- Switch to superuser (requires the root password):
- Switch to a given user (requires the user's password):
- Switch to a given user and simulate a full login shell:
su - username
- Execute a command as another user:
su - username -c "command"
su [options] [-] [user [argument...]]
su allows commands to be run with a substitute user and group ID.
When called with no user specified, su defaults to running an interactive shell as root. When user is specified, additional arguments can be supplied, in which case they are passed to the shell.
For backward compatibility, su defaults to not change the current directory and to only set the environment variables HOME and SHELL (plus USER and LOGNAME if the target user is not root). It is recommended to always use the --login option (instead of its shortcut -) to avoid side effects caused by mixing environments.
This version of su uses PAM for authentication, account and session management. Some configuration options found in other su implementations, such as support for a wheel group, have to be configured via PAM.
su is mostly designed for unprivileged users, the recommended solution for privileged users (e.g., scripts executed by root) is to use non-set-user-ID command runuser(1) that does not require authentication and provides separate PAM configuration. If the PAM session is not required at all then the recommended solution is to use command setpriv(1).
Note that su in all cases uses PAM (pam_getenvlist(3)) to do the final environment modification. Command-line options such as --login and --preserve-environment affect the environment before it is modified by PAM.
Since version 2.38 su resets process resource limits RLIMIT_NICE, RLIMIT_RTPRIO, RLIMIT_FSIZE, RLIMIT_AS and RLIMIT_NOFILE.
- -c, --command=command
Pass command to the shell with the -c option.
- -f, --fast
Pass -f to the shell, which may or may not be useful, depending on the shell.
- -g, --group=group
Specify the primary group. This option is available to the root user only.
- -G, --supp-group=group
Specify a supplementary group. This option is available to the root user only. The first specified supplementary group is also used as a primary group if the option --group is not specified.
- -, -l, --login
Start the shell as a login shell with an environment similar to a real login:
- clears all the environment variables except TERM and variables specified by --whitelist-environment
- initializes the environment variables HOME, SHELL, USER, LOGNAME, and PATH
- changes to the target user’s home directory
- sets argv of the shell to '-' in order to make the shell a login shell
- -m, -p, --preserve-environment
Preserve the entire environment, i.e., do not set HOME, SHELL, USER or LOGNAME. This option is ignored if the option --login is specified.
- -P, --pty
Create a pseudo-terminal for the session. The independent terminal provides better security as the user does not share a terminal with the original session. This can be used to avoid TIOCSTI ioctl terminal injection and other security attacks against terminal file descriptors. The entire session can also be moved to the background (e.g., su --pty - username -c application &). If the pseudo-terminal is enabled, then su works as a proxy between the sessions (sync stdin and stdout).
This feature is mostly designed for interactive sessions. If the standard input is not a terminal, but for example a pipe (e.g., echo "date" | su --pty), then the ECHO flag for the pseudo-terminal is disabled to avoid messy output.
- -s, --shell=shell
Run the specified shell instead of the default. The shell to run is selected according to the following rules, in order:
If the target user has a restricted shell (i.e., not listed in /etc/shells), the --shell option and the SHELL environment variables are ignored unless the calling user is root.
Same as -c, but do not create a new session. (Discouraged.)
- -w, --whitelist-environment=list
Don’t reset the environment variables specified in the comma-separated list when clearing the environment for --login. The whitelist is ignored for the environment variables HOME, SHELL, USER, LOGNAME, and PATH.
- -h, --help
Display help text and exit.
- -V, --version
Print version and exit.
Upon receiving either SIGINT, SIGQUIT or SIGTERM, su terminates its child and afterwards terminates itself with the received signal. The child is terminated by SIGTERM, after unsuccessful attempt and 2 seconds of delay the child is killed by SIGKILL.
su reads the /etc/default/su and /etc/login.defs configuration files. The following configuration items are relevant for su:
- FAIL_DELAY (number)
Delay in seconds in case of an authentication failure. The number must be a non-negative integer.
- ENV_PATH (string)
Defines the PATH environment variable for a regular user. The default value is /usr/local/bin:/bin:/usr/bin.
- ENV_ROOTPATH (string), ENV_SUPATH (string)
Defines the PATH environment variable for root. ENV_SUPATH takes precedence. The default value is /usr/local/sbin:/usr/local/bin:/sbin:/bin:/usr/sbin:/usr/bin.
- ALWAYS_SET_PATH (boolean)
If set to yes and --login and --preserve-environment were not specified su initializes PATH.
The environment variable PATH may be different on systems where /bin and /sbin are merged into /usr; this variable is also affected by the --login command-line option and the PAM system setting (e.g., pam_env(8)).
su normally returns the exit status of the command it executed. If the command was killed by a signal, su returns the number of the signal plus 128.
Exit status generated by su itself:
Generic error before executing the requested command
The requested command could not be executed
The requested command was not found
default PAM configuration file
PAM configuration file if --login is specified
command specific logindef config file
global logindef config file
For security reasons, su always logs failed log-in attempts to the btmp file, but it does not write to the lastlog file at all. This solution can be used to control su behavior by PAM configuration. If you want to use the pam_lastlog(8) module to print warning message about failed log-in attempts then pam_lastlog(8) has to be configured to update the lastlog file as well. For example by:
session required pam_lastlog.so nowtmp
This su command was derived from coreutils' su, which was based on an implementation by David MacKenzie. The util-linux version has been refactored by Karel Zak.
setpriv(1), login.defs(5), shells(5), pam(8), runuser(1)
For bug reports, use the issue tracker at https://github.com/util-linux/util-linux/issues.
The su command is part of the util-linux package which can be downloaded from Linux Kernel Archive.
at(1), beesu(1), ccze(1), credentials(7), crontab(5), debuild(1), doas(1), environ(7), flock(1), game-data-packager(6), hamlib-primer(7), heimdal-krb5.conf(5), homectl(1), kdesu(1), login(1), login.defs(5), lxqt-sudo(1), machinectl(1), makepkg.conf(5), mksh(1), newgrp(1), oksh(1), pam(3), PAM(8), pam_rootok(8), pam_xauth(8), passwd(5), pts(4), runuser(1), setpriv(1), sg(1), shadow(5), sudo(8), sudoers(5), sudo_plugin(5), tcsh(1), termy-setup(1), termy-ssh(1), termy-systemd-setup(1), x11vnc(1).