes.


vector, paint labels


v.label --help
v.label [-ac]  [labels=name]  map=name column=name  [type=string[,string,...]]   [layer=string]   [where=sql_query]   [xoffset=float]   [yoffset=float]   [reference=string[,string,...]]   [font=string]   [size=float]   [space=float]   [fontsize=integer]   [color=name]   [rotation=angle]   [width=float]   [highlight_color=name]   [highlight_width=float]   [bgcolor=name]   [border=name]   [opaque=yes|no]   [--help]  [--verbose]  [--quiet]  [--ui]



Rotate labels to align with lines


Curl labels along lines


Print usage summary


Verbose module output


Quiet module output


Force launching GUI dialog



Name for new paint-label file
If not given the name of the input map is used

map=name [required]

Name of vector map
Or data source for direct OGR access

column=name [required]

Name of attribute column to be used for labels


Input feature type
Options: point, line, boundary, centroid
Default: point,line,boundary,centroid


Layer number or name
Vector features can have category values in different layers. This number determines which layer to use. When used with direct OGR access this is the layer name.
Default: 1


WHERE conditions of SQL statement without ’where’ keyword
Example: income < 1000 and population >= 10000


Offset label in x-direction
Default: 0


Offset label in y-direction
Default: 0


Reference position
Options: center, left, right, upper, lower
Default: center


Font name
Default: standard


Label size (in map-units)
Default: 100


Space between letters for curled labels (in map-units)


Label size (in points)
Options: 1-1000


Text color
Either a standard color name or R:G:B triplet
Default: black


Rotation angle in degrees (counter-clockwise)
Options: 0-360
Default: 0


Border width
Options: 0-25
Default: 1


Highlight color for text
Either a standard color name, R:G:B triplet, or "none"
Default: none


Width of highlight coloring
Default: 0


Background color
Either a standard color name, R:G:B triplet, or "none"
Default: none


Border color
Either a standard color name, R:G:B triplet, or "none"
Default: none


Opaque to vector (only relevant if background color is selected)
Options: yes, no
Default: yes


v.label makes a label-file from a GRASS vector map with labels created from attributes in the attached table. If no label file name is given, the name of the source map is used.


If the fontsize option is given then the space option is determined automatically from the current display window, otherwise the space option should be set roughly the same as the size option.

A description of the labels file follows.

The file is located in $MAPSET/paint/labels/. The file is a plain-text ASCII file containing the following fields:

Caution: The following information may be incomplete, out of date, and wrong!

The label information that must be provided in the labels file is:


Lines in multiple line labels will appear one above the next. More than one line of text can be specified by notating the end of a line with a ’\n’.


Determines where the text will be located on the image.  The user specifies the easting and northing, and (optionally) specifies a vertical and horizontal offset from the specified easting/northing. These offsets are provided to allow finer placement of labels and are measured in local pixels. Thus in d.labels the offset is measured in screen pixels, and in ps.map the offset is measured in PostScript points (i.e. 1/72" steps).


Determines which part of the label to which the location refers.  If placement is unspecified, the label is centered (center), by default.  Label placement may be specified as:

	lower left	(lower left corner of the text)
	lower right	(lower right corner of the text)
	lower center	(bottom center of the text)
	upper left	(upper left corner of the text)
	upper right	(upper right corner of the text)
	upper center	(top center of the text)
	center	(center of the text)

This specifies the font to use.

The following fonts are available for use with d.labels:

  cyrilc gothgbt gothgrt gothitt greekc greekcs greekp greeks
  italicc italiccs italict romanc romancs romand romans romant
  scriptc scripts

Alternatively the path to a FreeType (.ttf) font may be given. (for d.labels only)

The word standard can be used to specify the default font (which is romans).

Note ps.map can override this setting to use other fonts. Its default font is Helvetica.


This determines the size of the letters. The size specifies the vertical height of the letters in meters on the ground. Thus text will grow or shrink depending on the scale at which the map is drawn. Alternatively fontsize can set the font size in normal font points.


This selects the text color.  If unspecified, the label’s text is drawn in black, by default.  The text color can be specified in one of several ways:


By color name:
aqua black blue brown cyan gray green grey indigo magenta orange purple red violet white yellow


As red, green, blue component values. (0-255)
for example: 128:100:200


Specify "none" to suppress the lettering.


This determines the line thickness of the border box.
The maximum value is 25.0.


The text can be highlighted in another color so that it appears to be in two colors. The text is drawn first in this color at a wider line width, and then redrawn in the text color at the regular line width.  No highlight color ("none") is used by default, if unspecified by the user.  To specify use of no highlight color, specify "none". (See TEXT COLOR above for a list of permissible color names.)


Specifies how far from the text lines (in units of pixels) the highlight color should extend.  The default highlight width is set to 0 (i.e., no highlight color).


Text may be boxed in a solid color by specifying a background color. Specify "none" for no background.  The default background color setting, if unspecified by the user, is white. (See TEXT COLOR above for a list of permissible color names.)


Select a color for the border around the background. Specify "none" to suppress the border. The default border color used, if unspecified, is black. (See TEXT COLOR above for a list of permissible color names.)


yes|no.  This field only has meaning if a background color is selected.  yes will prevent vector lines from entering the background.  no will allow vector lines to enter the background.  The default setting, if unspecified by the user, is yes.


Spearfish example with TrueType font (path may differ):

v.label -a map=roads column=label labels=lroads \
d.vect roads
d.labels lroads

Since the label files are simple text files, you can merge them together if you like. For example if you set the label colors based on database attributes using multiple runs with the where option. This example uses the standard UNIX cat program.

cd $MAPSET/paint/labels/
cat file1 file2 file3 file4 > file_all

See Also

d.labels, ps.map


Philip Verhagen (original s.label)
Radim Blazek (GRASS 6 port)
Hamish Bowman (enhancements)

Source Code

Available at: v.label source code (history)

Accessed: Thursday Jul 20 05:49:07 2023

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