tcpbridge man page

tcpbridge — Bridge network traffic across two interfaces

Synopsis

tcpbridge [-flags] [-flag [value]] [--option-name[[=| ]value]]

All arguments must be options.

tcpbridge is a tool for selectively briding network traffic across two interfaces and optionally modifying the packets in between

Description

The basic operation of tcpbridge is to be a network bridge between two subnets.  All packets received on one interface are sent via the other.

Optionally, packets can be edited in a variety of ways according to your needs.

For more details, please see the Tcpreplay Manual at: http://tcpreplay.appneta.com

Options

-r string, --portmap=string

Rewrite TCP/UDP ports. This option may appear up to 9999 times.

Specify a list of comma delimited port mappingings consisting of colon delimited port number pairs.  Each colon delimited port pair consists of the port to match followed by the port number to rewrite.

Examples:

    --portmap=80:8000 --portmap=8080:80    # 80->8000 and 8080->80
    --portmap=8000,8080,88888:80           # 3 different ports become 80
    --portmap=8000-8999:80                 # ports 8000 to 8999 become 80
-s number, --seed=number

Randomize src/dst IPv4/v6 addresses w/ given seed. This option may appear up to 1 times. This option must not appear in combination with any of the following options: fuzz-seed. This option takes an integer number as its argument.

Causes the source and destination IPv4/v6 addresses to be pseudo  randomized but still maintain client/server relationships. Since the randomization is deterministic based on the seed,  you can reuse the same seed value to recreate the traffic.

-N string, --pnat=string

Rewrite IPv4/v6 addresses using pseudo-NAT. This option may appear up to 2 times. This option must not appear in combination with any of the following options: srcipmap.

Takes a comma delimited series of colon delimited CIDR netblock pairs.  Each netblock pair is evaluated in order against the IP addresses.  If the IP address in the packet matches the first netblock, it is rewritten using the second netblock as a mask against the high order bits.

IPv4 Example:

    --pnat=192.168.0.0/16:10.77.0.0/16,172.16.0.0/12:10.1.0.0/24

IPv6 Example:

    --pnat=[2001:db8::/32]:[dead::/16],[2001:db8::/32]:[::ffff:0:0/96]
-S string, --srcipmap=string

Rewrite source IPv4/v6 addresses using pseudo-NAT. This option may appear up to 1 times. This option must not appear in combination with any of the following options: pnat.

Works just like the --pnat option, but only affects the source IP addresses in the IPv4/v6 header.

-D string, --dstipmap=string

Rewrite destination IPv4/v6 addresses using pseudo-NAT. This option may appear up to 1 times. This option must not appear in combination with any of the following options: pnat.

Works just like the --pnat option, but only affects the destination IP addresses in the IPv4/v6 header.

-e string, --endpoints=string

Rewrite IP addresses to be between two endpoints. This option may appear up to 1 times. This option must appear in combination with the following options: cachefile.

Takes a pair of colon delimited IPv4/v6 addresses which will be used to rewrite all traffic to appear to be between the two IP addresses.

IPv4 Example:

    --endpoints=172.16.0.1:172.16.0.2

IPv6 Example:

    --endpoints=[2001:db8::dead:beef]:[::ffff:0:0:ac:f:0:2]
-b, --skipbroadcast

Skip rewriting broadcast/multicast IPv4/v6 addresses.

By default --seed, --pnat and --endpoints will rewrite  broadcast and multicast IPv4/v6 and MAC addresses. Setting this flag will keep broadcast/multicast IPv4/v6 and MAC addresses from being rewritten.

-C, --fixcsum

Force recalculation of IPv4/TCP/UDP header checksums.

Causes each IPv4/v6 packet to have their checksums recalculated and fixed.  Automatically enabled for packets modified with --seed,  --pnat, --endpoints or --fixlen.

-m number, --mtu=number

Override default MTU length (1500 bytes). This option may appear up to 1 times. This option takes an integer number as its argument. The value of number is constrained to being:

in the range  1 through MAXPACKET

Override the default 1500 byte MTU size for determining the maximum padding length  (--fixlen=pad) or when truncating (--mtu-trunc).

--mtu-trunc

Truncate packets larger then specified MTU. This option may appear up to 1 times.

Similar to --fixlen, this option will truncate data in packets from Layer 3 and above to be  no larger then the MTU.

-E, --efcs

Remove Ethernet checksums (FCS) from end of frames.

Note, this option is pretty dangerous!  We do not actually check to see if a FCS actually exists in the frame, we just blindly delete the last 4 bytes.  Hence, you should only use this if you know know that your OS provides the FCS when  reading raw packets.

--ttl=string

Modify the IPv4/v6 TTL/Hop Limit.

Allows you to modify the TTL/Hop Limit of all the IPv4/v6 packets.  Specify a number to hard-code the value or +/-value to increase or decrease by the value provided (limited to 1-255).

Examples:

    --ttl=10
    --ttl=+7
    --ttl=-64
--tos=number

Set the IPv4 TOS/DiffServ/ECN byte. This option may appear up to 1 times. This option takes an integer number as its argument. The value of number is constrained to being:

in the range  0 through 255

Allows you to override the TOS (also known as DiffServ/ECN) value in IPv4.

--tclass=number

Set the IPv6 Traffic Class byte. This option may appear up to 1 times. This option takes an integer number as its argument. The value of number is constrained to being:

in the range  0 through 255

Allows you to override the IPv6 Traffic Class field.

--flowlabel=number

Set the IPv6 Flow Label. This option may appear up to 1 times. This option takes an integer number as its argument. The value of number is constrained to being:

in the range  0 through 1048575

Allows you to override the 20bit IPv6 Flow Label field.  Has no effect on IPv4  packets.

-F string, --fixlen=string

Pad or truncate packet data to match header length. This option may appear up to 1 times.

Packets may be truncated during capture if the snaplen is smaller then the packet.  This option allows you to modify the packet to pad the packet back out to the size stored in the IPv4/v6 header or rewrite the IP header total length to reflect the stored packet length.

pad Truncated packets will be padded out so that the packet length matches the  IPv4 total length

trunc Truncated packets will have their IPv4 total length field rewritten to match the actual packet length

del Delete the packet

--fuzz-seed=number

Fuzz 1 in X packets. Edit bytes, length, or emulate packet drop. This option takes an integer number as its argument. The value of number is constrained to being:

greater than or equal to 0

The default number for this option is:

0

This fuzzing was designed as to test layer 7 protocols such as voip protocols. It modifies randomly 1 out of X packets (where X = --fuzz-factor) in order  for stateful protocols to cover more of their code.  The random fuzzing actions  focus on data start and end because it often is the part of the data application  protocols base their decisions on.

Possible fuzzing actions list:
* drop packet
* reduce packet size
* edit packet Bytes:
  * Not all Bytes have the same probability of appearance in real life.
    Replace with 0x00, 0xFF, or a random byte with equal likelyhook
  * Not all Bytes have the same significance in a packet.
    Replace the start, the end, or the middle of the packet with equal likelihood.
* do nothing (7 out of 8 packets)

--fuzz-factor=number

Set the Fuzz 1 in X packet ratio (default 1 in 8 packets). This option must appear in combination with the following options: fuzz-seed. This option takes an integer number as its argument. The value of number is constrained to being:

greater than or equal to 1

The default number for this option is:

8

Sets the ratio of for --fuzz-seed option. By default this value is 8, which means 1 in 8 packets are modified by fuzzing. Note that this ratio is based on the random number genereated by the supplied fuzz seed. Therefore by default you cannot expect that exactly every eighth packet will be modified.

--skipl2broadcast

Skip rewriting broadcast/multicast Layer 2 addresses.

By default, editing Layer 2 addresses will rewrite  broadcast and multicast MAC addresses. Setting this flag will keep broadcast/multicast MAC addresses from being rewritten.

--dlt=string

Override output DLT encapsulation. This option may appear up to 1 times.

By default, no DLT (data link type) conversion will be made.   To change the DLT type of the output pcap, select one of the following values:

enet Ethernet aka DLT_EN10MB

hdlc Cisco HDLC aka DLT_C_HDLC

jnpr_ether Juniper Ethernet DLT_C_JNPR_ETHER

pppserial PPP Serial aka DLT_PPP_SERIAL

user User specified Layer 2 header and DLT type

--enet-dmac=string

Override destination ethernet MAC addresses. This option may appear up to 1 times.

Takes a pair of comma deliminated ethernet MAC addresses which will replace the destination MAC address of outbound packets. The first MAC address will be used for the server to client traffic and the optional second MAC address will be used for the client to server traffic.

Example:

    --enet-dmac=00:12:13:14:15:16,00:22:33:44:55:66
--enet-smac=string

Override source ethernet MAC addresses. This option may appear up to 1 times.

Takes a pair of comma deliminated ethernet MAC addresses which will replace the source MAC address of outbound packets. The first MAC address will be used for the server to client traffic and the optional second MAC address will be used for the client  to server traffic.

Example:

    --enet-smac=00:12:13:14:15:16,00:22:33:44:55:66
--enet-subsmac=string

Substitute MAC addresses. This option may appear up to 9999 times.

Allows you to rewrite ethernet MAC addresses of packets. It takes comma delimited pair or MACs address and rewrites all occurrences of the first MAC with the value of the second MAC. Example:

    --enet-subsmac=00:12:13:14:15:16,00:22:33:44:55:66
--enet-mac-seed=number

Randomize MAC addresses. This option may appear up to 1 times. This option must not appear in combination with any of the following options: enet-smac, enet-dmac, enet-subsmac. This option takes an integer number as its argument.

Allows you to randomize ethernet MAC addresses of packets, mostly like what --seed option does for IPv4/IPv6 addresses.

--enet-mac-seed-keep-bytes=number

Randomize MAC addresses. This option may appear up to 1 times. This option must appear in combination with the following options: enet-mac-seed. This option takes an integer number as its argument. The value of number is constrained to being:

in the range  1 through 6

Keep some bytes untouched when usinging --enet-mac-seed option.

--enet-vlan=string

Specify ethernet 802.1q VLAN tag mode. This option may appear up to 1 times.

Allows you to rewrite ethernet frames to add a 802.1q header to standard 802.3 ethernet headers or remove the 802.1q VLAN tag information.

add Rewrites the existing 802.3 ethernet header as an 802.1q VLAN header

del Rewrites the existing 802.1q VLAN header as an 802.3 ethernet header

--enet-vlan-tag=number

Specify the new ethernet 802.1q VLAN tag value. This option may appear up to 1 times. This option must appear in combination with the following options: enet-vlan. This option takes an integer number as its argument. The value of number is constrained to being:

in the range  0 through 4095
--enet-vlan-cfi=number

Specify the ethernet 802.1q VLAN CFI value. This option may appear up to 1 times. This option must appear in combination with the following options: enet-vlan. This option takes an integer number as its argument. The value of number is constrained to being:

in the range  0 through 1
--enet-vlan-pri=number

Specify the ethernet 802.1q VLAN priority. This option may appear up to 1 times. This option must appear in combination with the following options: enet-vlan. This option takes an integer number as its argument. The value of number is constrained to being:

in the range  0 through 7
--hdlc-control=number

Specify HDLC control value. This option may appear up to 1 times. This option takes an integer number as its argument.

The Cisco HDLC header has a 1 byte "control" field.  Apparently this should  always be 0, but if you can use any 1 byte value.

--hdlc-address=number

Specify HDLC address. This option may appear up to 1 times. This option takes an integer number as its argument.

The Cisco HDLC header has a 1 byte "address" field which has two valid  values:

0x0F Unicast

0xBF Broadcast
You can however specify any single byte value.

--user-dlt=number

Set output file DLT type. This option may appear up to 1 times. This option takes an integer number as its argument.

Set the DLT value of the output pcap file.

--user-dlink=string

Rewrite Data-Link layer with user specified data. This option may appear up to 2 times.

Provide a series of comma deliminated hex values which will be used to rewrite or create the Layer 2 header of the packets. The first instance of this argument will rewrite both server and client traffic, but if this argument is specified a second time, it will be used for the client traffic.

Example:

    --user-dlink=01,02,03,04,05,06,00,1A,2B,3C,4D,5E,6F,08,00
-d number, --dbug=number

Enable debugging output. This option may appear up to 1 times. This option takes an integer number as its argument. The value of number is constrained to being:

in the range  0 through 5

The default number for this option is:

0

If configured with --enable-debug, then you can specify a verbosity  level for debugging output.  Higher numbers increase verbosity.

-i string, --intf1=string

Primary interface (listen in uni-directional mode). This option may appear up to 1 times.

-I string, --intf2=string

Secondary interface (send in uni-directional mode). This option may appear up to 1 times.

-u, --unidir

Send and receive in only one direction. This option may appear up to 1 times.

Normally, tcpbridge will send and receive traffic in both directions  (bi-directionally).  However, if you choose this option, traffic will  be sent uni-directionally.

--listnics

List available network interfaces and exit.

-L number, --limit=number

Limit the number of packets to send. This option may appear up to 1 times. This option takes an integer number as its argument. The value of number is constrained to being:

greater than or equal to 1

The default number for this option is:

-1

By default, tcpbridge will send packets forever or until Ctrl-C.  Alternatively, you can specify a maximum number of packets to send.

-M string, --mac=string

MAC addresses of local NIC's. This option may appear up to 2 times.

tcpbridge does not support detecting the MAC addresses of the local network interfaces under Windows.  Please specify both MAC addresses of the interfaces used in the bridge: -M <intf1 mac> -M <intf2 mac>

-x string, --include=string

Include only packets matching rule. This option may appear up to 1 times. This option must not appear in combination with any of the following options: exclude.

Override default of sending all packets stored in the capture file and only send packets which match the provided rule.  Rules can be one of:

S:<CIDR1>,... - Source IP must match specified CIDR(s)

D:<CIDR1>,... - Destination IP must match specified CIDR(s)

B:<CIDR1>,... - Both source and destination IP must match specified CIDR(s)

E:<CIDR1>,... - Either IP must match specified CIDR(s)

P:<LIST> - Must be one of the listed packets where the list corresponds to the packet number in the capture file.

    --include=P:1-5,9,15,72-

would send packets 1 thru 5, the 9th and 15th packet, and packets 72 until the end of the file

F:'<bpf>' - BPF filter.  See the tcpdump(8) man page for syntax.

-X string, --exclude=string

Exclude any packet matching this rule. This option may appear up to 1 times. This option must not appear in combination with any of the following options: include.

Override default of sending all packets stored in the capture file and only send packets which do not match the provided rule.  Rules can be one of:

S:<CIDR1>,... - Source IP must not match specified CIDR(s)

D:<CIDR1>,... - Destination IP must not match specified CIDR(s)

B:<CIDR1>,... - Both source and destination IP must not match specified CIDR(s)

E:<CIDR1>,... - Either IP must not match specified CIDR(s)

P:<LIST> - Must not be one of the listed packets where the list corresponds to the packet number in the capture file.

    --exclude=P:1-5,9,15,72-

would drop packets 1 thru 5, the 9th and 15th packet, and packets 72 until the end of the file

-P, --pid

Print the PID of tcpbridge at startup.

-v, --verbose

Print decoded packets via tcpdump to STDOUT. This option may appear up to 1 times.

-A string, --decode=string

Arguments passed to tcpdump decoder. This option may appear up to 1 times. This option must appear in combination with the following options: verbose.

When enabling verbose mode (-v) you may also specify one or more additional  arguments to pass to tcpdump to modify the way packets are decoded.  By default, -n and -l are used.   Be  sure  to quote the arguments like: --verbose="-axxx" so that they are not interpreted by tcpbridge.  The following arguments are valid:
   [ -aAeNqRStuvxX ]
   [ -E spi@ipaddr algo:secret,... ]
   [ -s snaplen ]

-V, --version

Print version information.

-h, --less-help

Display less usage information and exit.

-H, --help

Display usage information and exit.

-!, --more-help

Pass the extended usage information through a pager.

--save-opts [=cfgfile]

Save the option state to cfgfile.  The default is the last configuration file listed in the Option Presets section, below. The command will exit after updating the config file.

--load-opts=cfgfile, --no-load-opts

Load options from cfgfile. The no-load-opts form will disable the loading of earlier config/rc/ini files.  --no-load-opts is handled early, out of order.

Option Presets

Any option that is not marked as not presettable may be preset by loading values from configuration ("RC" or ".INI") file(s). The homerc file is "$$/", unless that is a directory. In that case, the file ".tcpbridgerc" is searched for within that directory.

Files

See Option Presets for configuration files.

Exit Status

One of the following exit values will be returned:

0  (EXIT_SUCCESS)

Successful program execution.

1  (EXIT_FAILURE)

The operation failed or the command syntax was not valid.

66  (EX_NOINPUT)

A specified configuration file could not be loaded.

70  (EX_SOFTWARE)

libopts had an internal operational error.  Please report it to autogen-users@lists.sourceforge.net.  Thank you.

Authors

Copyright 2013-2017 Fred Klassen - AppNeta Copyright 2000-2012 Aaron Turner For support please use the tcpreplay-users@lists.sourceforge.net mailing list. The latest version of this software is always available from: http://tcpreplay.appneta.com/

Bugs

Please send bug reports to: tcpreplay-users@lists.sourceforge.net

Notes

This manual page was AutoGen-erated from the tcpbridge option definitions.

Info

08 May 2017 tcpbridge User Commands