v.hull.1grass man page

v.hull — Produces a 2D/3D convex hull for a given vector map.


vector, geometry, 3D


v.hull --help
v.hull [-rf] input=name  [layer=string]  output=name  [cats=range]   [where=sql_query]   [--overwrite]  [--help]  [--verbose]  [--quiet]  [--ui]



Limit to current region


Create a ’flat’ 2D hull even if the input is 3D points


Allow output files to overwrite existing files


Print usage summary


Verbose module output


Quiet module output


Force launching GUI dialog


input=name [required]

Name of input vector map
Or data source for direct OGR access


Layer number or name (’-1’ for all layers)
A single vector map can be connected to multiple database tables. This number determines which table to use. When used with direct OGR access this is the layer name.
Default: -1

output=name [required]

Name for output vector map


Category values
Example: 1,3,7-9,13


WHERE conditions of SQL statement without ’where’ keyword
Example: income < 1000 and inhab >= 10000


v.hull computes the convex hull of a vector map and outputs the convex hull polygon as a vector area map. The convex hull, or convex envelope, for an object or a set of objects is the minimal convex set containing the given objects. This module creates a vector polygon containing all vector points or lines of the input map.

In the case of 3D input points, the hull will be a 3D hull as well, unless the user specifies the -f flag. The 3D hull will be composed of triangular faces.
Fig: Convex hull polygon created with v.hull


Example of v.hull 3D output (using two random 3D point clouds, North Carolina sample data set):

g.region rural_1m -p
r.mapcalc "zero = 0"
v.random -z output=random3d_a n=10 zmin=0 zmax=200
v.random -z output=random3d_b n=15 zmin=400 zmax=600
v.hull input=random3d_a output=random3d_a_hull
v.hull input=random3d_b output=random3d_b_hull
d.mon wx0
d.vect random3d_a_hull
d.vect random3d_a color=red
d.vect random3d_b_hull
d.vect random3d_b color=red
# 3D view in wxGUI (g.gui)

Fig: Convex hull in 3D from 3D points created with v.hull


  • M. de Berg, M. van Kreveld, M. Overmars, O. Schwarzkopf, (2000). Computational geometry, chapter 1.1, 2-8.
  • J. O’Rourke, (1998). Computational Geometry in C (Second Edition), chapter 4.

See Also



Andrea Aime, Modena, Italy
Markus Neteler, ITC-irst (update to 5.7)
Benjamin Ducke, CAU Kiel (3D hull support)
Martin Landa, CTU in Prague, Czech Republic (vector lines support)

Last changed: $Date: 2015-01-15 09:43:36 +0100 (Thu, 15 Jan 2015) $

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