srec_cat man page

srec_cat — manipulate EPROM load files

Synopsis

srec_cat [ option... ] filename...
srec_cat -Help
srec_cat -VERSion

Description

The srec_cat program is used to assemble the given input files into a single output file. The use of filters (see below) allows significant manipulations to be performed by this command.

Data Order

The data from the input files is not immediately written to the output, but is stored in memory until the complete EPROM image has been assembled. Data is then written to the output file in ascending address order. The original ordering of the data (in those formats capable of random record ordering) is not preserved.

Data Comparison

Because input record order is not preserved, textual comparison of input and output (such as the diff(1) or tkdiff(1) commands) can be misleading. Not only can lines appear in different address orders, but line lengths and line termination can differ as well. Use the srec_cmp(1) program to compare two EPROM load files. If a text comparison is essential, run both files through the srec_cat(1) program to ensure both files to be compared have identical record ordering and line lengths.

Data Conflicts

The storing of data in memory enables the detection of data conflicts, typically caused by linker sections unintentionally overlapping.

·
A warning will be issued for each address which is redundantly set to the same value.
·
A fatal error will be issued if any address is set with contradictory values. To avoid this error use an -exclude -within filter (see srec_input(1)) or, to make it a warning, use the -contradictory‐bytes option (see below).
·
A warning will be issued for input files where the data records are not in strictly ascending address order. To suppress this warning, use the -disable‐sequence‐warning option (see below).

These features are designed to detect problems which are difficult to debug, and detects them before the data is written to an EPROM and run in your embedded system.

Input File Specifications

Input may be qualified in two ways: you may specify a data file or a data generator. format and you may specify filters to apply to them. An input file specification looks like this:

data‐file [ filter ... ]
data‐generator [ filter ... ]

Data Files

Input from data files is specified by file name and format name. An input file specification looks like this:

filename [ format ][ -ignore‐checksums ]

The default format is Motorola S‐Record format, but many others are also understood.

Data Generators

It is also possible to generate data, rather than read it from a file. You may use a generator anywhere you could use a file. An input generator specification looks like this:

-GENerate address‐range -data‐source

Generators include random data and various forms of constant data.

Common Manual Page

See srec_input(1) for complete details of input specifiers. This description is in a separate manual page because it is common to more than one SRecord command.

Options

The following options are understood:

@filename
The named text file is read for additional command line arguments. Arguments are separated by white space (space, tab, newline, etc). There is no wildcard mechanism. There is no quoting mechanism. Comments, which start with '#' and extend to the end of the line, are ignored. Blank lines are ignored.
-Output filename [ format ]

This option may be used to specify the output file to be used. The special file name “-[rq] is understood to mean the standard output. Output defaults to the standard output if this option is not used.

The format may be specified as:

-Absolute_Object_Module_Format
An Intel Absolute Object Module Format file will be written. (See srec_aomf(5) for a description of this file format.)
-Ascii_Hex
An Ascii‐Hex file will be written. (See srec_ascii_hex(5) for a description of this file format.)
-ASM [ prefix ][ -option... ]

A series of assembler DB statements will be written.

The optional prefix may be specified to change the names of the symbols generated. The defaults to "eprom" if not set.

Several options are available to modify the style of output:

-Dot_STyle
Use "dot" style pseudo‐ops instead of words. For example .byte instead of the DB default.
-HEXadecimal_STyle
Use hexadecimal numbers in the output, rather than the default decimal numbers.
-Section_STyle
By default the generated assemble of placed at the correct address using ORG pseudo‐ops. Section style output emits tables of section addresses and lengths, so the data may be related at runtime.
-A430
Generate output which is compliant to the a430.exe compiler as it is used, e.g. in IAR Embedded Workbench. This is short‐hand for -section‐style -hex‐style
-CL430
Generate output which is Code Composer Essentials compliant, i.e. the compiler of it. This is short‐hand for -section‐style -hex‐style -dot‐style
-Output_Word

Generate output which is in two‐byte words rather than bytes. This assumes little‐endian words; you will need to use the -Byte‐Swap filter if your target is big‐endian. No attempt is made to align the words onto even address boundaries; use and input filter such as

input‐file -fill 0xFF -within input‐file
-range‐pad 2

to pad the data to whole words first.

-Atmel_Generic
An Atmel Generic file will be written. (See srec_atmel_generic(5) for a description of this file format.)
-BASic
A series of BASIC DATA statements will be written.
-B‐Record
A Freescale MC68EZ328 Dragonball bootstrap b‐record format file will be written. (See srec_brecord(5) for a description of this file format.)
-Binary
A raw binary file will be written. If you get unexpected results please see the srec_binary(5) manual for more information.
-C‐Array [ identifier ][ -option... ]

A C array defintion will be written.

The optional identifier is the name of the variable to be defined, or bugus if not specified.

-INClude
This option asks for an include file to be generated as well.
-No‐CONST
This options asks for the variables to not use the const keyword (they are declared constant be default, so that they are placed into the read‐only segment in embedded systems).
-C_COMpressed
These options ask for an compressed c‐array whose memory gaps will not be filled.
-Output_Word
This option asks for an output which is in words not in bytes. This is little endian, so you may need to
-PREfix string
This option allows a string to be prepended to the array definition. This is commonly used for non‐standard options common to cross compilers.
-POSTfix string
This option allows a string to be appended to the array definition. This is commonly used for non‐standard options common to cross compilers.
-COE
This option says to use the Xilinx Coefficient File Format (.coe) for output. (See srec_coe(5) for a description of this file format.)
-COsmac
An RCA Cosmac Elf format file will be written. (See srec_cosmac(5) for a description of this file format.)
-Dec_Binary
A DEC Binary (XXDP) format file will be written. (See srec_dec_binary(5) for a description of this file format.)
-Elektor_Monitor52
This option says to use the EMON52 format file when writing the file. (See srec_emon52(5) for a description of this file format.)
-FAIrchild
This option says to use the Fairchild Fairbug format file when writing the file. (See srec_fairchild(5) for a description of this file format.)
-Fast_Load
This option says to use the LSI Logic Fast Load format file when writing the file. (See srec_fastload(5) for a description of this file format.)
-Formatted_Binary
A Formatted Binary format file will be written. (See srec_formatted_binary(5) for a description of this file format.)
-FORTH [ -option ]

A FORTH input file will be written. Each line of output includes a byte value, an address, and a command.

-RAM
The store command is C! This is the default.
-EEPROM
The store command is EEC!
-Four_Packed_Code
This option says to use the PFC format file when writing the file. (See srec_fpd(5) for a description of this file format.)
-HEX_Dump
A human readable hexadecimal dump (including ASCII) will be printed.
-IDT
An IDT System Integration Manager (IDT/sim) binary file will be written. (See srec_idt(5) for a description of this file format.)
-Intel
An Intel hex format file will be written. (See srec_intel(5) for a description of this file format.) The default is to emit “i32hex” 32‐bit linear addressing; if you want “i16hex” 20‐bit extended segment addressing use the -address‐length=3 option, if you want “i8hex” 16‐bit addressing use the -address‐length=2 option.
-Intel_HeX_16
An Intel‐16 hex format (INHX16) file will be written. (See srec_intel16(5) for a description of this file format.)
-Lattice_Memory_Initialization_Format [ width ]
The Memory Initialization Format (.mem) by Lattice Semiconductor is understood for writing only. (A.k.a. -MEM) (See srec_mem(5) for a description of this file format.)
-LOGisim
LOginsim logic simuator uses the format See -srec_logisim(5) form more information.
-Memory_Initialization_File [ width ]
Memory Initialization File (MIF) by Altera format will be written. The width defaults to 8 bits. (See srec_mif(5) for a description of this file format.)
-Mips_Flash_Big_Endian
-Mips_Flash_Little_Endian
MIPS Flash file format will be written. (See srec_mips_flash(5) for a description of this file format.)
-MOS_Technologies
An Mos Technologies format file will be written. (See srec_mos_tech(5) for a description of this file format.)
-Motorola [ width ]

A Motorola S‐Record file will be written. (See srec_motorola(5) for a description of this file format.) This is the default output format. By default, the smallest possible address length is emitted, this will be S19 for data in the first 64KB; if you wish to force S28 use the -address‐length=3 option; if you wish to force S37 use the -address‐length=4 option

The optional width argument describes the number of bytes which form each address multiple. For normal uses the default of one (1) byte is appropriate. Some systems with 16‐bit or 32‐bit targets mutilate the addresses in the file; this option will imitate that behavior. Unlike most other parameters, this one cannot be guessed.

-MsBin
This option says to use the Windows CE Binary Image Data Format to write the file. See srec_msbin(5) for a description of this file format.
-Needham_Hexadecimal
This option says to use the Needham Electronics ASCII file format to write the file. See srec_needham(5) for a description of this file format.
-Ohio_Scientific
This option says to use the Ohio Scientific hexadecimal format. See srec_os65v(5) for a description of this format.
-PPB
This option says to use the Stag Prom Programmer binary format. See srec_ppb(5) for a description of this format.
-PPX
This option says to use the Stag Prom Programmer hexadecimal format. See srec_ppx(5) for a description of this format.
-SIGnetics
This option says to use the Signetics hex format. See srec_signetics(5) for a description of this format.
-SPAsm
This option says to use the SPASM assembler output format (commonly used by PIC programmers). See srec_spasm(5) for a description of this format.
-SPAsm_Little_Endian
This option says to use the SPASM assembler output format (commonly used by PIC programmers). But with the data the other way around.
-STewie
A Stewie binary format file will be written. (See srec_stewie(5) for a description of this file format.)
-Tektronix
A Tektronix hex format file will be written. (See srec_tektronix(5) for a description of this file format.)
-Tektronix_Extended
A Tektronix extended hex format file will be written. (See srec_tektronix_extended(5) for a description of this file format.)
-Texas_Instruments_Tagged
A TI‐Tagged format file will be written. (See srec_ti_tagged(5) for a description of this file format.)
-Texas_Instruments_Tagged_16
A Texas Instruments SDSMAC 320 format file will be written. (See srec_ti_tagged_16(5) for a description of this file format.)
-Texas_Instruments_TeXT
This option says to use the Texas Instruments TXT (MSP430) format to write the file. See srec_ti_txt(5) for a description of this file format.
-TRS80
This option says to use the Radio Shack TRS‐80 object file format to write the file. See srec_trs80(5) for a description of this file format.
-VHdl [ bytes‐per‐word [ name ]]
A VHDL format file will be written. The bytes‐per‐word defaults to one, the name defaults to eprom. The etc/x_defs_pack.vhd file in the source distribution contains an example ROM definitions pack for the type‐independent output. You may need to use the -byte‐swap filter to get the byte order you want.
-VMem [ memory‐width ]
A Verilog VMEM format file will be written. The memory‐width may be 8, 16, 32, 64 or 128 bits; defaults to 32 if unspecified. (See srec_vmem(5) for a description of this file format.) You may need to use the -byte‐swap filter to get the byte order you want.
-WILson
A wilson format file will be written. (See srec_wilson(5) for a description of this file format.)
-Address_Length number
This option many be used to specify the minimum number of bytes to be used in the output to represent an address (padding with leading zeros if necessary). This helps when talking to imbecilic EPROM programmer devices which do not fully implement the format specification.
-CRLF
This option is short‐hand for the -line‐termination=crlf option. For use with hare‐brained EPROM programmer devices which assume all the world uses Evil Bill's operating system's line termination.
-Data_Only
This option implies the -disable=header, -disable=data‐count, -disable=exec‐start‐address and -disable=footer options.
-DISable feature‐name
This option is used to disable the output of a named feature. See the -enable option for a description of the available features.
-ENable feature‐name

This option is used to enable the output of a named feature.

Header
This feature controls the presence of header records, records which appear before the data itself. Headers often, but not always, include descriptive text.
Execution_Start_Address
This feature controls the presence of execution start address records, which is where the monitor will jump to and start executing code once the hex file has finished loading.
Data_Count
This feature controls the presence of data record count records, which appear aftre the data, and state how many data records preceeded them. Usually a data integrity mechanism.
Footer
This feature controls the presence of a file termination record, one that does not double as an execution start address record.
Optional_Address
In formats that have the address and the data separated or partially separated (as opposed to having a complete address in every record) it is possible to disable emitting the first address where that address would be zero, as these format often default the address to zero if no address is seen beofre the first data record. This is disabled by default, the zero address is always emitted.

Not all formats have all of the above features. Not all formats are able to optionally omit any or all the above features. Feature names may be abbreviated like command line option names.

-Execution_Start_Address number

This option may be used to set the execution start address, in those formats which support it. The execution start address is where the monitor will jump to and start executing code once the hex file has finished loading, think of it as a “goto” address. Usually ignored by EPROM programmer devices. This option implies the -enable=exec‐start‐addr option.

Please note: the execution start address is a different concept than the first address in memory of your data. If you want to change where your data starts in memory, use the -offset filter.

-HEAder string

This option may be used to set the header comment, in those formats which support it. This option implies the -enable=header option.

If you need to inject binary data into the header, use the URL encoding that uses % followed by two hexadeimal characters. For example a backspace would be encoded as “%08”.

-IGnore_Checksums
The -IGnore‐Checksums option may be used to disable checksum validation of input files, for those formats which have checksums at all. Note that the checksum values are still read in and parsed (so it is still an error if they are missing) but their values are not checked. Used after an input file name, the option affects that file alone; used anywhere else on the command line, it applies to all following files.
-Line_Termination style‐name

This option may be used to specify line termination style for text output. The default is to use the host operating system's default line termination style (but Cygwin behaves as if it's Unix). Use this option with caution, because it will also introduce extra (i.e. wrong) CR bytes into binary formats.

Carriage_Return_Line_Feed
Use the CRLF line termination style, typical of DOS and M$ Windows.
NewLine
Use the NL line termination style, typical of Unix and Linux.
Carriage_Return
Use the CR line termination style, typical of Apple Macintosh.

All other line termination style names will produce a fatal error. Style names may be abbreviated like command line option names.

-Line_Length number
This option may be used to limit the length of the output lines to at most number characters. (Not meaningful for binary file format.) Defaults to something less than 80 characters, depending on the format. If you need to control the maximum number of bytes in each output record, use the --Ouput_Block_Size option.
-Output_Block_Size number
This option may be used to specify the exact number of data bytes to appear in each output record. There are format‐specific limitations on this value, you will get an error if the value isn't valid. If you need to control the maximum number of characters on a line of text output, use the --Line_Length option.
-Output_Block_Packing
From time to time, with large files, you may notice that your data records are spit unexpectedly on output. This usually happens where record lengths are not a power of 2. If this bothers you (or your comparison tools) this option may be used to repack the output so that SRecord's internal block boundaries are not visable in the output.
-Output_Block_Alignment
This option is similar to the -Output_Block_Packing option, except that short records are used after holes to cause subsequent records to be placed on a block size boundary.
-Enable_Sequence_Warnings

This option may be used to enable warnings about input files where the data records are not in strictly ascending address order. Only one warning is issued per input file. This is the default.

Note: the output of srec_cat(1) is always in this order.

Note: This option must be used before the input file. This is because if there are several files on the command line, each may need different settings. The setting remains in force until the next -Disable_Sequence_Warnings option.

-Disable_Sequence_Warnings

This option may be used to disable warnings about input files where the data records are not in strictly ascending address order.

Note: This option must be used before the offending input file. This is because if there are several files on the command line, each may need different settings. The setting remains in force until the next -Ensable_Sequence_Warnings option.

All other options will produce a diagnostic error.

All options may be abbreviated; the abbreviation is documented as the upper case letters, all lower case letters and underscores (_) are optional. You must use consecutive sequences of optional letters.

All options are case insensitive, you may type them in upper case or lower case or a combination of both, case is not important.

For example: the arguments “-help”, “-HEL” and “-h” are all interpreted to mean the -Help option. The argument “-hlp” will not be understood, because consecutive optional characters were not supplied.

Options and other command line arguments may be mixed arbitrarily on the command line.

The GNU long option names are understood. Since all option names for srec_cat are long, this means ignoring the extra leading “-”. The “--option=value” convention is also understood.

Exit Status

The srec_cat command will exit with a status of 1 on any error. The srec_cat command will only exit with a status of 0 if there are no errors.

Maintainer

Scott FinneranE‐Mail:scottfinneran@yahoo.com.au
Peter MillerE‐Mail:pmiller@opensource.org.au

Referenced By

srec_binary(5), srec_cmp(1), srec_examples(1), srec_info(1), srec_input(1), srec_intel(5).

SRecord Reference Manual