- Test if a given variable is equal to a given string:
test "$MY_VAR" == "/bin/zsh"
- Test if a given variable is empty:
test -z "$GIT_BRANCH"
- Test if a file exists:
test -f "path/to/file_or_directory"
- Test if a directory does not exist:
test ! -d "path/to/directory"
- If-else statement:
test condition && echo "true" || echo "false"
[ EXPRESSION ]
Exit with the status determined by EXPRESSION.
display this help and exit
output version information and exit
An omitted EXPRESSION defaults to false. Otherwise, EXPRESSION is true or false and sets exit status. It is one of:
- ( EXPRESSION )
EXPRESSION is true
- ! EXPRESSION
EXPRESSION is false
- EXPRESSION1 -a EXPRESSION2
both EXPRESSION1 and EXPRESSION2 are true
- EXPRESSION1 -o EXPRESSION2
either EXPRESSION1 or EXPRESSION2 is true
- -n STRING
the length of STRING is nonzero
equivalent to -n STRING
- -z STRING
the length of STRING is zero
- STRING1 = STRING2
the strings are equal
- STRING1 != STRING2
the strings are not equal
- INTEGER1 -eq INTEGER2
INTEGER1 is equal to INTEGER2
- INTEGER1 -ge INTEGER2
INTEGER1 is greater than or equal to INTEGER2
- INTEGER1 -gt INTEGER2
INTEGER1 is greater than INTEGER2
- INTEGER1 -le INTEGER2
INTEGER1 is less than or equal to INTEGER2
- INTEGER1 -lt INTEGER2
INTEGER1 is less than INTEGER2
- INTEGER1 -ne INTEGER2
INTEGER1 is not equal to INTEGER2
- FILE1 -ef FILE2
FILE1 and FILE2 have the same device and inode numbers
- FILE1 -nt FILE2
FILE1 is newer (modification date) than FILE2
- FILE1 -ot FILE2
FILE1 is older than FILE2
- -b FILE
FILE exists and is block special
- -c FILE
FILE exists and is character special
- -d FILE
FILE exists and is a directory
- -e FILE
- -f FILE
FILE exists and is a regular file
- -g FILE
FILE exists and is set-group-ID
- -G FILE
FILE exists and is owned by the effective group ID
- -h FILE
FILE exists and is a symbolic link (same as -L)
- -k FILE
FILE exists and has its sticky bit set
- -L FILE
FILE exists and is a symbolic link (same as -h)
- -N FILE
FILE exists and has been modified since it was last read
- -O FILE
FILE exists and is owned by the effective user ID
- -p FILE
FILE exists and is a named pipe
- -r FILE
FILE exists and read permission is granted
- -s FILE
FILE exists and has a size greater than zero
- -S FILE
FILE exists and is a socket
- -t FD
file descriptor FD is opened on a terminal
- -u FILE
FILE exists and its set-user-ID bit is set
- -w FILE
FILE exists and write permission is granted
- -x FILE
FILE exists and execute (or search) permission is granted
Except for -h and -L, all FILE-related tests dereference symbolic links. Beware that parentheses need to be escaped (e.g., by backslashes) for shells. INTEGER may also be -l STRING, which evaluates to the length of STRING.
NOTE: Binary -a and -o are inherently ambiguous. Use 'test EXPR1 && test EXPR2' or 'test EXPR1 || test EXPR2' instead.
NOTE: [ honors the --help and --version options, but test does not. test treats each of those as it treats any other nonempty STRING.
NOTE: your shell may have its own version of test and/or [, which usually supersedes the version described here. Please refer to your shell's documentation for details about the options it supports.
Written by Kevin Braunsdorf and Matthew Bradburn.
GNU coreutils online help: <https://www.gnu.org/software/coreutils/>
Report any translation bugs to <https://translationproject.org/team/>
Copyright © 2021 Free Software Foundation, Inc. License GPLv3+: GNU GPL version 3 or later <https://gnu.org/licenses/gpl.html>.
This is free software: you are free to change and redistribute it. There is NO WARRANTY, to the extent permitted by law.
Full documentation <https://www.gnu.org/software/coreutils/[>
or available locally via: info '(coreutils) test invocation'
dash(1), datetest(1), drbd.conf-9.0(5), innwatch.ctl(5), ksh93(1), ronn-format(7), stest(1).