sphinx-all - Man Page

Sphinx documentation generator system manual

Using Sphinx

This guide serves to demonstrate how one can get started with Sphinx and covers everything from installing Sphinx and configuring your first Sphinx project to using some of the advanced features Sphinx provides out-of-the-box. If you are looking for guidance on extending Sphinx, refer to /development/index.

Getting Started

Sphinx is a documentation generator or a tool that translates a set of plain text source files into various output formats, automatically producing cross-references, indices, etc.  That is, if you have a directory containing a bunch of /usage/restructuredtext/index or /usage/markdown documents, Sphinx can generate a series of HTML files, a PDF file (via LaTeX), man pages and much more.

Sphinx focuses on documentation, in particular handwritten documentation, however, Sphinx can also be used to generate blogs, homepages and even books. Much of Sphinx’s power comes from the richness of its default plain-text markup format, reStructuredText, along with its significant extensibility capabilities.

The goal of this document is to give you a quick taste of what Sphinx is and how you might use it. When you’re done here, you can check out the installation guide followed by the intro to the default markup format used by Sphinx, reStucturedText.

For a great “introduction” to writing docs in general – the whys and hows, see also Write the docs, written by Eric Holscher.

Setting up the documentation sources

The root directory of a Sphinx collection of plain-text document sources is called the source directory.  This directory also contains the Sphinx configuration file conf.py, where you can configure all aspects of how Sphinx reads your sources and builds your documentation.  [1]

Sphinx comes with a script called sphinx-quickstart that sets up a source directory and creates a default conf.py with the most useful configuration values from a few questions it asks you. To use this, run:

$ sphinx-quickstart

Defining document structure

Let’s assume you’ve run sphinx-quickstart.  It created a source directory with conf.py and a root document, index.rst.  The main function of the root document is to serve as a welcome page, and to contain the root of the “table of contents tree” (or toctree).  This is one of the main things that Sphinx adds to reStructuredText, a way to connect multiple files to a single hierarchy of documents.

reStructuredText directives

toctree is a reStructuredText directive, a very versatile piece of markup.  Directives can have arguments, options and content.

Arguments are given directly after the double colon following the directive’s name.  Each directive decides whether it can have arguments, and how many.

Options are given after the arguments, in form of a “field list”.  The maxdepth is such an option for the toctree directive.

Content follows the options or arguments after a blank line.  Each directive decides whether to allow content, and what to do with it.

A common gotcha with directives is that the first line of the content must be indented to the same level as the options are.

The toctree directive initially is empty, and looks like so:

.. toctree::
   :maxdepth: 2

You add documents listing them in the content of the directive:

.. toctree::
   :maxdepth: 2

   usage/installation
   usage/quickstart
   ...

This is exactly how the toctree for this documentation looks.  The documents to include are given as document names, which in short means that you leave off the file name extension and use forward slashes (/) as directory separators.

[image: more info] [image]
Read more about the toctree directive.

You can now create the files you listed in the toctree and add content, and their section titles will be inserted (up to the maxdepth level) at the place where the toctree directive is placed.  Also, Sphinx now knows about the order and hierarchy of your documents.  (They may contain toctree directives themselves, which means you can create deeply nested hierarchies if necessary.)

Adding content

In Sphinx source files, you can use most features of standard reStructuredText.  There are also several features added by Sphinx. For example, you can add cross-file references in a portable way (which works for all output types) using the ref role.

For an example, if you are viewing the HTML version, you can look at the source for this document – use the “Show Source” link in the sidebar.

Todo

Update the below link when we add new guides on these.

[image: more info] [image]
See /usage/restructuredtext/index for a more in-depth introduction to reStructuredText, including markup added by Sphinx.

Running the build

Now that you have added some files and content, let’s make a first build of the docs.  A build is started with the sphinx-build program:

$ sphinx-build -b html sourcedir builddir

where sourcedir is the source directory, and builddir is the directory in which you want to place the built documentation. The -b option selects a builder; in this example Sphinx will build HTML files.

[image: more info] [image]
Refer to the sphinx-build man page for all options that sphinx-build supports.

However, sphinx-quickstart script creates a Makefile and a make.bat which make life even easier for you. These can be executed by running make with the name of the builder. For example.

$ make html

This will build HTML docs in the build directory you chose. Execute make without an argument to see which targets are available.

How do I generate PDF documents?

make latexpdf runs the LaTeX builder and readily invokes the pdfTeX toolchain for you.

Todo

Move this whole section into a guide on rST or directives

Documenting objects

One of Sphinx’s main objectives is easy documentation of objects (in a very general sense) in any domain.  A domain is a collection of object types that belong together, complete with markup to create and reference descriptions of these objects.

The most prominent domain is the Python domain. For example, to document Python’s built-in function enumerate(), you would add this to one of your source files.

.. py:function:: enumerate(sequence[, start=0])

   Return an iterator that yields tuples of an index and an item of the
   *sequence*. (And so on.)

This is rendered like this:

enumerate(sequence[, start=0])

Return an iterator that yields tuples of an index and an item of the sequence. (And so on.)

The argument of the directive is the signature of the object you describe, the content is the documentation for it.  Multiple signatures can be given, each in its own line.

The Python domain also happens to be the default domain, so you don’t need to prefix the markup with the domain name.

.. function:: enumerate(sequence[, start=0])

   ...

does the same job if you keep the default setting for the default domain.

There are several more directives for documenting other types of Python objects, for example py:class or py:method.  There is also a cross-referencing role for each of these object types.  This markup will create a link to the documentation of enumerate().

The :py:func:`enumerate` function can be used for ...

And here is the proof: A link to enumerate().

Again, the py: can be left out if the Python domain is the default one.  It doesn’t matter which file contains the actual documentation for enumerate(); Sphinx will find it and create a link to it.

Each domain will have special rules for how the signatures can look like, and make the formatted output look pretty, or add specific features like links to parameter types, e.g. in the C/C++ domains.

[image: more info] [image]
See /usage/restructuredtext/domains for all the available domains and their directives/roles.

Basic configuration

Earlier we mentioned that the conf.py file controls how Sphinx processes your documents.  In that file, which is executed as a Python source file, you assign configuration values.  For advanced users: since it is executed by Sphinx, you can do non-trivial tasks in it, like extending sys.path or importing a module to find out the version you are documenting.

The config values that you probably want to change are already put into the conf.py by sphinx-quickstart and initially commented out (with standard Python syntax: a # comments the rest of the line).  To change the default value, remove the hash sign and modify the value.  To customize a config value that is not automatically added by sphinx-quickstart, just add an additional assignment.

Keep in mind that the file uses Python syntax for strings, numbers, lists and so on.  The file is saved in UTF-8 by default, as indicated by the encoding declaration in the first line.

[image: more info] [image]
See /usage/configuration for documentation of all available config values.

Todo

Move this entire doc to a different section

Autodoc

When documenting Python code, it is common to put a lot of documentation in the source files, in documentation strings.  Sphinx supports the inclusion of docstrings from your modules with an extension (an extension is a Python module that provides additional features for Sphinx projects) called autodoc.

In order to use autodoc, you need to activate it in conf.py by putting the string 'sphinx.ext.autodoc' into the list assigned to the extensions config value:

extensions = ['sphinx.ext.autodoc']

Then, you have a few additional directives at your disposal.  For example, to document the function io.open(), reading its signature and docstring from the source file, you’d write this:

.. autofunction:: io.open

You can also document whole classes or even modules automatically, using member options for the auto directives, like

.. automodule:: io
   :members:

autodoc needs to import your modules in order to extract the docstrings. Therefore, you must add the appropriate path to sys.path in your conf.py.

WARNING:

autodoc imports the modules to be documented.  If any modules have side effects on import, these will be executed by autodoc when sphinx-build is run.

If you document scripts (as opposed to library modules), make sure their main routine is protected by a if __name__ == '__main__' condition.

[image: more info] [image]
See sphinx.ext.autodoc for the complete description of the features of autodoc.

Todo

Move this doc to another section

Intersphinx

Many Sphinx documents including the Python documentation are published on the Internet.  When you want to make links to such documents from your documentation, you can do it with sphinx.ext.intersphinx.

In order to use intersphinx, you need to activate it in conf.py by putting the string 'sphinx.ext.intersphinx' into the extensions list and set up the intersphinx_mapping config value.

For example, to link to io.open() in the Python library manual, you need to setup your intersphinx_mapping like:

intersphinx_mapping = {'python': ('https://docs.python.org/3', None)}

And now, you can write a cross-reference like :py:func:`io.open`.  Any cross-reference that has no matching target in the current documentation set, will be looked up in the documentation sets configured in intersphinx_mapping (this needs access to the URL in order to download the list of valid targets).  Intersphinx also works for some other domain's roles including :ref:, however it doesn’t work for :doc: as that is non-domain role.

[image: more info] [image]
See sphinx.ext.intersphinx for the complete description of the features of intersphinx.

More topics to be covered

  • Other extensions:
  • Static files
  • Selecting a theme
  • /usage/advanced/setuptools
  • Templating
  • Using extensions
  • Writing extensions

Footnotes

[1]

This is the usual layout.  However, conf.py can also live in another directory, the configuration directory.  Refer to the sphinx-build man page for more information.

Installing Sphinx

  • Overview
  • Linux
  • macOS
  • Windows
  • Installation from PyPI
  • Docker
  • Installation from source

Overview

Sphinx is written in Python and supports Python 3.6+. It builds upon the shoulders of many third-party libraries such as Docutils and Jinja, which are installed when Sphinx is installed.

Linux

Debian/Ubuntu

Install either python3-sphinx using apt-get:

$ apt-get install python3-sphinx

If it not already present, this will install Python for you.

RHEL, CentOS

Install python-sphinx using yum:

$ yum install python-sphinx

If it not already present, this will install Python for you.

Other distributions

Most Linux distributions have Sphinx in their package repositories.  Usually the package is called python3-sphinx, python-sphinx or sphinx.  Be aware that there are at least two other packages with sphinx in their name: a speech recognition toolkit (CMU Sphinx) and a full-text search database (Sphinx search).

macOS

Sphinx can be installed using Homebrew, MacPorts, or as part of a Python distribution such as Anaconda.

Homebrew

$ brew install sphinx-doc

For more information, refer to the package overview.

MacPorts

Install either python3x-sphinx using port:

$ sudo port install py38-sphinx

To set up the executable paths, use the port select command:

$ sudo port select --set python python38
$ sudo port select --set sphinx py38-sphinx

For more information, refer to the package overview.

Anaconda

$ conda install sphinx

Windows

Sphinx can be install using Chocolatey or installed manually.

Chocolatey

$ choco install sphinx

You would need to install Chocolatey before running this.

For more information, refer to the chocolatey page.

Other Methods

Most Windows users do not have Python installed by default, so we begin with the installation of Python itself.  To check if you already have Python installed, open the Command Prompt (⊞Win-r and type cmd). Once the command prompt is open, type python --version and press Enter.  If Python is installed, you will see the version of Python printed to the screen.  If you do not have Python installed, refer to the Hitchhikers Guide to Python’s Python on Windows installation guides. You must install Python 3.

Once Python is installed, you can install Sphinx using pip.  Refer to the pip installation instructions below for more information.

Installation from PyPI

Sphinx packages are published on the Python Package Index.  The preferred tool for installing packages from PyPI is pip.  This tool is provided with all modern versions of Python.

On Linux or MacOS, you should open your terminal and run the following command.

$ pip install -U sphinx

On Windows, you should open Command Prompt (⊞Win-r and type cmd) and run the same command.

C:\> pip install -U sphinx

After installation, type sphinx-build --version on the command prompt.  If everything worked fine, you will see the version number for the Sphinx package you just installed.

Installation from PyPI also allows you to install the latest development release.  You will not generally need (or want) to do this, but it can be useful if you see a possible bug in the latest stable release.  To do this, use the --pre flag.

$ pip install -U --pre sphinx

Using virtual environments

When installing Sphinx using pip, it is highly recommended to use virtual environments, which isolate the installed packages from the system packages, thus removing the need to use administrator privileges. To create a virtual environment in the .venv directory, use the following command.

$ python -m venv .venv

You can read more about them in the Python Packaging User Guide.

WARNING:

Note that in some Linux distributions, such as Debian and Ubuntu, this might require an extra installation step as follows.

$ apt-get install python3-venv

Docker

Docker images for Sphinx are published on the Docker Hub.  There are two kind of images:

  • sphinxdoc/sphinx
  • sphinxdoc/sphinx-latexpdf

Former one is used for standard usage of Sphinx, and latter one is mainly used for PDF builds using LaTeX.  Please choose one for your purpose.

NOTE:

sphinxdoc/sphinx-latexpdf contains TeXLive packages. So the image is very large (over 2GB!).

HINT:

When using docker images, please use docker run command to invoke sphinx commands.  For example, you can use following command to create a Sphinx project:

$ docker run -it --rm -v /path/to/document:/docs sphinxdoc/sphinx sphinx-quickstart

And you can following command this to build HTML document:

$ docker run --rm -v /path/to/document:/docs sphinxdoc/sphinx make html

For more details, please read README file of docker images.

Installation from source

You can install Sphinx directly from a clone of the Git repository.  This can be done either by cloning the repo and installing from the local clone, on simply installing directly via git.

$ git clone https://github.com/sphinx-doc/sphinx
$ cd sphinx
$ pip install .
$ pip install git+https://github.com/sphinx-doc/sphinx

You can also download a snapshot of the Git repo in either tar.gz or zip format.  Once downloaded and extracted, these can be installed with pip as above.

reStructuredText

reStructuredText (reST) is the default plaintext markup language used by both Docutils and Sphinx. Docutils provides the basic reStructuredText syntax, while Sphinx extends this to support additional functionality.

The below guides go through the most important aspects of reST. For the authoritative reStructuredText reference, refer to the docutils documentation.

reStructuredText Primer

reStructuredText is the default plaintext markup language used by Sphinx.  This section is a brief introduction to reStructuredText (reST) concepts and syntax, intended to provide authors with enough information to author documents productively.  Since reST was designed to be a simple, unobtrusive markup language, this will not take too long.

SEE ALSO:

The authoritative reStructuredText User Documentation.  The “ref” links in this document link to the description of the individual constructs in the reST reference.

Paragraphs

The paragraph (ref) is the most basic block in a reST document.  Paragraphs are simply chunks of text separated by one or more blank lines.  As in Python, indentation is significant in reST, so all lines of the same paragraph must be left-aligned to the same level of indentation.

Inline markup

The standard reST inline markup is quite simple: use

  • one asterisk: *text* for emphasis (italics),
  • two asterisks: **text** for strong emphasis (boldface), and
  • backquotes: ``text`` for code samples.

If asterisks or backquotes appear in running text and could be confused with inline markup delimiters, they have to be escaped with a backslash.

Be aware of some restrictions of this markup:

  • it may not be nested,
  • content may not start or end with whitespace: * text* is wrong,
  • it must be separated from surrounding text by non-word characters.  Use a backslash escaped space to work around that: thisis\ *one*\ word.

These restrictions may be lifted in future versions of the docutils.

It is also possible to replace or expand upon some of this inline markup with roles. Refer to Roles for more information.

Lists and Quote-like blocks

List markup (ref) is natural: just place an asterisk at the start of a paragraph and indent properly.  The same goes for numbered lists; they can also be autonumbered using a # sign:

* This is a bulleted list.
* It has two items, the second
  item uses two lines.

1. This is a numbered list.
2. It has two items too.

#. This is a numbered list.
#. It has two items too.

Nested lists are possible, but be aware that they must be separated from the parent list items by blank lines:

* this is
* a list

  * with a nested list
  * and some subitems

* and here the parent list continues

Definition lists (ref) are created as follows:

term (up to a line of text)
   Definition of the term, which must be indented

   and can even consist of multiple paragraphs

next term
   Description.

Note that the term cannot have more than one line of text.

Quoted paragraphs (ref) are created by just indenting them more than the surrounding paragraphs.

Line blocks (ref) are a way of preserving line breaks:

| These lines are
| broken exactly like in
| the source file.

There are also several more special blocks available:

  • field lists (ref, with caveats noted in Field Lists)
  • option lists (ref)
  • quoted literal blocks (ref)
  • doctest blocks (ref)

Literal blocks

Literal code blocks (ref) are introduced by ending a paragraph with the special marker ::.  The literal block must be indented (and, like all paragraphs, separated from the surrounding ones by blank lines):

This is a normal text paragraph. The next paragraph is a code sample::

   It is not processed in any way, except
   that the indentation is removed.

   It can span multiple lines.

This is a normal text paragraph again.

The handling of the :: marker is smart:

  • If it occurs as a paragraph of its own, that paragraph is completely left out of the document.
  • If it is preceded by whitespace, the marker is removed.
  • If it is preceded by non-whitespace, the marker is replaced by a single colon.

That way, the second sentence in the above example’s first paragraph would be rendered as “The next paragraph is a code sample:”.

Code highlighting can be enabled for these literal blocks on a document-wide basis using the highlight directive and on a project-wide basis using the highlight_language configuration option. The code-block directive can be used to set highlighting on a block-by-block basis. These directives are discussed later.

Doctest blocks

Doctest blocks (ref) are interactive Python sessions cut-and-pasted into docstrings. They do not require the literal blocks syntax. The doctest block must end with a blank line and should not end with an unused prompt:

>>> 1 + 1
2

Tables

For grid tables (ref), you have to “paint” the cell grid yourself.  They look like this:

+------------------------+------------+----------+----------+
| Header row, column 1   | Header 2   | Header 3 | Header 4 |
| (header rows optional) |            |          |          |
+========================+============+==========+==========+
| body row 1, column 1   | column 2   | column 3 | column 4 |
+------------------------+------------+----------+----------+
| body row 2             | ...        | ...      |          |
+------------------------+------------+----------+----------+

Simple tables (ref) are easier to write, but limited: they must contain more than one row, and the first column cells cannot contain multiple lines.  They look like this:

=====  =====  =======
A      B      A and B
=====  =====  =======
False  False  False
True   False  False
False  True   False
True   True   True
=====  =====  =======

Two more syntaxes are supported: CSV tables and List tables. They use an explicit markup block. Refer to table-directives for more information.

Sections

Section headers (ref) are created by underlining (and optionally overlining) the section title with a punctuation character, at least as long as the text:

=================
This is a heading
=================

Normally, there are no heading levels assigned to certain characters as the structure is determined from the succession of headings.  However, this convention is used in Python’s Style Guide for documenting which you may follow:

  • # with overline, for parts
  • * with overline, for chapters
  • =, for sections
  • -, for subsections
  • ^, for subsubsections
  • ", for paragraphs

Of course, you are free to use your own marker characters (see the reST documentation), and use a deeper nesting level, but keep in mind that most target formats (HTML, LaTeX) have a limited supported nesting depth.

Field Lists

Field lists (ref) are sequences of fields marked up like this:

:fieldname: Field content

They are commonly used in Python documentation:

def my_function(my_arg, my_other_arg):
    """A function just for me.

    :param my_arg: The first of my arguments.
    :param my_other_arg: The second of my arguments.

    :returns: A message (just for me, of course).
    """

Sphinx extends standard docutils behavior and intercepts field lists specified at the beginning of documents.  Refer to field-lists for more information.

Roles

A role or “custom interpreted text role” (ref) is an inline piece of explicit markup. It signifies that the enclosed text should be interpreted in a specific way.  Sphinx uses this to provide semantic markup and cross-referencing of identifiers, as described in the appropriate section.  The general syntax is :rolename:`content`.

Docutils supports the following roles:

  • emphasis – equivalent of *emphasis*
  • strong – equivalent of **strong**
  • literal – equivalent of ``literal``
  • subscript – subscript text
  • superscript – superscript text
  • title-reference – for titles of books, periodicals, and other materials

Refer to roles for roles added by Sphinx.

Explicit Markup

“Explicit markup” (ref) is used in reST for most constructs that need special handling, such as footnotes, specially-highlighted paragraphs, comments, and generic directives.

An explicit markup block begins with a line starting with .. followed by whitespace and is terminated by the next paragraph at the same level of indentation.  (There needs to be a blank line between explicit markup and normal paragraphs.  This may all sound a bit complicated, but it is intuitive enough when you write it.)

Directives

A directive (ref) is a generic block of explicit markup. Along with roles, it is one of the extension mechanisms of reST, and Sphinx makes heavy use of it.

Docutils supports the following directives:

  • Admonitions: attention, caution, danger, error, hint, important, note, tip, warning and the generic admonition.  (Most themes style only “note” and “warning” specially.)
  • Images:

    • image (see also Images below)
    • figure (an image with caption and optional legend)
  • Additional body elements:

    • contents (a local, i.e. for the current file only, table of contents)
    • container (a container with a custom class, useful to generate an outer <div> in HTML)
    • rubric (a heading without relation to the document sectioning)
    • topic, sidebar (special highlighted body elements)
    • parsed-literal (literal block that supports inline markup)
    • epigraph (a block quote with optional attribution line)
    • highlights, pull-quote (block quotes with their own class attribute)
    • compound (a compound paragraph)
  • Special tables:

    • table (a table with title)
    • csv-table (a table generated from comma-separated values)
    • list-table (a table generated from a list of lists)
  • Special directives:

    • raw (include raw target-format markup)
    • include (include reStructuredText from another file) – in Sphinx, when given an absolute include file path, this directive takes it as relative to the source directory
    • class (assign a class attribute to the next element) [1]
  • HTML specifics:

    • meta (generation of HTML <meta> tags, see also HTML Metadata below)
    • title (override document title)
  • Influencing markup:

    • default-role (set a new default role)
    • role (create a new role)

    Since these are only per-file, better use Sphinx’s facilities for setting the default_role.

WARNING:

Do not use the directives sectnum, header and footer.

Directives added by Sphinx are described in directives.

Basically, a directive consists of a name, arguments, options and content. (Keep this terminology in mind, it is used in the next chapter describing custom directives.)  Looking at this example,

.. function:: foo(x)
              foo(y, z)
   :module: some.module.name

   Return a line of text input from the user.

function is the directive name.  It is given two arguments here, the remainder of the first line and the second line, as well as one option module (as you can see, options are given in the lines immediately following the arguments and indicated by the colons).  Options must be indented to the same level as the directive content.

The directive content follows after a blank line and is indented relative to the directive start or if options are present, by the same amount as the options.

Be careful as the indent is not a fixed number of whitespace, e.g. three, but any number whitespace.  This can be surprising when a fixed indent is used throughout the document and can make a difference for directives which are sensitive to whitespace. Compare:

.. code-block::
   :caption: A cool example

       The output of this line starts with four spaces.

.. code-block::

       The output of this line has no spaces at the beginning.

In the first code block, the indent for the content was fixated by the option line to three spaces, consequently the content starts with four spaces. In the latter the indent was fixed by the content itself to seven spaces, thus it does not start with a space.

Images

reST supports an image directive (ref), used like so:

.. image:: gnu.png
   (options)

When used within Sphinx, the file name given (here gnu.png) must either be relative to the source file, or absolute which means that they are relative to the top source directory.  For example, the file sketch/spam.rst could refer to the image images/spam.png as ../images/spam.png or /images/spam.png.

Sphinx will automatically copy image files over to a subdirectory of the output directory on building (e.g. the _static directory for HTML output.)

Interpretation of image size options (width and height) is as follows: if the size has no unit or the unit is pixels, the given size will only be respected for output channels that support pixels. Other units (like pt for points) will be used for HTML and LaTeX output (the latter replaces pt by bp as this is the TeX unit such that 72bp=1in).

Sphinx extends the standard docutils behavior by allowing an asterisk for the extension:

.. image:: gnu.*

Sphinx then searches for all images matching the provided pattern and determines their type.  Each builder then chooses the best image out of these candidates.  For instance, if the file name gnu.* was given and two files gnu.pdf and gnu.png existed in the source tree, the LaTeX builder would choose the former, while the HTML builder would prefer the latter.  Supported image types and choosing priority are defined at /usage/builders/index.

Note that image file names should not contain spaces.

Changed in version 0.4: Added the support for file names ending in an asterisk.

Changed in version 0.6: Image paths can now be absolute.

Changed in version 1.5: latex target supports pixels (default is 96px=1in).

Footnotes

For footnotes (ref), use [#name]_ to mark the footnote location, and add the footnote body at the bottom of the document after a “Footnotes” rubric heading, like so:

Lorem ipsum [#f1]_ dolor sit amet ... [#f2]_

.. rubric:: Footnotes

.. [#f1] Text of the first footnote.
.. [#f2] Text of the second footnote.

You can also explicitly number the footnotes ([1]_) or use auto-numbered footnotes without names ([#]_).

Citations

Standard reST citations (ref) are supported, with the additional feature that they are “global”, i.e. all citations can be referenced from all files.  Use them like so:

Lorem ipsum [Ref]_ dolor sit amet.

.. [Ref] Book or article reference, URL or whatever.

Citation usage is similar to footnote usage, but with a label that is not numeric or begins with #.

Substitutions

reST supports “substitutions” (ref), which are pieces of text and/or markup referred to in the text by |name|.  They are defined like footnotes with explicit markup blocks, like this:

.. |name| replace:: replacement *text*

or this:

.. |caution| image:: warning.png
             :alt: Warning!

See the reST reference for substitutions for details.

If you want to use some substitutions for all documents, put them into rst_prolog or rst_epilog or put them into a separate file and include it into all documents you want to use them in, using the include directive.  (Be sure to give the include file a file name extension differing from that of other source files, to avoid Sphinx finding it as a standalone document.)

Sphinx defines some default substitutions, see default-substitutions.

Comments

Every explicit markup block which isn’t a valid markup construct (like the footnotes above) is regarded as a comment (ref).  For example:

.. This is a comment.

You can indent text after a comment start to form multiline comments:

..
   This whole indented block
   is a comment.

   Still in the comment.

HTML Metadata

The meta directive (ref) allows specifying the HTML metadata element of a Sphinx documentation page.  For example, the directive:

.. meta::
   :description: The Sphinx documentation builder
   :keywords: Sphinx, documentation, builder

will generate the following HTML output:

<meta name="description" content="The Sphinx documentation builder">
<meta name="keywords" content="Sphinx, documentation, builder">

Also, Sphinx will add the keywords as specified in the meta directive to the search index.  Thereby, the lang attribute of the meta element is considered.  For example, the directive:

.. meta::
   :keywords: backup
   :keywords lang=en: pleasefindthiskey pleasefindthiskeytoo
   :keywords lang=de: bittediesenkeyfinden

adds the following words to the search indices of builds with different language configurations:

  • pleasefindthiskey, pleasefindthiskeytoo to English builds;
  • bittediesenkeyfinden to German builds;
  • backup to builds in all languages.

Source encoding

Since the easiest way to include special characters like em dashes or copyright signs in reST is to directly write them as Unicode characters, one has to specify an encoding.  Sphinx assumes source files to be encoded in UTF-8 by default; you can change this with the source_encoding config value.

Gotchas

There are some problems one commonly runs into while authoring reST documents:

  • Separation of inline markup: As said above, inline markup spans must be separated from the surrounding text by non-word characters, you have to use a backslash-escaped space to get around that.  See the reference for the details.
  • No nested inline markup: Something like *see :func:`foo`* is not possible.

Footnotes

[1]

When the default domain contains a class directive, this directive will be shadowed.  Therefore, Sphinx re-exports it as rst-class.

Roles

Sphinx uses interpreted text roles to insert semantic markup into documents. They are written as :rolename:`content`.

NOTE:

The default role (`content`) has no special meaning by default.  You are free to use it for anything you like, e.g. variable names; use the default_role config value to set it to a known role – the any role to find anything or the py:obj role to find Python objects are very useful for this.

See /usage/restructuredtext/domains for roles added by domains.

Cross-referencing syntax

Cross-references are generated by many semantic interpreted text roles. Basically, you only need to write :role:`target`, and a link will be created to the item named target of the type indicated by role.  The link’s text will be the same as target.

There are some additional facilities, however, that make cross-referencing roles more versatile:

  • You may supply an explicit title and reference target, like in reST direct hyperlinks: :role:`title <target>` will refer to target, but the link text will be title.
  • If you prefix the content with !, no reference/hyperlink will be created.
  • If you prefix the content with ~, the link text will only be the last component of the target.  For example, :py:meth:`~Queue.Queue.get` will refer to Queue.Queue.get but only display get as the link text.  This does not work with all cross-reference roles, but is domain specific.

    In HTML output, the link’s title attribute (that is e.g. shown as a tool-tip on mouse-hover) will always be the full target name.

Cross-referencing anything

:any:

New in version 1.3.

This convenience role tries to do its best to find a valid target for its reference text.

  • First, it tries standard cross-reference targets that would be referenced by doc, ref or option.

    Custom objects added to the standard domain by extensions (see Sphinx.add_object_type()) are also searched.

  • Then, it looks for objects (targets) in all loaded domains.  It is up to the domains how specific a match must be.  For example, in the Python domain a reference of :any:`Builder` would match the sphinx.builders.Builder class.

If none or multiple targets are found, a warning will be emitted.  In the case of multiple targets, you can change “any” to a specific role.

This role is a good candidate for setting default_role.  If you do, you can write cross-references without a lot of markup overhead.  For example, in this Python function documentation

.. function:: install()

   This function installs a `handler` for every signal known by the
   `signal` module.  See the section `about-signals` for more information.

there could be references to a glossary term (usually :term:`handler`), a Python module (usually :py:mod:`signal` or :mod:`signal`) and a section (usually :ref:`about-signals`).

The any role also works together with the intersphinx extension: when no local cross-reference is found, all object types of intersphinx inventories are also searched.

Cross-referencing objects

These roles are described with their respective domains:

  • Python
  • C
  • C++
  • JavaScript
  • ReST

Cross-referencing arbitrary locations

:ref:

To support cross-referencing to arbitrary locations in any document, the standard reST labels are used.  For this to work label names must be unique throughout the entire documentation.  There are two ways in which you can refer to labels:

  • If you place a label directly before a section title, you can reference to it with :ref:`label-name`.  For example:

    .. _my-reference-label:
    
    Section to cross-reference
    --------------------------
    
    This is the text of the section.
    
    It refers to the section itself, see :ref:`my-reference-label`.

    The :ref: role would then generate a link to the section, with the link title being “Section to cross-reference”.  This works just as well when section and reference are in different source files.

    Automatic labels also work with figures. For example:

    .. _my-figure:
    
    .. figure:: whatever
    
       Figure caption

    In this case, a  reference :ref:`my-figure` would insert a reference to the figure with link text “Figure caption”.

    The same works for tables that are given an explicit caption using the table directive.

  • Labels that aren’t placed before a section title can still be referenced, but you must give the link an explicit title, using this syntax: :ref:`Link title <label-name>`.
NOTE:

Reference labels must start with an underscore. When referencing a label, the underscore must be omitted (see examples above).

Using ref is advised over standard reStructuredText links to sections (like `Section title`_) because it works across files, when section headings are changed, will raise warnings if incorrect, and works for all builders that support cross-references.

Cross-referencing documents

New in version 0.6.

There is also a way to directly link to documents:

:doc:

Link to the specified document; the document name can be specified in absolute or relative fashion.  For example, if the reference :doc:`parrot` occurs in the document sketches/index, then the link refers to sketches/parrot.  If the reference is :doc:`/people` or :doc:`../people`, the link refers to people.

If no explicit link text is given (like usual: :doc:`Monty Python members </people>`), the link caption will be the title of the given document.

Referencing downloadable files

New in version 0.6.

:download:

This role lets you link to files within your source tree that are not reST documents that can be viewed, but files that can be downloaded.

When you use this role, the referenced file is automatically marked for inclusion in the output when building (obviously, for HTML output only). All downloadable files are put into a _downloads/<unique hash>/ subdirectory of the output directory; duplicate filenames are handled.

An example:

See :download:`this example script <../example.py>`.

The given filename is usually relative to the directory the current source file is contained in, but if it absolute (starting with /), it is taken as relative to the top source directory.

The example.py file will be copied to the output directory, and a suitable link generated to it.

Not to show unavailable download links, you should wrap whole paragraphs that have this role:

.. only:: builder_html

   See :download:`this example script <../example.py>`.

Cross-referencing figures by figure number

New in version 1.3.

Changed in version 1.5: numref role can also refer sections. And numref allows {name} for the link text.

:numref:

Link to the specified figures, tables, code-blocks and sections; the standard reST labels are used.  When you use this role, it will insert a reference to the figure with link text by its figure number like “Fig. 1.1”.

If an explicit link text is given (as usual: :numref:`Image of Sphinx (Fig. %s) <my-figure>`), the link caption will serve as title of the reference. As placeholders, %s and {number} get replaced by the figure number and  {name} by the figure caption. If no explicit link text is given, the numfig_format setting is used as fall-back default.

If numfig is False, figures are not numbered, so this role inserts not a reference but the label or the link text.

Cross-referencing other items of interest

The following roles do possibly create a cross-reference, but do not refer to objects:

:envvar:

An environment variable.  Index entries are generated.  Also generates a link to the matching envvar directive, if it exists.

:token:

The name of a grammar token (used to create links between productionlist directives).

:keyword:

The name of a keyword in Python.  This creates a link to a reference label with that name, if it exists.

:option:

A command-line option to an executable program.  This generates a link to a option directive, if it exists.

The following role creates a cross-reference to a term in a glossary:

:term:

Reference to a term in a glossary.  A glossary is created using the glossary directive containing a definition list with terms and definitions.  It does not have to be in the same file as the term markup, for example the Python docs have one global glossary in the glossary.rst file.

If you use a term that’s not explained in a glossary, you’ll get a warning during build.

Math

:math:

Role for inline math.  Use like this:

Since Pythagoras, we know that :math:`a^2 + b^2 = c^2`.
:eq:

Same as math:numref.

Other semantic markup

The following roles don’t do anything special except formatting the text in a different style:

:abbr:

An abbreviation.  If the role content contains a parenthesized explanation, it will be treated specially: it will be shown in a tool-tip in HTML, and output only once in LaTeX.

Example: :abbr:`LIFO (last-in, first-out)`.

New in version 0.6.

:command:

The name of an OS-level command, such as rm.

:dfn:

Mark the defining instance of a term in the text.  (No index entries are generated.)

:file:

The name of a file or directory.  Within the contents, you can use curly braces to indicate a “variable” part, for example:

... is installed in :file:`/usr/lib/python2.{x}/site-packages` ...

In the built documentation, the x will be displayed differently to indicate that it is to be replaced by the Python minor version.

:guilabel:

Labels presented as part of an interactive user interface should be marked using guilabel.  This includes labels from text-based interfaces such as those created using curses or other text-based libraries.  Any label used in the interface should be marked with this role, including button labels, window titles, field names, menu and menu selection names, and even values in selection lists.

Changed in version 1.0: An accelerator key for the GUI label can be included using an ampersand; this will be stripped and displayed underlined in the output (example: :guilabel:`&Cancel`).  To include a literal ampersand, double it.

:kbd:

Mark a sequence of keystrokes.  What form the key sequence takes may depend on platform- or application-specific conventions.  When there are no relevant conventions, the names of modifier keys should be spelled out, to improve accessibility for new users and non-native speakers.  For example, an xemacs key sequence may be marked like :kbd:`C-x C-f`, but without reference to a specific application or platform, the same sequence should be marked as :kbd:`Control-x Control-f`.

:mailheader:

The name of an RFC 822-style mail header.  This markup does not imply that the header is being used in an email message, but can be used to refer to any header of the same “style.”  This is also used for headers defined by the various MIME specifications.  The header name should be entered in the same way it would normally be found in practice, with the camel-casing conventions being preferred where there is more than one common usage. For example: :mailheader:`Content-Type`.

:makevar:

The name of a make variable.

:manpage:

A reference to a Unix manual page including the section, e.g. :manpage:`ls(1)`. Creates a hyperlink to an external site rendering the manpage if manpages_url is defined.

:menuselection:

Menu selections should be marked using the menuselection role.  This is used to mark a complete sequence of menu selections, including selecting submenus and choosing a specific operation, or any subsequence of such a sequence.  The names of individual selections should be separated by -->.

For example, to mark the selection “Start > Programs”, use this markup:

:menuselection:`Start --> Programs`

When including a selection that includes some trailing indicator, such as the ellipsis some operating systems use to indicate that the command opens a dialog, the indicator should be omitted from the selection name.

menuselection also supports ampersand accelerators just like guilabel.

:mimetype:

The name of a MIME type, or a component of a MIME type (the major or minor portion, taken alone).

:newsgroup:

The name of a Usenet newsgroup.

Todo

Is this not part of the standard domain?

:program:

The name of an executable program.  This may differ from the file name for the executable for some platforms.  In particular, the .exe (or other) extension should be omitted for Windows programs.

:regexp:

A regular expression. Quotes should not be included.

:samp:

A piece of literal text, such as code.  Within the contents, you can use curly braces to indicate a “variable” part, as in file.  For example, in :samp:`print 1+{variable}`, the part variable would be emphasized.

If you don’t need the “variable part” indication, use the standard ``code`` instead.

Changed in version 1.8: Allowed to escape curly braces with backslash

There is also an index role to generate index entries.

The following roles generate external links:

:pep:

A reference to a Python Enhancement Proposal.  This generates appropriate index entries. The text “PEP number” is generated; in the HTML output, this text is a hyperlink to an online copy of the specified PEP.  You can link to a specific section by saying :pep:`number#anchor`.

:rfc:

A reference to an Internet Request for Comments.  This generates appropriate index entries. The text “RFC number” is generated; in the HTML output, this text is a hyperlink to an online copy of the specified RFC.  You can link to a specific section by saying :rfc:`number#anchor`.

Note that there are no special roles for including hyperlinks as you can use the standard reST markup for that purpose.

Substitutions

The documentation system provides three substitutions that are defined by default. They are set in the build configuration file.

|release|

Replaced by the project release the documentation refers to.  This is meant to be the full version string including alpha/beta/release candidate tags, e.g. 2.5.2b3.  Set by release.

|version|

Replaced by the project version the documentation refers to. This is meant to consist only of the major and minor version parts, e.g. 2.5, even for version 2.5.1.  Set by version.

|today|

Replaced by either today’s date (the date on which the document is read), or the date set in the build configuration file.  Normally has the format April 14, 2007.  Set by today_fmt and today.

Directives

As previously discussed, a directive is a generic block of explicit markup. While Docutils provides a number of directives, Sphinx provides many more and uses directives as one of the primary extension mechanisms.

See /usage/restructuredtext/domains for roles added by domains.

SEE ALSO:

Refer to the reStructuredText Primer for an overview of the directives provided by Docutils.

Table of contents

Since reST does not have facilities to interconnect several documents, or split documents into multiple output files, Sphinx uses a custom directive to add relations between the single files the documentation is made of, as well as tables of contents.  The toctree directive is the central element.

NOTE:

Simple “inclusion” of one file in another can be done with the include directive.

NOTE:

To create table of contents for current document (.rst file), use the standard reST contents directive.

.. toctree::

This directive inserts a “TOC tree” at the current location, using the individual TOCs (including “sub-TOC trees”) of the documents given in the directive body.  Relative document names (not beginning with a slash) are relative to the document the directive occurs in, absolute names are relative to the source directory.  A numeric maxdepth option may be given to indicate the depth of the tree; by default, all levels are included. [1]

The representation of “TOC tree” is changed in each output format.  The builders that output multiple files (ex. HTML) treat it as a collection of hyperlinks.  On the other hand, the builders that output a single file (ex. LaTeX, man page, etc.) replace it with the content of the documents on the TOC tree.

Consider this example (taken from the Python docs’ library reference index):

.. toctree::
   :maxdepth: 2

   intro
   strings
   datatypes
   numeric
   (many more documents listed here)

This accomplishes two things:

  • Tables of contents from all those documents are inserted, with a maximum depth of two, that means one nested heading.  toctree directives in those documents are also taken into account.
  • Sphinx knows the relative order of the documents intro, strings and so forth, and it knows that they are children of the shown document, the library index.  From this information it generates “next chapter”, “previous chapter” and “parent chapter” links.

Entries

Document titles in the toctree will be automatically read from the title of the referenced document. If that isn’t what you want, you can specify an explicit title and target using a similar syntax to reST hyperlinks (and Sphinx’s cross-referencing syntax). This looks like:

.. toctree::

   intro
   All about strings <strings>
   datatypes

The second line above will link to the strings document, but will use the title “All about strings” instead of the title of the strings document.

You can also add external links, by giving an HTTP URL instead of a document name.

Section numbering

If you want to have section numbers even in HTML output, give the toplevel toctree a numbered option.  For example:

.. toctree::
   :numbered:

   foo
   bar

Numbering then starts at the heading of foo.  Sub-toctrees are automatically numbered (don’t give the numbered flag to those).

Numbering up to a specific depth is also possible, by giving the depth as a numeric argument to numbered.

Additional options

You can use the caption option to provide a toctree caption and you can use the name option to provide an implicit target name that can be referenced by using ref:

.. toctree::
   :caption: Table of Contents
   :name: mastertoc

   foo

If you want only the titles of documents in the tree to show up, not other headings of the same level, you can use the titlesonly option:

.. toctree::
   :titlesonly:

   foo
   bar

You can use “globbing” in toctree directives, by giving the glob flag option.  All entries are then matched against the list of available documents, and matches are inserted into the list alphabetically.  Example:

.. toctree::
   :glob:

   intro*
   recipe/*
   *

This includes first all documents whose names start with intro, then all documents in the recipe folder, then all remaining documents (except the one containing the directive, of course.) [2]

The special entry name self stands for the document containing the toctree directive.  This is useful if you want to generate a “sitemap” from the toctree.

You can use the reversed flag option to reverse the order of the entries in the list. This can be useful when using the glob flag option to reverse the ordering of the files.  Example:

.. toctree::
   :glob:
   :reversed:

   recipe/*

You can also give a “hidden” option to the directive, like this:

.. toctree::
   :hidden:

   doc_1
   doc_2

This will still notify Sphinx of the document hierarchy, but not insert links into the document at the location of the directive – this makes sense if you intend to insert these links yourself, in a different style, or in the HTML sidebar.

In cases where you want to have only one top-level toctree and hide all other lower level toctrees you can add the “includehidden” option to the top-level toctree entry:

.. toctree::
   :includehidden:

   doc_1
   doc_2

All other toctree entries can then be eliminated by the “hidden” option.

In the end, all documents in the source directory (or subdirectories) must occur in some toctree directive; Sphinx will emit a warning if it finds a file that is not included, because that means that this file will not be reachable through standard navigation.

Use exclude_patterns to explicitly exclude documents or directories from building completely.  Use the “orphan” metadata to let a document be built, but notify Sphinx that it is not reachable via a toctree.

The “root document” (selected by root_doc) is the “root” of the TOC tree hierarchy.  It can be used as the documentation’s main page, or as a “full table of contents” if you don’t give a maxdepth option.

Changed in version 0.3: Added “globbing” option.

Changed in version 0.6: Added “numbered” and “hidden” options as well as external links and support for “self” references.

Changed in version 1.0: Added “titlesonly” option.

Changed in version 1.1: Added numeric argument to “numbered”.

Changed in version 1.2: Added “includehidden” option.

Changed in version 1.3: Added “caption” and “name” option.

Special names

Sphinx reserves some document names for its own use; you should not try to create documents with these names – it will cause problems.

The special document names (and pages generated for them) are:

  • genindex, modindex, search

    These are used for the general index, the Python module index, and the search page, respectively.

    The general index is populated with entries from modules, all index-generating object descriptions, and from index directives.

    The Python module index contains one entry per py:module directive.

    The search page contains a form that uses the generated JSON search index and JavaScript to full-text search the generated documents for search words; it should work on every major browser that supports modern JavaScript.

  • every name beginning with _

    Though few such names are currently used by Sphinx, you should not create documents or document-containing directories with such names.  (Using _ as a prefix for a custom template directory is fine.)

WARNING:

Be careful with unusual characters in filenames.  Some formats may interpret these characters in unexpected ways:

  • Do not use the colon : for HTML based formats.  Links to other parts may not work.
  • Do not use the plus + for the ePub format.  Some resources may not be found.

Paragraph-level markup

These directives create short paragraphs and can be used inside information units as well as normal text.

.. note::

An especially important bit of information about an API that a user should be aware of when using whatever bit of API the note pertains to.  The content of the directive should be written in complete sentences and include all appropriate punctuation.

Example:

.. note::

   This function is not suitable for sending spam e-mails.
.. warning::

An important bit of information about an API that a user should be very aware of when using whatever bit of API the warning pertains to.  The content of the directive should be written in complete sentences and include all appropriate punctuation. This differs from note in that it is recommended over note for information regarding security.

.. versionadded:: version

This directive documents the version of the project which added the described feature to the library or C API. When this applies to an entire module, it should be placed at the top of the module section before any prose.

The first argument must be given and is the version in question; you can add a second argument consisting of a brief explanation of the change.

Example:

.. versionadded:: 2.5
   The *spam* parameter.

Note that there must be no blank line between the directive head and the explanation; this is to make these blocks visually continuous in the markup.

.. versionchanged:: version

Similar to versionadded, but describes when and what changed in the named feature in some way (new parameters, changed side effects, etc.).

.. deprecated:: version

Similar to versionchanged, but describes when the feature was deprecated.  An explanation can also be given, for example to inform the reader what should be used instead.  Example:

.. deprecated:: 3.1
   Use :func:`spam` instead.
.. seealso::

Many sections include a list of references to module documentation or external documents.  These lists are created using the seealso directive.

The seealso directive is typically placed in a section just before any subsections.  For the HTML output, it is shown boxed off from the main flow of the text.

The content of the seealso directive should be a reST definition list. Example:

.. seealso::

   Module :py:mod:`zipfile`
      Documentation of the :py:mod:`zipfile` standard module.

   `GNU tar manual, Basic Tar Format <http://link>`_
      Documentation for tar archive files, including GNU tar extensions.

There’s also a “short form” allowed that looks like this:

.. seealso:: modules :py:mod:`zipfile`, :py:mod:`tarfile`

New in version 0.5: The short form.

.. rubric:: title

This directive creates a paragraph heading that is not used to create a table of contents node.

NOTE:

If the title of the rubric is “Footnotes” (or the selected language’s equivalent), this rubric is ignored by the LaTeX writer, since it is assumed to only contain footnote definitions and therefore would create an empty heading.

.. centered::

This directive creates a centered boldfaced line of text.  Use it as follows:

.. centered:: LICENSE AGREEMENT

Deprecated since version 1.1: This presentation-only directive is a legacy from older versions.  Use a rst-class directive instead and add an appropriate style.

.. hlist::

This directive must contain a bullet list.  It will transform it into a more compact list by either distributing more than one item horizontally, or reducing spacing between items, depending on the builder.

For builders that support the horizontal distribution, there is a columns option that specifies the number of columns; it defaults to 2.  Example:

.. hlist::
   :columns: 3

   * A list of
   * short items
   * that should be
   * displayed
   * horizontally

New in version 0.6.

Showing code examples

There are multiple ways to show syntax-highlighted literal code blocks in Sphinx:

  • using reST doctest blocks;
  • using reST literal blocks, optionally in combination with the highlight directive;
  • using the code-block directive;
  • and using the literalinclude directive.

Doctest blocks can only be used to show interactive Python sessions, while the remaining three can be used for other languages. Of these three, literal blocks are useful when an entire document, or at least large sections of it, use code blocks with the same syntax and which should be styled in the same manner. On the other hand, the code-block directive makes more sense when you want more fine-tuned control over the styling of each block or when you have a document containing code blocks using multiple varied syntaxes. Finally, the literalinclude directive is useful for including entire code files in your documentation.

In all cases, Syntax highlighting is provided by Pygments. When using literal blocks, this is configured using any highlight directives in the source file. When a highlight directive is encountered, it is used until the next highlight directive is encountered. If there is no highlight directive in the file, the global highlighting language is used. This defaults to python but can be configured using the highlight_language config value. The following values are supported:

  • none (no highlighting)
  • default (similar to python3 but with a fallback to none without warning highlighting fails; the default when highlight_language isn’t set)
  • guess (let Pygments guess the lexer based on contents, only works with certain well-recognizable languages)
  • python
  • rest
  • c
  • … and any other lexer alias that Pygments supports

If highlighting with the selected language fails (i.e. Pygments emits an “Error” token), the block is not highlighted in any way.

IMPORTANT:

The list of lexer aliases supported is tied to the Pygment version. If you want to ensure consistent highlighting, you should fix your version of Pygments.

.. highlight:: language

Example:

.. highlight:: c

This language is used until the next highlight directive is encountered. As discussed previously, language can be any lexer alias supported by Pygments.

options

:linenothreshold: threshold (number (optional))

Enable to generate line numbers for code blocks.

This option takes an optional number as threshold parameter.  If any threshold given, the directive will produce line numbers only for the code blocks longer than N lines.  If not given, line numbers will be produced for all of code blocks.

Example:

.. highlight:: python
   :linenothreshold: 5
:force: (no value)

If given, minor errors on highlighting are ignored.

New in version 2.1.

.. code-block:: [language]

Example:

.. code-block:: ruby

   Some Ruby code.

The directive’s alias name sourcecode works as well.  This directive takes a language name as an argument.  It can be any lexer alias supported by Pygments.  If it is not given, the setting of highlight directive will be used. If not set, highlight_language will be used.

Changed in version 2.0: The language argument becomes optional.

options

:linenos: (no value)

Enable to generate line numbers for the code block:

.. code-block:: ruby
   :linenos:

   Some more Ruby code.
:lineno-start: number (number)

Set the first line number of the code block.  If present, linenos option is also automatically activated:

.. code-block:: ruby
   :lineno-start: 10

   Some more Ruby code, with line numbering starting at 10.

New in version 1.3.

:emphasize-lines: line numbers (comma separated numbers)

Emphasize particular lines of the code block:

.. code-block:: python
   :emphasize-lines: 3,5

   def some_function():
       interesting = False
       print 'This line is highlighted.'
       print 'This one is not...'
       print '...but this one is.'

New in version 1.1.

Changed in version 1.6.6: LaTeX supports the emphasize-lines option.

:caption: caption of code block (text)

Set a caption to the code block.

New in version 1.3.

:name: a label for hyperlink (text)

Define implicit target name that can be referenced by using ref.  For example:

.. code-block:: python
   :caption: this.py
   :name: this-py

   print 'Explicit is better than implicit.'

In order to cross-reference a code-block using either the ref or the numref role, it is necessary that both name and caption be defined. The argument of name can then be given to numref to generate the cross-reference. Example:

See :numref:`this-py` for an example.

When using ref, it is possible to generate a cross-reference with only name defined, provided an explicit title is given. Example:

See :ref:`this code snippet <this-py>` for an example.

New in version 1.3.

:dedent: number (number or no value)

Strip indentation characters from the code block.  When number given, leading N characters are removed.  When no argument given, leading spaces are removed via textwrap.dedent().  For example:

.. code-block:: ruby
   :dedent: 4

       some ruby code

New in version 1.3.

Changed in version 3.5: Support automatic dedent.

:force: (no value)

If given, minor errors on highlighting are ignored.

New in version 2.1.

.. literalinclude:: filename

Longer displays of verbatim text may be included by storing the example text in an external file containing only plain text.  The file may be included using the literalinclude directive. [3] For example, to include the Python source file example.py, use:

.. literalinclude:: example.py

The file name is usually relative to the current file’s path.  However, if it is absolute (starting with /), it is relative to the top source directory.

Additional options

Like code-block, the directive supports the linenos flag option to switch on line numbers, the lineno-start option to select the first line number, the emphasize-lines option to emphasize particular lines, the name option to provide an implicit target name, the dedent option to strip indentation characters for the code block, and a language option to select a language different from the current file’s standard language. In addition, it supports the caption option; however, this can be provided with no argument to use the filename as the caption. Example with options:

.. literalinclude:: example.rb
   :language: ruby
   :emphasize-lines: 12,15-18
   :linenos:

Tabs in the input are expanded if you give a tab-width option with the desired tab width.

Include files are assumed to be encoded in the source_encoding. If the file has a different encoding, you can specify it with the encoding option:

.. literalinclude:: example.py
   :encoding: latin-1

The directive also supports including only parts of the file.  If it is a Python module, you can select a class, function or method to include using the pyobject option:

.. literalinclude:: example.py
   :pyobject: Timer.start

This would only include the code lines belonging to the start() method in the Timer class within the file.

Alternately, you can specify exactly which lines to include by giving a lines option:

.. literalinclude:: example.py
   :lines: 1,3,5-10,20-

This includes the lines 1, 3, 5 to 10 and lines 20 to the last line.

Another way to control which part of the file is included is to use the start-after and end-before options (or only one of them).  If start-after is given as a string option, only lines that follow the first line containing that string are included.  If end-before is given as a string option, only lines that precede the first lines containing that string are included. The start-at and end-at options behave in a similar way, but the lines containing the matched string are included.

start-after/start-at and end-before/end-at can have same string. start-after/start-at filter lines before the line that contains option string (start-at will keep the line). Then end-before/end-at filter lines after the line that contains option string (end-at will keep the line and end-before skip the first line).

NOTE:

If you want to select only [second-section] of ini file like the following, you can use :start-at: [second-section] and :end-before: [third-section]:

[first-section]

var_in_first=true

[second-section]

var_in_second=true

[third-section]

var_in_third=true

Useful cases of these option is working with tag comments. :start-after: [initialized] and :end-before: [initialized] options keep lines between comments:

if __name__ == "__main__":
    # [initialize]
    app.start(":8000")
    # [initialize]

When lines have been selected in any of the ways described above, the line numbers in emphasize-lines refer to those selected lines, counted consecutively starting at 1.

When specifying particular parts of a file to display, it can be useful to display the original line numbers. This can be done using the lineno-match option, which is however allowed only when the selection consists of contiguous lines.

You can prepend and/or append a line to the included code, using the prepend and append option, respectively.  This is useful e.g. for highlighting PHP code that doesn’t include the <?php/?> markers.

If you want to show the diff of the code, you can specify the old file by giving a diff option:

.. literalinclude:: example.py
   :diff: example.py.orig

This shows the diff between example.py and example.py.orig with unified diff format.

A force option can ignore minor errors on highlighting.

Changed in version 0.4.3: Added the encoding option.

Changed in version 0.6: Added the pyobject, lines, start-after and end-before options, as well as support for absolute filenames.

Changed in version 1.0: Added the prepend, append, and tab-width options.

Changed in version 1.3: Added the diff, lineno-match, caption, name, and dedent options.

Changed in version 1.5: Added the start-at, and end-at options.

Changed in version 1.6: With both start-after and lines in use, the first line as per start-after is considered to be with line number 1 for lines.

Changed in version 2.1: Added the force option.

Changed in version 3.5: Support automatic dedent.

Glossary

.. glossary::

This directive must contain a reST definition-list-like markup with terms and definitions.  The definitions will then be referenceable with the term role.  Example:

.. glossary::

   environment
      A structure where information about all documents under the root is
      saved, and used for cross-referencing.  The environment is pickled
      after the parsing stage, so that successive runs only need to read
      and parse new and changed documents.

   source directory
      The directory which, including its subdirectories, contains all
      source files for one Sphinx project.

In contrast to regular definition lists, multiple terms per entry are allowed, and inline markup is allowed in terms.  You can link to all of the terms.  For example:

.. glossary::

   term 1
   term 2
      Definition of both terms.

(When the glossary is sorted, the first term determines the sort order.)

If you want to specify “grouping key” for general index entries, you can put a “key” as “term : key”. For example:

.. glossary::

   term 1 : A
   term 2 : B
      Definition of both terms.

Note that “key” is used for grouping key as is. The “key” isn’t normalized; key “A” and “a” become different groups. The whole characters in “key” is used instead of a first character; it is used for “Combining Character Sequence” and “Surrogate Pairs” grouping key.

In i18n situation, you can specify “localized term : key” even if original text only have “term” part. In this case, translated “localized term” will be categorized in “key” group.

New in version 0.6: You can now give the glossary directive a :sorted: flag that will automatically sort the entries alphabetically.

Changed in version 1.1: Now supports multiple terms and inline markup in terms.

Changed in version 1.4: Index key for glossary term should be considered experimental.

Meta-information markup

.. sectionauthor:: name <email>

Identifies the author of the current section.  The argument should include the author’s name such that it can be used for presentation and email address.  The domain name portion of the address should be lower case. Example:

.. sectionauthor:: Guido van Rossum <guido@python.org>

By default, this markup isn’t reflected in the output in any way (it helps keep track of contributions), but you can set the configuration value show_authors to True to make them produce a paragraph in the output.

.. codeauthor:: name <email>

The codeauthor directive, which can appear multiple times, names the authors of the described code, just like sectionauthor names the author(s) of a piece of documentation.  It too only produces output if the show_authors configuration value is True.

Index-generating markup

Sphinx automatically creates index entries from all object descriptions (like functions, classes or attributes) like discussed in /usage/restructuredtext/domains.

However, there is also explicit markup available, to make the index more comprehensive and enable index entries in documents where information is not mainly contained in information units, such as the language reference.

.. index:: <entries>

This directive contains one or more index entries.  Each entry consists of a type and a value, separated by a colon.

For example:

.. index::
   single: execution; context
   module: __main__
   module: sys
   triple: module; search; path

The execution context
---------------------

...

This directive contains five entries, which will be converted to entries in the generated index which link to the exact location of the index statement (or, in case of offline media, the corresponding page number).

Since index directives generate cross-reference targets at their location in the source, it makes sense to put them before the thing they refer to – e.g. a heading, as in the example above.

The possible entry types are:

single

Creates a single index entry.  Can be made a subentry by separating the subentry text with a semicolon (this notation is also used below to describe what entries are created).

pair

pair: loop; statement is a shortcut that creates two index entries, namely loop; statement and statement; loop.

triple

Likewise, triple: module; search; path is a shortcut that creates three index entries, which are module; search path, search; path, module and path; module search.

see

see: entry; other creates an index entry that refers from entry to other.

seealso

Like see, but inserts “see also” instead of “see”.

module, keyword, operator, object, exception, statement, builtin

These all create two index entries.  For example, module: hashlib creates the entries module; hashlib and hashlib; module.  (These are Python-specific and therefore deprecated.)

You can mark up “main” index entries by prefixing them with an exclamation mark.  The references to “main” entries are emphasized in the generated index.  For example, if two pages contain

.. index:: Python

and one page contains

.. index:: ! Python

then the backlink to the latter page is emphasized among the three backlinks.

For index directives containing only “single” entries, there is a shorthand notation:

.. index:: BNF, grammar, syntax, notation

This creates four index entries.

Changed in version 1.1: Added see and seealso types, as well as marking main entries.

options

:name: a label for hyperlink (text)

Define implicit target name that can be referenced by using ref.  For example:

.. index:: Python
   :name: py-index

New in version 3.0.

:index:

While the index directive is a block-level markup and links to the beginning of the next paragraph, there is also a corresponding role that sets the link target directly where it is used.

The content of the role can be a simple phrase, which is then kept in the text and used as an index entry.  It can also be a combination of text and index entry, styled like with explicit targets of cross-references.  In that case, the “target” part can be a full entry as described for the directive above.  For example:

This is a normal reST :index:`paragraph` that contains several
:index:`index entries <pair: index; entry>`.

New in version 1.1.

Including content based on tags

.. only:: <expression>

Include the content of the directive only if the expression is true.  The expression should consist of tags, like this:

.. only:: html and draft

Undefined tags are false, defined tags (via the -t command-line option or within conf.py, see here) are true.  Boolean expressions, also using parentheses (like html and (latex or draft)) are supported.

The format and the name of the current builder (html, latex or text) are always set as a tag [4].  To make the distinction between format and name explicit, they are also added with the prefix format_ and builder_, e.g. the epub builder defines the tags  html, epub, format_html and builder_epub.

These standard tags are set after the configuration file is read, so they are not available there.

All tags must follow the standard Python identifier syntax as set out in the Identifiers and keywords documentation.  That is, a tag expression may only consist of tags that conform to the syntax of Python variables.  In ASCII, this consists of the uppercase and lowercase letters A through Z, the underscore _ and, except for the first character, the digits 0 through 9.

New in version 0.6.

Changed in version 1.2: Added the name of the builder and the prefixes.

WARNING:

This directive is designed to control only content of document.  It could not control sections, labels and so on.

Tables

Use reStructuredText tables, i.e. either

  • grid table syntax (ref),
  • simple table syntax (ref),
  • csv-table syntax,
  • or list-table syntax.

The table directive serves as optional wrapper of the grid and simple syntaxes.

They work fine in HTML output, however there are some gotchas when using tables in LaTeX: the column width is hard to determine correctly automatically.  For this reason, the following directive exists:

.. tabularcolumns:: column spec

This directive gives a “column spec” for the next table occurring in the source file.  The spec is the second argument to the LaTeX tabulary package’s environment (which Sphinx uses to translate tables).  It can have values like

|l|l|l|

which means three left-adjusted, nonbreaking columns.  For columns with longer text that should automatically be broken, use either the standard p{width} construct, or tabulary’s automatic specifiers:

Lflush left column with automatic width
Rflush right column with automatic width
Ccentered column with automatic width
Jjustified column with automatic width

The automatic widths of the LRCJ columns are attributed by tabulary in proportion to the observed shares in a first pass where the table cells are rendered at their natural “horizontal” widths.

By default, Sphinx uses a table layout with J for every column.

New in version 0.3.

Changed in version 1.6: Merged cells may now contain multiple paragraphs and are much better handled, thanks to custom Sphinx LaTeX macros. This novel situation motivated the switch to J specifier and not L by default.

HINT:

Sphinx actually uses T specifier having done \newcolumntype{T}{J}. To revert to previous default, insert \newcolumntype{T}{L} in the LaTeX preamble (see latex_elements).

A frequent issue with tabulary is that columns with little contents are “squeezed”. The minimal column width is a tabulary parameter called \tymin. You may set it globally in the LaTeX preamble via \setlength{\tymin}{40pt} for example.

Else, use the tabularcolumns directive with an explicit p{40pt} (for example) for that column. You may use also l specifier but this makes the task of setting column widths more difficult if some merged cell intersects that column.

WARNING:

Tables with more than 30 rows are rendered using longtable, not tabulary, in order to allow pagebreaks. The L, R, … specifiers do not work for these tables.

Tables that contain list-like elements such as object descriptions, blockquotes or any kind of lists cannot be set out of the box with tabulary. They are therefore set with the standard LaTeX tabular (or longtable) environment if you don’t give a tabularcolumns directive.  If you do, the table will be set with tabulary but you must use the p{width} construct (or Sphinx’s \X and \Y specifiers described below) for the columns containing these elements.

Literal blocks do not work with tabulary at all, so tables containing a literal block are always set with tabular. The verbatim environment used for literal blocks only works in p{width} (and \X or \Y) columns, hence Sphinx generates such column specs for tables containing literal blocks.

Since Sphinx 1.5, the \X{a}{b} specifier is used (there is a backslash in the specifier letter). It is like p{width} with the width set to a fraction a/b of the current line width. You can use it in the tabularcolumns (it is not a problem if some LaTeX macro is also called \X.)

It is not needed for b to be the total number of columns, nor for the sum of the fractions of the \X specifiers to add  up to one. For example |\X{2}{5}|\X{1}{5}|\X{1}{5}| is legitimate and the table will occupy 80% of the line width, the first of its three columns having the same width as the sum  of the next two.

This is used by the :widths: option of the table directive.

Since Sphinx 1.6, there is also the \Y{f} specifier which admits a decimal argument, such has \Y{0.15}: this would have the same effect as \X{3}{20}.

Changed in version 1.6: Merged cells from complex grid tables (either multi-row, multi-column, or both) now allow blockquotes, lists, literal blocks, … as do regular cells.

Sphinx’s merged cells interact well with p{width}, \X{a}{b}, \Y{f} and tabulary’s columns.

NOTE:

tabularcolumns conflicts with :widths: option of table directives.  If both are specified, :widths: option will be ignored.

Math

The input language for mathematics is LaTeX markup.  This is the de-facto standard for plain-text math notation and has the added advantage that no further translation is necessary when building LaTeX output.

Keep in mind that when you put math markup in Python docstrings read by autodoc, you either have to double all backslashes, or use Python raw strings (r"raw").

.. math::

Directive for displayed math (math that takes the whole line for itself).

The directive supports multiple equations, which should be separated by a blank line:

.. math::

   (a + b)^2 = a^2 + 2ab + b^2

   (a - b)^2 = a^2 - 2ab + b^2

In addition, each single equation is set within a split environment, which means that you can have multiple aligned lines in an equation, aligned at & and separated by \\:

.. math::

   (a + b)^2  &=  (a + b)(a + b) \\
              &=  a^2 + 2ab + b^2

For more details, look into the documentation of the AmSMath LaTeX package.

When the math is only one line of text, it can also be given as a directive argument:

.. math:: (a + b)^2 = a^2 + 2ab + b^2

Normally, equations are not numbered.  If you want your equation to get a number, use the label option.  When given, it selects an internal label for the equation, by which it can be cross-referenced, and causes an equation number to be issued.  See eq for an example.  The numbering style depends on the output format.

There is also an option nowrap that prevents any wrapping of the given math in a math environment.  When you give this option, you must make sure yourself that the math is properly set up.  For example:

.. math::
   :nowrap:

   \begin{eqnarray}
      y    & = & ax^2 + bx + c \\
      f(x) & = & x^2 + 2xy + y^2
   \end{eqnarray}

SEE ALSO:

math-support

Rendering options for math with HTML builders.

latex_engine

Explains how to configure LaTeX builder to support Unicode literals in math mark-up.

Grammar production displays

Special markup is available for displaying the productions of a formal grammar. The markup is simple and does not attempt to model all aspects of BNF (or any derived forms), but provides enough to allow context-free grammars to be displayed in a way that causes uses of a symbol to be rendered as hyperlinks to the definition of the symbol.  There is this directive:

.. productionlist:: [productionGroup]

This directive is used to enclose a group of productions.  Each production is given on a single line and consists of a name, separated by a colon from the following definition.  If the definition spans multiple lines, each continuation line must begin with a colon placed at the same column as in the first line. Blank lines are not allowed within productionlist directive arguments.

The definition can contain token names which are marked as interpreted text (e.g., “sum ::= `integer` "+" `integer`”) – this generates cross-references to the productions of these tokens.  Outside of the production list, you can reference to token productions using token.

The productionGroup argument to productionlist serves to distinguish different sets of production lists that belong to different grammars.  Multiple production lists with the same productionGroup thus define rules in the same scope.

Inside of the production list, tokens implicitly refer to productions from the current group. You can refer to the production of another grammar by prefixing the token with its group name and a colon, e.g, “otherGroup:sum”. If the group of the token should not be shown in the production, it can be prefixed by a tilde, e.g., “~otherGroup:sum”. To refer to a production from an unnamed grammar, the token should be prefixed by a colon, e.g., “:sum”.

Outside of the production list, if you have given a productionGroup argument you must prefix the token name in the cross-reference with the group name and a colon, e.g., “myGroup:sum” instead of just “sum”. If the group should not be shown in the title of the link either an explicit title can be given (e.g., “myTitle <myGroup:sum>”), or the target can be prefixed with a tilde (e.g., “~myGroup:sum”).

Note that no further reST parsing is done in the production, so that you don’t have to escape * or | characters.

The following is an example taken from the Python Reference Manual:

.. productionlist::
   try_stmt: try1_stmt | try2_stmt
   try1_stmt: "try" ":" `suite`
            : ("except" [`expression` ["," `target`]] ":" `suite`)+
            : ["else" ":" `suite`]
            : ["finally" ":" `suite`]
   try2_stmt: "try" ":" `suite`
            : "finally" ":" `suite`

Footnotes

[1]

The LaTeX writer only refers the maxdepth option of first toctree directive in the document.

[2]

A note on available globbing syntax: you can use the standard shell constructs *, ?, [...] and [!...] with the feature that these all don’t match slashes.  A double star ** can be used to match any sequence of characters including slashes.

[3]

There is a standard .. include directive, but it raises errors if the file is not found.  This one only emits a warning.

[4]

For most builders name and format are the same. At the moment only builders derived from the html builder distinguish between the builder format and the builder name.

Note that the current builder tag is not available in conf.py, it is only available after the builder is initialized.

Field Lists

As previously discussed, field lists are sequences of fields marked up like this:

:fieldname: Field content

Sphinx extends standard docutils behavior for field lists and adds some extra functionality that is covered in this section.

NOTE:

The values of field lists will be parsed as strings. You cannot use Python collections such as lists or dictionaries.

File-wide metadata

A field list near the top of a file is normally parsed by docutils as the docinfo and shown on the page.  However, in Sphinx, a field list preceding any other markup is moved from the docinfo to the Sphinx environment as document metadata, and is not displayed in the output.

NOTE:

A field list appearing after the document title will be part of the docinfo as normal and will be displayed in the output.

Special metadata fields

Sphinx provides custom behavior for bibliographic fields compared to docutils.

At the moment, these metadata fields are recognized:

tocdepth

The maximum depth for a table of contents of this file.

:tocdepth: 2
NOTE:

This metadata effects to the depth of local toctree.  But it does not effect to the depth of global toctree.  So this would not be change the sidebar of some themes which uses global one.

New in version 0.4.

nocomments

If set, the web application won’t display a comment form for a page generated from this source file.

:nocomments:
orphan

If set, warnings about this file not being included in any toctree will be suppressed.

:orphan:

New in version 1.0.

nosearch

If set, full text search for this file is disabled.

:nosearch:
NOTE:

object search is still available even if nosearch option is set.

New in version 3.0.

Domains

New in version 1.0.

Originally, Sphinx was conceived for a single project, the documentation of the Python language.  Shortly afterwards, it was made available for everyone as a documentation tool, but the documentation of Python modules remained deeply built in – the most fundamental directives, like function, were designed for Python objects.  Since Sphinx has become somewhat popular, interest developed in using it for many different purposes: C/C++ projects, JavaScript, or even reStructuredText markup (like in this documentation).

While this was always possible, it is now much easier to easily support documentation of projects using different programming languages or even ones not supported by the main Sphinx distribution, by providing a domain for every such purpose.

A domain is a collection of markup (reStructuredText directives and roles) to describe and link to objects belonging together, e.g. elements of a programming language.  Directive and role names in a domain have names like domain:name, e.g. py:function.  Domains can also provide custom indices (like the Python Module Index).

Having domains means that there are no naming problems when one set of documentation wants to refer to e.g. C++ and Python classes.  It also means that extensions that support the documentation of whole new languages are much easier to write.

This section describes what the domains that are included with Sphinx provide. The domain API is documented as well, in the section domain-api.

Basic Markup

Most domains provide a number of object description directives, used to describe specific objects provided by modules.  Each directive requires one or more signatures to provide basic information about what is being described, and the content should be the description.  A domain will typically keep an internal index of all entities to aid cross-referencing. Typically it will also add entries in the shown general index. If you want to suppress the addition of an entry in the shown index, you can give the directive option flag :noindexentry:. If you want to typeset an object description, without even making it available for cross-referencing, you can give the directive option flag :noindex: (which implies :noindexentry:). Though, note that not every directive in every domain may support these options.

New in version 3.2: The directive option noindexentry in the Python, C, C++, and Javascript domains.

An example using a Python domain directive:

.. py:function:: spam(eggs)
                 ham(eggs)

   Spam or ham the foo.

This describes the two Python functions spam and ham.  (Note that when signatures become too long, you can break them if you add a backslash to lines that are continued in the next line.  Example:

.. py:function:: filterwarnings(action, message='', category=Warning, \
                                module='', lineno=0, append=False)
   :noindex:

(This example also shows how to use the :noindex: flag.)

The domains also provide roles that link back to these object descriptions. For example, to link to one of the functions described in the example above, you could say

The function :py:func:`spam` does a similar thing.

As you can see, both directive and role names contain the domain name and the directive name.

Default Domain

For documentation describing objects from solely one domain, authors will not have to state again its name at each directive, role, etc… after having specified a default. This can be done either via the config value primary_domain or via this directive:

.. default-domain:: name

Select a new default domain.  While the primary_domain selects a global default, this only has an effect within the same file.

If no other default is selected, the Python domain (named py) is the default one, mostly for compatibility with documentation written for older versions of Sphinx.

Directives and roles that belong to the default domain can be mentioned without giving the domain name, i.e.

.. function:: pyfunc()

   Describes a Python function.

Reference to :func:`pyfunc`.

Cross-referencing syntax

For cross-reference roles provided by domains, the same facilities exist as for general cross-references.  See xref-syntax.

In short:

  • You may supply an explicit title and reference target: :role:`title <target>` will refer to target, but the link text will be title.
  • If you prefix the content with !, no reference/hyperlink will be created.
  • If you prefix the content with ~, the link text will only be the last component of the target.  For example, :py:meth:`~Queue.Queue.get` will refer to Queue.Queue.get but only display get as the link text.

The Python Domain

The Python domain (name py) provides the following directives for module declarations:

.. py:module:: name

This directive marks the beginning of the description of a module (or package submodule, in which case the name should be fully qualified, including the package name).  It does not create content (like e.g. py:class does).

This directive will also cause an entry in the global module index.

options

:platform: platforms (comma separated list)

Indicate platforms which the module is available (if it is available on all platforms, the option should be omitted).  The keys are short identifiers; examples that are in use include “IRIX”, “Mac”, “Windows” and “Unix”.  It is important to use a key which has already been used when applicable.

:synopsis: purpose (text)

Consist of one sentence describing the module’s purpose – it is currently only used in the Global Module Index.

:deprecated: (no argument)

Mark a module as deprecated; it will be designated as such in various locations then.

.. py:currentmodule:: name

This directive tells Sphinx that the classes, functions etc. documented from here are in the given module (like py:module), but it will not create index entries, an entry in the Global Module Index, or a link target for py:mod.  This is helpful in situations where documentation for things in a module is spread over multiple files or sections – one location has the py:module directive, the others only py:currentmodule.

The following directives are provided for module and class contents:

.. py:function:: name(parameters)

Describes a module-level function.  The signature should include the parameters as given in the Python function definition, see Python Signatures. For example:

.. py:function:: Timer.repeat(repeat=3, number=1000000)

For methods you should use py:method.

The description normally includes information about the parameters required and how they are used (especially whether mutable objects passed as parameters are modified), side effects, and possible exceptions.

This information can (in any py directive) optionally be given in a structured form, see Info field lists.

options

:async: (no value)

Indicate the function is an async function.

New in version 2.1.

:canonical: (full qualified name including module name)

Describe the location where the object is defined if the object is imported from other modules

New in version 4.0.

.. py:data:: name

Describes global data in a module, including both variables and values used as “defined constants.”  Class and object attributes are not documented using this environment.

options

:type: type of the variable (text)

New in version 2.4.

:value: initial value of the variable (text)

New in version 2.4.

:canonical: (full qualified name including module name)

Describe the location where the object is defined if the object is imported from other modules

New in version 4.0.

.. py:exception:: name

Describes an exception class.  The signature can, but need not include parentheses with constructor arguments.

options

:final: (no value)

Indicate the class is a final class.

New in version 3.1.

.. py:class:: name
.. py:class:: name(parameters)

Describes a class.  The signature can optionally include parentheses with parameters which will be shown as the constructor arguments.  See also Python Signatures.

Methods and attributes belonging to the class should be placed in this directive’s body.  If they are placed outside, the supplied name should contain the class name so that cross-references still work.  Example:

.. py:class:: Foo

   .. py:method:: quux()

-- or --

.. py:class:: Bar

.. py:method:: Bar.quux()

The first way is the preferred one.

options

:canonical: (full qualified name including module name)

Describe the location where the object is defined if the object is imported from other modules

New in version 4.0.

:final: (no value)

Indicate the class is a final class.

New in version 3.1.

.. py:attribute:: name

Describes an object data attribute.  The description should include information about the type of the data to be expected and whether it may be changed directly.

options

:type: type of the attribute (text)

New in version 2.4.

:value: initial value of the attribute (text)

New in version 2.4.

:canonical: (full qualified name including module name)

Describe the location where the object is defined if the object is imported from other modules

New in version 4.0.

.. py:property:: name

Describes an object property.

New in version 4.0.

options

:abstractmethod: (no value)

Indicate the property is abstract.

:classmethod: (no value)

Indicate the property is a classmethod.

:type: type of the property (text)

.. py:method:: name(parameters)

Describes an object method.  The parameters should not include the self parameter.  The description should include similar information to that described for function.  See also Python Signatures and Info field lists.

options

:abstractmethod: (no value)

Indicate the method is an abstract method.

New in version 2.1.

:async: (no value)

Indicate the method is an async method.

New in version 2.1.

:canonical: (full qualified name including module name)

Describe the location where the object is defined if the object is imported from other modules

New in version 4.0.

:classmethod: (no value)

Indicate the method is a class method.

New in version 2.1.

:final: (no value)

Indicate the class is a final method.

New in version 3.1.

:property: (no value)

Indicate the method is a property.

New in version 2.1.

Deprecated since version 4.0: Use py:property instead.

:staticmethod: (no value)

Indicate the method is a static method.

New in version 2.1.

.. py:staticmethod:: name(parameters)

Like py:method, but indicates that the method is a static method.

New in version 0.4.

.. py:classmethod:: name(parameters)

Like py:method, but indicates that the method is a class method.

New in version 0.6.

.. py:decorator:: name
.. py:decorator:: name(parameters)

Describes a decorator function.  The signature should represent the usage as a decorator.  For example, given the functions

def removename(func):
    func.__name__ = ''
    return func

def setnewname(name):
    def decorator(func):
        func.__name__ = name
        return func
    return decorator

the descriptions should look like this:

.. py:decorator:: removename

   Remove name of the decorated function.

.. py:decorator:: setnewname(name)

   Set name of the decorated function to *name*.

(as opposed to .. py:decorator:: removename(func).)

There is no py:deco role to link to a decorator that is marked up with this directive; rather, use the py:func role.

.. py:decoratormethod:: name
.. py:decoratormethod:: name(signature)

Same as py:decorator, but for decorators that are methods.

Refer to a decorator method using the py:meth role.

Python Signatures

Signatures of functions, methods and class constructors can be given like they would be written in Python.

Default values for optional arguments can be given (but if they contain commas, they will confuse the signature parser).  Python 3-style argument annotations can also be given as well as return type annotations:

.. py:function:: compile(source : string, filename, symbol='file') -> ast object

For functions with optional parameters that don’t have default values (typically functions implemented in C extension modules without keyword argument support), you can use brackets to specify the optional parts:

compile(source[, filename[, symbol]])

It is customary to put the opening bracket before the comma.

Info field lists

New in version 0.4.

Changed in version 3.0: meta fields are added.

Inside Python object description directives, reST field lists with these fields are recognized and formatted nicely:

  • param, parameter, arg, argument, key, keyword: Description of a parameter.
  • type: Type of a parameter.  Creates a link if possible.
  • raises, raise, except, exception: That (and when) a specific exception is raised.
  • var, ivar, cvar: Description of a variable.
  • vartype: Type of a variable.  Creates a link if possible.
  • returns, return: Description of the return value.
  • rtype: Return type.  Creates a link if possible.
  • meta: Add metadata to description of the python object.  The metadata will not be shown on output document.  For example, :meta private: indicates the python object is private member.  It is used in sphinx.ext.autodoc for filtering members.
NOTE:

In current release, all var, ivar and cvar are represented as “Variable”.  There is no difference at all.

The field names must consist of one of these keywords and an argument (except for returns and rtype, which do not need an argument).  This is best explained by an example:

.. py:function:: send_message(sender, recipient, message_body, [priority=1])

   Send a message to a recipient

   :param str sender: The person sending the message
   :param str recipient: The recipient of the message
   :param str message_body: The body of the message
   :param priority: The priority of the message, can be a number 1-5
   :type priority: integer or None
   :return: the message id
   :rtype: int
   :raises ValueError: if the message_body exceeds 160 characters
   :raises TypeError: if the message_body is not a basestring

This will render like this:

send_message(sender, recipient, message_body[, priority=1])

Send a message to a recipient

Parameters
  • sender (str) – The person sending the message
  • recipient (str) – The recipient of the message
  • message_body (str) – The body of the message
  • priority (integer or None) – The priority of the message, can be a number 1-5
Returns

the message id

Return type

int

Raises
  • ValueError – if the message_body exceeds 160 characters
  • TypeError – if the message_body is not a basestring

It is also possible to combine parameter type and description, if the type is a single word, like this:

:param int priority: The priority of the message, can be a number 1-5

New in version 1.5.

Container types such as lists and dictionaries can be linked automatically using the following syntax:

:type priorities: list(int)
:type priorities: list[int]
:type mapping: dict(str, int)
:type mapping: dict[str, int]
:type point: tuple(float, float)
:type point: tuple[float, float]

Multiple types in a type field will be linked automatically if separated by the word “or”:

:type an_arg: int or None
:vartype a_var: str or int
:rtype: float or str

Cross-referencing Python objects

The following roles refer to objects in modules and are possibly hyperlinked if a matching identifier is found:

:py:mod:

Reference a module; a dotted name may be used.  This should also be used for package names.

:py:func:

Reference a Python function; dotted names may be used.  The role text needs not include trailing parentheses to enhance readability; they will be added automatically by Sphinx if the add_function_parentheses config value is True (the default).

:py:data:

Reference a module-level variable.

:py:const:

Reference a “defined” constant.  This may be a Python variable that is not intended to be changed.

:py:class:

Reference a class; a dotted name may be used.

:py:meth:

Reference a method of an object.  The role text can include the type name and the method name; if it occurs within the description of a type, the type name can be omitted.  A dotted name may be used.

:py:attr:

Reference a data attribute of an object.

NOTE:

The role is also able to refer to property.

:py:exc:

Reference an exception.  A dotted name may be used.

:py:obj:

Reference an object of unspecified type.  Useful e.g. as the default_role.

New in version 0.4.

The name enclosed in this markup can include a module name and/or a class name. For example, :py:func:`filter` could refer to a function named filter in the current module, or the built-in function of that name.  In contrast, :py:func:`foo.filter` clearly refers to the filter function in the foo module.

Normally, names in these roles are searched first without any further qualification, then with the current module name prepended, then with the current module and class name (if any) prepended.  If you prefix the name with a dot, this order is reversed.  For example, in the documentation of Python’s codecs module, :py:func:`open` always refers to the built-in function, while :py:func:`.open` refers to codecs.open().

A similar heuristic is used to determine whether the name is an attribute of the currently documented class.

Also, if the name is prefixed with a dot, and no exact match is found, the target is taken as a suffix and all object names with that suffix are searched. For example, :py:meth:`.TarFile.close` references the tarfile.TarFile.close() function, even if the current module is not tarfile.  Since this can get ambiguous, if there is more than one possible match, you will get a warning from Sphinx.

Note that you can combine the ~ and . prefixes: :py:meth:`~.TarFile.close` will reference the tarfile.TarFile.close() method, but the visible link caption will only be close().

The C Domain

The C domain (name c) is suited for documentation of C API.

.. c:member:: declaration
.. c:var:: declaration

Describes a C struct member or variable. Example signature:

.. c:member:: PyObject *PyTypeObject.tp_bases

The difference between the two directives is only cosmetic.

.. c:function:: function prototype

Describes a C function. The signature should be given as in C, e.g.:

.. c:function:: PyObject *PyType_GenericAlloc(PyTypeObject *type, Py_ssize_t nitems)

Note that you don’t have to backslash-escape asterisks in the signature, as it is not parsed by the reST inliner.

In the description of a function you can use the following info fields (see also Info field lists).

  • param, parameter, arg, argument, Description of a parameter.
  • type: Type of a parameter, written as if passed to the c:expr role.
  • returns, return: Description of the return value.
  • rtype: Return type, written as if passed to the c:expr role.
  • retval, retvals: An alternative to returns for describing the result of the function.

New in version 4.3: The retval field type.

For example:

.. c:function:: PyObject *PyType_GenericAlloc(PyTypeObject *type, Py_ssize_t nitems)

   :param type: description of the first parameter.
   :param nitems: description of the second parameter.
   :returns: a result.
   :retval NULL: under some conditions.
   :retval NULL: under some other conditions as well.

which renders as

PyObject *PyType_GenericAlloc(PyTypeObject *type, Py_ssize_t nitems)
Parameters
  • type – description of the first parameter.
  • nitems – description of the second parameter.
Returns

a result.

Return values
  • NULL – under some conditions.
  • NULL – under some other conditions as well.
.. c:macro:: name
.. c:macro:: name(arg list)

Describes a C macro, i.e., a C-language #define, without the replacement text.

In the description of a macro you can use the same info fields as for the c:function directive.

New in version 3.0: The function style variant.

.. c:struct:: name

Describes a C struct.

New in version 3.0.

.. c:union:: name

Describes a C union.

New in version 3.0.

.. c:enum:: name

Describes a C enum.

New in version 3.0.

.. c:enumerator:: name

Describes a C enumerator.

New in version 3.0.

.. c:type:: typedef-like declaration
.. c:type:: name

Describes a C type, either as a typedef, or the alias for an unspecified type.

Cross-referencing C constructs

The following roles create cross-references to C-language constructs if they are defined in the documentation:

:c:member:
:c:data:
:c:var:
:c:func:
:c:macro:
:c:struct:
:c:union:
:c:enum:
:c:enumerator:
:c:type:

Reference a C declaration, as defined above. Note that c:member, c:data, and c:var are equivalent.

New in version 3.0: The var, struct, union, enum, and enumerator roles.

Anonymous Entities

C supports anonymous structs, enums, and unions. For the sake of documentation they must be given some name that starts with @, e.g., @42 or @data. These names can also be used in cross-references, though nested symbols will be found even when omitted. The @... name will always be rendered as [anonymous] (possibly as a link).

Example:

.. c:struct:: Data

   .. c:union:: @data

      .. c:var:: int a

      .. c:var:: double b

Explicit ref: :c:var:`Data.@data.a`. Short-hand ref: :c:var:`Data.a`.

This will be rendered as:

struct Data
union [anonymous]

int a

double b

Explicit ref: Data.[anonymous].a. Short-hand ref: Data.a.

New in version 3.0.

Aliasing Declarations

Sometimes it may be helpful list declarations elsewhere than their main documentation, e.g., when creating a synopsis of an interface. The following directive can be used for this purpose.

.. c:alias:: name

Insert one or more alias declarations. Each entity can be specified as they can in the c:any role.

For example:

.. c:var:: int data
.. c:function:: int f(double k)

.. c:alias:: data
             f

becomes

int data

int f(double k)

int data

int f(double k)

New in version 3.2.

Options

:maxdepth: int

Insert nested declarations as well, up to the total depth given. Use 0 for infinite depth and 1 for just the mentioned declaration. Defaults to 1.

New in version 3.3.

:noroot:

Skip the mentioned declarations and only render nested declarations. Requires maxdepth either 0 or at least 2.

New in version 3.5.

Inline Expressions and Types

:c:expr:
:c:texpr:

Insert a C expression or type either as inline code (cpp:expr) or inline text (cpp:texpr). For example:

.. c:var:: int a = 42

.. c:function:: int f(int i)

An expression: :c:expr:`a * f(a)` (or as text: :c:texpr:`a * f(a)`).

A type: :c:expr:`const Data*`
(or as text :c:texpr:`const Data*`).

will be rendered as follows:

int a = 42

int f(int i)

An expression: a  *  f(a) (or as text: a  *  f(a)).

A type: const  Data* (or as text const  Data*).

New in version 3.0.

Namespacing

New in version 3.1.

The C language it self does not support namespacing, but it can sometimes be useful to emulate it in documentation, e.g., to show alternate declarations. The feature may also be used to document members of structs/unions/enums separate from their parent declaration.

The current scope can be changed using three namespace directives.  They manage a stack declarations where c:namespace resets the stack and changes a given scope.

The c:namespace-push directive changes the scope to a given inner scope of the current one.

The c:namespace-pop directive undoes the most recent c:namespace-push directive.

.. c:namespace:: scope specification

Changes the current scope for the subsequent objects to the given scope, and resets the namespace directive stack. Note that nested scopes can be specified by separating with a dot, e.g.:

.. c:namespace:: Namespace1.Namespace2.SomeStruct.AnInnerStruct

All subsequent objects will be defined as if their name were declared with the scope prepended. The subsequent cross-references will be searched for starting in the current scope.

Using NULL or 0 as the scope will change to global scope.

.. c:namespace-push:: scope specification

Change the scope relatively to the current scope. For example, after:

.. c:namespace:: A.B

.. c:namespace-push:: C.D

the current scope will be A.B.C.D.

.. c:namespace-pop::

Undo the previous c:namespace-push directive (not just pop a scope). For example, after:

.. c:namespace:: A.B

.. c:namespace-push:: C.D

.. c:namespace-pop::

the current scope will be A.B (not A.B.C).

If no previous c:namespace-push directive has been used, but only a c:namespace directive, then the current scope will be reset to global scope.  That is, .. c:namespace:: A.B is equivalent to:

.. c:namespace:: NULL

.. c:namespace-push:: A.B

Configuration Variables

See c-config.

The C++ Domain

The C++ domain (name cpp) supports documenting C++ projects.

Directives for Declaring Entities

The following directives are available. All declarations can start with a visibility statement (public, private or protected).

.. cpp:class:: class specifier
.. cpp:struct:: class specifier

Describe a class/struct, possibly with specification of inheritance, e.g.,:

.. cpp:class:: MyClass : public MyBase, MyOtherBase

The difference between cpp:class and cpp:struct is only cosmetic: the prefix rendered in the output, and the specifier shown in the index.

The class can be directly declared inside a nested scope, e.g.,:

.. cpp:class:: OuterScope::MyClass : public MyBase, MyOtherBase

A class template can be declared:

.. cpp:class:: template<typename T, std::size_t N> std::array

or with a line break:

.. cpp:class:: template<typename T, std::size_t N> \
               std::array

Full and partial template specialisations can be declared:

.. cpp:class:: template<> \
               std::array<bool, 256>

.. cpp:class:: template<typename T> \
               std::array<T, 42>

New in version 2.0: The cpp:struct directive.

.. cpp:function:: (member) function prototype

Describe a function or member function, e.g.,:

.. cpp:function:: bool myMethod(int arg1, std::string arg2)

   A function with parameters and types.

.. cpp:function:: bool myMethod(int, double)

   A function with unnamed parameters.

.. cpp:function:: const T &MyClass::operator[](std::size_t i) const

   An overload for the indexing operator.

.. cpp:function:: operator bool() const

   A casting operator.

.. cpp:function:: constexpr void foo(std::string &bar[2]) noexcept

   A constexpr function.

.. cpp:function:: MyClass::MyClass(const MyClass&) = default

   A copy constructor with default implementation.

Function templates can also be described:

.. cpp:function:: template<typename U> \
                  void print(U &&u)

and function template specialisations:

.. cpp:function:: template<> \
                  void print(int i)
.. cpp:member:: (member) variable declaration
.. cpp:var:: (member) variable declaration

Describe a variable or member variable, e.g.,:

.. cpp:member:: std::string MyClass::myMember

.. cpp:var:: std::string MyClass::myOtherMember[N][M]

.. cpp:member:: int a = 42

Variable templates can also be described:

.. cpp:member:: template<class T> \
                constexpr T pi = T(3.1415926535897932385)
.. cpp:type:: typedef declaration
.. cpp:type:: name
.. cpp:type:: type alias declaration

Describe a type as in a typedef declaration, a type alias declaration, or simply the name of a type with unspecified type, e.g.,:

.. cpp:type:: std::vector<int> MyList

   A typedef-like declaration of a type.

.. cpp:type:: MyContainer::const_iterator

   Declaration of a type alias with unspecified type.

.. cpp:type:: MyType = std::unordered_map<int, std::string>

   Declaration of a type alias.

A type alias can also be templated:

.. cpp:type:: template<typename T> \
              MyContainer = std::vector<T>

The example are rendered as follows.

typedef std::vector<int> MyList

A typedef-like declaration of a type.

type MyContainer::const_iterator

Declaration of a type alias with unspecified type.

using MyType = std::unordered_map<int, std::string>

Declaration of a type alias.

template<typename T> using MyContainer = std::vector<T>

.. cpp:enum:: unscoped enum declaration
.. cpp:enum-struct:: scoped enum declaration
.. cpp:enum-class:: scoped enum declaration

Describe a (scoped) enum, possibly with the underlying type specified.  Any enumerators declared inside an unscoped enum will be declared both in the enum scope and in the parent scope.  Examples:

.. cpp:enum:: MyEnum

   An unscoped enum.

.. cpp:enum:: MySpecificEnum : long

   An unscoped enum with specified underlying type.

.. cpp:enum-class:: MyScopedEnum

   A scoped enum.

.. cpp:enum-struct:: protected MyScopedVisibilityEnum : std::underlying_type<MySpecificEnum>::type

   A scoped enum with non-default visibility, and with a specified
   underlying type.
.. cpp:enumerator:: name
.. cpp:enumerator:: name = constant

Describe an enumerator, optionally with its value defined, e.g.,:

.. cpp:enumerator:: MyEnum::myEnumerator

.. cpp:enumerator:: MyEnum::myOtherEnumerator = 42
.. cpp:union:: name

Describe a union.

New in version 1.8.

.. cpp:concept:: template-parameter-list name
WARNING:

The support for concepts is experimental. It is based on the current draft standard and the Concepts Technical Specification. The features may change as they evolve.

Describe a concept. It must have exactly 1 template parameter list. The name may be a nested name. Example:

.. cpp:concept:: template<typename It> std::Iterator

   Proxy to an element of a notional sequence that can be compared,
   indirected, or incremented.

   **Notation**

   .. cpp:var:: It r

      An lvalue.

   **Valid Expressions**

   - :cpp:expr:`*r`, when :cpp:expr:`r` is dereferenceable.
   - :cpp:expr:`++r`, with return type :cpp:expr:`It&`, when
     :cpp:expr:`r` is incrementable.

This will render as follows:

template<typename It> concept std::Iterator

Proxy to an element of a notional sequence that can be compared, indirected, or incremented.

Notation

It r

An lvalue.

Valid Expressions

  • *r, when r is dereferenceable.
  • ++r, with return type It&, when r is incrementable.

New in version 1.5.

Options

Some directives support options:

  • :noindexentry:, see Basic Markup.
  • :tparam-line-spec:, for templated declarations. If specified, each template parameter will be rendered on a separate line.

    New in version 1.6.

Anonymous Entities

C++ supports anonymous namespaces, classes, enums, and unions. For the sake of documentation they must be given some name that starts with @, e.g., @42 or @data. These names can also be used in cross-references and (type) expressions, though nested symbols will be found even when omitted. The @... name will always be rendered as [anonymous] (possibly as a link).

Example:

.. cpp:class:: Data

   .. cpp:union:: @data

      .. cpp:var:: int a

      .. cpp:var:: double b

Explicit ref: :cpp:var:`Data::@data::a`. Short-hand ref: :cpp:var:`Data::a`.

This will be rendered as:

class Data
union [anonymous]

int a

double b

Explicit ref: Data::[anonymous]::a. Short-hand ref: Data::a.

New in version 1.8.

Aliasing Declarations

Sometimes it may be helpful list declarations elsewhere than their main documentation, e.g., when creating a synopsis of a class interface. The following directive can be used for this purpose.

.. cpp:alias:: name or function signature

Insert one or more alias declarations. Each entity can be specified as they can in the cpp:any role. If the name of a function is given (as opposed to the complete signature), then all overloads of the function will be listed.

For example:

.. cpp:alias:: Data::a
               overload_example::C::f

becomes

int a

void f(double d) const

void f(double d)

void f(int i)

void f()

whereas:

.. cpp:alias:: void overload_example::C::f(double d) const
               void overload_example::C::f(double d)

becomes

void f(double d) const

void f(double d)

New in version 2.0.

Options

:maxdepth: int

Insert nested declarations as well, up to the total depth given. Use 0 for infinite depth and 1 for just the mentioned declaration. Defaults to 1.

New in version 3.5.

:noroot:

Skip the mentioned declarations and only render nested declarations. Requires maxdepth either 0 or at least 2.

New in version 3.5.

Constrained Templates

WARNING:

The support for concepts is experimental. It is based on the current draft standard and the Concepts Technical Specification. The features may change as they evolve.

NOTE:

Sphinx does not currently support requires clauses.

Placeholders

Declarations may use the name of a concept to introduce constrained template parameters, or the keyword auto to introduce unconstrained template parameters:

.. cpp:function:: void f(auto &&arg)

   A function template with a single unconstrained template parameter.

.. cpp:function:: void f(std::Iterator it)

   A function template with a single template parameter, constrained by the
   Iterator concept.

Template Introductions

Simple constrained function or class templates can be declared with a template introduction instead of a template parameter list:

.. cpp:function:: std::Iterator{It} void advance(It &it)

    A function template with a template parameter constrained to be an
    Iterator.

.. cpp:class:: std::LessThanComparable{T} MySortedContainer

    A class template with a template parameter constrained to be
    LessThanComparable.

They are rendered as follows.

std::Iterator{It} void advance(It &it)

A function template with a template parameter constrained to be an Iterator.

std::LessThanComparable{T} class MySortedContainer

A class template with a template parameter constrained to be LessThanComparable.

Note however that no checking is performed with respect to parameter compatibility. E.g., Iterator{A, B, C} will be accepted as an introduction even though it would not be valid C++.

Inline Expressions and Types

:cpp:expr:
:cpp:texpr:

Insert a C++ expression or type either as inline code (cpp:expr) or inline text (cpp:texpr). For example:

.. cpp:var:: int a = 42

.. cpp:function:: int f(int i)

An expression: :cpp:expr:`a * f(a)` (or as text: :cpp:texpr:`a * f(a)`).

A type: :cpp:expr:`const MySortedContainer<int>&`
(or as text :cpp:texpr:`const MySortedContainer<int>&`).

will be rendered as follows:

int a = 42

int f(int i)

An expression: a  *  f(a) (or as text: a  *  f(a)).

A type: const  MySortedContainer<int>& (or as text const  MySortedContainer<int>&).

New in version 1.7: The cpp:expr role.

New in version 1.8: The cpp:texpr role.

Namespacing

Declarations in the C++ domain are as default placed in global scope.  The current scope can be changed using three namespace directives.  They manage a stack declarations where cpp:namespace resets the stack and changes a given scope.

The cpp:namespace-push directive changes the scope to a given inner scope of the current one.

The cpp:namespace-pop directive undoes the most recent cpp:namespace-push directive.

.. cpp:namespace:: scope specification

Changes the current scope for the subsequent objects to the given scope, and resets the namespace directive stack.  Note that the namespace does not need to correspond to C++ namespaces, but can end in names of classes, e.g.,:

.. cpp:namespace:: Namespace1::Namespace2::SomeClass::AnInnerClass

All subsequent objects will be defined as if their name were declared with the scope prepended. The subsequent cross-references will be searched for starting in the current scope.

Using NULL, 0, or nullptr as the scope will change to global scope.

A namespace declaration can also be templated, e.g.,:

.. cpp:class:: template<typename T> \
               std::vector

.. cpp:namespace:: template<typename T> std::vector

.. cpp:function:: std::size_t size() const

declares size as a member function of the class template std::vector.  Equivalently this could have been declared using:

.. cpp:class:: template<typename T> \
               std::vector

   .. cpp:function:: std::size_t size() const

or:

.. cpp:class:: template<typename T> \
               std::vector
.. cpp:namespace-push:: scope specification

Change the scope relatively to the current scope. For example, after:

.. cpp:namespace:: A::B

.. cpp:namespace-push:: C::D

the current scope will be A::B::C::D.

New in version 1.4.

.. cpp:namespace-pop::

Undo the previous cpp:namespace-push directive (not just pop a scope). For example, after:

.. cpp:namespace:: A::B

.. cpp:namespace-push:: C::D

.. cpp:namespace-pop::

the current scope will be A::B (not A::B::C).

If no previous cpp:namespace-push directive has been used, but only a cpp:namespace directive, then the current scope will be reset to global scope.  That is, .. cpp:namespace:: A::B is equivalent to:

.. cpp:namespace:: nullptr

.. cpp:namespace-push:: A::B

New in version 1.4.

Info field lists

All the C++ directives for declaring entities support the following info fields (see also Info field lists):

  • tparam: Description of a template parameter.

The cpp:function directive additionally supports the following fields:

  • param, parameter, arg, argument: Description of a parameter.
  • returns, return: Description of a return value.
  • retval, retvals: An alternative to returns for describing the result of the function.
  • throws, throw, exception: Description of a possibly thrown exception.

New in version 4.3: The retval field type.

Cross-referencing

These roles link to the given declaration types:

:cpp:any:
:cpp:class:
:cpp:struct:
:cpp:func:
:cpp:member:
:cpp:var:
:cpp:type:
:cpp:concept:
:cpp:enum:
:cpp:enumerator:

Reference a C++ declaration by name (see below for details).  The name must be properly qualified relative to the position of the link.

New in version 2.0: The cpp:struct role as alias for the cpp:class role.

Note on References with Templates Parameters/Arguments

These roles follow the Sphinx xref-syntax rules. This means care must be taken when referencing a (partial) template specialization, e.g. if the link looks like this: :cpp:class:`MyClass<int>`. This is interpreted as a link to int with a title of MyClass. In this case, escape the opening angle bracket with a backslash, like this: :cpp:class:`MyClass\<int>`.

When a custom title is not needed it may be useful to use the roles for inline expressions, cpp:expr and cpp:texpr, where angle brackets do not need escaping.

Declarations without template parameters and template arguments

For linking to non-templated declarations the name must be a nested name, e.g., f or MyClass::f.

Overloaded (member) functions

When a (member) function is referenced using just its name, the reference will point to an arbitrary matching overload. The cpp:any and cpp:func roles use an alternative format, which simply is a complete function declaration. This will resolve to the exact matching overload. As example, consider the following class declaration:

class C

void f(double d) const

void f(double d)

void f(int i)

void f()

References using the cpp:func role:

  • Arbitrary overload: C::f, C::f()
  • Also arbitrary overload: C::f(), C::f()
  • Specific overload: void C::f(), void C::f()
  • Specific overload: void C::f(int), void C::f(int)
  • Specific overload: void C::f(double), void C::f(double)
  • Specific overload: void C::f(double) const, void C::f(double) const

Note that the add_function_parentheses configuration variable does not influence specific overload references.

Templated declarations

Assume the following declarations.

class Wrapper
template<typename TOuter> class Outer

template<typename TInner> class Inner

In general the reference must include the template parameter declarations, and template arguments for the prefix of qualified names. For example:

  • template\<typename TOuter> Wrapper::Outer (template<typename TOuter> Wrapper::Outer)
  • template\<typename TOuter> template\<typename TInner> Wrapper::Outer<TOuter>::Inner (template<typename TOuter> template<typename TInner> Wrapper::Outer<TOuter>::Inner)

Currently the lookup only succeed if the template parameter identifiers are equal strings.  That is, template\<typename UOuter> Wrapper::Outer will not work.

As a shorthand notation, if a template parameter list is omitted, then the lookup will assume either a primary template or a non-template, but not a partial template specialisation. This means the following references work as well:

  • Wrapper::Outer (Wrapper::Outer)
  • Wrapper::Outer::Inner (Wrapper::Outer::Inner)
  • template\<typename TInner> Wrapper::Outer::Inner (template<typename TInner> Wrapper::Outer::Inner)

(Full) Template Specialisations

Assume the following declarations.

template<typename TOuter> class Outer

template<typename TInner> class Inner

template<> class Outer<int>

template<typename TInner> class Inner

template<> class Inner<bool>

In general the reference must include a template parameter list for each template argument list.  The full specialisation above can therefore be referenced with template\<> Outer\<int> (template<> Outer<int>) and template\<> template\<> Outer\<int>::Inner\<bool> (template<> template<> Outer<int>::Inner<bool>).  As a shorthand the empty template parameter list can be omitted, e.g., Outer\<int> (Outer<int>) and Outer\<int>::Inner\<bool> (Outer<int>::Inner<bool>).

Partial Template Specialisations

Assume the following declaration.

template<typename T> class Outer<T*>

References to partial specialisations must always include the template parameter lists, e.g., template\<typename T> Outer\<T*> (template<typename T> Outer<T*>).  Currently the lookup only succeed if the template parameter identifiers are equal strings.

Configuration Variables

See cpp-config.

The Standard Domain

The so-called “standard” domain collects all markup that doesn’t warrant a domain of its own.  Its directives and roles are not prefixed with a domain name.

The standard domain is also where custom object descriptions, added using the add_object_type() API, are placed.

There is a set of directives allowing documenting command-line programs:

.. option:: name args, name args, ...

Describes a command line argument or switch.  Option argument names should be enclosed in angle brackets.  Examples:

.. option:: dest_dir

   Destination directory.

.. option:: -m <module>, --module <module>

   Run a module as a script.

The directive will create cross-reference targets for the given options, referenceable by option (in the example case, you’d use something like :option:`dest_dir`, :option:`-m`, or :option:`--module`).

cmdoption directive is a deprecated alias for the option directive.

.. envvar:: name

Describes an environment variable that the documented code or program uses or defines.  Referenceable by envvar.

.. program:: name

Like py:currentmodule, this directive produces no output. Instead, it serves to notify Sphinx that all following option directives document options for the program called name.

If you use program, you have to qualify the references in your option roles by the program name, so if you have the following situation

.. program:: rm

.. option:: -r

   Work recursively.

.. program:: svn

.. option:: -r <revision>

   Specify the revision to work upon.

then :option:`rm -r` would refer to the first option, while :option:`svn -r` would refer to the second one.

If None is passed to the argument, the directive will reset the current program name.

The program name may contain spaces (in case you want to document subcommands like svn add and svn commit separately).

New in version 0.5.

There is also a very generic object description directive, which is not tied to any domain:

.. describe:: text
.. object:: text

This directive produces the same formatting as the specific ones provided by domains, but does not create index entries or cross-referencing targets. Example:

.. describe:: PAPER

   You can set this variable to select a paper size.

The JavaScript Domain

The JavaScript domain (name js) provides the following directives:

.. js:module:: name

This directive sets the module name for object declarations that follow after. The module name is used in the global module index and in cross references. This directive does not create an object heading like py:class would, for example.

By default, this directive will create a linkable entity and will cause an entry in the global module index, unless the noindex option is specified.  If this option is specified, the directive will only update the current module name.

New in version 1.6.

.. js:function:: name(signature)

Describes a JavaScript function or method.  If you want to describe arguments as optional use square brackets as documented for Python signatures.

You can use fields to give more details about arguments and their expected types, errors which may be thrown by the function, and the value being returned:

.. js:function:: $.getJSON(href, callback[, errback])

   :param string href: An URI to the location of the resource.
   :param callback: Gets called with the object.
   :param errback:
       Gets called in case the request fails. And a lot of other
       text so we need multiple lines.
   :throws SomeError: For whatever reason in that case.
   :returns: Something.

This is rendered as:

$.getJSON(href, callback[, errback])
Arguments
  • href (string()) – An URI to the location of the resource.
  • callback – Gets called with the object.
  • errback – Gets called in case the request fails. And a lot of other text so we need multiple lines.
Throws

SomeError() – For whatever reason in that case.

Returns

Something.

.. js:method:: name(signature)

This directive is an alias for js:function, however it describes a function that is implemented as a method on a class object.

New in version 1.6.

.. js:class:: name

Describes a constructor that creates an object.  This is basically like a function but will show up with a class prefix:

.. js:class:: MyAnimal(name[, age])

   :param string name: The name of the animal
   :param number age: an optional age for the animal

This is rendered as:

class MyAnimal(name[, age])
Arguments
  • name (string()) – The name of the animal
  • age (number()) – an optional age for the animal
.. js:data:: name

Describes a global variable or constant.

.. js:attribute:: object.name

Describes the attribute name of object.

These roles are provided to refer to the described objects:

:js:mod:

:js:func:

:js:meth:

:js:class:

:js:data:

:js:attr:

The reStructuredText domain

The reStructuredText domain (name rst) provides the following directives:

.. rst:directive:: name

Describes a reST directive.  The name can be a single directive name or actual directive syntax (.. prefix and :: suffix) with arguments that will be rendered differently.  For example:

.. rst:directive:: foo

   Foo description.

.. rst:directive:: .. bar:: baz

   Bar description.

will be rendered as:

.. foo::

Foo description.

.. bar:: baz

Bar description.

.. rst:directive:option:: name

Describes an option for reST directive.  The name can be a single option name or option name with arguments which separated with colon (:). For example:

.. rst:directive:: toctree

   .. rst:directive:option:: caption: caption of ToC

   .. rst:directive:option:: glob

will be rendered as:

.. toctree::

:caption: caption of ToC

:glob:

options

:type: description of argument (text)

Describe the type of option value.

For example:

.. rst:directive:: toctree

   .. rst:directive:option:: maxdepth
      :type: integer or no value

New in version 2.1.

.. rst:role:: name

Describes a reST role.  For example:

.. rst:role:: foo

   Foo description.

will be rendered as:

:foo:

Foo description.

These roles are provided to refer to the described objects:

:rst:dir:

:rst:role:

The Math Domain

The math domain (name math) provides the following roles:

:math:numref:

Role for cross-referencing equations defined by math directive via their label.  Example:

.. math:: e^{i\pi} + 1 = 0
   :label: euler

Euler's identity, equation :math:numref:`euler`, was elected one of the
most beautiful mathematical formulas.

New in version 1.8.

More domains

The sphinx-contrib repository contains more domains available as extensions; currently Ada, CoffeeScript, Erlang, HTTP, Lasso, MATLAB, PHP, and Ruby domains. Also available are domains for Chapel, Common Lisp, dqn, Go, Jinja, Operation, and Scala.

Markdown

Markdown is a lightweight markup language with a simplistic plain text formatting syntax.  It exists in many syntactically different flavors.  To support Markdown-based documentation, Sphinx can use MyST-Parser. MyST-Parser is a Docutils bridge to markdown-it-py, a Python package for parsing the CommonMark Markdown flavor.

Configuration

To configure your Sphinx project for Markdown support, proceed as follows:

  1. Install the Markdown parser MyST-Parser:

    pip install --upgrade myst-parser
  2. Add myst_parser to the list of configured extensions:

    extensions = ['myst_parser']
    NOTE:

    MyST-Parser requires Sphinx 2.1 or newer.

  3. If you want to use Markdown files with extensions other than .md, adjust the source_suffix variable.  The following example configures Sphinx to parse all files with the extensions .md and .txt as Markdown:

    source_suffix = {
        '.rst': 'restructuredtext',
        '.txt': 'markdown',
        '.md': 'markdown',
    }
  4. You can further configure MyST-Parser to allow custom syntax that standard CommonMark doesn’t support.  Read more in the MyST-Parser documentation.

Configuration

The configuration directory must contain a file named conf.py. This file (containing Python code) is called the “build configuration file” and contains (almost) all configuration needed to customize Sphinx input and output behavior.

An optional file docutils.conf can be added to the configuration directory to adjust Docutils configuration if not otherwise overridden or set by Sphinx.

The configuration file is executed as Python code at build time (using importlib.import_module(), and with the current directory set to its containing directory), and therefore can execute arbitrarily complex code. Sphinx then reads simple names from the file’s namespace as its configuration.

Important points to note:

  • If not otherwise documented, values must be strings, and their default is the empty string.
  • The term “fully-qualified name” refers to a string that names an importable Python object inside a module; for example, the FQN "sphinx.builders.Builder" means the Builder class in the sphinx.builders module.
  • Remember that document names use / as the path separator and don’t contain the file name extension.
  • Since conf.py is read as a Python file, the usual rules apply for encodings and Unicode support.
  • The contents of the config namespace are pickled (so that Sphinx can find out when configuration changes), so it may not contain unpickleable values – delete them from the namespace with del if appropriate.  Modules are removed automatically, so you don’t need to del your imports after use.
  • There is a special object named tags available in the config file. It can be used to query and change the tags (see tags).  Use tags.has('tag') to query, tags.add('tag') and tags.remove('tag') to change. Only tags set via the -t command-line option or via tags.add('tag') can be queried using tags.has('tag'). Note that the current builder tag is not available in conf.py, as it is created after the builder is initialized.

Project information

project

The documented project’s name.

author

The author name(s) of the document.  The default value is 'unknown'.

copyright

A copyright statement in the style '2008, Author Name'.

project_copyright

An alias of copyright.

New in version 3.5.

version

The major project version, used as the replacement for |version|.  For example, for the Python documentation, this may be something like 2.6.

release

The full project version, used as the replacement for |release| and e.g. in the HTML templates.  For example, for the Python documentation, this may be something like 2.6.0rc1.

If you don’t need the separation provided between version and release, just set them both to the same value.

General configuration

extensions

A list of strings that are module names of extensions. These can be extensions coming with Sphinx (named sphinx.ext.*) or custom ones.

Note that you can extend sys.path within the conf file if your extensions live in another directory – but make sure you use absolute paths. If your extension path is relative to the configuration directory, use os.path.abspath() like so:

import sys, os

sys.path.append(os.path.abspath('sphinxext'))

extensions = ['extname']

That way, you can load an extension called extname from the subdirectory sphinxext.

The configuration file itself can be an extension; for that, you only need to provide a setup() function in it.

source_suffix

The file extensions of source files.  Sphinx considers the files with this suffix as sources.  The value can be a dictionary mapping file extensions to file types.  For example:

source_suffix = {
    '.rst': 'restructuredtext',
    '.txt': 'restructuredtext',
    '.md': 'markdown',
}

By default, Sphinx only supports 'restructuredtext' file type.  You can add a new file type using source parser extensions.  Please read a document of the extension to know which file type the extension supports.

The value may also be a list of file extensions: then Sphinx will consider that they all map to the 'restructuredtext' file type.

Default is {'.rst': 'restructuredtext'}.

NOTE:

file extensions have to start with a dot (e.g. .rst).

Changed in version 1.3: Can now be a list of extensions.

Changed in version 1.8: Support file type mapping

source_encoding

The encoding of all reST source files.  The recommended encoding, and the default value, is 'utf-8-sig'.

New in version 0.5: Previously, Sphinx accepted only UTF-8 encoded sources.

source_parsers

If given, a dictionary of parser classes for different source suffices.  The keys are the suffix, the values can be either a class or a string giving a fully-qualified name of a parser class.  The parser class can be either docutils.parsers.Parser or sphinx.parsers.Parser.  Files with a suffix that is not in the dictionary will be parsed with the default reStructuredText parser.

For example:

source_parsers = {'.md': 'recommonmark.parser.CommonMarkParser'}
NOTE:

Refer to /usage/markdown for more information on using Markdown with Sphinx.

New in version 1.3.

Deprecated since version 1.8: Now Sphinx provides an API Sphinx.add_source_parser() to register a source parser.  Please use it instead.

master_doc

Same as root_doc.

Changed in version 4.0: Renamed master_doc to root_doc.

root_doc

The document name of the “root” document, that is, the document that contains the root toctree directive.  Default is 'index'.

Changed in version 2.0: The default is changed to 'index' from 'contents'.

Changed in version 4.0: Renamed root_doc from master_doc.

exclude_patterns

A list of glob-style patterns that should be excluded when looking for source files. [1] They are matched against the source file names relative to the source directory, using slashes as directory separators on all platforms.

Example patterns:

  • 'library/xml.rst' – ignores the library/xml.rst file (replaces entry in unused_docs)
  • 'library/xml' – ignores the library/xml directory
  • 'library/xml*' – ignores all files and directories starting with library/xml
  • '**/.svn' – ignores all .svn directories

exclude_patterns is also consulted when looking for static files in html_static_path and html_extra_path.

New in version 1.0.

templates_path

A list of paths that contain extra templates (or templates that overwrite builtin/theme-specific templates).  Relative paths are taken as relative to the configuration directory.

Changed in version 1.3: As these files are not meant to be built, they are automatically added to exclude_patterns.

template_bridge

A string with the fully-qualified name of a callable (or simply a class) that returns an instance of TemplateBridge. This instance is then used to render HTML documents, and possibly the output of other builders (currently the changes builder).  (Note that the template bridge must be made theme-aware if HTML themes are to be used.)

rst_epilog

A string of reStructuredText that will be included at the end of every source file that is read.  This is a possible place to add substitutions that should be available in every file (another being rst_prolog).  An example:

rst_epilog = """
.. |psf| replace:: Python Software Foundation
"""

New in version 0.6.

rst_prolog

A string of reStructuredText that will be included at the beginning of every source file that is read.  This is a possible place to add substitutions that should be available in every file (another being rst_epilog).  An example:

rst_prolog = """
.. |psf| replace:: Python Software Foundation
"""

New in version 1.0.

primary_domain

The name of the default domain. Can also be None to disable a default domain.  The default is 'py'. Those objects in other domains (whether the domain name is given explicitly, or selected by a default-domain directive) will have the domain name explicitly prepended when named (e.g., when the default domain is C, Python functions will be named “Python function”, not just “function”).

New in version 1.0.

default_role

The name of a reST role (builtin or Sphinx extension) to use as the default role, that is, for text marked up `like this`.  This can be set to 'py:obj' to make `filter` a cross-reference to the Python function “filter”.  The default is None, which doesn’t reassign the default role.

The default role can always be set within individual documents using the standard reST default-role directive.

New in version 0.4.

keep_warnings

If true, keep warnings as “system message” paragraphs in the built documents.  Regardless of this setting, warnings are always written to the standard error stream when sphinx-build is run.

The default is False, the pre-0.5 behavior was to always keep them.

New in version 0.5.

suppress_warnings

A list of warning types to suppress arbitrary warning messages.

Sphinx supports following warning types:

  • app.add_node
  • app.add_directive
  • app.add_role
  • app.add_generic_role
  • app.add_source_parser
  • download.not_readable
  • image.not_readable
  • ref.term
  • ref.ref
  • ref.numref
  • ref.keyword
  • ref.option
  • ref.citation
  • ref.footnote
  • ref.doc
  • ref.python
  • misc.highlighting_failure
  • toc.circular
  • toc.excluded
  • toc.not_readable
  • toc.secnum
  • epub.unknown_project_files
  • epub.duplicated_toc_entry
  • autosectionlabel.*

You can choose from these types.

Now, this option should be considered experimental.

New in version 1.4.

Changed in version 1.5: Added misc.highlighting_failure

Changed in version 1.5.1: Added epub.unknown_project_files

Changed in version 1.6: Added ref.footnote

Changed in version 2.1: Added autosectionlabel.*

Changed in version 3.3.0: Added epub.duplicated_toc_entry

Changed in version 4.3: Added toc.excluded and toc.not_readable

needs_sphinx

If set to a major.minor version string like '1.1', Sphinx will compare it with its version and refuse to build if it is too old.  Default is no requirement.

New in version 1.0.

Changed in version 1.4: also accepts micro version string

needs_extensions

This value can be a dictionary specifying version requirements for extensions in extensions, e.g. needs_extensions = {'sphinxcontrib.something': '1.5'}.  The version strings should be in the form major.minor.  Requirements do not have to be specified for all extensions, only for those you want to check.

This requires that the extension specifies its version to Sphinx (see dev-extensions for how to do that).

New in version 1.3.

manpages_url

A URL to cross-reference manpage directives. If this is defined to https://manpages.debian.org/{path}, the :manpage:`man(1)` role will link to <https://manpages.debian.org/man(1)>. The patterns available are:

  • page - the manual page (man)
  • section - the manual section (1)
  • path - the original manual page and section specified (man(1))

This also supports manpages specified as man.1.

NOTE:

This currently affects only HTML writers but could be expanded in the future.

New in version 1.7.

nitpicky

If true, Sphinx will warn about all references where the target cannot be found.  Default is False.  You can activate this mode temporarily using the -n command-line switch.

New in version 1.0.

nitpick_ignore

A list of (type, target) tuples (by default empty) that should be ignored when generating warnings in “nitpicky mode”.  Note that type should include the domain name if present.  Example entries would be ('py:func', 'int') or ('envvar', 'LD_LIBRARY_PATH').

New in version 1.1.

nitpick_ignore_regex

An extended version of nitpick_ignore, which instead interprets the type and target strings as regular expressions. Note, that the regular expression must match the whole string (as if the ^ and $ markers were inserted).

For example, (r'py:.*', r'foo.*bar\.B.*') will ignore nitpicky warnings for all python entities that start with 'foo' and have 'bar.B' in them, such as ('py:const', 'foo_package.bar.BAZ_VALUE') or ('py:class', 'food.bar.Barman').

New in version 4.1.

numfig

If true, figures, tables and code-blocks are automatically numbered if they have a caption.  The numref role is enabled. Obeyed so far only by HTML and LaTeX builders. Default is False.

NOTE:

The LaTeX builder always assigns numbers whether this option is enabled or not.

New in version 1.3.

numfig_format

A dictionary mapping 'figure', 'table', 'code-block' and 'section' to strings that are used for format of figure numbers. As a special character, %s will be replaced to figure number.

Default is to use 'Fig. %s' for 'figure', 'Table %s' for 'table', 'Listing %s' for 'code-block' and 'Section %s' for 'section'.

New in version 1.3.

numfig_secnum_depth
  • if set to 0, figures, tables and code-blocks are continuously numbered starting at 1.
  • if 1 (default) numbers will be x.1, x.2, … with x the section number (top level sectioning; no x. if no section). This naturally applies only if section numbering has been activated via the :numbered: option of the toctree directive.
  • 2 means that numbers will be x.y.1, x.y.2, … if located in a sub-section (but still x.1, x.2, … if located directly under a section and 1, 2, … if not in any top level section.)
  • etc…

New in version 1.3.

Changed in version 1.7: The LaTeX builder obeys this setting (if numfig is set to True).

smartquotes

If true, the Docutils Smart Quotes transform, originally based on SmartyPants (limited to English) and currently applying to many languages, will be used to convert quotes and dashes to typographically correct entities.  Default: True.

New in version 1.6.6: It replaces deprecated html_use_smartypants. It applies by default to all builders except man and text (see smartquotes_excludes.)

A docutils.conf file located in the configuration directory (or a global ~/.docutils file) is obeyed unconditionally if it deactivates smart quotes via the corresponding Docutils option.  But if it activates them, then smartquotes does prevail.

smartquotes_action

This string customizes the Smart Quotes transform.  See the file smartquotes.py at the Docutils repository for details.  The default 'qDe' educates normal quote characters ", ', em- and en-Dashes ---, --, and ellipses ....

New in version 1.6.6.

smartquotes_excludes

This is a dict whose default is:

{'languages': ['ja'], 'builders': ['man', 'text']}

Each entry gives a sufficient condition to ignore the smartquotes setting and deactivate the Smart Quotes transform. Accepted keys are as above 'builders' or 'languages'. The values are lists.

NOTE:

Currently, in case of invocation of make with multiple targets, the first target name is the only one which is tested against the 'builders' entry and it decides for all.  Also, a make text following make html needs to be issued in the form make text O="-E" to force re-parsing of source files, as the cached ones are already transformed.  On the other hand the issue does not arise with direct usage of sphinx-build as it caches (in its default usage) the parsed source files in per builder locations.

HINT:

An alternative way to effectively deactivate (or customize) the smart quotes for a given builder, for example latex, is to use make this way:

make latex O="-D smartquotes_action="

This can follow some make html with no problem, in contrast to the situation from the prior note.  It requires Docutils 0.14 or later.

New in version 1.6.6.

user_agent

A User-Agent of Sphinx.  It is used for a header on HTTP access (ex. linkcheck, intersphinx and so on).  Default is "Sphinx/X.Y.Z requests/X.Y.Z python/X.Y.Z".

New in version 2.3.

tls_verify

If true, Sphinx verifies server certifications.  Default is True.

New in version 1.5.

tls_cacerts

A path to a certification file of CA or a path to directory which contains the certificates.  This also allows a dictionary mapping hostname to the path to certificate file. The certificates are used to verify server certifications.

New in version 1.5.

TIP:

Sphinx uses requests as a HTTP library internally. Therefore, Sphinx refers a certification file on the directory pointed REQUESTS_CA_BUNDLE environment variable if tls_cacerts not set.

today
today_fmt

These values determine how to format the current date, used as the replacement for |today|.

  • If you set today to a non-empty value, it is used.
  • Otherwise, the current time is formatted using time.strftime() and the format given in today_fmt.

The default is now today and a today_fmt of '%b %d, %Y' (or, if translation is enabled with language, an equivalent format for the selected locale).

highlight_language

The default language to highlight source code in.  The default is 'default'.  It is similar to 'python3'; it is mostly a superset of 'python' but it fallbacks to 'none' without warning if failed. 'python3' and other languages will emit warning if failed.

The value should be a valid Pygments lexer name, see code-examples for more details.

New in version 0.5.

Changed in version 1.4: The default is now 'default'.  If you prefer Python 2 only highlighting, you can set it back to 'python'.

highlight_options

A dictionary that maps language names to options for the lexer modules of Pygments.  These are lexer-specific; for the options understood by each, see the Pygments documentation.

Example:

highlight_options = {
  'default': {'stripall': True},
  'php': {'startinline': True},
}

A single dictionary of options are also allowed.  Then it is recognized as options to the lexer specified by highlight_language:

# configuration for the ``highlight_language``
highlight_options = {'stripall': True}

New in version 1.3.

Changed in version 3.5: Allow to configure highlight options for multiple languages

pygments_style

The style name to use for Pygments highlighting of source code.  If not set, either the theme’s default style or 'sphinx' is selected for HTML output.

Changed in version 0.3: If the value is a fully-qualified name of a custom Pygments style class, this is then used as custom style.

add_function_parentheses

A boolean that decides whether parentheses are appended to function and method role text (e.g. the content of :func:`input`) to signify that the name is callable.  Default is True.

add_module_names

A boolean that decides whether module names are prepended to all object names (for object types where a “module” of some kind is defined), e.g. for py:function directives.  Default is True.

show_authors

A boolean that decides whether codeauthor and sectionauthor directives produce any output in the built files.

modindex_common_prefix

A list of prefixes that are ignored for sorting the Python module index (e.g., if this is set to ['foo.'], then foo.bar is shown under B, not F). This can be handy if you document a project that consists of a single package.  Works only for the HTML builder currently.  Default is [].

New in version 0.6.

trim_footnote_reference_space

Trim spaces before footnote references that are necessary for the reST parser to recognize the footnote, but do not look too nice in the output.

New in version 0.6.

trim_doctest_flags

If true, doctest flags (comments looking like # doctest: FLAG, ...) at the ends of lines and <BLANKLINE> markers are removed for all code blocks showing interactive Python sessions (i.e. doctests).  Default is True.  See the extension doctest for more possibilities of including doctests.

New in version 1.0.

Changed in version 1.1: Now also removes <BLANKLINE>.

strip_signature_backslash

Default is False. When backslash stripping is enabled then every occurrence of \\ in a domain directive will be changed to \, even within string literals. This was the behaviour before version 3.0, and setting this variable to True will reinstate that behaviour.

New in version 3.0.

Options for internationalization

These options influence Sphinx’s Native Language Support.  See the documentation on intl for details.

language

The code for the language the docs are written in.  Any text automatically generated by Sphinx will be in that language.  Also, Sphinx will try to substitute individual paragraphs from your documents with the translation sets obtained from locale_dirs.  Sphinx will search language-specific figures named by figure_language_filename (e.g. the German version of myfigure.png will be myfigure.de.png by default setting) and substitute them for original figures.  In the LaTeX builder, a suitable language will be selected as an option for the Babel package.  Default is None, which means that no translation will be done.

New in version 0.5.

Changed in version 1.4: Support figure substitution

Currently supported languages by Sphinx are:

  • ar – Arabic
  • bg – Bulgarian
  • bn – Bengali
  • ca – Catalan
  • cak – Kaqchikel
  • cs – Czech
  • cy – Welsh
  • da – Danish
  • de – German
  • el – Greek
  • en – English
  • eo – Esperanto
  • es – Spanish
  • et – Estonian
  • eu – Basque
  • fa – Iranian
  • fi – Finnish
  • fr – French
  • he – Hebrew
  • hi – Hindi
  • hi_IN – Hindi (India)
  • hr – Croatian
  • hu – Hungarian
  • id – Indonesian
  • it – Italian
  • ja – Japanese
  • ko – Korean
  • lt – Lithuanian
  • lv – Latvian
  • mk – Macedonian
  • nb_NO – Norwegian Bokmal
  • ne – Nepali
  • nl – Dutch
  • pl – Polish
  • pt – Portuguese
  • pt_BR – Brazilian Portuguese
  • pt_PT – European Portuguese
  • ro – Romanian
  • ru – Russian
  • si – Sinhala
  • sk – Slovak
  • sl – Slovenian
  • sq – Albanian
  • sr – Serbian
  • sr@latin – Serbian (Latin)
  • sr_RS – Serbian (Cyrillic)
  • sv – Swedish
  • ta – Tamil
  • te – Telugu
  • tr – Turkish
  • uk_UA – Ukrainian
  • ur – Urdu
  • vi – Vietnamese
  • zh_CN – Simplified Chinese
  • zh_TW – Traditional Chinese
locale_dirs

New in version 0.5.

Directories in which to search for additional message catalogs (see language), relative to the source directory.  The directories on this path are searched by the standard gettext module.

Internal messages are fetched from a text domain of sphinx; so if you add the directory ./locale to this setting, the message catalogs (compiled from .po format using msgfmt) must be in ./locale/language/LC_MESSAGES/sphinx.mo.  The text domain of individual documents depends on gettext_compact.

The default is ['locales'].

NOTE:

The -v option for sphinx-build command is useful to check the locale_dirs config works as expected.  It emits debug messages if message catalog directory not found.

Changed in version 1.5: Use locales directory as a default value

gettext_allow_fuzzy_translations

If true, “fuzzy” messages in the message catalogs are used for translation. The default is False.

New in version 4.3.

gettext_compact

New in version 1.1.

If true, a document’s text domain is its docname if it is a top-level project file and its very base directory otherwise.

If set to string, all document’s text domain is this string, making all documents use single text domain.

By default, the document markup/code.rst ends up in the markup text domain.  With this option set to False, it is markup/code.

Changed in version 3.3: The string value is now accepted.

gettext_uuid

If true, Sphinx generates uuid information for version tracking in message catalogs. It is used for:

  • Add uid line for each msgids in .pot files.
  • Calculate similarity between new msgids and previously saved old msgids. This calculation takes a long time.

If you want to accelerate the calculation, you can use python-levenshtein 3rd-party package written in C by using pip install python-levenshtein.

The default is False.

New in version 1.3.

gettext_location

If true, Sphinx generates location information for messages in message catalogs.

The default is True.

New in version 1.3.

gettext_auto_build

If true, Sphinx builds mo file for each translation catalog files.

The default is True.

New in version 1.3.

gettext_additional_targets

To specify names to enable gettext extracting and translation applying for i18n additionally. You can specify below names:

Index

index terms

Literal-block

literal blocks (:: annotation and code-block directive)

Doctest-block

doctest block

Raw

raw content

Image

image/figure uri

For example: gettext_additional_targets = ['literal-block', 'image'].

The default is [].

New in version 1.3.

Changed in version 4.0: The alt text for image is translated by default.

figure_language_filename

The filename format for language-specific figures.  The default value is {root}.{language}{ext}.  It will be expanded to dirname/filename.en.png from .. image:: dirname/filename.png. The available format tokens are:

  • {root} - the filename, including any path component, without the file extension, e.g. dirname/filename
  • {path} - the directory path component of the filename, with a trailing slash if non-empty, e.g. dirname/
  • {docpath} - the directory path component for the current document, with a trailing slash if non-empty.
  • {basename} - the filename without the directory path or file extension components, e.g. filename
  • {ext} - the file extension, e.g. .png
  • {language} - the translation language, e.g. en

For example, setting this to {path}{language}/{basename}{ext} will expand to dirname/en/filename.png instead.

New in version 1.4.

Changed in version 1.5: Added {path} and {basename} tokens.

Changed in version 3.2: Added {docpath} token.

Options for Math

These options influence Math notations.

math_number_all

Set this option to True if you want all displayed math to be numbered. The default is False.

math_eqref_format

A string used for formatting the labels of references to equations. The {number} place-holder stands for the equation number.

Example: 'Eq.{number}' gets rendered as, for example, Eq.10.

math_numfig

If True, displayed math equations are numbered across pages when numfig is enabled.  The numfig_secnum_depth setting is respected.  The eq, not numref, role must be used to reference equation numbers.  Default is True.

New in version 1.7.

Options for HTML output

These options influence HTML as well as HTML Help output, and other builders that use Sphinx’s HTMLWriter class.

html_theme

The “theme” that the HTML output should use.  See the section about theming.  The default is 'alabaster'.

New in version 0.6.

html_theme_options

A dictionary of options that influence the look and feel of the selected theme.  These are theme-specific.  For the options understood by the builtin themes, see this section.

New in version 0.6.

html_theme_path

A list of paths that contain custom themes, either as subdirectories or as zip files.  Relative paths are taken as relative to the configuration directory.

New in version 0.6.

html_style

The style sheet to use for HTML pages.  A file of that name must exist either in Sphinx’s static/ path, or in one of the custom paths given in html_static_path.  Default is the stylesheet given by the selected theme.  If you only want to add or override a few things compared to the theme’s stylesheet, use CSS @import to import the theme’s stylesheet.

html_title

The “title” for HTML documentation generated with Sphinx’s own templates. This is appended to the <title> tag of individual pages, and used in the navigation bar as the “topmost” element.  It defaults to '<project> v<revision> documentation'.

html_short_title

A shorter “title” for the HTML docs.  This is used for links in the header and in the HTML Help docs.  If not given, it defaults to the value of html_title.

New in version 0.4.

html_baseurl

The base URL which points to the root of the HTML documentation.  It is used to indicate the location of document using The Canonical Link Relation. Default: ''.

New in version 1.8.

html_codeblock_linenos_style

The style of line numbers for code-blocks.

  • 'table' – display line numbers using <table> tag
  • 'inline' – display line numbers using <span> tag (default)

New in version 3.2.

Changed in version 4.0: It defaults to 'inline'.

Deprecated since version 4.0.

html_context

A dictionary of values to pass into the template engine’s context for all pages.  Single values can also be put in this dictionary using the -A command-line option of sphinx-build.

New in version 0.5.

html_logo

If given, this must be the name of an image file (path relative to the configuration directory) that is the logo of the docs, or URL that points an image file for the logo.  It is placed at the top of the sidebar; its width should therefore not exceed 200 pixels.  Default: None.

New in version 0.4.1: The image file will be copied to the _static directory of the output HTML, but only if the file does not already exist there.

Changed in version 4.0: Also accepts the URL for the logo file.

html_favicon

If given, this must be the name of an image file (path relative to the configuration directory) that is the favicon of the docs, or URL that points an image file for the favicon.  Modern browsers use this as the icon for tabs, windows and bookmarks.  It should be a Windows-style icon file (.ico), which is 16x16 or 32x32 pixels large.  Default: None.

New in version 0.4: The image file will be copied to the _static directory of the output HTML, but only if the file does not already exist there.

Changed in version 4.0: Also accepts the URL for the favicon.

html_css_files

A list of CSS files.  The entry must be a filename string or a tuple containing the filename string and the attributes dictionary.  The filename must be relative to the html_static_path, or a full URI with scheme like https://example.org/style.css.  The attributes is used for attributes of <link> tag.  It defaults to an empty list.

Example:

html_css_files = ['custom.css',
                  'https://example.com/css/custom.css',
                  ('print.css', {'media': 'print'})]

As a special attribute, priority can be set as an integer to load the CSS file earlier or lazier step.  For more information, refer Sphinx.add_css_files().

New in version 1.8.

Changed in version 3.5: Support priority attribute

html_js_files

A list of JavaScript filename.  The entry must be a filename string or a tuple containing the filename string and the attributes dictionary.  The filename must be relative to the html_static_path, or a full URI with scheme like https://example.org/script.js.  The attributes is used for attributes of <script> tag.  It defaults to an empty list.

Example:

html_js_files = ['script.js',
                 'https://example.com/scripts/custom.js',
                 ('custom.js', {'async': 'async'})]

As a special attribute, priority can be set as an integer to load the CSS file earlier or lazier step.  For more information, refer Sphinx.add_css_files().

New in version 1.8.

Changed in version 3.5: Support priority attribute

html_static_path

A list of paths that contain custom static files (such as style sheets or script files).  Relative paths are taken as relative to the configuration directory.  They are copied to the output’s _static directory after the theme’s static files, so a file named default.css will overwrite the theme’s default.css.

As these files are not meant to be built, they are automatically excluded from source files.

NOTE:

For security reasons, dotfiles under html_static_path will not be copied.  If you would like to copy them intentionally, please add each filepath to this setting:

html_static_path = ['_static', '_static/.htaccess']

Another way to do that, you can also use html_extra_path.  It allows to copy dotfiles under the directories.

Changed in version 0.4: The paths in html_static_path can now contain subdirectories.

Changed in version 1.0: The entries in html_static_path can now be single files.

Changed in version 1.8: The files under html_static_path are excluded from source files.

html_extra_path

A list of paths that contain extra files not directly related to the documentation, such as robots.txt or .htaccess. Relative paths are taken as relative to the configuration directory.  They are copied to the output directory.  They will overwrite any existing file of the same name.

As these files are not meant to be built, they are automatically excluded from source files.

New in version 1.2.

Changed in version 1.4: The dotfiles in the extra directory will be copied to the output directory.  And it refers exclude_patterns on copying extra files and directories, and ignores if path matches to patterns.

html_last_updated_fmt

If this is not None, a ‘Last updated on:’ timestamp is inserted at every page bottom, using the given strftime() format. The empty string is equivalent to '%b %d, %Y' (or a locale-dependent equivalent).

html_use_smartypants

If true, quotes and dashes are converted to typographically correct entities.  Default: True.

Deprecated since version 1.6: To disable smart quotes, use rather smartquotes.

html_add_permalinks

Sphinx will add “permalinks” for each heading and description environment as paragraph signs that become visible when the mouse hovers over them.

This value determines the text for the permalink; it defaults to "¶". Set it to None or the empty string to disable permalinks.

New in version 0.6: Previously, this was always activated.

Changed in version 1.1: This can now be a string to select the actual text of the link. Previously, only boolean values were accepted.

Deprecated since version 3.5: This has been replaced by html_permalinks

html_permalinks

If true, Sphinx will add “permalinks” for each heading and description environment.  Default: True.

New in version 3.5.

html_permalinks_icon

A text for permalinks for each heading and description environment.  HTML tags are allowed.  Default: a paragraph sign;

New in version 3.5.

html_sidebars

Custom sidebar templates, must be a dictionary that maps document names to template names.

The keys can contain glob-style patterns [1], in which case all matching documents will get the specified sidebars.  (A warning is emitted when a more than one glob-style pattern matches for any document.)

The values can be either lists or single strings.

  • If a value is a list, it specifies the complete list of sidebar templates to include.  If all or some of the default sidebars are to be included, they must be put into this list as well.

    The default sidebars (for documents that don’t match any pattern) are defined by theme itself.  Builtin themes are using these templates by default: ['localtoc.html', 'relations.html', 'sourcelink.html', 'searchbox.html'].

  • If a value is a single string, it specifies a custom sidebar to be added between the 'sourcelink.html' and 'searchbox.html' entries.  This is for compatibility with Sphinx versions before 1.0.

Deprecated since version 1.7: a single string value for html_sidebars will be removed in 2.0

Builtin sidebar templates that can be rendered are:

  • localtoc.html – a fine-grained table of contents of the current document
  • globaltoc.html – a coarse-grained table of contents for the whole documentation set, collapsed
  • relations.html – two links to the previous and next documents
  • sourcelink.html – a link to the source of the current document, if enabled in html_show_sourcelink
  • searchbox.html – the “quick search” box

Example:

html_sidebars = {
   '**': ['globaltoc.html', 'sourcelink.html', 'searchbox.html'],
   'using/windows': ['windowssidebar.html', 'searchbox.html'],
}

This will render the custom template windowssidebar.html and the quick search box within the sidebar of the given document, and render the default sidebars for all other pages (except that the local TOC is replaced by the global TOC).

New in version 1.0: The ability to use globbing keys and to specify multiple sidebars.

Note that this value only has no effect if the chosen theme does not possess a sidebar, like the builtin scrolls and haiku themes.

html_additional_pages

Additional templates that should be rendered to HTML pages, must be a dictionary that maps document names to template names.

Example:

html_additional_pages = {
    'download': 'customdownload.html',
}

This will render the template customdownload.html as the page download.html.

html_domain_indices

If true, generate domain-specific indices in addition to the general index. For e.g. the Python domain, this is the global module index.  Default is True.

This value can be a bool or a list of index names that should be generated. To find out the index name for a specific index, look at the HTML file name. For example, the Python module index has the name 'py-modindex'.

New in version 1.0.

html_use_index

If true, add an index to the HTML documents.  Default is True.

New in version 0.4.

html_split_index

If true, the index is generated twice: once as a single page with all the entries, and once as one page per starting letter.  Default is False.

New in version 0.4.

html_copy_source

If true, the reST sources are included in the HTML build as _sources/name.  The default is True.

html_show_sourcelink

If true (and html_copy_source is true as well), links to the reST sources will be added to the sidebar.  The default is True.

New in version 0.6.

html_sourcelink_suffix

Suffix to be appended to source links (see html_show_sourcelink), unless they have this suffix already.  Default is '.txt'.

New in version 1.5.

html_use_opensearch

If nonempty, an OpenSearch description file will be output, and all pages will contain a <link> tag referring to it.  Since OpenSearch doesn’t support relative URLs for its search page location, the value of this option must be the base URL from which these documents are served (without trailing slash), e.g. "https://docs.python.org".  The default is ''.

html_file_suffix

This is the file name suffix for generated HTML files.  The default is ".html".

New in version 0.4.

html_link_suffix

Suffix for generated links to HTML files.  The default is whatever html_file_suffix is set to; it can be set differently (e.g. to support different web server setups).

New in version 0.6.

html_show_copyright

If true, “(C) Copyright …” is shown in the HTML footer. Default is True.

New in version 1.0.

html_show_sphinx

If true, “Created using Sphinx” is shown in the HTML footer.  Default is True.

New in version 0.4.

html_output_encoding

Encoding of HTML output files. Default is 'utf-8'.  Note that this encoding name must both be a valid Python encoding name and a valid HTML charset value.

New in version 1.0.

html_compact_lists

If true, a list all whose items consist of a single paragraph and/or a sub-list all whose items etc… (recursive definition) will not use the <p> element for any of its items. This is standard docutils behavior. Default: True.

New in version 1.0.

html_secnumber_suffix

Suffix for section numbers.  Default: ". ".  Set to " " to suppress the final dot on section numbers.

New in version 1.0.

html_search_language

Language to be used for generating the HTML full-text search index.  This defaults to the global language selected with language.  If there is no support for this language, "en" is used which selects the English language.

Support is present for these languages:

  • da – Danish
  • nl – Dutch
  • en – English
  • fi – Finnish
  • fr – French
  • de – German
  • hu – Hungarian
  • it – Italian
  • ja – Japanese
  • no – Norwegian
  • pt – Portuguese
  • ro – Romanian
  • ru – Russian
  • es – Spanish
  • sv – Swedish
  • tr – Turkish
  • zh – Chinese

    Accelerating build speed

    Each language (except Japanese) provides its own stemming algorithm. Sphinx uses a Python implementation by default.  You can use a C implementation to accelerate building the index file.

    • PorterStemmer (en)
    • PyStemmer (all languages)

New in version 1.1: With support for en and ja.

Changed in version 1.3: Added additional languages.

html_search_options

A dictionary with options for the search language support, empty by default. The meaning of these options depends on the language selected.

The English support has no options.

The Japanese support has these options:

Type

is dotted module path string to specify Splitter implementation which should be derived from sphinx.search.ja.BaseSplitter.  If not specified or None is specified, 'sphinx.search.ja.DefaultSplitter' will be used.

You can choose from these modules:

‘sphinx.search.ja.DefaultSplitter’

TinySegmenter algorithm. This is default splitter.

‘sphinx.search.ja.MecabSplitter’

MeCab binding. To use this splitter, ‘mecab’ python binding or dynamic link library (‘libmecab.so’ for linux, ‘libmecab.dll’ for windows) is required.

‘sphinx.search.ja.JanomeSplitter’

Janome binding. To use this splitter, Janome is required.

Deprecated since version 1.6: 'mecab', 'janome' and 'default' is deprecated. To keep compatibility, 'mecab', 'janome' and 'default' are also acceptable.

Other option values depend on splitter value which you choose.

Options for 'mecab':
dic_enc

is the encoding for the MeCab algorithm.

dict

is the dictionary to use for the MeCab algorithm.

lib

is the library name for finding the MeCab library via ctypes if the Python binding is not installed.

For example:

html_search_options = {
    'type': 'mecab',
    'dic_enc': 'utf-8',
    'dict': '/path/to/mecab.dic',
    'lib': '/path/to/libmecab.so',
}
Options for 'janome':
user_dic

is the user dictionary file path for Janome.

user_dic_enc

is the encoding for the user dictionary file specified by user_dic option. Default is ‘utf8’.

New in version 1.1.

Changed in version 1.4: html_search_options for Japanese is re-organized and any custom splitter can be used by type settings.

The Chinese support has these options:

  • dict  – the jieba dictionary path if want to use custom dictionary.
html_search_scorer

The name of a JavaScript file (relative to the configuration directory) that implements a search results scorer.  If empty, the default will be used.

New in version 1.2.

html_scaled_image_link

If true, images itself links to the original image if it doesn’t have ‘target’ option or scale related options: ‘scale’, ‘width’, ‘height’. The default is True.

Document authors can this feature manually with giving no-scaled-link class to the image:

.. image:: sphinx.png
   :scale: 50%
   :class: no-scaled-link

New in version 1.3.

Changed in version 3.0: It is disabled for images having no-scaled-link class

html_math_renderer

The name of math_renderer extension for HTML output.  The default is 'mathjax'.

New in version 1.8.

html_experimental_html5_writer

Output is processed with HTML5 writer.  Default is False.

New in version 1.6.

Deprecated since version 2.0.

html4_writer

Output is processed with HTML4 writer.  Default is False.

Options for Single HTML output

singlehtml_sidebars

Custom sidebar templates, must be a dictionary that maps document names to template names.  And it only allows a key named ‘index’.  All other keys are ignored.  For more information, refer to html_sidebars.  By default, it is same as html_sidebars.

Options for HTML help output

htmlhelp_basename

Output file base name for HTML help builder.  Default is 'pydoc'.

htmlhelp_file_suffix

This is the file name suffix for generated HTML help files.  The default is ".html".

New in version 2.0.

htmlhelp_link_suffix

Suffix for generated links to HTML files.  The default is ".html".

New in version 2.0.

Options for Apple Help output

New in version 1.3.

These options influence the Apple Help output.  This builder derives from the HTML builder, so the HTML options also apply where appropriate.

NOTE:

Apple Help output will only work on Mac OS X 10.6 and higher, as it requires the hiutil and codesign command line tools, neither of which are Open Source.

You can disable the use of these tools using applehelp_disable_external_tools, but the result will not be a valid help book until the indexer is run over the .lproj folders within the bundle.

applehelp_bundle_name

The basename for the Apple Help Book.  Defaults to the project name.

applehelp_bundle_id

The bundle ID for the help book bundle.

WARNING:

You must set this value in order to generate Apple Help.

applehelp_dev_region

The development region.  Defaults to 'en-us', which is Apple’s recommended setting.

applehelp_bundle_version

The bundle version (as a string).  Defaults to '1'.

applehelp_icon

The help bundle icon file, or None for no icon.  According to Apple’s documentation, this should be a 16-by-16 pixel version of the application’s icon with a transparent background, saved as a PNG file.

applehelp_kb_product

The product tag for use with applehelp_kb_url.  Defaults to '<project>-<release>'.

applehelp_kb_url

The URL for your knowledgebase server, e.g. https://example.com/kbsearch.py?p='product'&q='query'&l='lang'. Help Viewer will replace the values 'product', 'query' and 'lang' at runtime with the contents of applehelp_kb_product, the text entered by the user in the search box and the user’s system language respectively.

Defaults to None for no remote search.

applehelp_remote_url

The URL for remote content.  You can place a copy of your Help Book’s Resources folder at this location and Help Viewer will attempt to use it to fetch updated content.

e.g. if you set it to https://example.com/help/Foo/ and Help Viewer wants a copy of index.html for an English speaking customer, it will look at https://example.com/help/Foo/en.lproj/index.html.

Defaults to None for no remote content.

applehelp_index_anchors

If True, tell the help indexer to index anchors in the generated HTML. This can be useful for jumping to a particular topic using the AHLookupAnchor function or the openHelpAnchor:inBook: method in your code.  It also allows you to use help:anchor URLs; see the Apple documentation for more information on this topic.

applehelp_min_term_length

Controls the minimum term length for the help indexer.  Defaults to None, which means the default will be used.

applehelp_stopwords

Either a language specification (to use the built-in stopwords), or the path to a stopwords plist, or None if you do not want to use stopwords. The default stopwords plist can be found at /usr/share/hiutil/Stopwords.plist and contains, at time of writing, stopwords for the following languages:

LanguageCode
Englishen
Germande
Spanishes
Frenchfr
Swedishsv
Hungarianhu
Italianit

Defaults to language, or if that is not set, to en.

applehelp_locale

Specifies the locale to generate help for.  This is used to determine the name of the .lproj folder inside the Help Book’s Resources, and is passed to the help indexer.

Defaults to language, or if that is not set, to en.

applehelp_title

Specifies the help book title.  Defaults to '<project> Help'.

applehelp_codesign_identity

Specifies the identity to use for code signing, or None if code signing is not to be performed.

Defaults to the value of the environment variable CODE_SIGN_IDENTITY, which is set by Xcode for script build phases, or None if that variable is not set.

applehelp_codesign_flags

A list of additional arguments to pass to codesign when signing the help book.

Defaults to a list based on the value of the environment variable OTHER_CODE_SIGN_FLAGS, which is set by Xcode for script build phases, or the empty list if that variable is not set.

applehelp_indexer_path

The path to the hiutil program.  Defaults to '/usr/bin/hiutil'.

applehelp_codesign_path

The path to the codesign program.  Defaults to '/usr/bin/codesign'.

applehelp_disable_external_tools

If True, the builder will not run the indexer or the code signing tool, no matter what other settings are specified.

This is mainly useful for testing, or where you want to run the Sphinx build on a non-Mac OS X platform and then complete the final steps on OS X for some reason.

Defaults to False.

Options for epub output

These options influence the epub output.  As this builder derives from the HTML builder, the HTML options also apply where appropriate.  The actual values for some of the options is not really important, they just have to be entered into the Dublin Core metadata.

epub_basename

The basename for the epub file.  It defaults to the project name.

epub_theme

The HTML theme for the epub output.  Since the default themes are not optimized for small screen space, using the same theme for HTML and epub output is usually not wise.  This defaults to 'epub', a theme designed to save visual space.

epub_theme_options

A dictionary of options that influence the look and feel of the selected theme.  These are theme-specific.  For the options understood by the builtin themes, see this section.

New in version 1.2.

epub_title

The title of the document.  It defaults to the html_title option but can be set independently for epub creation.  It defaults to the project option.

Changed in version 2.0: It defaults to the project option.

epub_description

The description of the document. The default value is 'unknown'.

New in version 1.4.

Changed in version 1.5: Renamed from epub3_description

epub_author

The author of the document.  This is put in the Dublin Core metadata.  It defaults to the author option.

epub_contributor

The name of a person, organization, etc. that played a secondary role in the creation of the content of an EPUB Publication. The default value is 'unknown'.

New in version 1.4.

Changed in version 1.5: Renamed from epub3_contributor

epub_language

The language of the document.  This is put in the Dublin Core metadata.  The default is the language option or 'en' if unset.

epub_publisher

The publisher of the document.  This is put in the Dublin Core metadata. You may use any sensible string, e.g. the project homepage.  The defaults to the author option.

epub_copyright

The copyright of the document.  It defaults to the copyright option but can be set independently for epub creation.

epub_identifier

An identifier for the document.  This is put in the Dublin Core metadata. For published documents this is the ISBN number, but you can also use an alternative scheme, e.g. the project homepage.  The default value is 'unknown'.

epub_scheme

The publication scheme for the epub_identifier.  This is put in the Dublin Core metadata.  For published books the scheme is 'ISBN'.  If you use the project homepage, 'URL' seems reasonable.  The default value is 'unknown'.

epub_uid

A unique identifier for the document.  This is put in the Dublin Core metadata.  You may use a XML’s Name format string.  You can’t use hyphen, period, numbers as a first character.  The default value is 'unknown'.

epub_cover

The cover page information.  This is a tuple containing the filenames of the cover image and the html template.  The rendered html cover page is inserted as the first item in the spine in content.opf.  If the template filename is empty, no html cover page is created.  No cover at all is created if the tuple is empty.  Examples:

epub_cover = ('_static/cover.png', 'epub-cover.html')
epub_cover = ('_static/cover.png', '')
epub_cover = ()

The default value is ().

New in version 1.1.

epub_css_files

A list of CSS files.  The entry must be a filename string or a tuple containing the filename string and the attributes dictionary.  For more information, see html_css_files.

New in version 1.8.

epub_guide

Meta data for the guide element of content.opf. This is a sequence of tuples containing the type, the uri and the title of the optional guide information. See the OPF documentation at http://idpf.org/epub for details. If possible, default entries for the cover and toc types are automatically inserted. However, the types can be explicitly overwritten if the default entries are not appropriate. Example:

epub_guide = (('cover', 'cover.html', u'Cover Page'),)

The default value is ().

epub_pre_files

Additional files that should be inserted before the text generated by Sphinx. It is a list of tuples containing the file name and the title. If the title is empty, no entry is added to toc.ncx.  Example:

epub_pre_files = [
    ('index.html', 'Welcome'),
]

The default value is [].

epub_post_files

Additional files that should be inserted after the text generated by Sphinx. It is a list of tuples containing the file name and the title.  This option can be used to add an appendix.  If the title is empty, no entry is added to toc.ncx.  The default value is [].

epub_exclude_files

A list of files that are generated/copied in the build directory but should not be included in the epub file.  The default value is [].

epub_tocdepth

The depth of the table of contents in the file toc.ncx.  It should be an integer greater than zero.  The default value is 3.  Note: A deeply nested table of contents may be difficult to navigate.

epub_tocdup

This flag determines if a toc entry is inserted again at the beginning of its nested toc listing.  This allows easier navigation to the top of a chapter, but can be confusing because it mixes entries of different depth in one list.  The default value is True.

epub_tocscope

This setting control the scope of the epub table of contents.  The setting can have the following values:

  • 'default' – include all toc entries that are not hidden (default)
  • 'includehidden' – include all toc entries

New in version 1.2.

epub_fix_images

This flag determines if sphinx should try to fix image formats that are not supported by some epub readers.  At the moment palette images with a small color table are upgraded.  You need Pillow, the Python Image Library, installed to use this option.  The default value is False because the automatic conversion may lose information.

New in version 1.2.

epub_max_image_width

This option specifies the maximum width of images.  If it is set to a value greater than zero, images with a width larger than the given value are scaled accordingly.  If it is zero, no scaling is performed. The default value is 0.  You need the Python Image Library (Pillow) installed to use this option.

New in version 1.2.

epub_show_urls

Control whether to display URL addresses. This is very useful for readers that have no other means to display the linked URL. The settings can have the following values:

  • 'inline' – display URLs inline in parentheses (default)
  • 'footnote' – display URLs in footnotes
  • 'no' – do not display URLs

The display of inline URLs can be customized by adding CSS rules for the class link-target.

New in version 1.2.

epub_use_index

If true, add an index to the epub document.  It defaults to the html_use_index option but can be set independently for epub creation.

New in version 1.2.

epub_writing_mode

It specifies writing direction. It can accept 'horizontal' (default) and 'vertical'

epub_writing_mode'horizontal''vertical'
writing-mode [2]horizontal-tbvertical-rl
page progressionleft to rightright to left
iBook’s Scroll Theme supportscroll-axis is vertical.scroll-axis is horizontal.
[2]

https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Web/CSS/writing-mode

Options for LaTeX output

These options influence LaTeX output.

latex_engine

The LaTeX engine to build the docs.  The setting can have the following values:

  • 'pdflatex' – PDFLaTeX (default)
  • 'xelatex' – XeLaTeX
  • 'lualatex' – LuaLaTeX
  • 'platex' – pLaTeX
  • 'uplatex' – upLaTeX (default if language is 'ja')

'pdflatex'‘s support for Unicode characters is limited.

NOTE:

2.0 adds to 'pdflatex' support in Latin language document of occasional Cyrillic or Greek letters or words.  This is not automatic, see the discussion of the latex_elements 'fontenc' key.

If your project uses Unicode characters, setting the engine to 'xelatex' or 'lualatex' and making sure to use an OpenType font with wide-enough glyph coverage is often easier than trying to make 'pdflatex' work with the extra Unicode characters.  Since Sphinx 2.0 the default is the GNU FreeFont which covers well Latin, Cyrillic and Greek.

Changed in version 2.1.0: Use xelatex (and LaTeX package xeCJK) by default for Chinese documents.

Changed in version 2.2.1: Use xelatex by default for Greek documents.

Changed in version 2.3: Add uplatex support.

Changed in version 4.0: uplatex becomes the default setting of Japanese documents.

Contrarily to MathJaX math rendering in HTML output, LaTeX requires some extra configuration to support Unicode literals in math: the only comprehensive solution (as far as we know) is to use 'xelatex' or 'lualatex' and to add r'\usepackage{unicode-math}' (e.g. via the latex_elements 'preamble' key).  You may prefer r'\usepackage[math-style=literal]{unicode-math}' to keep a Unicode literal such as α (U+03B1) for example as is in output, rather than being rendered as \alpha.

latex_documents

This value determines how to group the document tree into LaTeX source files. It must be a list of tuples (startdocname, targetname, title, author, theme, toctree_only), where the items are:

startdocname

String that specifies the document name of the LaTeX file’s master document.  All documents referenced by the startdoc document in TOC trees will be included in the LaTeX file.  (If you want to use the default root document for your LaTeX build, provide your root_doc here.)

targetname

File name of the LaTeX file in the output directory.

title

LaTeX document title.  Can be empty to use the title of the startdoc document.  This is inserted as LaTeX markup, so special characters like a backslash or ampersand must be represented by the proper LaTeX commands if they are to be inserted literally.

author

Author for the LaTeX document.  The same LaTeX markup caveat as for title applies.  Use \\and to separate multiple authors, as in: 'John \\and Sarah' (backslashes must be Python-escaped to reach LaTeX).

theme

LaTeX theme.  See latex_theme.

toctree_only

Must be True or False.  If true, the startdoc document itself is not included in the output, only the documents referenced by it via TOC trees.  With this option, you can put extra stuff in the master document that shows up in the HTML, but not the LaTeX output.

New in version 1.2: In the past including your own document class required you to prepend the document class name with the string “sphinx”. This is not necessary anymore.

New in version 0.3: The 6th item toctree_only.  Tuples with 5 items are still accepted.

latex_logo

If given, this must be the name of an image file (relative to the configuration directory) that is the logo of the docs.  It is placed at the top of the title page.  Default: None.

latex_toplevel_sectioning

This value determines the topmost sectioning unit. It should be chosen from 'part', 'chapter' or 'section'. The default is None; the topmost sectioning unit is switched by documentclass: section is used if documentclass will be howto, otherwise chapter will be used.

Note that if LaTeX uses \part command, then the numbering of sectioning units one level deep gets off-sync with HTML numbering, because LaTeX numbers continuously \chapter (or \section for howto.)

New in version 1.4.

latex_appendices

A list of document names to append as an appendix to all manuals.

latex_domain_indices

If true, generate domain-specific indices in addition to the general index. For e.g. the Python domain, this is the global module index.  Default is True.

This value can be a bool or a list of index names that should be generated, like for html_domain_indices.

New in version 1.0.

latex_show_pagerefs

If true, add page references after internal references.  This is very useful for printed copies of the manual.  Default is False.

New in version 1.0.

latex_show_urls

Control whether to display URL addresses.  This is very useful for printed copies of the manual.  The setting can have the following values:

  • 'no' – do not display URLs (default)
  • 'footnote' – display URLs in footnotes
  • 'inline' – display URLs inline in parentheses

New in version 1.0.

Changed in version 1.1: This value is now a string; previously it was a boolean value, and a true value selected the 'inline' display.  For backwards compatibility, True is still accepted.

latex_use_latex_multicolumn

The default is False: it means that Sphinx’s own macros are used for merged cells from grid tables. They allow general contents (literal blocks, lists, blockquotes, …) but may have problems if the tabularcolumns directive was used to inject LaTeX mark-up of the type >{..}, <{..}, @{..} as column specification.

Setting to True means to use LaTeX’s standard \multicolumn; this is incompatible with literal blocks in the horizontally merged cell, and also with multiple paragraphs in such cell if the table is rendered using tabulary.

New in version 1.6.

latex_use_xindy

If True, the PDF build from the LaTeX files created by Sphinx will use xindy (doc) rather than makeindex for preparing the index of general terms (from index usage).  This means that words with UTF-8 characters will get ordered correctly for the language.

  • This option is ignored if latex_engine is 'platex' (Japanese documents; mendex replaces makeindex then).
  • The default is True for 'xelatex' or 'lualatex' as makeindex, if any indexed term starts with a non-ascii character, creates .ind files containing invalid bytes for UTF-8 encoding. With 'lualatex' this then breaks the PDF build.
  • The default is False for 'pdflatex' but True is recommended for non-English documents as soon as some indexed terms use non-ascii characters from the language script.

Sphinx adds to xindy base distribution some dedicated support for using 'pdflatex' engine with Cyrillic scripts.  And whether with 'pdflatex' or Unicode engines, Cyrillic documents handle correctly the indexing of Latin names, even with diacritics.

New in version 1.8.

latex_elements

New in version 0.5.

Its documentation has moved to /latex.

latex_docclass

A dictionary mapping 'howto' and 'manual' to names of real document classes that will be used as the base for the two Sphinx classes.  Default is to use 'article' for 'howto' and 'report' for 'manual'.

New in version 1.0.

Changed in version 1.5: In Japanese docs (language is 'ja'), by default 'jreport' is used for 'howto' and 'jsbook' for 'manual'.

latex_additional_files

A list of file names, relative to the configuration directory, to copy to the build directory when building LaTeX output.  This is useful to copy files that Sphinx doesn’t copy automatically, e.g. if they are referenced in custom LaTeX added in latex_elements.  Image files that are referenced in source files (e.g. via .. image::) are copied automatically.

You have to make sure yourself that the filenames don’t collide with those of any automatically copied files.

New in version 0.6.

Changed in version 1.2: This overrides the files which is provided from Sphinx such as sphinx.sty.

latex_theme

The “theme” that the LaTeX output should use.  It is a collection of settings for LaTeX output (ex. document class, top level sectioning unit and so on).

As a built-in LaTeX themes, manual and howto are bundled.

manual

A LaTeX theme for writing a manual.  It imports the report document class (Japanese documents use jsbook).

howto

A LaTeX theme for writing an article.  It imports the article document class (Japanese documents use jreport rather).  latex_appendices is available only for this theme.

It defaults to 'manual'.

New in version 3.0.

latex_theme_options

A dictionary of options that influence the look and feel of the selected theme.

New in version 3.1.

latex_theme_path

A list of paths that contain custom LaTeX themes as subdirectories.  Relative paths are taken as relative to the configuration directory.

New in version 3.0.

Options for text output

These options influence text output.

text_newlines

Determines which end-of-line character(s) are used in text output.

  • 'unix': use Unix-style line endings (\n)
  • 'windows': use Windows-style line endings (\r\n)
  • 'native': use the line ending style of the platform the documentation is built on

Default: 'unix'.

New in version 1.1.

text_sectionchars

A string of 7 characters that should be used for underlining sections. The first character is used for first-level headings, the second for second-level headings and so on.

The default is '*=-~"+`'.

New in version 1.1.

text_add_secnumbers

A boolean that decides whether section numbers are included in text output. Default is True.

New in version 1.7.

text_secnumber_suffix

Suffix for section numbers in text output.  Default: ". ". Set to " " to suppress the final dot on section numbers.

New in version 1.7.

Options for manual page output

These options influence manual page output.

man_pages

This value determines how to group the document tree into manual pages.  It must be a list of tuples (startdocname, name, description, authors, section), where the items are:

startdocname

String that specifies the document name of the manual page’s master document. All documents referenced by the startdoc document in TOC trees will be included in the manual file.  (If you want to use the default root document for your manual pages build, use your root_doc here.)

name

Name of the manual page.  This should be a short string without spaces or special characters.  It is used to determine the file name as well as the name of the manual page (in the NAME section).

description

Description of the manual page.  This is used in the NAME section. Can be an empty string if you do not want to automatically generate the NAME section.

authors

A list of strings with authors, or a single string.  Can be an empty string or list if you do not want to automatically generate an AUTHORS section in the manual page.

section

The manual page section.  Used for the output file name as well as in the manual page header.

New in version 1.0.

man_show_urls

If true, add URL addresses after links.  Default is False.

New in version 1.1.

man_make_section_directory

If true, make a section directory on build man page.  Default is True.

New in version 3.3.

Changed in version 4.0: The default is changed to False from True.

Changed in version 4.0.2: The default is changed to True from False again.

Options for Texinfo output

These options influence Texinfo output.

texinfo_documents

This value determines how to group the document tree into Texinfo source files.  It must be a list of tuples (startdocname, targetname, title, author, dir_entry, description, category, toctree_only), where the items are:

startdocname

String that specifies the document name of the the Texinfo file’s master document.  All documents referenced by the startdoc document in TOC trees will be included in the Texinfo file.  (If you want to use the default master document for your Texinfo build, provide your root_doc here.)

targetname

File name (no extension) of the Texinfo file in the output directory.

title

Texinfo document title.  Can be empty to use the title of the startdoc document.  Inserted as Texinfo markup, so special characters like @ and {} will need to be escaped to be inserted literally.

author

Author for the Texinfo document.  Inserted as Texinfo markup.  Use @* to separate multiple authors, as in: 'John@*Sarah'.

dir_entry

The name that will appear in the top-level DIR menu file.

description

Descriptive text to appear in the top-level DIR menu file.

category

Specifies the section which this entry will appear in the top-level DIR menu file.

toctree_only

Must be True or False.  If true, the startdoc document itself is not included in the output, only the documents referenced by it via TOC trees.  With this option, you can put extra stuff in the master document that shows up in the HTML, but not the Texinfo output.

New in version 1.1.

texinfo_appendices

A list of document names to append as an appendix to all manuals.

New in version 1.1.

texinfo_domain_indices

If true, generate domain-specific indices in addition to the general index. For e.g. the Python domain, this is the global module index.  Default is True.

This value can be a bool or a list of index names that should be generated, like for html_domain_indices.

New in version 1.1.

texinfo_show_urls

Control how to display URL addresses.

  • 'footnote' – display URLs in footnotes (default)
  • 'no' – do not display URLs
  • 'inline' – display URLs inline in parentheses

New in version 1.1.

texinfo_no_detailmenu

If true, do not generate a @detailmenu in the “Top” node’s menu containing entries for each sub-node in the document.  Default is False.

New in version 1.2.

texinfo_elements

A dictionary that contains Texinfo snippets that override those Sphinx usually puts into the generated .texi files.

  • Keys that you may want to override include:

    'paragraphindent'

    Number of spaces to indent the first line of each paragraph, default 2.  Specify 0 for no indentation.

    'exampleindent'

    Number of spaces to indent the lines for examples or literal blocks, default 4.  Specify 0 for no indentation.

    'preamble'

    Texinfo markup inserted near the beginning of the file.

    'copying'

    Texinfo markup inserted within the @copying block and displayed after the title.  The default value consists of a simple title page identifying the project.

  • Keys that are set by other options and therefore should not be overridden are:

    'author' 'body' 'date' 'direntry' 'filename' 'project' 'release' 'title'

New in version 1.1.

Options for QtHelp output

These options influence qthelp output.  As this builder derives from the HTML builder, the HTML options also apply where appropriate.

qthelp_basename

The basename for the qthelp file.  It defaults to the project name.

qthelp_namespace

The namespace for the qthelp file.  It defaults to org.sphinx.<project_name>.<project_version>.

qthelp_theme

The HTML theme for the qthelp output. This defaults to 'nonav'.

qthelp_theme_options

A dictionary of options that influence the look and feel of the selected theme.  These are theme-specific.  For the options understood by the builtin themes, see this section.

Options for the linkcheck builder

linkcheck_ignore

A list of regular expressions that match URIs that should not be checked when doing a linkcheck build.  Example:

linkcheck_ignore = [r'http://localhost:\d+/']

New in version 1.1.

linkcheck_allowed_redirects

A dictionary that maps a pattern of the source URI to a pattern of the canonical URI. The linkcheck builder treats the redirected link as “working” when:

  • the link in the document matches the source URI pattern, and
  • the redirect location matches the canonical URI pattern.

Example:

linkcheck_allowed_redirects = {
    # All HTTP redirections from the source URI to the canonical URI will be treated as "working".
    r'https://sphinx-doc\.org/.*': r'https://sphinx-doc\.org/en/master/.*'
}

If set, linkcheck builder will emit a warning when disallowed redirection found.  It’s useful to detect unexpected redirects under the warn-is-error mode.

New in version 4.1.

linkcheck_request_headers

A dictionary that maps baseurls to HTTP request headers.

The key is a URL base string like "https://www.sphinx-doc.org/".  To specify headers for other hosts, "*" can be used.  It matches all hosts only when the URL does not match other settings.

The value is a dictionary that maps header name to its value.

Example:

linkcheck_request_headers = {
    "https://www.sphinx-doc.org/": {
        "Accept": "text/html",
        "Accept-Encoding": "utf-8",
    },
    "*": {
        "Accept": "text/html,application/xhtml+xml",
    }
}

New in version 3.1.

linkcheck_retries

The number of times the linkcheck builder will attempt to check a URL before declaring it broken. Defaults to 1 attempt.

New in version 1.4.

linkcheck_timeout

A timeout value, in seconds, for the linkcheck builder.  The default is to use Python’s global socket timeout.

New in version 1.1.

linkcheck_workers

The number of worker threads to use when checking links.  Default is 5 threads.

New in version 1.1.

linkcheck_anchors

If true, check the validity of #anchors in links. Since this requires downloading the whole document, it’s considerably slower when enabled. Default is True.

New in version 1.2.

linkcheck_anchors_ignore

A list of regular expressions that match anchors Sphinx should skip when checking the validity of anchors in links. This allows skipping anchors that a website’s JavaScript adds to control dynamic pages or when triggering an internal REST request. Default is ["^!"].

NOTE:

If you want to ignore anchors of a specific page or of pages that match a specific pattern (but still check occurrences of the same page(s) that don’t have anchors), use linkcheck_ignore instead, for example as follows:

linkcheck_ignore = [
   'https://www.sphinx-doc.org/en/1.7/intro.html#'
]

New in version 1.5.

linkcheck_auth

Pass authentication information when doing a linkcheck build.

A list of (regex_pattern, auth_info) tuples where the items are:

regex_pattern

A regular expression that matches a URI.

auth_info

Authentication information to use for that URI. The value can be anything that is understood by the requests library (see requests Authentication for details).

The linkcheck builder will use the first matching auth_info value it can find in the linkcheck_auth list, so values earlier in the list have higher priority.

Example:

linkcheck_auth = [
  ('https://foo\.yourcompany\.com/.+', ('johndoe', 'secret')),
  ('https://.+\.yourcompany\.com/.+', HTTPDigestAuth(...)),
]

New in version 2.3.

linkcheck_rate_limit_timeout

The linkcheck builder may issue a large number of requests to the same site over a short period of time. This setting controls the builder behavior when servers indicate that requests are rate-limited.

If a server indicates when to retry (using the Retry-After header), linkcheck always follows the server indication.

Otherwise, linkcheck waits for a minute before to retry and keeps doubling the wait time between attempts until it succeeds or exceeds the linkcheck_rate_limit_timeout. By default, the timeout is 5 minutes.

New in version 3.4.

Options for the XML builder

xml_pretty

If true, pretty-print the XML.  Default is True.

New in version 1.2.

Footnotes

[1]

A note on available globbing syntax: you can use the standard shell constructs *, ?, [...] and [!...] with the feature that these all don’t match slashes.  A double star ** can be used to match any sequence of characters including slashes.

Options for the C domain

c_id_attributes

A list of strings that the parser additionally should accept as attributes. This can for example be used when attributes have been #define d for portability.

New in version 3.0.

c_paren_attributes

A list of strings that the parser additionally should accept as attributes with one argument.  That is, if my_align_as is in the list, then my_align_as(X) is parsed as an attribute for all strings X that have balanced braces ((), [], and {}).  This can for example be used when attributes have been #define d for portability.

New in version 3.0.

c_extra_keywords

A list of identifiers to be recognized as keywords by the C parser. It defaults to ['alignas', 'alignof', 'bool', 'complex', 'imaginary', 'noreturn', 'static_assert', 'thread_local'].

New in version 4.0.3.

c_allow_pre_v3

A boolean (default False) controlling whether to parse and try to convert pre-v3 style type directives and type roles.

New in version 3.2.

Deprecated since version 3.2: Use the directives and roles added in v3.

c_warn_on_allowed_pre_v3

A boolean (default True) controlling whether to warn when a pre-v3 style type directive/role is parsed and converted.

New in version 3.2.

Deprecated since version 3.2: Use the directives and roles added in v3.

Options for the C++ domain

cpp_index_common_prefix

A list of prefixes that will be ignored when sorting C++ objects in the global index.  For example ['awesome_lib::'].

New in version 1.5.

cpp_id_attributes

A list of strings that the parser additionally should accept as attributes. This can for example be used when attributes have been #define d for portability.

New in version 1.5.

cpp_paren_attributes

A list of strings that the parser additionally should accept as attributes with one argument.  That is, if my_align_as is in the list, then my_align_as(X) is parsed as an attribute for all strings X that have balanced braces ((), [], and {}).  This can for example be used when attributes have been #define d for portability.

New in version 1.5.

Options for the Python domain

python_use_unqualified_type_names

If true, suppress the module name of the python reference if it can be resolved.  The default is False.

New in version 4.0.

NOTE:

This configuration is still in experimental

Example of configuration file

# test documentation build configuration file, created by
# sphinx-quickstart on Sun Jun 26 00:00:43 2016.
#
# This file is executed through importlib.import_module with 
# the current directory set to its containing dir.
#
# Note that not all possible configuration values are present in this
# autogenerated file.
#
# All configuration values have a default; values that are commented out
# serve to show the default.

# If extensions (or modules to document with autodoc) are in another directory,
# add these directories to sys.path here. If the directory is relative to the
# documentation root, use os.path.abspath to make it absolute, like shown here.
#
# import os
# import sys
# sys.path.insert(0, os.path.abspath('.'))

# -- General configuration ------------------------------------------------

# If your documentation needs a minimal Sphinx version, state it here.
#
# needs_sphinx = '1.0'

# Add any Sphinx extension module names here, as strings. They can be
# extensions coming with Sphinx (named 'sphinx.ext.*') or your custom
# ones.
extensions = []

# Add any paths that contain templates here, relative to this directory.
templates_path = ['_templates']

# The suffix(es) of source filenames.
# You can specify multiple suffix as a list of string:
#
# source_suffix = ['.rst', '.md']
source_suffix = '.rst'

# The encoding of source files.
#
# source_encoding = 'utf-8-sig'

# The master toctree document.
root_doc = 'index'

# General information about the project.
project = u'test'
copyright = u'2016, test'
author = u'test'

# The version info for the project you're documenting, acts as replacement for
# |version| and |release|, also used in various other places throughout the
# built documents.
#
# The short X.Y version.
version = u'test'
# The full version, including alpha/beta/rc tags.
release = u'test'

# The language for content autogenerated by Sphinx. Refer to documentation
# for a list of supported languages.
#
# This is also used if you do content translation via gettext catalogs.
# Usually you set "language" from the command line for these cases.
language = None

# There are two options for replacing |today|: either, you set today to some
# non-false value, then it is used:
#
# today = ''
#
# Else, today_fmt is used as the format for a strftime call.
#
# today_fmt = '%B %d, %Y'

# List of patterns, relative to source directory, that match files and
# directories to ignore when looking for source files.
# These patterns also affect html_static_path and html_extra_path
exclude_patterns = ['_build', 'Thumbs.db', '.DS_Store']

# The reST default role (used for this markup: `text`) to use for all
# documents.
#
# default_role = None

# If true, '()' will be appended to :func: etc. cross-reference text.
#
# add_function_parentheses = True

# If true, the current module name will be prepended to all description
# unit titles (such as .. function::).
#
# add_module_names = True

# If true, sectionauthor and moduleauthor directives will be shown in the
# output. They are ignored by default.
#
# show_authors = False

# The name of the Pygments (syntax highlighting) style to use.
pygments_style = 'sphinx'

# A list of ignored prefixes for module index sorting.
# modindex_common_prefix = []

# If true, keep warnings as "system message" paragraphs in the built documents.
# keep_warnings = False

# If true, `todo` and `todoList` produce output, else they produce nothing.
todo_include_todos = False


# -- Options for HTML output ----------------------------------------------

# The theme to use for HTML and HTML Help pages.  See the documentation for
# a list of builtin themes.
#
html_theme = 'alabaster'

# Theme options are theme-specific and customize the look and feel of a theme
# further.  For a list of options available for each theme, see the
# documentation.
#
# html_theme_options = {}

# Add any paths that contain custom themes here, relative to this directory.
# html_theme_path = []

# The name for this set of Sphinx documents.
# "<project> v<release> documentation" by default.
#
# html_title = u'test vtest'

# A shorter title for the navigation bar.  Default is the same as html_title.
#
# html_short_title = None

# The name of an image file (relative to this directory) to place at the top
# of the sidebar.
#
# html_logo = None

# The name of an image file (relative to this directory) to use as a favicon of
# the docs.  This file should be a Windows icon file (.ico) being 16x16 or 32x32
# pixels large.
#
# html_favicon = None

# Add any paths that contain custom static files (such as style sheets) here,
# relative to this directory. They are copied after the builtin static files,
# so a file named "default.css" will overwrite the builtin "default.css".
html_static_path = ['_static']

# Add any extra paths that contain custom files (such as robots.txt or
# .htaccess) here, relative to this directory. These files are copied
# directly to the root of the documentation.
#
# html_extra_path = []

# If not None, a 'Last updated on:' timestamp is inserted at every page
# bottom, using the given strftime format.
# The empty string is equivalent to '%b %d, %Y'.
#
# html_last_updated_fmt = None

# Custom sidebar templates, maps document names to template names.
#
# html_sidebars = {}

# Additional templates that should be rendered to pages, maps page names to
# template names.
#
# html_additional_pages = {}

# If false, no module index is generated.
#
# html_domain_indices = True

# If false, no index is generated.
#
# html_use_index = True

# If true, the index is split into individual pages for each letter.
#
# html_split_index = False

# If true, links to the reST sources are added to the pages.
#
# html_show_sourcelink = True

# If true, "Created using Sphinx" is shown in the HTML footer. Default is True.
#
# html_show_sphinx = True

# If true, "(C) Copyright ..." is shown in the HTML footer. Default is True.
#
# html_show_copyright = True

# If true, an OpenSearch description file will be output, and all pages will
# contain a <link> tag referring to it.  The value of this option must be the
# base URL from which the finished HTML is served.
#
# html_use_opensearch = ''

# This is the file name suffix for HTML files (e.g. ".xhtml").
# html_file_suffix = None

# Language to be used for generating the HTML full-text search index.
# Sphinx supports the following languages:
#   'da', 'de', 'en', 'es', 'fi', 'fr', 'hu', 'it', 'ja'
#   'nl', 'no', 'pt', 'ro', 'ru', 'sv', 'tr', 'zh'
#
# html_search_language = 'en'

# A dictionary with options for the search language support, empty by default.
# 'ja' uses this config value.
# 'zh' user can custom change `jieba` dictionary path.
#
# html_search_options = {'type': 'default'}

# The name of a javascript file (relative to the configuration directory) that
# implements a search results scorer. If empty, the default will be used.
#
# html_search_scorer = 'scorer.js'

# Output file base name for HTML help builder.
htmlhelp_basename = 'testdoc'

# -- Options for LaTeX output ---------------------------------------------

latex_elements = {
    # The paper size ('letterpaper' or 'a4paper').
    #
    # 'papersize': 'letterpaper',

    # The font size ('10pt', '11pt' or '12pt').
    #
    # 'pointsize': '10pt',

    # Additional stuff for the LaTeX preamble.
    #
    # 'preamble': '',

    # Latex figure (float) alignment
    #
    # 'figure_align': 'htbp',
}

# Grouping the document tree into LaTeX files. List of tuples
# (source start file, target name, title,
#  author, documentclass [howto, manual, or own class]).
latex_documents = [
    (root_doc, 'test.tex', u'test Documentation',
     u'test', 'manual'),
]

# The name of an image file (relative to this directory) to place at the top of
# the title page.
#
# latex_logo = None

# If true, show page references after internal links.
#
# latex_show_pagerefs = False

# If true, show URL addresses after external links.
#
# latex_show_urls = False

# Documents to append as an appendix to all manuals.
#
# latex_appendices = []

# If false, no module index is generated.
#
# latex_domain_indices = True


# -- Options for manual page output ---------------------------------------

# One entry per manual page. List of tuples
# (source start file, name, description, authors, manual section).
man_pages = [
    (root_doc, 'test', u'test Documentation',
     [author], 1)
]

# If true, show URL addresses after external links.
#
# man_show_urls = False


# -- Options for Texinfo output -------------------------------------------

# Grouping the document tree into Texinfo files. List of tuples
# (source start file, target name, title, author,
#  dir menu entry, description, category)
texinfo_documents = [
    (root_doc, 'test', u'test Documentation',
     author, 'test', 'One line description of project.',
     'Miscellaneous'),
]

# Documents to append as an appendix to all manuals.
#
# texinfo_appendices = []

# If false, no module index is generated.
#
# texinfo_domain_indices = True

# How to display URL addresses: 'footnote', 'no', or 'inline'.
#
# texinfo_show_urls = 'footnote'

# If true, do not generate a @detailmenu in the "Top" node's menu.
#
# texinfo_no_detailmenu = False

# -- A random example -----------------------------------------------------

import sys, os
sys.path.insert(0, os.path.abspath('.'))
exclude_patterns = ['zzz']

numfig = True
#language = 'ja'

extensions.append('sphinx.ext.todo')
extensions.append('sphinx.ext.autodoc')
#extensions.append('sphinx.ext.autosummary')
extensions.append('sphinx.ext.intersphinx')
extensions.append('sphinx.ext.mathjax')
extensions.append('sphinx.ext.viewcode')
extensions.append('sphinx.ext.graphviz')


autosummary_generate = True
html_theme = 'default'
#source_suffix = ['.rst', '.txt']

Builders

These are the built-in Sphinx builders.  More builders can be added by extensions.

The builder’s “name” must be given to the -b command-line option of sphinx-build to select a builder.

class sphinx.builders.html.StandaloneHTMLBuilder

This is the standard HTML builder.  Its output is a directory with HTML files, complete with style sheets and optionally the reST sources.  There are quite a few configuration values that customize the output of this builder, see the chapter html-options for details.

name = 'html'

The builder’s name, for the -b command line option.

format = 'html'

The builder’s output format, or ‘’ if no document output is produced.

supported_image_types: List[str] = ['image/svg+xml', 'image/png', 'image/gif', 'image/jpeg']

The list of MIME types of image formats supported by the builder. Image files are searched in the order in which they appear here.

class sphinx.builders.dirhtml.DirectoryHTMLBuilder

This is a subclass of the standard HTML builder.  Its output is a directory with HTML files, where each file is called index.html and placed in a subdirectory named like its page name.  For example, the document markup/rest.rst will not result in an output file markup/rest.html, but markup/rest/index.html.  When generating links between pages, the index.html is omitted, so that the URL would look like markup/rest/.

name = 'dirhtml'

The builder’s name, for the -b command line option.

format = 'html'

The builder’s output format, or ‘’ if no document output is produced.

supported_image_types: List[str] = ['image/svg+xml', 'image/png', 'image/gif', 'image/jpeg']

The list of MIME types of image formats supported by the builder. Image files are searched in the order in which they appear here.

New in version 0.6.

class sphinx.builders.singlehtml.SingleFileHTMLBuilder

This is an HTML builder that combines the whole project in one output file. (Obviously this only works with smaller projects.)  The file is named like the root document.  No indices will be generated.

name = 'singlehtml'

The builder’s name, for the -b command line option.

format = 'html'

The builder’s output format, or ‘’ if no document output is produced.

supported_image_types: List[str] = ['image/svg+xml', 'image/png', 'image/gif', 'image/jpeg']

The list of MIME types of image formats supported by the builder. Image files are searched in the order in which they appear here.

New in version 1.0.

class sphinxcontrib.htmlhelp.HTMLHelpBuilder

This builder produces the same output as the standalone HTML builder, but also generates HTML Help support files that allow the Microsoft HTML Help Workshop to compile them into a CHM file.

name = 'htmlhelp'

The builder’s name, for the -b command line option.

format = 'html'

The builder’s output format, or ‘’ if no document output is produced.

supported_image_types: List[str] = ['image/png', 'image/gif', 'image/jpeg']

The list of MIME types of image formats supported by the builder. Image files are searched in the order in which they appear here.

class sphinxcontrib.qthelp.QtHelpBuilder

This builder produces the same output as the standalone HTML builder, but also generates Qt help collection support files that allow the Qt collection generator to compile them.

Changed in version 2.0: Moved to sphinxcontrib.qthelp from sphinx.builders package.

name = 'qthelp'

The builder’s name, for the -b command line option.

format = 'html'

The builder’s output format, or ‘’ if no document output is produced.

supported_image_types: List[str] = ['image/svg+xml', 'image/png', 'image/gif', 'image/jpeg']

The list of MIME types of image formats supported by the builder. Image files are searched in the order in which they appear here.

class sphinxcontrib.applehelp.AppleHelpBuilder

This builder produces an Apple Help Book based on the same output as the standalone HTML builder.

If the source directory contains any .lproj folders, the one corresponding to the selected language will have its contents merged with the generated output.  These folders will be ignored by all other documentation types.

In order to generate a valid help book, this builder requires the command line tool hiutil, which is only available on Mac OS X 10.6 and above.  You can disable the indexing step by setting applehelp_disable_external_tools to True, in which case the output will not be valid until hiutil has been run on all of the .lproj folders within the bundle.

name = 'applehelp'

The builder’s name, for the -b command line option.

format = 'html'

The builder’s output format, or ‘’ if no document output is produced.

supported_image_types: List[str] = ['image/png', 'image/gif', 'image/jpeg', 'image/tiff', 'image/jp2', 'image/svg+xml']

The list of MIME types of image formats supported by the builder. Image files are searched in the order in which they appear here.

New in version 1.3.

Changed in version 2.0: Moved to sphinxcontrib.applehelp from sphinx.builders package.

class sphinxcontrib.devhelp.DevhelpBuilder

This builder produces the same output as the standalone HTML builder, but also generates GNOME Devhelp support file that allows the GNOME Devhelp reader to view them.

name = 'devhelp'

The builder’s name, for the -b command line option.

format = 'html'

The builder’s output format, or ‘’ if no document output is produced.

supported_image_types: List[str] = ['image/png', 'image/gif', 'image/jpeg']

The list of MIME types of image formats supported by the builder. Image files are searched in the order in which they appear here.

Changed in version 2.0: Moved to sphinxcontrib.devhelp from sphinx.builders package.

class sphinx.builders.epub3.Epub3Builder

This builder produces the same output as the standalone HTML builder, but also generates an epub file for ebook readers.  See epub-faq for details about it.  For definition of the epub format, have a look at http://idpf.org/epub or https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/EPUB. The builder creates EPUB 3 files.

name = 'epub'

The builder’s name, for the -b command line option.

format = 'html'

The builder’s output format, or ‘’ if no document output is produced.

supported_image_types: List[str] = ['image/svg+xml', 'image/png', 'image/gif', 'image/jpeg']

The list of MIME types of image formats supported by the builder. Image files are searched in the order in which they appear here.

New in version 1.4.

Changed in version 1.5: Since Sphinx-1.5, the epub3 builder is used for the default builder of epub.

class sphinx.builders.latex.LaTeXBuilder

This builder produces a bunch of LaTeX files in the output directory.  You have to specify which documents are to be included in which LaTeX files via the latex_documents configuration value.  There are a few configuration values that customize the output of this builder, see the chapter latex-options for details.

The produced LaTeX file uses several LaTeX packages that may not be present in a “minimal” TeX distribution installation.

On Ubuntu xenial, the following packages need to be installed for successful PDF builds:

  • texlive-latex-recommended
  • texlive-fonts-recommended
  • tex-gyre (if latex_engine is 'pdflatex')
  • texlive-latex-extra
  • latexmk (this is a Sphinx requirement on GNU/Linux and MacOS X for functioning of make latexpdf)

Additional packages are needed in some circumstances (see the discussion of the 'fontpkg' key of latex_elements for more information):

  • texlive-lang-cyrillic for Cyrillic (even individual letters), and, cm-super or cm-super-minimal (if default fonts),
  • texlive-lang-greek for Greek (even individual letters), and, cm-super or cm-super-minimal (if default fonts),
  • texlive-xetex if latex_engine is 'xelatex',
  • texlive-luatex if latex_engine is 'lualatex',
  • fonts-freefont-otf if latex_engine is 'xelatex' or 'lualatex'.

The testing of Sphinx LaTeX is done on Ubuntu xenial whose TeX distribution is based on a TeXLive 2015 snapshot dated March 2016.

Changed in version 1.6: Formerly, testing had been done on Ubuntu precise (TeXLive 2009).

Changed in version 2.0: Formerly, testing had been done on Ubuntu trusty (TeXLive 2013).

Changed in version 4.0.0: TeX Gyre fonts dependency for the default LaTeX font configuration.

NOTE:

Since 1.6, make latexpdf uses latexmk (not on Windows).  This makes sure the needed number of runs is automatically executed to get the cross-references, bookmarks, indices, and tables of contents right.

One can pass to latexmk options via the LATEXMKOPTS Makefile variable. For example:

make latexpdf LATEXMKOPTS="-silent"

reduces console output to a minimum.

Also, if latexmk is at version 4.52b or higher (January 2017) LATEXMKOPTS="-xelatex" speeds up PDF builds via XeLateX in case of numerous graphics inclusions.

To pass options directly to the (pdf|xe|lua)latex binary, use variable LATEXOPTS, for example:

make latexpdf LATEXOPTS="--halt-on-error"
name = 'latex'

The builder’s name, for the -b command line option.

format = 'latex'

The builder’s output format, or ‘’ if no document output is produced.

supported_image_types: List[str] = ['application/pdf', 'image/png', 'image/jpeg']

The list of MIME types of image formats supported by the builder. Image files are searched in the order in which they appear here.

Note that a direct PDF builder is being provided by rinohtype. The builder’s name is rinoh. Refer to the rinohtype manual for details.

class sphinx.builders.text.TextBuilder

This builder produces a text file for each reST file – this is almost the same as the reST source, but with much of the markup stripped for better readability.

name = 'text'

The builder’s name, for the -b command line option.

format = 'text'

The builder’s output format, or ‘’ if no document output is produced.

supported_image_types: List[str] = []

The list of MIME types of image formats supported by the builder. Image files are searched in the order in which they appear here.

New in version 0.4.

class sphinx.builders.manpage.ManualPageBuilder

This builder produces manual pages in the groff format.  You have to specify which documents are to be included in which manual pages via the man_pages configuration value.

name = 'man'

The builder’s name, for the -b command line option.

format = 'man'

The builder’s output format, or ‘’ if no document output is produced.

supported_image_types: List[str] = []

The list of MIME types of image formats supported by the builder. Image files are searched in the order in which they appear here.

New in version 1.0.

class sphinx.builders.texinfo.TexinfoBuilder

This builder produces Texinfo files that can be processed into Info files by the makeinfo program.  You have to specify which documents are to be included in which Texinfo files via the texinfo_documents configuration value.

The Info format is the basis of the on-line help system used by GNU Emacs and the terminal-based program info.  See texinfo-faq for more details.  The Texinfo format is the official documentation system used by the GNU project.  More information on Texinfo can be found at https://www.gnu.org/software/texinfo/.

name = 'texinfo'

The builder’s name, for the -b command line option.

format = 'texinfo'

The builder’s output format, or ‘’ if no document output is produced.

supported_image_types: List[str] = ['image/png', 'image/jpeg', 'image/gif']

The list of MIME types of image formats supported by the builder. Image files are searched in the order in which they appear here.

New in version 1.1.

class sphinxcontrib.serializinghtml.SerializingHTMLBuilder

This builder uses a module that implements the Python serialization API (pickle, simplejson, phpserialize, and others) to dump the generated HTML documentation.  The pickle builder is a subclass of it.

A concrete subclass of this builder serializing to the PHP serialization format could look like this:

import phpserialize

class PHPSerializedBuilder(SerializingHTMLBuilder):
    name = 'phpserialized'
    implementation = phpserialize
    out_suffix = '.file.phpdump'
    globalcontext_filename = 'globalcontext.phpdump'
    searchindex_filename = 'searchindex.phpdump'
implementation

A module that implements dump(), load(), dumps() and loads() functions that conform to the functions with the same names from the pickle module.  Known modules implementing this interface are simplejson, phpserialize, plistlib, and others.

out_suffix

The suffix for all regular files.

globalcontext_filename

The filename for the file that contains the “global context”.  This is a dict with some general configuration values such as the name of the project.

searchindex_filename

The filename for the search index Sphinx generates.

See Serialization builder details for details about the output format.

New in version 0.5.

class sphinxcontrib.serializinghtml.PickleHTMLBuilder

This builder produces a directory with pickle files containing mostly HTML fragments and TOC information, for use of a web application (or custom postprocessing tool) that doesn’t use the standard HTML templates.

See Serialization builder details for details about the output format.

name = 'pickle'

The builder’s name, for the -b command line option.

The old name web still works as well.

format = 'html'

The builder’s output format, or ‘’ if no document output is produced.

supported_image_types: List[str] = ['image/svg+xml', 'image/png', 'image/gif', 'image/jpeg']

The list of MIME types of image formats supported by the builder. Image files are searched in the order in which they appear here.

The file suffix is .fpickle.  The global context is called globalcontext.pickle, the search index searchindex.pickle.

class sphinxcontrib.serializinghtml.JSONHTMLBuilder

This builder produces a directory with JSON files containing mostly HTML fragments and TOC information, for use of a web application (or custom postprocessing tool) that doesn’t use the standard HTML templates.

See Serialization builder details for details about the output format.

name = 'json'

The builder’s name, for the -b command line option.

format = 'html'

The builder’s output format, or ‘’ if no document output is produced.

supported_image_types: List[str] = ['image/svg+xml', 'image/png', 'image/gif', 'image/jpeg']

The list of MIME types of image formats supported by the builder. Image files are searched in the order in which they appear here.

The file suffix is .fjson.  The global context is called globalcontext.json, the search index searchindex.json.

New in version 0.5.

class sphinx.builders.gettext.MessageCatalogBuilder

This builder produces gettext-style message catalogs.  Each top-level file or subdirectory grows a single .pot catalog template.

See the documentation on intl for further reference.

name = 'gettext'

The builder’s name, for the -b command line option.

format = ''

The builder’s output format, or ‘’ if no document output is produced.

supported_image_types: List[str] = []

The list of MIME types of image formats supported by the builder. Image files are searched in the order in which they appear here.

New in version 1.1.

class sphinx.builders.changes.ChangesBuilder

This builder produces an HTML overview of all versionadded, versionchanged and deprecated directives for the current version.  This is useful to generate a ChangeLog file, for example.

name = 'changes'

The builder’s name, for the -b command line option.

format = ''

The builder’s output format, or ‘’ if no document output is produced.

supported_image_types: List[str] = []

The list of MIME types of image formats supported by the builder. Image files are searched in the order in which they appear here.

class sphinx.builders.dummy.DummyBuilder

This builder produces no output.  The input is only parsed and checked for consistency.  This is useful for linting purposes.

name = 'dummy'

The builder’s name, for the -b command line option.

supported_image_types: List[str] = []

The list of MIME types of image formats supported by the builder. Image files are searched in the order in which they appear here.

New in version 1.4.

class sphinx.builders.linkcheck.CheckExternalLinksBuilder

This builder scans all documents for external links, tries to open them with requests, and writes an overview which ones are broken and redirected to standard output and to output.txt in the output directory.

name = 'linkcheck'

The builder’s name, for the -b command line option.

format = ''

The builder’s output format, or ‘’ if no document output is produced.

supported_image_types: List[str] = []

The list of MIME types of image formats supported by the builder. Image files are searched in the order in which they appear here.

Changed in version 1.5: Since Sphinx-1.5, the linkcheck builder comes to use requests module.

Changed in version 3.4: The linkcheck builder retries links when servers apply rate limits.

class sphinx.builders.xml.XMLBuilder

This builder produces Docutils-native XML files.  The output can be transformed with standard XML tools such as XSLT processors into arbitrary final forms.

name = 'xml'

The builder’s name, for the -b command line option.

format = 'xml'

The builder’s output format, or ‘’ if no document output is produced.

supported_image_types: List[str] = []

The list of MIME types of image formats supported by the builder. Image files are searched in the order in which they appear here.

New in version 1.2.

class sphinx.builders.xml.PseudoXMLBuilder

This builder is used for debugging the Sphinx/Docutils “Reader to Transform to Writer” pipeline. It produces compact pretty-printed “pseudo-XML”, files where nesting is indicated by indentation (no end-tags). External attributes for all elements are output, and internal attributes for any leftover “pending” elements are also given.

name = 'pseudoxml'

The builder’s name, for the -b command line option.

format = 'pseudoxml'

The builder’s output format, or ‘’ if no document output is produced.

supported_image_types: List[str] = []

The list of MIME types of image formats supported by the builder. Image files are searched in the order in which they appear here.

New in version 1.2.

Built-in Sphinx extensions that offer more builders are:

  • doctest
  • coverage

Serialization builder details

All serialization builders outputs one file per source file and a few special files.  They also copy the reST source files in the directory _sources under the output directory.

The PickleHTMLBuilder is a builtin subclass that implements the pickle serialization interface.

The files per source file have the extensions of out_suffix, and are arranged in directories just as the source files are.  They unserialize to a dictionary (or dictionary like structure) with these keys:

body

The HTML “body” (that is, the HTML rendering of the source file), as rendered by the HTML translator.

title

The title of the document, as HTML (may contain markup).

toc

The table of contents for the file, rendered as an HTML <ul>.

display_toc

A boolean that is True if the toc contains more than one entry.

current_page_name

The document name of the current file.

parents, prev and next

Information about related chapters in the TOC tree.  Each relation is a dictionary with the keys link (HREF for the relation) and title (title of the related document, as HTML).  parents is a list of relations, while prev and next are a single relation.

sourcename

The name of the source file under _sources.

The special files are located in the root output directory.  They are:

SerializingHTMLBuilder.globalcontext_filename

A pickled dict with these keys:

project, copyright, release, version

The same values as given in the configuration file.

style

html_style.

last_updated

Date of last build.

builder

Name of the used builder, in the case of pickles this is always 'pickle'.

titles

A dictionary of all documents’ titles, as HTML strings.

SerializingHTMLBuilder.searchindex_filename

An index that can be used for searching the documentation.  It is a pickled list with these entries:

  • A list of indexed docnames.
  • A list of document titles, as HTML strings, in the same order as the first list.
  • A dict mapping word roots (processed by an English-language stemmer) to a list of integers, which are indices into the first list.
environment.pickle

The build environment.  This is always a pickle file, independent of the builder and a copy of the environment that was used when the builder was started.

Todo

Document common members.

Unlike the other pickle files this pickle file requires that the sphinx package is available on unpickling.

Extensions

Since many projects will need special features in their documentation, Sphinx allows adding “extensions” to the build process, each of which can modify almost any aspect of document processing.

This chapter describes the extensions bundled with Sphinx.  For the API documentation on writing your own extension, refer to dev-extensions.

Built-in extensions

These extensions are built in and can be activated by respective entries in the extensions configuration value:

sphinx.ext.autodoc – Include documentation from docstrings

This extension can import the modules you are documenting, and pull in documentation from docstrings in a semi-automatic way.

NOTE:

For Sphinx (actually, the Python interpreter that executes Sphinx) to find your module, it must be importable.  That means that the module or the package must be in one of the directories on sys.path – adapt your sys.path in the configuration file accordingly.

WARNING:

autodoc imports the modules to be documented.  If any modules have side effects on import, these will be executed by autodoc when sphinx-build is run.

If you document scripts (as opposed to library modules), make sure their main routine is protected by a if __name__ == '__main__' condition.

For this to work, the docstrings must of course be written in correct reStructuredText.  You can then use all of the usual Sphinx markup in the docstrings, and it will end up correctly in the documentation.  Together with hand-written documentation, this technique eases the pain of having to maintain two locations for documentation, while at the same time avoiding auto-generated-looking pure API documentation.

If you prefer NumPy or Google style docstrings over reStructuredText, you can also enable the napoleon extension. napoleon is a preprocessor that converts your docstrings to correct reStructuredText before autodoc processes them.

Directives

autodoc provides several directives that are versions of the usual py:module, py:class and so forth.  On parsing time, they import the corresponding module and extract the docstring of the given objects, inserting them into the page source under a suitable py:module, py:class etc.  directive.

NOTE:

Just as py:class respects the current py:module, autoclass will also do so.  Likewise, automethod will respect the current py:class.

.. automodule::
.. autoclass::
.. autoexception::

Document a module, class or exception.  All three directives will by default only insert the docstring of the object itself:

.. autoclass:: Noodle

will produce source like this:

.. class:: Noodle

   Noodle's docstring.

The “auto” directives can also contain content of their own, it will be inserted into the resulting non-auto directive source after the docstring (but before any automatic member documentation).

Therefore, you can also mix automatic and non-automatic member documentation, like so:

.. autoclass:: Noodle
   :members: eat, slurp

   .. method:: boil(time=10)

      Boil the noodle *time* minutes.

Options

:members: (no value or comma separated list)

If set, autodoc will generate document for the members of the target module, class or exception.

For example:

.. automodule:: noodle
   :members:

will document all module members (recursively), and

.. autoclass:: Noodle
   :members:

will document all class member methods and properties.

By default, autodoc will not generate document for the members that are private, not having docstrings, inherited from super class, or special members.

For modules, __all__ will be respected when looking for members unless you give the ignore-module-all flag option.  Without ignore-module-all, the order of the members will also be the order in __all__.

You can also give an explicit list of members; only these will then be documented:

.. autoclass:: Noodle
   :members: eat, slurp
:undoc-members: (no value)

If set, autodoc will also generate document for the members not having docstrings:

.. automodule:: noodle
   :members:
   :undoc-members:
:private-members: (no value or comma separated list)

If set, autodoc will also generate document for the private members (that is, those named like _private or __private):

.. automodule:: noodle
   :members:
   :private-members:

It can also take an explicit list of member names to be documented as arguments:

.. automodule:: noodle
   :members:
   :private-members: _spicy, _garlickly

New in version 1.1.

Changed in version 3.2: The option can now take arguments.

:special-members: (no value or comma separated list)

If set, autodoc will also generate document for the special members (that is, those named like __special__):

.. autoclass:: my.Class
   :members:
   :special-members:

It can also take an explicit list of member names to be documented as arguments:

.. autoclass:: my.Class
   :members:
   :special-members: __init__, __name__

New in version 1.1.

Changed in version 1.2: The option can now take arguments

Options and advanced usage

  • If you want to make the members option (or other options described below) the default, see autodoc_default_options.

    TIP:

    You can use a negated form, 'no-flag', as an option of autodoc directive, to disable it temporarily.  For example:

    .. automodule:: foo
       :no-undoc-members:
    TIP:

    You can use autodoc directive options to temporarily override or extend default options which takes list as an input. For example:

    .. autoclass:: Noodle
       :members: eat
       :private-members: +_spicy, _garlickly

    Changed in version 3.5: The default options can be overridden or extended temporarily.

  • autodoc considers a member private if its docstring contains :meta private: in its info-field-lists. For example:

    def my_function(my_arg, my_other_arg):
        """blah blah blah
    
        :meta private:
        """

    New in version 3.0.

  • autodoc considers a member public if its docstring contains :meta public: in its info-field-lists, even if it starts with an underscore. For example:

    def _my_function(my_arg, my_other_arg):
        """blah blah blah
    
        :meta public:
        """

    New in version 3.1.

  • autodoc considers a variable member does not have any default value if its docstring contains :meta hide-value: in its info-field-lists. Example:

    var1 = None  #: :meta hide-value:

    New in version 3.5.

  • For classes and exceptions, members inherited from base classes will be left out when documenting all members, unless you give the inherited-members option, in addition to members:

    .. autoclass:: Noodle
       :members:
       :inherited-members:

    This can be combined with undoc-members to document all available members of the class or module.

    It can take an ancestor class not to document inherited members from it. By default, members of object class are not documented.  To show them all, give None to the option.

    For example; If your class Foo is derived from list class and you don’t want to document list.__len__(), you should specify a option :inherited-members: list to avoid special members of list class.

    Another example; If your class Foo has __str__ special method and autodoc directive has both inherited-members and special-members, __str__ will be documented as in the past, but other special method that are not implemented in your class Foo.

    Note: this will lead to markup errors if the inherited members come from a module whose docstrings are not reST formatted.

    New in version 0.3.

    Changed in version 3.0: It takes an ancestor class name as an argument.

  • It’s possible to override the signature for explicitly documented callable objects (functions, methods, classes) with the regular syntax that will override the signature gained from introspection:

    .. autoclass:: Noodle(type)
    
       .. automethod:: eat(persona)

    This is useful if the signature from the method is hidden by a decorator.

    New in version 0.4.

  • The automodule, autoclass and autoexception directives also support a flag option called show-inheritance.  When given, a list of base classes will be inserted just below the class signature (when used with automodule, this will be inserted for every class that is documented in the module).

    New in version 0.4.

  • All autodoc directives support the noindex flag option that has the same effect as for standard py:function etc. directives: no index entries are generated for the documented object (and all autodocumented members).

    New in version 0.4.

  • automodule also recognizes the synopsis, platform and deprecated options that the standard py:module directive supports.

    New in version 0.5.

  • automodule and autoclass also has an member-order option that can be used to override the global value of autodoc_member_order for one directive.

    New in version 0.6.

  • The directives supporting member documentation also have a exclude-members option that can be used to exclude single member names from documentation, if all members are to be documented.

    New in version 0.6.

  • In an automodule directive with the members option set, only module members whose __module__ attribute is equal to the module name as given to automodule will be documented.  This is to prevent documentation of imported classes or functions.  Set the imported-members option if you want to prevent this behavior and document all available members.  Note that attributes from imported modules will not be documented, because attribute documentation is discovered by parsing the source file of the current module.

    New in version 1.2.

  • Add a list of modules in the autodoc_mock_imports to prevent import errors to halt the building process when some external dependencies are not importable at build time.

    New in version 1.3.

  • As a hint to autodoc extension, you can put a :: separator in between module name and object name to let autodoc know the correct module name if it is ambiguous.

    .. autoclass:: module.name::Noodle
  • autoclass also recognizes the class-doc-from option that can be used to override the global value of autoclass_content.

    New in version 4.1.

.. autofunction::
.. autodecorator::
.. autodata::
.. automethod::
.. autoattribute::
.. autoproperty::

These work exactly like autoclass etc., but do not offer the options used for automatic member documentation.

autodata and autoattribute support the annotation option.  The option controls how the value of variable is shown.  If specified without arguments, only the name of the variable will be printed, and its value is not shown:

.. autodata:: CD_DRIVE
   :annotation:

If the option specified with arguments, it is printed after the name as a value of the variable:

.. autodata:: CD_DRIVE
   :annotation: = your CD device name

By default, without annotation option, Sphinx tries to obtain the value of the variable and print it after the name.

The no-value option can be used instead of a blank annotation to show the type hint but not the value:

.. autodata:: CD_DRIVE
   :no-value:

If both the annotation and no-value options are used, no-value has no effect.

For module data members and class attributes, documentation can either be put into a comment with special formatting (using a #: to start the comment instead of just #), or in a docstring after the definition.  Comments need to be either on a line of their own before the definition, or immediately after the assignment on the same line.  The latter form is restricted to one line only.

This means that in the following class definition, all attributes can be autodocumented:

class Foo:
    """Docstring for class Foo."""

    #: Doc comment for class attribute Foo.bar.
    #: It can have multiple lines.
    bar = 1

    flox = 1.5   #: Doc comment for Foo.flox. One line only.

    baz = 2
    """Docstring for class attribute Foo.baz."""

    def __init__(self):
        #: Doc comment for instance attribute qux.
        self.qux = 3

        self.spam = 4
        """Docstring for instance attribute spam."""

Changed in version 0.6: autodata and autoattribute can now extract docstrings.

Changed in version 1.1: Comment docs are now allowed on the same line after an assignment.

Changed in version 1.2: autodata and autoattribute have an annotation option.

Changed in version 2.0: autodecorator added.

Changed in version 2.1: autoproperty added.

Changed in version 3.4: autodata and autoattribute now have a no-value option.

NOTE:

If you document decorated functions or methods, keep in mind that autodoc retrieves its docstrings by importing the module and inspecting the __doc__ attribute of the given function or method.  That means that if a decorator replaces the decorated function with another, it must copy the original __doc__ to the new function.

Configuration

There are also config values that you can set:

autoclass_content

This value selects what content will be inserted into the main body of an autoclass directive.  The possible values are:

"class"

Only the class’ docstring is inserted.  This is the default.  You can still document __init__ as a separate method using automethod or the members option to autoclass.

"both"

Both the class’ and the __init__ method’s docstring are concatenated and inserted.

"init"

Only the __init__ method’s docstring is inserted.

New in version 0.3.

If the class has no __init__ method or if the __init__ method’s docstring is empty, but the class has a __new__ method’s docstring, it is used instead.

New in version 1.4.

autodoc_class_signature

This value selects how the signautre will be displayed for the class defined by autoclass directive.  The possible values are:

"mixed"

Display the signature with the class name.

"separated"

Display the signature as a method.

The default is "mixed".

New in version 4.1.

autodoc_member_order

This value selects if automatically documented members are sorted alphabetical (value 'alphabetical'), by member type (value 'groupwise') or by source order (value 'bysource').  The default is alphabetical.

Note that for source order, the module must be a Python module with the source code available.

New in version 0.6.

Changed in version 1.0: Support for 'bysource'.

autodoc_default_flags

This value is a list of autodoc directive flags that should be automatically applied to all autodoc directives.  The supported flags are 'members', 'undoc-members', 'private-members', 'special-members', 'inherited-members', 'show-inheritance', 'ignore-module-all' and 'exclude-members'.

New in version 1.0.

Deprecated since version 1.8: Integrated into autodoc_default_options.

autodoc_default_options

The default options for autodoc directives.  They are applied to all autodoc directives automatically.  It must be a dictionary which maps option names to the values.  For example:

autodoc_default_options = {
    'members': 'var1, var2',
    'member-order': 'bysource',
    'special-members': '__init__',
    'undoc-members': True,
    'exclude-members': '__weakref__'
}

Setting None or True to the value is equivalent to giving only the option name to the directives.

The supported options are 'members', 'member-order', 'undoc-members', 'private-members', 'special-members', 'inherited-members', 'show-inheritance', 'ignore-module-all', 'imported-members', 'exclude-members' and 'class-doc-from'.

New in version 1.8.

Changed in version 2.0: Accepts True as a value.

Changed in version 2.1: Added 'imported-members'.

Changed in version 4.1: Added 'class-doc-from'.

autodoc_docstring_signature

Functions imported from C modules cannot be introspected, and therefore the signature for such functions cannot be automatically determined.  However, it is an often-used convention to put the signature into the first line of the function’s docstring.

If this boolean value is set to True (which is the default), autodoc will look at the first line of the docstring for functions and methods, and if it looks like a signature, use the line as the signature and remove it from the docstring content.

autodoc will continue to look for multiple signature lines, stopping at the first line that does not look like a signature. This is useful for declaring overloaded function signatures.

New in version 1.1.

Changed in version 3.1: Support overloaded signatures

Changed in version 4.0: Overloaded signatures do not need to be separated by a backslash

autodoc_mock_imports

This value contains a list of modules to be mocked up. This is useful when some external dependencies are not met at build time and break the building process. You may only specify the root package of the dependencies themselves and omit the sub-modules:

autodoc_mock_imports = ["django"]

Will mock all imports under the django package.

New in version 1.3.

Changed in version 1.6: This config value only requires to declare the top-level modules that should be mocked.

autodoc_typehints

This value controls how to represent typehints.  The setting takes the following values:

  • 'signature' – Show typehints in the signature (default)
  • 'description' – Show typehints as content of the function or method The typehints of overloaded functions or methods will still be represented in the signature.
  • 'none' – Do not show typehints
  • 'both' – Show typehints in the signature and as content of the function or method

Overloaded functions or methods will not have typehints included in the description because it is impossible to accurately represent all possible overloads as a list of parameters.

New in version 2.1.

New in version 3.0: New option 'description' is added.

New in version 4.1: New option 'both' is added.

autodoc_typehints_description_target

This value controls whether the types of undocumented parameters and return values are documented when autodoc_typehints is set to description.

The default value is "all", meaning that types are documented for all parameters and return values, whether they are documented or not.

When set to "documented", types will only be documented for a parameter or a return value that is already documented by the docstring.

New in version 4.0.

autodoc_type_aliases

A dictionary for users defined type aliases that maps a type name to the full-qualified object name.  It is used to keep type aliases not evaluated in the document.  Defaults to empty ({}).

The type aliases are only available if your program enables Postponed Evaluation of Annotations (PEP 563) feature via from __future__ import annotations.

For example, there is code using a type alias:

from __future__ import annotations

AliasType = Union[List[Dict[Tuple[int, str], Set[int]]], Tuple[str, List[str]]]

def f() -> AliasType:
    ...

If autodoc_type_aliases is not set, autodoc will generate internal mark-up from this code as following:

.. py:function:: f() -> Union[List[Dict[Tuple[int, str], Set[int]]], Tuple[str, List[str]]]

   ...

If you set autodoc_type_aliases as {'AliasType': 'your.module.AliasType'}, it generates the following document internally:

.. py:function:: f() -> your.module.AliasType:

   ...

New in version 3.3.

autodoc_preserve_defaults

If True, the default argument values of functions will be not evaluated on generating document.  It preserves them as is in the source code.

New in version 4.0: Added as an experimental feature.  This will be integrated into autodoc core in the future.

autodoc_warningiserror

This value controls the behavior of sphinx-build -W during importing modules. If False is given, autodoc forcedly suppresses the error if the imported module emits warnings.  By default, True.

autodoc_inherit_docstrings

This value controls the docstrings inheritance. If set to True the docstring for classes or methods, if not explicitly set, is inherited from parents.

The default is True.

New in version 1.7.

suppress_warnings

autodoc supports to suppress warning messages via suppress_warnings.  It allows following warnings types in addition:

  • autodoc
  • autodoc.import_object

Docstring preprocessing

autodoc provides the following additional events:

autodoc-process-docstring(app, what, name, obj, options, lines)

New in version 0.4.

Emitted when autodoc has read and processed a docstring.  lines is a list of strings – the lines of the processed docstring – that the event handler can modify in place to change what Sphinx puts into the output.

Parameters
  • app – the Sphinx application object
  • what – the type of the object which the docstring belongs to (one of "module", "class", "exception", "function", "method", "attribute")
  • name – the fully qualified name of the object
  • obj – the object itself
  • options – the options given to the directive: an object with attributes inherited_members, undoc_members, show_inheritance and noindex that are true if the flag option of same name was given to the auto directive
  • lines – the lines of the docstring, see above
autodoc-before-process-signature(app, obj, bound_method)

New in version 2.4.

Emitted before autodoc formats a signature for an object. The event handler can modify an object to change its signature.

Parameters
  • app – the Sphinx application object
  • obj – the object itself
  • bound_method – a boolean indicates an object is bound method or not
autodoc-process-signature(app, what, name, obj, options, signature, return_annotation)

New in version 0.5.

Emitted when autodoc has formatted a signature for an object. The event handler can return a new tuple (signature, return_annotation) to change what Sphinx puts into the output.

Parameters
  • app – the Sphinx application object
  • what – the type of the object which the docstring belongs to (one of "module", "class", "exception", "function", "method", "attribute")
  • name – the fully qualified name of the object
  • obj – the object itself
  • options – the options given to the directive: an object with attributes inherited_members, undoc_members, show_inheritance and noindex that are true if the flag option of same name was given to the auto directive
  • signature – function signature, as a string of the form "(parameter_1, parameter_2)", or None if introspection didn’t succeed and signature wasn’t specified in the directive.
  • return_annotation – function return annotation as a string of the form " -> annotation", or None if there is no return annotation

The sphinx.ext.autodoc module provides factory functions for commonly needed docstring processing in event autodoc-process-docstring:

sphinx.ext.autodoc.cut_lines(pre: int, post: int = 0, what: Optional[str] = None) -> Callable

Return a listener that removes the first pre and last post lines of every docstring.  If what is a sequence of strings, only docstrings of a type in what will be processed.

Use like this (e.g. in the setup() function of conf.py):

from sphinx.ext.autodoc import cut_lines
app.connect('autodoc-process-docstring', cut_lines(4, what=['module']))

This can (and should) be used in place of automodule_skip_lines.

sphinx.ext.autodoc.between(marker: str, what: Optional[Sequence[str]] = None, keepempty: bool = False, exclude: bool = False) -> Callable

Return a listener that either keeps, or if exclude is True excludes, lines between lines that match the marker regular expression.  If no line matches, the resulting docstring would be empty, so no change will be made unless keepempty is true.

If what is a sequence of strings, only docstrings of a type in what will be processed.

autodoc-process-bases(app, name, obj, options, bases)

Emitted when autodoc has read and processed a class to determine the base-classes.  bases is a list of classes that the event handler can modify in place to change what Sphinx puts into the output.  It’s emitted only if show-inheritance option given.

Parameters
  • app – the Sphinx application object
  • name – the fully qualified name of the object
  • obj – the object itself
  • options – the options given to the class directive
  • bases – the list of base classes signature. see above.

New in version 4.1.

Changed in version 4.3: bases can contain a string as a base class name.  It will be processed as reST mark-up’ed text.

Skipping members

autodoc allows the user to define a custom method for determining whether a member should be included in the documentation by using the following event:

autodoc-skip-member(app, what, name, obj, skip, options)

New in version 0.5.

Emitted when autodoc has to decide whether a member should be included in the documentation.  The member is excluded if a handler returns True.  It is included if the handler returns False.

If more than one enabled extension handles the autodoc-skip-member event, autodoc will use the first non-None value returned by a handler. Handlers should return None to fall back to the skipping behavior of autodoc and other enabled extensions.

Parameters
  • app – the Sphinx application object
  • what – the type of the object which the docstring belongs to (one of "module", "class", "exception", "function", "method", "attribute")
  • name – the fully qualified name of the object
  • obj – the object itself
  • skip – a boolean indicating if autodoc will skip this member if the user handler does not override the decision
  • options – the options given to the directive: an object with attributes inherited_members, undoc_members, show_inheritance and noindex that are true if the flag option of same name was given to the auto directive

sphinx.ext.autosectionlabel – Allow reference sections using its title

New in version 1.4.

This extension allows you to refer sections its title.  This affects to the reference role (ref).

For example:

A Plain Title
-------------

This is the text of the section.

It refers to the section title, see :ref:`A Plain Title`.

Internally, this extension generates the labels for each section.  If same section names are used in whole of document, any one is used for a target by default. The autosectionlabel_prefix_document configuration variable can be used to make headings which appear multiple times but in different documents unique.

Configuration

autosectionlabel_prefix_document

True to prefix each section label with the name of the document it is in, followed by a colon. For example, index:Introduction for a section called Introduction that appears in document index.rst.  Useful for avoiding ambiguity when the same section heading appears in different documents.

autosectionlabel_maxdepth

If set, autosectionlabel chooses the sections for labeling by its depth. For example, when set 1 to autosectionlabel_maxdepth, labels are generated only for top level sections, and deeper sections are not labeled.  It defaults to None (disabled).

sphinx.ext.autosummary – Generate autodoc summaries

New in version 0.6.

This extension generates function/method/attribute summary lists, similar to those output e.g. by Epydoc and other API doc generation tools.  This is especially useful when your docstrings are long and detailed, and putting each one of them on a separate page makes them easier to read.

The sphinx.ext.autosummary extension does this in two parts:

1.

There is an autosummary directive for generating summary listings that contain links to the documented items, and short summary blurbs extracted from their docstrings.

2.

A autosummary directive also generates short “stub” files for the entries listed in its content.  These files by default contain only the corresponding sphinx.ext.autodoc directive, but can be customized with templates.

The sphinx-autogen script is also able to generate “stub” files from command line.

.. autosummary::

Insert a table that contains links to documented items, and a short summary blurb (the first sentence of the docstring) for each of them.

The autosummary directive can also optionally serve as a toctree entry for the included items. Optionally, stub .rst files for these items can also be automatically generated when autosummary_generate is True.

For example,

.. currentmodule:: sphinx

.. autosummary::

   environment.BuildEnvironment
   util.relative_uri

produces a table like this:

environment.BuildEnvironment([app])The environment in which the ReST files are translated.
util.relative_uri(base, to)Return a relative URL from base to to.

Autosummary preprocesses the docstrings and signatures with the same autodoc-process-docstring and autodoc-process-signature hooks as autodoc.

Options

  • If you want the autosummary table to also serve as a toctree entry, use the toctree option, for example:

    .. autosummary::
       :toctree: DIRNAME
    
       sphinx.environment.BuildEnvironment
       sphinx.util.relative_uri

    The toctree option also signals to the sphinx-autogen script that stub pages should be generated for the entries listed in this directive.  The option accepts a directory name as an argument; sphinx-autogen will by default place its output in this directory. If no argument is given, output is placed in the same directory as the file that contains the directive.

    You can also use caption option to give a caption to the toctree.

    New in version 3.1: caption option added.

  • If you don’t want the autosummary to show function signatures in the listing, include the nosignatures option:

    .. autosummary::
       :nosignatures:
    
       sphinx.environment.BuildEnvironment
       sphinx.util.relative_uri
  • You can specify a custom template with the template option. For example,

    .. autosummary::
       :template: mytemplate.rst
    
       sphinx.environment.BuildEnvironment

    would use the template mytemplate.rst in your templates_path to generate the pages for all entries listed. See Customizing templates below.

    New in version 1.0.

  • You can specify the recursive option to generate documents for modules and sub-packages recursively.  It defaults to disabled. For example,

    .. autosummary::
       :recursive:
    
       sphinx.environment.BuildEnvironment

    New in version 3.1.

sphinx-autogen – generate autodoc stub pages

The sphinx-autogen script can be used to conveniently generate stub documentation pages for items included in autosummary listings.

For example, the command

$ sphinx-autogen -o generated *.rst

will read all autosummary tables in the *.rst files that have the :toctree: option set, and output corresponding stub pages in directory generated for all documented items.  The generated pages by default contain text of the form:

sphinx.util.relative_uri
========================

.. autofunction:: sphinx.util.relative_uri

If the -o option is not given, the script will place the output files in the directories specified in the :toctree: options.

For more information, refer to the sphinx-autogen documentation

Generating stub pages automatically

If you do not want to create stub pages with sphinx-autogen, you can also use these config values:

autosummary_context

A dictionary of values to pass into the template engine’s context for autosummary stubs files.

New in version 3.1.

autosummary_generate

Boolean indicating whether to scan all found documents for autosummary directives, and to generate stub pages for each. It is enabled by default.

Can also be a list of documents for which stub pages should be generated.

The new files will be placed in the directories specified in the :toctree: options of the directives.

Changed in version 2.3: Emits autodoc-skip-member event as autodoc does.

Changed in version 4.0: Enabled by default.

autosummary_generate_overwrite

If true, autosummary overwrites existing files by generated stub pages. Defaults to true (enabled).

New in version 3.0.

autosummary_mock_imports

This value contains a list of modules to be mocked up.  See autodoc_mock_imports for more details.  It defaults to autodoc_mock_imports.

New in version 2.0.

autosummary_imported_members

A boolean flag indicating whether to document classes and functions imported in modules. Default is False

New in version 2.1.

autosummary_filename_map

A dict mapping object names to filenames. This is necessary to avoid filename conflicts where multiple objects have names that are indistinguishable when case is ignored, on file systems where filenames are case-insensitive.

New in version 3.2.

Customizing templates

New in version 1.0.

You can customize the stub page templates, in a similar way as the HTML Jinja templates, see templating. (TemplateBridge is not supported.)

NOTE:

If you find yourself spending much time tailoring the stub templates, this may indicate that it’s a better idea to write custom narrative documentation instead.

Autosummary uses the following Jinja template files:

  • autosummary/base.rst – fallback template
  • autosummary/module.rst – template for modules
  • autosummary/class.rst – template for classes
  • autosummary/function.rst – template for functions
  • autosummary/attribute.rst – template for class attributes
  • autosummary/method.rst – template for class methods

The following variables available in the templates:

name

Name of the documented object, excluding the module and class parts.

objname

Name of the documented object, excluding the module parts.

fullname

Full name of the documented object, including module and class parts.

module

Name of the module the documented object belongs to.

class

Name of the class the documented object belongs to.  Only available for methods and attributes.

underline

A string containing len(full_name) * '='. Use the underline filter instead.

members

List containing names of all members of the module or class.  Only available for modules and classes.

inherited_members

List containing names of all inherited members of class.  Only available for classes.

New in version 1.8.0.

functions

List containing names of “public” functions in the module.  Here, “public” here means that the name does not start with an underscore. Only available for modules.

classes

List containing names of “public” classes in the module.  Only available for modules.

exceptions

List containing names of “public” exceptions in the module.  Only available for modules.

methods

List containing names of “public” methods in the class.  Only available for classes.

attributes

List containing names of “public” attributes in the class/module.  Only available for classes and modules.

Changed in version 3.1: Attributes of modules are supported.

modules

List containing names of “public” modules in the package.  Only available for modules that are packages and the recursive option is on.

New in version 3.1.

Additionally, the following filters are available

escape(s)

Escape any special characters in the text to be used in formatting RST contexts. For instance, this prevents asterisks making things bold. This replaces the builtin Jinja escape filter that does html-escaping.

underline(s, line='=')

Add a title underline to a piece of text.

For instance, {{ fullname | escape | underline }} should be used to produce the title of a page.

NOTE:

You can use the autosummary directive in the stub pages. Stub pages are generated also based on these directives.

sphinx.ext.coverage – Collect doc coverage stats

This extension features one additional builder, the CoverageBuilder.

class sphinx.ext.coverage.CoverageBuilder

To use this builder, activate the coverage extension in your configuration file and give -b coverage on the command line.

Todo

Write this section.

Several configuration values can be used to specify what the builder should check:

coverage_ignore_modules

coverage_ignore_functions

coverage_ignore_classes

coverage_ignore_pyobjects

List of Python regular expressions.

If any of these regular expressions matches any part of the full import path of a Python object, that Python object is excluded from the documentation coverage report.

New in version 2.1.

coverage_c_path

coverage_c_regexes

coverage_ignore_c_items

coverage_write_headline

Set to False to not write headlines.

New in version 1.1.

coverage_skip_undoc_in_source

Skip objects that are not documented in the source with a docstring. False by default.

New in version 1.1.

coverage_show_missing_items

Print objects that are missing to standard output also. False by default.

New in version 3.1.

sphinx.ext.doctest – Test snippets in the documentation

It is often helpful to include snippets of code in your documentation and demonstrate the results of executing them. But it is important to ensure that the documentation stays up-to-date with the code.

This extension allows you to test such code snippets in the documentation in a natural way.  If you mark the code blocks as shown here, the doctest builder will collect them and run them as doctest tests.

Within each document, you can assign each snippet to a group. Each group consists of:

  • zero or more setup code blocks (e.g. importing the module to test)
  • one or more test blocks

When building the docs with the doctest builder, groups are collected for each document and run one after the other, first executing setup code blocks, then the test blocks in the order they appear in the file.

There are two kinds of test blocks:

  • doctest-style blocks mimic interactive sessions by interleaving Python code (including the interpreter prompt) and output.
  • code-output-style blocks consist of an ordinary piece of Python code, and optionally, a piece of output for that code.

Directives

The group argument below is interpreted as follows: if it is empty, the block is assigned to the group named default.  If it is *, the block is assigned to all groups (including the default group).  Otherwise, it must be a comma-separated list of group names.

.. testsetup:: [group]

A setup code block.  This code is not shown in the output for other builders, but executed before the doctests of the group(s) it belongs to.

.. testcleanup:: [group]

A cleanup code block.  This code is not shown in the output for other builders, but executed after the doctests of the group(s) it belongs to.

New in version 1.1.

.. doctest:: [group]

A doctest-style code block.  You can use standard doctest flags for controlling how actual output is compared with what you give as output.  The default set of flags is specified by the doctest_default_flags configuration variable.

This directive supports five options:

  • hide, a flag option, hides the doctest block in other builders.  By default it is shown as a highlighted doctest block.
  • options, a string option, can be used to give a comma-separated list of doctest flags that apply to each example in the tests.  (You still can give explicit flags per example, with doctest comments, but they will show up in other builders too.)
  • pyversion, a string option, can be used to specify the required Python version for the example to be tested. For instance, in the following case the example will be tested only for Python versions greater than 3.3:

    .. doctest::
       :pyversion: > 3.3

    The following operands are supported:

    • ~=: Compatible release clause
    • ==: Version matching clause
    • !=: Version exclusion clause
    • <=, >=: Inclusive ordered comparison clause
    • <, >: Exclusive ordered comparison clause
    • ===: Arbitrary equality clause.

    pyversion option is followed PEP-440: Version Specifiers.

    New in version 1.6.

    Changed in version 1.7: Supported PEP-440 operands and notations

  • trim-doctest-flags and no-trim-doctest-flags, a flag option, doctest flags (comments looking like # doctest: FLAG, ...) at the ends of lines and <BLANKLINE> markers are removed (or not removed) individually.  Default is trim-doctest-flags.

Note that like with standard doctests, you have to use <BLANKLINE> to signal a blank line in the expected output.  The <BLANKLINE> is removed when building presentation output (HTML, LaTeX etc.).

Also, you can give inline doctest options, like in doctest:

>>> datetime.date.now()   # doctest: +SKIP
datetime.date(2008, 1, 1)

They will be respected when the test is run, but stripped from presentation output.

.. testcode:: [group]

A code block for a code-output-style test.

This directive supports three options:

  • hide, a flag option, hides the code block in other builders.  By default it is shown as a highlighted code block.
  • trim-doctest-flags and no-trim-doctest-flags, a flag option, doctest flags (comments looking like # doctest: FLAG, ...) at the ends of lines and <BLANKLINE> markers are removed (or not removed) individually.  Default is trim-doctest-flags.
NOTE:

Code in a testcode block is always executed all at once, no matter how many statements it contains.  Therefore, output will not be generated for bare expressions – use print.  Example:

.. testcode::

   1+1         # this will give no output!
   print(2+2)  # this will give output

.. testoutput::

   4

Also, please be aware that since the doctest module does not support mixing regular output and an exception message in the same snippet, this applies to testcode/testoutput as well.

.. testoutput:: [group]

The corresponding output, or the exception message, for the last testcode block.

This directive supports four options:

  • hide, a flag option, hides the output block in other builders.  By default it is shown as a literal block without highlighting.
  • options, a string option, can be used to give doctest flags (comma-separated) just like in normal doctest blocks.
  • trim-doctest-flags and no-trim-doctest-flags, a flag option, doctest flags (comments looking like # doctest: FLAG, ...) at the ends of lines and <BLANKLINE> markers are removed (or not removed) individually.  Default is trim-doctest-flags.

Example:

.. testcode::

   print('Output     text.')

.. testoutput::
   :hide:
   :options: -ELLIPSIS, +NORMALIZE_WHITESPACE

   Output text.

The following is an example for the usage of the directives.  The test via doctest and the test via testcode and testoutput are equivalent.

The parrot module
=================

.. testsetup:: *

   import parrot

The parrot module is a module about parrots.

Doctest example:

.. doctest::

   >>> parrot.voom(3000)
   This parrot wouldn't voom if you put 3000 volts through it!

Test-Output example:

.. testcode::

   parrot.voom(3000)

This would output:

.. testoutput::

   This parrot wouldn't voom if you put 3000 volts through it!

Skipping tests conditionally

skipif, a string option, can be used to skip directives conditionally. This may be useful e.g. when a different set of tests should be run depending on the environment (hardware, network/VPN, optional dependencies or different versions of dependencies). The skipif option is supported by all of the doctest directives. Below are typical use cases for skipif when used for different directives:

  • testsetup and testcleanup

    • conditionally skip test setup and/or cleanup
    • customize setup/cleanup code per environment
  • doctest

    • conditionally skip both a test and its output verification
  • testcode

    • conditionally skip a test
    • customize test code per environment
  • testoutput

    • conditionally skip output assertion for a skipped test
    • expect different output depending on the environment

The value of the skipif option is evaluated as a Python expression. If the result is a true value, the directive is omitted from the test run just as if it wasn’t present in the file at all.

Instead of repeating an expression, the doctest_global_setup configuration option can be used to assign it to a variable which can then be used instead.

Here’s an example which skips some tests if Pandas is not installed:

conf.py

extensions = ['sphinx.ext.doctest']
doctest_global_setup = '''
try:
    import pandas as pd
except ImportError:
    pd = None
'''

contents.rst

.. testsetup::
   :skipif: pd is None

   data = pd.Series([42])

.. doctest::
   :skipif: pd is None

   >>> data.iloc[0]
   42

.. testcode::
   :skipif: pd is None

   print(data.iloc[-1])

.. testoutput::
   :skipif: pd is None

   42

Configuration

The doctest extension uses the following configuration values:

doctest_default_flags

By default, these options are enabled:

  • ELLIPSIS, allowing you to put ellipses in the expected output that match anything in the actual output;
  • IGNORE_EXCEPTION_DETAIL, causing everything following the leftmost colon and any module information in the exception name to be ignored;
  • DONT_ACCEPT_TRUE_FOR_1, rejecting “True” in the output where “1” is given – the default behavior of accepting this substitution is a relic of pre-Python 2.2 times.

New in version 1.5.

doctest_path

A list of directories that will be added to sys.path when the doctest builder is used.  (Make sure it contains absolute paths.)

doctest_global_setup

Python code that is treated like it were put in a testsetup directive for every file that is tested, and for every group.  You can use this to e.g. import modules you will always need in your doctests.

New in version 0.6.

doctest_global_cleanup

Python code that is treated like it were put in a testcleanup directive for every file that is tested, and for every group.  You can use this to e.g. remove any temporary files that the tests leave behind.

New in version 1.1.

doctest_test_doctest_blocks

If this is a nonempty string (the default is 'default'), standard reST doctest blocks will be tested too.  They will be assigned to the group name given.

reST doctest blocks are simply doctests put into a paragraph of their own, like so:

Some documentation text.

>>> print(1)
1

Some more documentation text.

(Note that no special :: is used to introduce a doctest block; docutils recognizes them from the leading >>>.  Also, no additional indentation is used, though it doesn’t hurt.)

If this value is left at its default value, the above snippet is interpreted by the doctest builder exactly like the following:

Some documentation text.

.. doctest::

   >>> print(1)
   1

Some more documentation text.

This feature makes it easy for you to test doctests in docstrings included with the autodoc extension without marking them up with a special directive.

Note though that you can’t have blank lines in reST doctest blocks.  They will be interpreted as one block ending and another one starting.  Also, removal of <BLANKLINE> and # doctest: options only works in doctest blocks, though you may set trim_doctest_flags to achieve that in all code blocks with Python console content.

sphinx.ext.duration – Measure durations of Sphinx processing

New in version 2.4.

This extension measures durations of Sphinx processing and show its result at end of the build.  It is useful for inspecting what document is slowly built.

sphinx.ext.githubpages – Publish HTML docs in GitHub Pages

New in version 1.4.

Changed in version 2.0: Support CNAME file

This extension creates .nojekyll file on generated HTML directory to publish the document on GitHub Pages.

It also creates a CNAME file for custom domains when html_baseurl set.

sphinx.ext.graphviz – Add Graphviz graphs

New in version 0.6.

This extension allows you to embed Graphviz graphs in your documents.

It adds these directives:

.. graphviz::

Directive to embed graphviz code.  The input code for dot is given as the content.  For example:

.. graphviz::

   digraph foo {
      "bar" -> "baz";
   }

In HTML output, the code will be rendered to a PNG or SVG image (see graphviz_output_format).  In LaTeX output, the code will be rendered to an embeddable PDF file.

You can also embed external dot files, by giving the file name as an argument to graphviz and no additional content:

.. graphviz:: external.dot

As for all file references in Sphinx, if the filename is absolute, it is taken as relative to the source directory.

Changed in version 1.1: Added support for external files.

options

:alt: alternate text (text)

The alternate text of the graph.  By default, the graph code is used to the alternate text.

New in version 1.0.

:align: alignment of the graph (left, center or right)

The horizontal alignment of the graph.

New in version 1.5.

:caption: caption of the graph (text)

The caption of the graph.

New in version 1.1.

:layout: layout type of the graph (text)

The layout of the graph (ex. dot, neato and so on).  A path to the graphviz commands are also allowed.  By default, graphviz_dot is used.

New in version 1.4.

Changed in version 2.2: Renamed from graphviz_dot

:name: label (text)

The label of the graph.

New in version 1.6.

:class: class names (a list of class names separated by spaces)

The class name of the graph.

New in version 2.4.

.. graph::

Directive for embedding a single undirected graph.  The name is given as a directive argument, the contents of the graph are the directive content. This is a convenience directive to generate graph <name> { <content> }.

For example:

.. graph:: foo

   "bar" -- "baz";
NOTE:

The graph name is passed unchanged to Graphviz.  If it contains non-alphanumeric characters (e.g. a dash), you will have to double-quote it.

options

Same as graphviz.

:alt: alternate text (text)

New in version 1.0.

:align: alignment of the graph (left, center or right)

New in version 1.5.

:caption: caption of the graph (text)

New in version 1.1.

:layout: layout type of the graph (text)

New in version 1.4.

Changed in version 2.2: Renamed from graphviz_dot

:name: label (text)

New in version 1.6.

:class: class names (a list of class names separated by spaces)

The class name of the graph.

New in version 2.4.

.. digraph::

Directive for embedding a single directed graph.  The name is given as a directive argument, the contents of the graph are the directive content. This is a convenience directive to generate digraph <name> { <content> }.

For example:

.. digraph:: foo

   "bar" -> "baz" -> "quux";

options

Same as graphviz.

:alt: alternate text (text)

New in version 1.0.

:align: alignment of the graph (left, center or right)

New in version 1.5.

:caption: caption of the graph (text)

New in version 1.1.

:layout: layout type of the graph (text)

New in version 1.4.

Changed in version 2.2: Renamed from graphviz_dot

:name: label (text)

New in version 1.6.

:class: class names (a list of class names separated by spaces)

The class name of the graph.

New in version 2.4.

There are also these config values:

graphviz_dot

The command name with which to invoke dot.  The default is 'dot'; you may need to set this to a full path if dot is not in the executable search path.

Since this setting is not portable from system to system, it is normally not useful to set it in conf.py; rather, giving it on the sphinx-build command line via the -D option should be preferable, like this:

sphinx-build -b html -D graphviz_dot=C:\graphviz\bin\dot.exe . _build/html
graphviz_dot_args

Additional command-line arguments to give to dot, as a list.  The default is an empty list.  This is the right place to set global graph, node or edge attributes via dot’s -G, -N and -E options.

graphviz_output_format

The output format for Graphviz when building HTML files.  This must be either 'png' or 'svg'; the default is 'png'. If 'svg' is used, in order to make the URL links work properly, an appropriate target attribute must be set, such as "_top" and "_blank". For example, the link in the following graph should work in the svg output:

.. graphviz::

     digraph example {
         a [label="sphinx", href="https://www.sphinx-doc.org/", target="_top"];
         b [label="other"];
         a -> b;
     }

New in version 1.0: Previously, output always was PNG.

sphinx.ext.ifconfig – Include content based on configuration

This extension is quite simple, and features only one directive:

WARNING:

This directive is designed to control only content of document.  It could not control sections, labels and so on.

.. ifconfig::

Include content of the directive only if the Python expression given as an argument is True, evaluated in the namespace of the project’s configuration (that is, all registered variables from conf.py are available).

For example, one could write

.. ifconfig:: releaselevel in ('alpha', 'beta', 'rc')

   This stuff is only included in the built docs for unstable versions.

To make a custom config value known to Sphinx, use add_config_value() in the setup function in conf.py, e.g.:

def setup(app):
    app.add_config_value('releaselevel', '', 'env')

The second argument is the default value, the third should always be 'env' for such values (it selects if Sphinx re-reads the documents if the value changes).

sphinx.ext.imgconverter – A reference image converter using Imagemagick

New in version 1.6.

This extension converts images in your document to appropriate format for builders.  For example, it allows you to use SVG images with LaTeX builder. As a result, you don’t mind what image format the builder supports.

Internally, this extension uses Imagemagick to convert images.

NOTE:

Imagemagick rasterizes a SVG image on conversion.  As a result, the image becomes not scalable.  To avoid that, please use other image converters like sphinxcontrib-svg2pdfconverter (which uses Inkscape or rsvg-convert).

Configuration

image_converter

A path to convert command.  By default, the imgconverter uses the command from search paths.

On windows platform, magick command is used by default.

Changed in version 3.1: Use magick command by default on windows

image_converter_args

Additional command-line arguments to give to convert, as a list. The default is an empty list [].

On windows platform, it defaults to ["convert"].

Changed in version 3.1: Use ["convert"] by default on windows

sphinx.ext.inheritance_diagram – Include inheritance diagrams

New in version 0.6.

This extension allows you to include inheritance diagrams, rendered via the Graphviz extension.

It adds this directive:

.. inheritance-diagram::

This directive has one or more arguments, each giving a module or class name.  Class names can be unqualified; in that case they are taken to exist in the currently described module (see py:module).

For each given class, and each class in each given module, the base classes are determined.  Then, from all classes and their base classes, a graph is generated which is then rendered via the graphviz extension to a directed graph.

This directive supports an option called parts that, if given, must be an integer, advising the directive to keep that many dot-separated parts in the displayed names (from right to left). For example, parts=1 will only display class names, without the names of the modules that contain them.

Changed in version 2.0: The value of for parts can also be negative, indicating how many parts to drop from the left.  For example, if all your class names start with lib., you can give :parts: -1 to remove that prefix from the displayed node names.

The directive also supports a private-bases flag option; if given, private base classes (those whose name starts with _) will be included.

You can use caption option to give a caption to the diagram.

Changed in version 1.1: Added private-bases option; previously, all bases were always included.

Changed in version 1.5: Added caption option

It also supports a top-classes option which requires one or more class names separated by comma. If specified inheritance traversal will stop at the specified class names. Given the following Python module:

"""
       A
      / \
     B   C
    / \ / \
   E   D   F
"""

class A:
    pass

class B(A):
    pass

class C(A):
    pass

class D(B, C):
    pass

class E(B):
    pass

class F(C):
    pass

If you have specified a module in the inheritance diagram like this:

.. inheritance-diagram:: dummy.test
   :top-classes: dummy.test.B, dummy.test.C

any base classes which are ancestors to top-classes and are also defined in the same module will be rendered as stand alone nodes. In this example class A will be rendered as stand alone node in the graph. This is a known issue due to how this extension works internally.

If you don’t want class A (or any other ancestors) to be visible then specify only the classes you would like to generate the diagram for like this:

.. inheritance-diagram:: dummy.test.D dummy.test.E dummy.test.F
   :top-classes: dummy.test.B, dummy.test.C

Changed in version 1.7: Added top-classes option to limit the scope of inheritance graphs.

Examples

The following are different inheritance diagrams for the internal InheritanceDiagram class that implements the directive.

With full names:

.. inheritance-diagram:: sphinx.ext.inheritance_diagram.InheritanceDiagram

Showing class names only:

.. inheritance-diagram:: sphinx.ext.inheritance_diagram.InheritanceDiagram
   :parts: 1

Stopping the diagram at sphinx.util.docutils.SphinxDirective (the highest superclass still part of Sphinx), and dropping the common left-most part (sphinx) from all names:

.. inheritance-diagram:: sphinx.ext.inheritance_diagram.InheritanceDiagram
   :top-classes: sphinx.util.docutils.SphinxDirective
   :parts: -1

Configuration

inheritance_graph_attrs

A dictionary of graphviz graph attributes for inheritance diagrams.

For example:

inheritance_graph_attrs = dict(rankdir="LR", size='"6.0, 8.0"',
                               fontsize=14, ratio='compress')
inheritance_node_attrs

A dictionary of graphviz node attributes for inheritance diagrams.

For example:

inheritance_node_attrs = dict(shape='ellipse', fontsize=14, height=0.75,
                              color='dodgerblue1', style='filled')
inheritance_edge_attrs

A dictionary of graphviz edge attributes for inheritance diagrams.

inheritance_alias

Allows mapping the full qualified name of the class to custom values (useful when exposing the underlying path of a class is not desirable, e.g. it’s a private class and should not be instantiated by the user).

For example:

inheritance_alias = {'_pytest.Magic': 'pytest.Magic'}

Configuration

To use Intersphinx linking, add 'sphinx.ext.intersphinx' to your extensions config value, and use these config values to activate linking:

intersphinx_mapping

This config value contains the locations and names of other projects that should be linked to in this documentation.

Relative local paths for target locations are taken as relative to the base of the built documentation, while relative local paths for inventory locations are taken as relative to the source directory.

When fetching remote inventory files, proxy settings will be read from the $HTTP_PROXY environment variable.

Old format for this config value

This is the format used before Sphinx 1.0.  It is still recognized.

A dictionary mapping URIs to either None or an URI.  The keys are the base URI of the foreign Sphinx documentation sets and can be local paths or HTTP URIs.  The values indicate where the inventory file can be found: they can be None (at the same location as the base URI) or another local or HTTP URI.

New format for this config value

New in version 1.0.

A dictionary mapping unique identifiers to a tuple (target, inventory). Each target is the base URI of a foreign Sphinx documentation set and can be a local path or an HTTP URI.  The inventory indicates where the inventory file can be found: it can be None (an objects.inv file at the same location as the base URI) or another local file path or a full HTTP URI to an inventory file.

The unique identifier can be used to prefix cross-reference targets, so that it is clear which intersphinx set the target belongs to.  A link like :ref:`comparison manual <python:comparisons>` will link to the label “comparisons” in the doc set “python”, if it exists.

Example

To add links to modules and objects in the Python standard library documentation, use:

intersphinx_mapping = {'python': ('https://docs.python.org/3', None)}

This will download the corresponding objects.inv file from the Internet and generate links to the pages under the given URI.  The downloaded inventory is cached in the Sphinx environment, so it must be re-downloaded whenever you do a full rebuild.

A second example, showing the meaning of a non-None value of the second tuple item:

intersphinx_mapping = {'python': ('https://docs.python.org/3',
                                  'python-inv.txt')}

This will read the inventory from python-inv.txt in the source directory, but still generate links to the pages under https://docs.python.org/3.  It is up to you to update the inventory file as new objects are added to the Python documentation.

Multiple targets for the inventory

New in version 1.3.

Alternative files can be specified for each inventory. One can give a tuple for the second inventory tuple item as shown in the following example. This will read the inventory iterating through the (second) tuple items until the first successful fetch. The primary use case for this to specify mirror sites for server downtime of the primary inventory:

intersphinx_mapping = {'python': ('https://docs.python.org/3',
                                  (None, 'python-inv.txt'))}

For a set of books edited and tested locally and then published together, it could be helpful to try a local inventory file first, to check references before publication:

intersphinx_mapping = {
    'otherbook':
        ('https://myproj.readthedocs.io/projects/otherbook/en/latest',
            ('../../otherbook/build/html/objects.inv', None)),
}
intersphinx_cache_limit

The maximum number of days to cache remote inventories.  The default is 5, meaning five days.  Set this to a negative value to cache inventories for unlimited time.

intersphinx_timeout

The number of seconds for timeout.  The default is None, meaning do not timeout.

NOTE:

timeout is not a time limit on the entire response download; rather, an exception is raised if the server has not issued a response for timeout seconds.

intersphinx_disabled_reftypes

New in version 4.3.

A list of strings being either:

  • the name of a specific reference type in a domain, e.g., std:doc, py:func, or cpp:class,
  • the name of a domain, and a wildcard, e.g., std:*, py:*, or cpp:*, or
  • simply a wildcard *.

The default value is an empty list.

When a cross-reference without an explicit inventory specification is being resolved by intersphinx, skip resolution if it matches one of the specifications in this list.

For example, with intersphinx_disabled_reftypes = ['std:doc'] a cross-reference :doc:`installation` will not be attempted to be resolved by intersphinx, but :doc:`otherbook:installation` will be attempted to be resolved in the inventory named otherbook in intersphinx_mapping. At the same time, all cross-references generated in, e.g., Python, declarations will still be attempted to be resolved by intersphinx.

If * is in the list of domains, then no references without an explicit inventory will be resolved by intersphinx.

Using Intersphinx with inventory file under Basic Authorization

Intersphinx supports Basic Authorization like this:

intersphinx_mapping = {'python': ('https://user:password@docs.python.org/3',
                                  None)}

The user and password will be stripped from the URL when generating the links.

Configuration

linkcode_resolve

This is a function linkcode_resolve(domain, info), which should return the URL to source code corresponding to the object in given domain with given information.

The function should return None if no link is to be added.

The argument domain specifies the language domain the object is in. info is a dictionary with the following keys guaranteed to be present (dependent on the domain):

  • py: module (name of the module), fullname (name of the object)
  • c: names (list of names for the object)
  • cpp: names (list of names for the object)
  • javascript: object (name of the object), fullname (name of the item)

Example:

def linkcode_resolve(domain, info):
    if domain != 'py':
        return None
    if not info['module']:
        return None
    filename = info['module'].replace('.', '/')
    return "https://somesite/sourcerepo/%s.py" % filename

Math support for HTML outputs in Sphinx

New in version 0.5.

Changed in version 1.8: Math support for non-HTML builders is integrated to sphinx-core. So mathbase extension is no longer needed.

Since mathematical notation isn’t natively supported by HTML in any way, Sphinx gives a math support to HTML document with several extensions.  These use the reStructuredText math directive and role.

sphinx.ext.imgmath – Render math as images

New in version 1.4.

This extension renders math via LaTeX and dvipng or dvisvgm into PNG or SVG images. This of course means that the computer where the docs are built must have both programs available.

There are various configuration values you can set to influence how the images are built:

imgmath_image_format

The output image format. The default is 'png'. It should be either 'png' or 'svg'. The image is produced by first executing latex on the TeX mathematical mark-up then (depending on the requested format) either dvipng or dvisvgm.

imgmath_use_preview

dvipng and dvisvgm both have the ability to collect from LaTeX the “depth” of the rendered math: an inline image should use this “depth” in a vertical-align style to get correctly aligned with surrounding text.

This mechanism requires the LaTeX preview package (available as preview-latex-style on Ubuntu xenial).  Therefore, the default for this option is False but it is strongly recommended to set it to True.

Changed in version 2.2: This option can be used with the 'svg' imgmath_image_format.

imgmath_add_tooltips

Default: True.  If false, do not add the LaTeX code as an “alt” attribute for math images.

imgmath_font_size

The font size (in pt) of the displayed math.  The default value is 12.  It must be a positive integer.

imgmath_latex

The command name with which to invoke LaTeX.  The default is 'latex'; you may need to set this to a full path if latex is not in the executable search path.

Since this setting is not portable from system to system, it is normally not useful to set it in conf.py; rather, giving it on the sphinx-build command line via the -D option should be preferable, like this:

sphinx-build -b html -D imgmath_latex=C:\tex\latex.exe . _build/html

This value should only contain the path to the latex executable, not further arguments; use imgmath_latex_args for that purpose.

HINT:

Some fancy LaTeX mark-up (an example was reported which used TikZ to add various decorations to the equation) require multiple runs of the LaTeX executable.  To handle this, set this configuration setting to 'latexmk' (or a full path to it) as this Perl script reliably chooses dynamically how many latex runs are needed.

imgmath_latex_args

Additional arguments to give to latex, as a list.  The default is an empty list.

imgmath_latex_preamble

Additional LaTeX code to put into the preamble of the LaTeX files used to translate the math snippets.  This is left empty by default.  Use it e.g. to add packages which modify the fonts used for math, such as '\\usepackage{newtxsf}' for sans-serif fonts, or '\\usepackage{fouriernc}' for serif fonts.  Indeed, the default LaTeX math fonts have rather thin glyphs which (in HTML output) often do not match well with the font for text.

imgmath_dvipng

The command name to invoke dvipng.  The default is 'dvipng'; you may need to set this to a full path if dvipng is not in the executable search path. This option is only used when imgmath_image_format is set to 'png'.

imgmath_dvipng_args

Additional arguments to give to dvipng, as a list.  The default value is ['-gamma', '1.5', '-D', '110', '-bg', 'Transparent'] which makes the image a bit darker and larger then it is by default (this compensates somewhat for the thinness of default LaTeX math fonts), and produces PNGs with a transparent background.  This option is used only when imgmath_image_format is 'png'.

imgmath_dvisvgm

The command name to invoke dvisvgm.  The default is 'dvisvgm'; you may need to set this to a full path if dvisvgm is not in the executable search path.  This option is only used when imgmath_image_format is 'svg'.

imgmath_dvisvgm_args

Additional arguments to give to dvisvgm, as a list. The default value is ['--no-fonts'], which means that dvisvgm will render glyphs as path elements (cf the dvisvgm FAQ). This option is used only when imgmath_image_format is 'svg'.

sphinx.ext.mathjax – Render math via JavaScript

WARNING:

Version 4.0 changes the version of MathJax used to version 3. You may need to override mathjax_path to https://cdn.jsdelivr.net/npm/mathjax@2/MathJax.js?config=TeX-AMS-MML_HTMLorMML or update your configuration options for version 3 (see mathjax3_config).

New in version 1.1.

This extension puts math as-is into the HTML files.  The JavaScript package MathJax is then loaded and transforms the LaTeX markup to readable math live in the browser.

Because MathJax (and the necessary fonts) is very large, it is not included in Sphinx but is set to automatically include it from a third-party site.

ATTENTION:

You should use the math directive and role, not the native MathJax $$, \(, etc.

mathjax_path

The path to the JavaScript file to include in the HTML files in order to load MathJax.

The default is the https:// URL that loads the JS files from the jsdelivr Content Delivery Network. See the MathJax Getting Started page for details. If you want MathJax to be available offline or without including resources from a third-party site, you have to download it and set this value to a different path.

The path can be absolute or relative; if it is relative, it is relative to the _static directory of the built docs.

For example, if you put MathJax into the static path of the Sphinx docs, this value would be MathJax/MathJax.js.  If you host more than one Sphinx documentation set on one server, it is advisable to install MathJax in a shared location.

You can also give a full https:// URL different from the CDN URL.

mathjax_options

The options to script tag for mathjax.  For example, you can set integrity option with following setting:

mathjax_options = {
    'integrity': 'sha384-......',
}

The default is empty ({}).

New in version 1.8.

Changed in version 4.4.1: Allow to change the loading method (async or defer) of MathJax if “async” or “defer” key is set.

mathjax3_config

The configuration options for MathJax v3 (which is used by default). The given dictionary is assigned to the JavaScript variable window.MathJax. For more information, please read Configuring MathJax.

The default is empty (not configured).

New in version 4.0.

mathjax2_config

The configuration options for MathJax v2 (which can be loaded via mathjax_path). The value is used as a parameter of MathJax.Hub.Config(). For more information, please read Using in-line configuration options.

For example:

mathjax2_config = {
    'extensions': ['tex2jax.js'],
    'jax': ['input/TeX', 'output/HTML-CSS'],
}

The default is empty (not configured).

New in version 4.0: mathjax_config has been renamed to mathjax2_config.

mathjax_config

Former name of mathjax2_config.

For help converting your old MathJax configuration to to the new mathjax3_config, see Converting Your v2 Configuration to v3.

New in version 1.8.

Changed in version 4.0: This has been renamed to mathjax2_config. mathjax_config is still supported for backwards compatibility.

sphinx.ext.jsmath – Render math via JavaScript

This extension works just as the MathJax extension does, but uses the older package jsMath.  It provides this config value:

jsmath_path

The path to the JavaScript file to include in the HTML files in order to load JSMath.  There is no default.

The path can be absolute or relative; if it is relative, it is relative to the _static directory of the built docs.

For example, if you put JSMath into the static path of the Sphinx docs, this value would be jsMath/easy/load.js.  If you host more than one Sphinx documentation set on one server, it is advisable to install jsMath in a shared location.

sphinx.ext.napoleon – Support for NumPy and Google style docstrings

Module author: Rob Ruana

New in version 1.3.

Overview

Are you tired of writing docstrings that look like this:

:param path: The path of the file to wrap
:type path: str
:param field_storage: The :class:`FileStorage` instance to wrap
:type field_storage: FileStorage
:param temporary: Whether or not to delete the file when the File
   instance is destructed
:type temporary: bool
:returns: A buffered writable file descriptor
:rtype: BufferedFileStorage

reStructuredText is great, but it creates visually dense, hard to read docstrings. Compare the jumble above to the same thing rewritten according to the Google Python Style Guide:

Args:
    path (str): The path of the file to wrap
    field_storage (FileStorage): The :class:`FileStorage` instance to wrap
    temporary (bool): Whether or not to delete the file when the File
       instance is destructed

Returns:
    BufferedFileStorage: A buffered writable file descriptor

Much more legible, no?

Napoleon is a extension that enables Sphinx to parse both NumPy and Google style docstrings - the style recommended by Khan Academy.

Napoleon is a pre-processor that parses NumPy and Google style docstrings and converts them to reStructuredText before Sphinx attempts to parse them. This happens in an intermediate step while Sphinx is processing the documentation, so it doesn’t modify any of the docstrings in your actual source code files.

Getting Started

  1. After setting up Sphinx to build your docs, enable napoleon in the Sphinx conf.py file:

    # conf.py
    
    # Add napoleon to the extensions list
    extensions = ['sphinx.ext.napoleon']
  2. Use sphinx-apidoc to build your API documentation:

    $ sphinx-apidoc -f -o docs/source projectdir

Docstrings

Napoleon interprets every docstring that autodoc can find, including docstrings on: modules, classes, attributes, methods, functions, and variables. Inside each docstring, specially formatted Sections are parsed and converted to reStructuredText.

All standard reStructuredText formatting still works as expected.

Docstring Sections

All of the following section headers are supported:

  • Args (alias of Parameters)
  • Arguments (alias of Parameters)
  • Attention
  • Attributes
  • Caution
  • Danger
  • Error
  • Example
  • Examples
  • Hint
  • Important
  • Keyword Args (alias of Keyword Arguments)
  • Keyword Arguments
  • Methods
  • Note
  • Notes
  • Other Parameters
  • Parameters
  • Return (alias of Returns)
  • Returns
  • Raise (alias of Raises)
  • Raises
  • References
  • See Also
  • Tip
  • Todo
  • Warning
  • Warnings (alias of Warning)
  • Warn (alias of Warns)
  • Warns
  • Yield (alias of Yields)
  • Yields

Google vs NumPy

Napoleon supports two styles of docstrings: Google and NumPy. The main difference between the two styles is that Google uses indentation to separate sections, whereas NumPy uses underlines.

Google style:

def func(arg1, arg2):
    """Summary line.

    Extended description of function.

    Args:
        arg1 (int): Description of arg1
        arg2 (str): Description of arg2

    Returns:
        bool: Description of return value

    """
    return True

NumPy style:

def func(arg1, arg2):
    """Summary line.

    Extended description of function.

    Parameters
    ----------
    arg1 : int
        Description of arg1
    arg2 : str
        Description of arg2

    Returns
    -------
    bool
        Description of return value

    """
    return True

NumPy style tends to require more vertical space, whereas Google style tends to use more horizontal space. Google style tends to be easier to read for short and simple docstrings, whereas NumPy style tends be easier to read for long and in-depth docstrings.

The Khan Academy recommends using Google style.

The choice between styles is largely aesthetic, but the two styles should not be mixed. Choose one style for your project and be consistent with it.

SEE ALSO:

For complete examples:

  • example_google
  • example_numpy

Type Annotations

PEP 484 introduced a standard way to express types in Python code. This is an alternative to expressing types directly in docstrings. One benefit of expressing types according to PEP 484 is that type checkers and IDEs can take advantage of them for static code analysis. PEP 484 was then extended by PEP 526 which introduced a similar way to annotate variables (and attributes).

Google style with Python 3 type annotations:

def func(arg1: int, arg2: str) -> bool:
    """Summary line.

    Extended description of function.

    Args:
        arg1: Description of arg1
        arg2: Description of arg2

    Returns:
        Description of return value

    """
    return True

class Class:
    """Summary line.

    Extended description of class

    Attributes:
        attr1: Description of attr1
        attr2: Description of attr2
    """

    attr1: int
    attr2: str

Google style with types in docstrings:

def func(arg1, arg2):
    """Summary line.

    Extended description of function.

    Args:
        arg1 (int): Description of arg1
        arg2 (str): Description of arg2

    Returns:
        bool: Description of return value

    """
    return True

class Class:
    """Summary line.

    Extended description of class

    Attributes:
        attr1 (int): Description of attr1
        attr2 (str): Description of attr2
    """
NOTE:

Python 2/3 compatible annotations aren’t currently supported by Sphinx and won’t show up in the docs.

Configuration

Listed below are all the settings used by napoleon and their default values. These settings can be changed in the Sphinx conf.py file. Make sure that “sphinx.ext.napoleon” is enabled in conf.py:

# conf.py

# Add any Sphinx extension module names here, as strings
extensions = ['sphinx.ext.napoleon']

# Napoleon settings
napoleon_google_docstring = True
napoleon_numpy_docstring = True
napoleon_include_init_with_doc = False
napoleon_include_private_with_doc = False
napoleon_include_special_with_doc = True
napoleon_use_admonition_for_examples = False
napoleon_use_admonition_for_notes = False
napoleon_use_admonition_for_references = False
napoleon_use_ivar = False
napoleon_use_param = True
napoleon_use_rtype = True
napoleon_preprocess_types = False
napoleon_type_aliases = None
napoleon_attr_annotations = True
napoleon_google_docstring

True to parse Google style docstrings. False to disable support for Google style docstrings. Defaults to True.

napoleon_numpy_docstring

True to parse NumPy style docstrings. False to disable support for NumPy style docstrings. Defaults to True.

napoleon_include_init_with_doc

True to list __init___ docstrings separately from the class docstring. False to fall back to Sphinx’s default behavior, which considers the __init___ docstring as part of the class documentation. Defaults to False.

If True:

def __init__(self):
    """
    This will be included in the docs because it has a docstring
    """

def __init__(self):
    # This will NOT be included in the docs
napoleon_include_private_with_doc

True to include private members (like _membername) with docstrings in the documentation. False to fall back to Sphinx’s default behavior. Defaults to False.

If True:

def _included(self):
    """
    This will be included in the docs because it has a docstring
    """
    pass

def _skipped(self):
    # This will NOT be included in the docs
    pass
napoleon_include_special_with_doc

True to include special members (like __membername__) with docstrings in the documentation. False to fall back to Sphinx’s default behavior. Defaults to True.

If True:

def __str__(self):
    """
    This will be included in the docs because it has a docstring
    """
    return unicode(self).encode('utf-8')

def __unicode__(self):
    # This will NOT be included in the docs
    return unicode(self.__class__.__name__)
napoleon_use_admonition_for_examples

True to use the .. admonition:: directive for the Example and Examples sections. False to use the .. rubric:: directive instead. One may look better than the other depending on what HTML theme is used. Defaults to False.

This NumPy style snippet will be converted as follows:

Example
-------
This is just a quick example

If True:

.. admonition:: Example

   This is just a quick example

If False:

.. rubric:: Example

This is just a quick example
napoleon_use_admonition_for_notes

True to use the .. admonition:: directive for Notes sections. False to use the .. rubric:: directive instead. Defaults to False.

NOTE:

The singular Note section will always be converted to a .. note:: directive.

SEE ALSO:

napoleon_use_admonition_for_examples

napoleon_use_admonition_for_references

True to use the .. admonition:: directive for References sections. False to use the .. rubric:: directive instead. Defaults to False.

SEE ALSO:

napoleon_use_admonition_for_examples

napoleon_use_ivar

True to use the :ivar: role for instance variables. False to use the .. attribute:: directive instead. Defaults to False.

This NumPy style snippet will be converted as follows:

Attributes
----------
attr1 : int
    Description of `attr1`

If True:

:ivar attr1: Description of `attr1`
:vartype attr1: int

If False:

.. attribute:: attr1

   Description of `attr1`

   :type: int
napoleon_use_param

True to use a :param: role for each function parameter. False to use a single :parameters: role for all the parameters. Defaults to True.

This NumPy style snippet will be converted as follows:

Parameters
----------
arg1 : str
    Description of `arg1`
arg2 : int, optional
    Description of `arg2`, defaults to 0

If True:

:param arg1: Description of `arg1`
:type arg1: str
:param arg2: Description of `arg2`, defaults to 0
:type arg2: :class:`int`, *optional*

If False:

:parameters: * **arg1** (*str*) --
               Description of `arg1`
             * **arg2** (*int, optional*) --
               Description of `arg2`, defaults to 0
napoleon_use_keyword

True to use a :keyword: role for each function keyword argument. False to use a single :keyword arguments: role for all the keywords. Defaults to True.

This behaves similarly to  napoleon_use_param. Note unlike docutils, :keyword: and :param: will not be treated the same way - there will be a separate “Keyword Arguments” section, rendered in the same fashion as “Parameters” section (type links created if possible)

SEE ALSO:

napoleon_use_param

napoleon_use_rtype

True to use the :rtype: role for the return type. False to output the return type inline with the description. Defaults to True.

This NumPy style snippet will be converted as follows:

Returns
-------
bool
    True if successful, False otherwise

If True:

:returns: True if successful, False otherwise
:rtype: bool

If False:

:returns: *bool* -- True if successful, False otherwise
napoleon_preprocess_types

True to convert the type definitions in the docstrings as references. Defaults to False.

New in version 3.2.1.

Changed in version 3.5: Do preprocess the Google style docstrings also.

napoleon_type_aliases

A mapping to translate type names to other names or references. Works only when napoleon_use_param = True. Defaults to None.

With:

napoleon_type_aliases = {
    "CustomType": "mypackage.CustomType",
    "dict-like": ":term:`dict-like <mapping>`",
}

This NumPy style snippet:

Parameters
----------
arg1 : CustomType
    Description of `arg1`
arg2 : dict-like
    Description of `arg2`

becomes:

:param arg1: Description of `arg1`
:type arg1: mypackage.CustomType
:param arg2: Description of `arg2`
:type arg2: :term:`dict-like <mapping>`

New in version 3.2.

napoleon_attr_annotations

True to allow using PEP 526 attributes annotations in classes. If an attribute is documented in the docstring without a type and has an annotation in the class body, that type is used.

New in version 3.4.

napoleon_custom_sections

Add a list of custom sections to include, expanding the list of parsed sections. Defaults to None.

The entries can either be strings or tuples, depending on the intention:

  • To create a custom “generic” section, just pass a string.
  • To create an alias for an existing section, pass a tuple containing the alias name and the original, in that order.
  • To create a custom section that displays like the parameters or returns section, pass a tuple containing the custom section name and a string value, “params_style” or “returns_style”.

If an entry is just a string, it is interpreted as a header for a generic section. If the entry is a tuple/list/indexed container, the first entry is the name of the section, the second is the section key to emulate. If the second entry value is “params_style” or “returns_style”, the custom section will be displayed like the parameters section or returns section.

New in version 1.8.

Changed in version 3.5: Support params_style and returns_style

sphinx.ext.todo – Support for todo items

Module author: Daniel Bültmann

New in version 0.5.

There are two additional directives when using this extension:

.. todo::

Use this directive like, for example, note.

It will only show up in the output if todo_include_todos is True.

New in version 1.3.2: This directive supports an class option that determines the class attribute for HTML output.  If not given, the class defaults to admonition-todo.

.. todolist::

This directive is replaced by a list of all todo directives in the whole documentation, if todo_include_todos is True.

These can be configured as seen below.

Configuration

todo_include_todos

If this is True, todo and todolist produce output, else they produce nothing.  The default is False.

todo_emit_warnings

If this is True, todo emits a warning for each Todo entries. The default is False.

New in version 1.5.

todo_link_only

If this is True, todolist produce output without file path and line, The default is False.

New in version 1.4.

autodoc provides the following an additional event:

todo-defined(app, node)

New in version 1.5.

Emitted when a todo is defined. node is the defined sphinx.ext.todo.todo_node node.

Configuration

viewcode_follow_imported_members

If this is True, viewcode extension will emit viewcode-follow-imported event to resolve the name of the module by other extensions.  The default is True.

New in version 1.3.

Changed in version 1.8: Renamed from viewcode_import to viewcode_follow_imported_members.

viewcode_enable_epub

If this is True, viewcode extension is also enabled even if you use epub builders. This extension generates pages outside toctree, but this is not preferred as epub format.

Until 1.4.x, this extension is always enabled. If you want to generate epub as same as 1.4.x, you should set True, but epub format checker’s score becomes worse.

The default is False.

New in version 1.5.

WARNING:

Not all epub readers support pages generated by viewcode extension. These readers ignore links to pages are not under toctree.

Some reader’s rendering result are corrupted and epubcheck’s score becomes worse even if the reader supports.

viewcode-find-source(app, modname)

New in version 1.8.

Find the source code for a module. An event handler for this event should return a tuple of the source code itself and a dictionary of tags. The dictionary maps the name of a class, function, attribute, etc to a tuple of its type, the start line number, and the end line number. The type should be one of “class”, “def”, or “other”.

Parameters
  • app – The Sphinx application object.
  • modname – The name of the module to find source code for.
viewcode-follow-imported(app, modname, attribute)

New in version 1.8.

Find the name of the original module for an attribute.

Parameters
  • app – The Sphinx application object.
  • modname – The name of the module that the attribute belongs to.
  • attribute – The name of the member to follow.

Third-party extensions

You can find several extensions contributed by users in the sphinx-contrib organization. If you wish to include your extension in this organization, simply follow the instructions provided in the github-administration project. This is optional and there are several extensions hosted elsewhere. The awesome-sphinxdoc project contains a curated list of Sphinx packages, and many packages use the Framework :: Sphinx :: Extension and Framework :: Sphinx :: Theme trove classifiers for Sphinx extensions and themes, respectively.

Where to put your own extensions?

Extensions local to a project should be put within the project’s directory structure.  Set Python’s module search path, sys.path, accordingly so that Sphinx can find them.  For example, if your extension foo.py lies in the exts subdirectory of the project root, put into conf.py:

import sys, os

sys.path.append(os.path.abspath('exts'))

extensions = ['foo']

You can also install extensions anywhere else on sys.path, e.g. in the site-packages directory.

HTML Theming

Sphinx provides a number of builders for HTML and HTML-based formats.

Builders

Todo

Populate when the ‘builders’ document is split up.

Themes

New in version 0.6.

NOTE:

This section provides information about using pre-existing HTML themes. If you wish to create your own theme, refer to /development/theming.

Sphinx supports changing the appearance of its HTML output via themes.  A theme is a collection of HTML templates, stylesheet(s) and other static files. Additionally, it has a configuration file which specifies from which theme to inherit, which highlighting style to use, and what options exist for customizing the theme’s look and feel.

Themes are meant to be project-unaware, so they can be used for different projects without change.

Using a theme

Using a theme provided with Sphinx is easy. Since these do not need to be installed, you only need to set the html_theme config value. For example, to enable the classic theme, add the following to conf.py:

html_theme = "classic"

You can also set theme-specific options using the html_theme_options config value.  These options are generally used to change the look and feel of the theme. For example, to place the sidebar on the right side and a black background for the relation bar (the bar with the navigation links at the page’s top and bottom), add the following conf.py:

html_theme_options = {
    "rightsidebar": "true",
    "relbarbgcolor": "black"
}

If the theme does not come with Sphinx, it can be in two static forms or as a Python package. For the static forms, either a directory (containing theme.conf and other needed files), or a zip file with the same contents is supported. The directory or zipfile must be put where Sphinx can find it; for this there is the config value html_theme_path. This can be a list of directories, relative to the directory containing conf.py, that can contain theme directories or zip files.  For example, if you have a theme in the file blue.zip, you can put it right in the directory containing conf.py and use this configuration:

html_theme = "blue"
html_theme_path = ["."]

The third form is a Python package.  If a theme you want to use is distributed as a Python package, you can use it after installing

# installing theme package
$ pip install sphinxjp.themes.dotted

Once installed, this can be used in the same manner as a directory or zipfile-based theme:

html_theme = "dotted"

For more information on the design of themes, including information about writing your own themes, refer to /development/theming.

Builtin themes

Theme overview
[image: alabaster] [image]

alabaster
[image: classic] [image]

classic
[image: sphinxdoc] [image]

sphinxdoc
[image: scrolls] [image]

scrolls
[image: agogo] [image]

agogo
[image: traditional] [image]

traditional
[image: nature] [image]

nature
[image: haiku] [image]

haiku
[image: pyramid] [image]

pyramid
[image: bizstyle] [image]

bizstyle

Sphinx comes with a selection of themes to choose from.

Note that from these themes only the Alabaster and Scrolls themes are mobile-optimated, the other themes resort to horizontal scrolling if the screen is too narrow.

These themes are:

basic

This is a basically unstyled layout used as the base for the other themes, and usable as the base for custom themes as well.  The HTML contains all important elements like sidebar and relation bar.  There are these options (which are inherited by the other themes):

  • nosidebar (true or false): Don’t include the sidebar.  Defaults to False.
  • sidebarwidth (int or str): Width of the sidebar in pixels. This can be an int, which is interpreted as pixels or a valid CSS dimension string such as ‘70em’ or ‘50%’.  Defaults to 230 pixels.
  • body_min_width (int or str): Minimal width of the document body. This can be an int, which is interpreted as pixels or a valid CSS dimension string such as ‘70em’ or ‘50%’. Use 0 if you don’t want a width limit. Defaults may depend on the theme (often 450px).
  • body_max_width (int or str): Maximal width of the document body. This can be an int, which is interpreted as pixels or a valid CSS dimension string such as ‘70em’ or ‘50%’. Use ‘none’ if you don’t want a width limit. Defaults may depend on the theme (often 800px).
  • navigation_with_keys (true or false): Allow navigating to the previous/next page using the keyboard’s left and right arrows.  Defaults to False.
  • globaltoc_collapse (true or false): Only expand subsections of the current document in globaltoc.html (see html_sidebars). Defaults to True.

    New in version 3.1.

  • globaltoc_includehidden (true or false): Show even those subsections in globaltoc.html (see html_sidebars) which have been included with the :hidden: flag of the toctree directive. Defaults to False.

    New in version 3.1.

  • globaltoc_maxdepth (int): The maximum depth of the toctree in globaltoc.html (see html_sidebars).  Set it to -1 to allow unlimited depth. Defaults to the max depth selected in the toctree directive.

    New in version 3.2.

alabaster

Alabaster theme is a modified “Kr” Sphinx theme from @kennethreitz (especially as used in his Requests project), which was itself originally based on @mitsuhiko’s theme used for Flask & related projects.  Refer to its installation page for information on how to configure html_sidebars for its use.

classic

This is the classic theme, which looks like the Python 2 documentation.  It can be customized via these options:

  • rightsidebar (true or false): Put the sidebar on the right side. Defaults to False.
  • stickysidebar (true or false): Make the sidebar “fixed” so that it doesn’t scroll out of view for long body content.  This may not work well with all browsers.  Defaults to False.
  • collapsiblesidebar (true or false): Add an experimental JavaScript snippet that makes the sidebar collapsible via a button on its side. Defaults to False.
  • externalrefs (true or false): Display external links differently from internal links.  Defaults to False.

There are also various color and font options that can change the color scheme without having to write a custom stylesheet:

  • footerbgcolor (CSS color): Background color for the footer line.
  • footertextcolor (CSS color): Text color for the footer line.
  • sidebarbgcolor (CSS color): Background color for the sidebar.
  • sidebarbtncolor (CSS color): Background color for the sidebar collapse button (used when collapsiblesidebar is True).
  • sidebartextcolor (CSS color): Text color for the sidebar.
  • sidebarlinkcolor (CSS color): Link color for the sidebar.
  • relbarbgcolor (CSS color): Background color for the relation bar.
  • relbartextcolor (CSS color): Text color for the relation bar.
  • relbarlinkcolor (CSS color): Link color for the relation bar.
  • bgcolor (CSS color): Body background color.
  • textcolor (CSS color): Body text color.
  • linkcolor (CSS color): Body link color.
  • visitedlinkcolor (CSS color): Body color for visited links.
  • headbgcolor (CSS color): Background color for headings.
  • headtextcolor (CSS color): Text color for headings.
  • headlinkcolor (CSS color): Link color for headings.
  • codebgcolor (CSS color): Background color for code blocks.
  • codetextcolor (CSS color): Default text color for code blocks, if not set differently by the highlighting style.
  • bodyfont (CSS font-family): Font for normal text.
  • headfont (CSS font-family): Font for headings.
sphinxdoc

The theme originally used by this documentation. It features a sidebar on the right side. There are currently no options beyond nosidebar and sidebarwidth.

NOTE:

The Sphinx documentation now uses an adjusted version of the sphinxdoc theme.

scrolls

A more lightweight theme, based on the Jinja documentation.  The following color options are available:

  • headerbordercolor
  • subheadlinecolor
  • linkcolor
  • visitedlinkcolor
  • admonitioncolor
agogo

A theme created by Andi Albrecht.  The following options are supported:

  • bodyfont (CSS font family): Font for normal text.
  • headerfont (CSS font family): Font for headings.
  • pagewidth (CSS length): Width of the page content, default 70em.
  • documentwidth (CSS length): Width of the document (without sidebar), default 50em.
  • sidebarwidth (CSS length): Width of the sidebar, default 20em.
  • rightsidebar (true or false): Put the sidebar on the right side. Defaults to True.
  • bgcolor (CSS color): Background color.
  • headerbg (CSS value for “background”): background for the header area, default a grayish gradient.
  • footerbg (CSS value for “background”): background for the footer area, default a light gray gradient.
  • linkcolor (CSS color): Body link color.
  • headercolor1, headercolor2 (CSS color): colors for <h1> and <h2> headings.
  • headerlinkcolor (CSS color): Color for the backreference link in headings.
  • textalign (CSS text-align value): Text alignment for the body, default is justify.
nature

A greenish theme.  There are currently no options beyond nosidebar and sidebarwidth.

pyramid

A theme from the Pyramid web framework project, designed by Blaise Laflamme. There are currently no options beyond nosidebar and sidebarwidth.

haiku

A theme without sidebar inspired by the Haiku OS user guide.  The following options are supported:

  • full_logo (true or false, default False): If this is true, the header will only show the html_logo.  Use this for large logos. If this is false, the logo (if present) will be shown floating right, and the documentation title will be put in the header.
  • textcolor, headingcolor, linkcolor, visitedlinkcolor, hoverlinkcolor (CSS colors): Colors for various body elements.
traditional

A theme resembling the old Python documentation.  There are currently no options beyond nosidebar and sidebarwidth.

epub

A theme for the epub builder.  This theme tries to save visual space which is a sparse resource on ebook readers.  The following options are supported:

  • relbar1 (true or false, default True): If this is true, the relbar1 block is inserted in the epub output, otherwise it is omitted.
  • footer  (true or false, default True): If this is true, the footer block is inserted in the epub output, otherwise it is omitted.
bizstyle

A simple bluish theme. The following options are supported beyond nosidebar and sidebarwidth:

  • rightsidebar (true or false): Put the sidebar on the right side. Defaults to False.

New in version 1.3: ‘alabaster’, ‘sphinx_rtd_theme’ and ‘bizstyle’ theme.

Changed in version 1.3: The ‘default’ theme has been renamed to ‘classic’. ‘default’ is still available, however it will emit a notice that it is an alias for the new ‘alabaster’ theme.

Third Party Themes

There are many third-party themes available for Sphinx. Some of these are for general use, while others are specific to an individual project.

sphinx-themes.org is a gallery that showcases various themes for Sphinx, with demo documentation rendered under each theme. Themes can also be found on PyPI (using the classifier Framework :: Sphinx :: Theme), GitHub and GitLab.

Internationalization

New in version 1.1.

Complementary to translations provided for Sphinx-generated messages such as navigation bars, Sphinx provides mechanisms facilitating the translation of documents.  See the intl-options for details on configuration.

[image] Workflow visualization of translations in Sphinx.  (The figure is created by plantuml.).UNINDENT

  • Sphinx internationalization details
  • Translating with sphinx-intl

    • Quick guide
    • Translating
    • Update your po files by new pot files
  • Using Transifex service for team translation
  • Contributing to Sphinx reference translation

Sphinx internationalization details

gettext [1] is an established standard for internationalization and localization.  It naively maps messages in a program to a translated string. Sphinx uses these facilities to translate whole documents.

Initially project maintainers have to collect all translatable strings (also referred to as messages) to make them known to translators.  Sphinx extracts these through invocation of sphinx-build -b gettext.

Every single element in the doctree will end up in a single message which results in lists being equally split into different chunks while large paragraphs will remain as coarsely-grained as they were in the original document.  This grants seamless document updates while still providing a little bit of context for translators in free-text passages.  It is the maintainer’s task to split up paragraphs which are too large as there is no sane automated way to do that.

After Sphinx successfully ran the MessageCatalogBuilder you will find a collection of .pot files in your output directory.  These are catalog templates and contain messages in your original language only.

They can be delivered to translators which will transform them to .po files — so called message catalogs — containing a mapping from the original messages to foreign-language strings.

gettext compiles them into a binary format known as binary catalogs through msgfmt for efficiency reasons.  If you make these files discoverable with locale_dirs for your language, Sphinx will pick them up automatically.

An example: you have a document usage.rst in your Sphinx project.  The gettext builder will put its messages into usage.pot.  Imagine you have Spanish translations [2] stored in usage.po — for your builds to be translated you need to follow these instructions:

  • Compile your message catalog to a locale directory, say locale, so it ends up in ./locale/es/LC_MESSAGES/usage.mo in your source directory (where es is the language code for Spanish.)

    msgfmt "usage.po" -o "locale/es/LC_MESSAGES/usage.mo"
  • Set locale_dirs to ["locale/"].
  • Set language to es (also possible via -D).
  • Run your desired build.

Translating with sphinx-intl

Quick guide

sphinx-intl is a useful tool to work with Sphinx translation flow.  This section describe an easy way to translate with sphinx-intl.

  1. Install sphinx-intl.

    $ pip install sphinx-intl
  2. Add configurations to conf.py.

    locale_dirs = ['locale/']   # path is example but recommended.
    gettext_compact = False     # optional.

    This case-study assumes that BUILDDIR is set to _build, locale_dirs is set to locale/ and gettext_compact is set to False (the Sphinx document is already configured as such).

  3. Extract translatable messages into pot files.

    $ make gettext

    The generated pot files will be placed in the _build/gettext directory.

  4. Generate po files.

    We’ll use the pot files generated in the above step.

    $ sphinx-intl update -p _build/gettext -l de -l ja

    Once completed, the generated po files will be placed in the below directories:

    • ./locale/de/LC_MESSAGES/
    • ./locale/ja/LC_MESSAGES/
  5. Translate po files.

    As noted above, these are located in the ./locale/<lang>/LC_MESSAGES directory.  An example of one such file, from Sphinx, builders.po, is given below.

    # a5600c3d2e3d48fc8c261ea0284db79b
    #: ../../builders.rst:4
    msgid "Available builders"
    msgstr "<FILL HERE BY TARGET LANGUAGE>"

    Another case, msgid is multi-line text and contains reStructuredText syntax:

    # 302558364e1d41c69b3277277e34b184
    #: ../../builders.rst:9
    msgid ""
    "These are the built-in Sphinx builders. More builders can be added by "
    ":ref:`extensions <extensions>`."
    msgstr ""
    "FILL HERE BY TARGET LANGUAGE FILL HERE BY TARGET LANGUAGE FILL HERE "
    "BY TARGET LANGUAGE :ref:`EXTENSIONS <extensions>` FILL HERE."

    Please be careful not to break reST notation.  Most po-editors will help you with that.

  6. Build translated document.

    You need a language parameter in conf.py or you may also specify the parameter on the command line.

    For for BSD/GNU make, run:

    $ make -e SPHINXOPTS="-D language='de'" html

    For Windows cmd.exe, run:

    > set SPHINXOPTS=-D language=de
    > .\make.bat html

    For PowerShell, run:

    > Set-Item env:SPHINXOPTS "-D language=de"
    > .\make.bat html

Congratulations! You got the translated documentation in the _build/html directory.

New in version 1.3: sphinx-build that is invoked by make command will build po files into mo files.

If you are using 1.2.x or earlier, please invoke sphinx-intl build command before make command.

Translating

Update your po files by new pot files

If a document is updated, it is necessary to generate updated pot files and to apply differences to translated po files.  In order to apply the updates from a pot file to the po file, use the sphinx-intl update command.

$ sphinx-intl update -p _build/gettext

Using Transifex service for team translation

Transifex is one of several services that allow collaborative translation via a web interface.  It has a nifty Python-based command line client that makes it easy to fetch and push translations.

  1. Install transifex-client.

    You need tx command to upload resources (pot files).

    $ pip install transifex-client
    SEE ALSO:

    Transifex Client documentation

  2. Create your transifex account and create new project for your document.

    Currently, transifex does not allow for a translation project to have more than one version of the document, so you’d better include a version number in your project name.

    For example:

    Project ID

    sphinx-document-test_1_0

    Project URL

    https://www.transifex.com/projects/p/sphinx-document-test_1_0/

  3. Create config files for tx command.

    This process will create .tx/config in the current directory, as well as a ~/.transifexrc file that includes auth information.

    $ tx init
    Creating .tx folder...
    Transifex instance [https://www.transifex.com]:
    ...
    Please enter your transifex username: <transifex-username>
    Password: <transifex-password>
    ...
    Done.
  4. Upload pot files to transifex service.

    Register pot files to .tx/config file:

    $ cd /your/document/root
    $ sphinx-intl update-txconfig-resources --pot-dir _build/locale \
      --transifex-project-name sphinx-document-test_1_0

    and upload pot files:

    $ tx push -s
    Pushing translations for resource sphinx-document-test_1_0.builders:
    Pushing source file (locale/pot/builders.pot)
    Resource does not exist.  Creating...
    ...
    Done.
  5. Forward the translation on transifex.
  6. Pull translated po files and make translated HTML.

    Get translated catalogs and build mo files. For example, to build mo files for German (de):

    $ cd /your/document/root
    $ tx pull -l de
    Pulling translations for resource sphinx-document-test_1_0.builders (...)
     -> de: locale/de/LC_MESSAGES/builders.po
    ...
    Done.

    Invoke make html (for BSD/GNU make):

    $ make -e SPHINXOPTS="-D language='de'" html

That’s all!

TIP:

Translating locally and on Transifex

If you want to push all language’s po files, you can be done by using tx push -t command.  Watch out! This operation overwrites translations in transifex.

In other words, if you have updated each in the service and local po files, it would take much time and effort to integrate them.

Contributing to Sphinx reference translation

The recommended way for new contributors to translate Sphinx reference is to join the translation team on Transifex.

There is a sphinx translation page for Sphinx (master) documentation.

  1. Login to transifex service.
  2. Go to sphinx translation page.
  3. Click Request language and fill form.
  4. Wait acceptance by transifex sphinx translation maintainers.
  5. (After acceptance) Translate on transifex.

Detail is here: https://docs.transifex.com/getting-started-1/translators

Footnotes

[1]

See the GNU gettext utilities for details on that software suite.

[2]

Because nobody expects the Spanish Inquisition!

Setuptools integration

Sphinx supports integration with setuptools and distutils through a custom command - BuildDoc.

Using setuptools integration

The Sphinx build can then be triggered from distutils, and some Sphinx options can be set in setup.py or setup.cfg instead of Sphinx’s own configuration file.

For instance, from setup.py:

# this is only necessary when not using setuptools/distribute
from sphinx.setup_command import BuildDoc
cmdclass = {'build_sphinx': BuildDoc}

name = 'My project'
version = '1.2'
release = '1.2.0'
setup(
    name=name,
    author='Bernard Montgomery',
    version=release,
    cmdclass=cmdclass,
    # these are optional and override conf.py settings
    command_options={
        'build_sphinx': {
            'project': ('setup.py', name),
            'version': ('setup.py', version),
            'release': ('setup.py', release),
            'source_dir': ('setup.py', 'doc')}},
)
NOTE:

If you set Sphinx options directly in the setup() command, replace hyphens in variable names with underscores. In the example above, source-dir becomes source_dir.

Or add this section in setup.cfg:

[build_sphinx]
project = 'My project'
version = 1.2
release = 1.2.0
source-dir = 'doc'

Once configured, call this by calling the relevant command on setup.py:

$ python setup.py build_sphinx

Options for setuptools integration

fresh-env

A boolean that determines whether the saved environment should be discarded on build. Default is false.

This can also be set by passing the -E flag to setup.py:

$ python setup.py build_sphinx -E
all-files

A boolean that determines whether all files should be built from scratch. Default is false.

This can also be set by passing the -a flag to setup.py:

$ python setup.py build_sphinx -a
source-dir

The target source directory. This can be relative to the setup.py or setup.cfg file, or it can be absolute.  It defaults to ./doc or ./docs if either contains a file named conf.py (checking ./doc first); otherwise it defaults to the current directory.

This can also be set by passing the -s flag to setup.py:

$ python setup.py build_sphinx -s $SOURCE_DIR
build-dir

The target build directory. This can be relative to the setup.py or setup.cfg file, or it can be absolute. Default is ./build/sphinx.

config-dir

Location of the configuration directory. This can be relative to the setup.py or setup.cfg file, or it can be absolute. Default is to use source-dir.

This can also be set by passing the -c flag to setup.py:

$ python setup.py build_sphinx -c $CONFIG_DIR

New in version 1.0.

builder

The builder or list of builders to use. Default is html.

This can also be set by passing the -b flag to setup.py:

$ python setup.py build_sphinx -b $BUILDER

Changed in version 1.6: This can now be a comma- or space-separated list of builders

warning-is-error

A boolean that ensures Sphinx warnings will result in a failed build. Default is false.

This can also be set by passing the -W flag to setup.py:

$ python setup.py build_sphinx -W

New in version 1.5.

project

The documented project’s name. Default is ''.

New in version 1.0.

version

The short X.Y version. Default is ''.

New in version 1.0.

release

The full version, including alpha/beta/rc tags. Default is ''.

New in version 1.0.

today

How to format the current date, used as the replacement for |today|. Default is ''.

New in version 1.0.

link-index

A boolean that ensures index.html will be linked to the root doc. Default is false.

This can also be set by passing the -i flag to setup.py:

$ python setup.py build_sphinx -i

New in version 1.0.

copyright

The copyright string. Default is ''.

New in version 1.3.

nitpicky

Run in nit-picky mode.  Currently, this generates warnings for all missing references.  See the config value nitpick_ignore for a way to exclude some references as “known missing”.

New in version 1.8.

pdb

A boolean to configure pdb on exception. Default is false.

New in version 1.5.

Sphinx Web Support

New in version 1.1.

Sphinx provides a Python API to easily integrate Sphinx documentation into your web application.  To learn more read the websupportquickstart.

Web Support Quick Start

Building Documentation Data

To make use of the web support package in your application you’ll need to build the data it uses.  This data includes pickle files representing documents, search indices, and node data that is used to track where comments and other things are in a document.  To do this you will need to create an instance of the WebSupport class and call its build() method:

from sphinxcontrib.websupport import WebSupport

support = WebSupport(srcdir='/path/to/rst/sources/',
                     builddir='/path/to/build/outdir',
                     search='xapian')

support.build()

This will read reStructuredText sources from srcdir and place the necessary data in builddir.  The builddir will contain two sub-directories: one named “data” that contains all the data needed to display documents, search through documents, and add comments to documents.  The other directory will be called “static” and contains static files that should be served from “/static”.

NOTE:

If you wish to serve static files from a path other than “/static”, you can do so by providing the staticdir keyword argument when creating the WebSupport object.

Integrating Sphinx Documents Into Your Webapp

Now that the data is built, it’s time to do something useful with it.  Start off by creating a WebSupport object for your application:

from sphinxcontrib.websupport import WebSupport

support = WebSupport(datadir='/path/to/the/data',
                     search='xapian')

You’ll only need one of these for each set of documentation you will be working with.  You can then call its get_document() method to access individual documents:

contents = support.get_document('contents')

This will return a dictionary containing the following items:

  • body: The main body of the document as HTML
  • sidebar: The sidebar of the document as HTML
  • relbar: A div containing links to related documents
  • title: The title of the document
  • css: Links to CSS files used by Sphinx
  • script: JavaScript containing comment options

This dict can then be used as context for templates.  The goal is to be easy to integrate with your existing templating system.  An example using Jinja2 is:

{%- extends "layout.html" %}

{%- block title %}
    {{ document.title }}
{%- endblock %}

{% block css %}
    {{ super() }}
    {{ document.css|safe }}
    <link rel="stylesheet" href="/static/websupport-custom.css" type="text/css">
{% endblock %}

{%- block script %}
    {{ super() }}
    {{ document.script|safe }}
{%- endblock %}

{%- block relbar %}
    {{ document.relbar|safe }}
{%- endblock %}

{%- block body %}
    {{ document.body|safe }}
{%- endblock %}

{%- block sidebar %}
    {{ document.sidebar|safe }}
{%- endblock %}

Authentication

To use certain features such as voting, it must be possible to authenticate users.  The details of the authentication are left to your application.  Once a user has been authenticated you can pass the user’s details to certain WebSupport methods using the username and moderator keyword arguments.  The web support package will store the username with comments and votes.  The only caveat is that if you allow users to change their username you must update the websupport package’s data:

support.update_username(old_username, new_username)

username should be a unique string which identifies a user, and moderator should be a boolean representing whether the user has moderation privileges. The default value for moderator is False.

An example Flask function that checks whether a user is logged in and then retrieves a document is:

from sphinxcontrib.websupport.errors import *

@app.route('/<path:docname>')
def doc(docname):
    username = g.user.name if g.user else ''
    moderator = g.user.moderator if g.user else False
    try:
        document = support.get_document(docname, username, moderator)
    except DocumentNotFoundError:
        abort(404)
    return render_template('doc.html', document=document)

The first thing to notice is that the docname is just the request path.  This makes accessing the correct document easy from a single view.  If the user is authenticated, then the username and moderation status are passed along with the docname to get_document().  The web support package will then add this data to the COMMENT_OPTIONS that are used in the template.

NOTE:

This only works if your documentation is served from your document root. If it is served from another directory, you will need to prefix the url route with that directory, and give the docroot keyword argument when creating the web support object:

support = WebSupport(..., docroot='docs')

@app.route('/docs/<path:docname>')

Performing Searches

To use the search form built-in to the Sphinx sidebar, create a function to handle requests to the URL ‘search’ relative to the documentation root.  The user’s search query will be in the GET parameters, with the key q.  Then use the get_search_results() method to retrieve search results. In Flask that would be like this:

@app.route('/search')
def search():
    q = request.args.get('q')
    document = support.get_search_results(q)
    return render_template('doc.html', document=document)

Note that we used the same template to render our search results as we did to render our documents.  That’s because get_search_results() returns a context dict in the same format that get_document() does.

Comments & Proposals

Now that this is done it’s time to define the functions that handle the AJAX calls from the script.  You will need three functions.  The first function is used to add a new comment, and will call the web support method add_comment():

@app.route('/docs/add_comment', methods=['POST'])
def add_comment():
    parent_id = request.form.get('parent', '')
    node_id = request.form.get('node', '')
    text = request.form.get('text', '')
    proposal = request.form.get('proposal', '')
    username = g.user.name if g.user is not None else 'Anonymous'
    comment = support.add_comment(text, node_id='node_id',
                                  parent_id='parent_id',
                                  username=username, proposal=proposal)
    return jsonify(comment=comment)

You’ll notice that both a parent_id and node_id are sent with the request. If the comment is being attached directly to a node, parent_id will be empty. If the comment is a child of another comment, then node_id will be empty. Then next function handles the retrieval of comments for a specific node, and is aptly named get_data():

@app.route('/docs/get_comments')
def get_comments():
    username = g.user.name if g.user else None
    moderator = g.user.moderator if g.user else False
    node_id = request.args.get('node', '')
    data = support.get_data(node_id, username, moderator)
    return jsonify(**data)

The final function that is needed will call process_vote(), and will handle user votes on comments:

@app.route('/docs/process_vote', methods=['POST'])
def process_vote():
    if g.user is None:
        abort(401)
    comment_id = request.form.get('comment_id')
    value = request.form.get('value')
    if value is None or comment_id is None:
        abort(400)
    support.process_vote(comment_id, g.user.id, value)
    return "success"

Comment Moderation

By default, all comments added through add_comment() are automatically displayed.  If you wish to have some form of moderation, you can pass the displayed keyword argument:

comment = support.add_comment(text, node_id='node_id',
                              parent_id='parent_id',
                              username=username, proposal=proposal,
                              displayed=False)

You can then create a new view to handle the moderation of comments.  It will be called when a moderator decides a comment should be accepted and displayed:

@app.route('/docs/accept_comment', methods=['POST'])
def accept_comment():
    moderator = g.user.moderator if g.user else False
    comment_id = request.form.get('id')
    support.accept_comment(comment_id, moderator=moderator)
    return 'OK'

Rejecting comments happens via comment deletion.

To perform a custom action (such as emailing a moderator) when a new comment is added but not displayed, you can pass callable to the WebSupport class when instantiating your support object:

def moderation_callback(comment):
    """Do something..."""

support = WebSupport(..., moderation_callback=moderation_callback)

The moderation callback must take one argument, which will be the same comment dict that is returned by add_comment().

The WebSupport Class

class sphinxcontrib.websupport.WebSupport

The main API class for the web support package.  All interactions with the web support package should occur through this class.

The class takes the following keyword arguments:

srcdir

The directory containing reStructuredText source files.

builddir

The directory that build data and static files should be placed in.  This should be used when creating a WebSupport object that will be used to build data.

datadir

The directory that the web support data is in.  This should be used when creating a WebSupport object that will be used to retrieve data.

search

This may contain either a string (e.g. ‘xapian’) referencing a built-in search adapter to use, or an instance of a subclass of BaseSearch.

storage

This may contain either a string representing a database uri, or an instance of a subclass of StorageBackend.  If this is not provided, a new sqlite database will be created.

moderation_callback

A callable to be called when a new comment is added that is not displayed.  It must accept one argument: a dictionary representing the comment that was added.

staticdir

If the static files should be created in a different location and not in '/static', this should be a string with the name of that location (e.g. builddir + '/static_files').

NOTE:

If you specify staticdir, you will typically want to adjust staticroot accordingly.

staticroot

If the static files are not served from '/static', this should be a string with the name of that location (e.g. '/static_files').

docroot

If the documentation is not served from the base path of a URL, this should be a string specifying that path (e.g. 'docs').

Changed in version 1.6: WebSupport class is moved to sphinxcontrib.websupport from sphinx.websupport. Please add sphinxcontrib-websupport package in your dependency and use moved class instead.

Methods

WebSupport.build()

Build the documentation. Places the data into the outdir directory. Use it like this:

support = WebSupport(srcdir, builddir, search='xapian')
support.build()

This will read reStructured text files from srcdir. Then it will build the pickles and search index, placing them into builddir. It will also save node data to the database.

WebSupport.get_document(docname, username='', moderator=False)

Load and return a document from a pickle. The document will be a dict object which can be used to render a template:

support = WebSupport(datadir=datadir)
support.get_document('index', username, moderator)

In most cases docname will be taken from the request path and passed directly to this function. In Flask, that would be something like this:

@app.route('/<path:docname>')
def index(docname):
    username = g.user.name if g.user else ''
    moderator = g.user.moderator if g.user else False
    try:
        document = support.get_document(docname, username,
                                        moderator)
    except DocumentNotFoundError:
        abort(404)
    render_template('doc.html', document=document)

The document dict that is returned contains the following items to be used during template rendering.

  • body: The main body of the document as HTML
  • sidebar: The sidebar of the document as HTML
  • relbar: A div containing links to related documents
  • title: The title of the document
  • css: Links to css files used by Sphinx
  • script: Javascript containing comment options

This raises DocumentNotFoundError if a document matching docname is not found.

Parameters

docname – the name of the document to load.

WebSupport.get_data(node_id, username=None, moderator=False)

Get the comments and source associated with node_id. If username is given vote information will be included with the returned comments. The default CommentBackend returns a dict with two keys, source, and comments. source is raw source of the node and is used as the starting point for proposals a user can add. comments is a list of dicts that represent a comment, each having the following items:

KeyContents
textThe comment text.
usernameThe username that was stored with the comment.
idThe comment’s unique identifier.
ratingThe comment’s current rating.
ageThe time in seconds since the comment was added.
timeA dict containing time information. It contains the following keys: year, month, day, hour, minute, second, iso, and delta. iso is the time formatted in ISO 8601 format. delta is a printable form of how old the comment is (e.g. “3 hours ago”).
voteIf user_id was given, this will be an integer representing the vote. 1 for an upvote, -1 for a downvote, or 0 if unvoted.
nodeThe id of the node that the comment is attached to. If the comment’s parent is another comment rather than a node, this will be null.
parentThe id of the comment that this comment is attached to if it is not attached to a node.
childrenA list of all children, in this format.
proposal_diffAn HTML representation of the differences between the the current source and the user’s proposed source.
Parameters
  • node_id – the id of the node to get comments for.
  • username – the username of the user viewing the comments.
  • moderator – whether the user is a moderator.
WebSupport.add_comment(text, node_id='', parent_id='', displayed=True, username=None, time=None, proposal=None, moderator=False)

Add a comment to a node or another comment. Returns the comment in the same format as get_comments(). If the comment is being attached to a node, pass in the node’s id (as a string) with the node keyword argument:

comment = support.add_comment(text, node_id=node_id)

If the comment is the child of another comment, provide the parent’s id (as a string) with the parent keyword argument:

comment = support.add_comment(text, parent_id=parent_id)

If you would like to store a username with the comment, pass in the optional username keyword argument:

comment = support.add_comment(text, node=node_id,
                              username=username)
Parameters
  • parent_id – the prefixed id of the comment’s parent.
  • text – the text of the comment.
  • displayed – for moderation purposes
  • username – the username of the user making the comment.
  • time – the time the comment was created, defaults to now.
WebSupport.process_vote(comment_id, username, value)

Process a user’s vote. The web support package relies on the API user to perform authentication. The API user will typically receive a comment_id and value from a form, and then make sure the user is authenticated. A unique username  must be passed in, which will also be used to retrieve the user’s past voting data. An example, once again in Flask:

@app.route('/docs/process_vote', methods=['POST'])
def process_vote():
    if g.user is None:
        abort(401)
    comment_id = request.form.get('comment_id')
    value = request.form.get('value')
    if value is None or comment_id is None:
        abort(400)
    support.process_vote(comment_id, g.user.name, value)
    return "success"
Parameters
  • comment_id – the comment being voted on
  • username – the unique username of the user voting
  • value – 1 for an upvote, -1 for a downvote, 0 for an unvote.
WebSupport.get_search_results(q)

Perform a search for the query q, and create a set of search results. Then render the search results as html and return a context dict like the one created by get_document():

document = support.get_search_results(q)
Parameters

q – the search query

Search Adapters

To create a custom search adapter you will need to subclass the BaseSearch class.  Then create an instance of the new class and pass that as the search keyword argument when you create the WebSupport object:

support = WebSupport(srcdir=srcdir,
                     builddir=builddir,
                     search=MySearch())

For more information about creating a custom search adapter, please see the documentation of the BaseSearch class below.

class sphinxcontrib.websupport.search.BaseSearch

Defines an interface for search adapters.

Changed in version 1.6: BaseSearch class is moved to sphinxcontrib.websupport.search from sphinx.websupport.search.

Methods

The following methods are defined in the BaseSearch class. Some methods do not need to be overridden, but some (add_document() and handle_query()) must be overridden in your subclass. For a working example, look at the built-in adapter for whoosh.

BaseSearch.init_indexing(changed=[])

Called by the builder to initialize the search indexer. changed is a list of pagenames that will be reindexed. You may want to remove these from the search index before indexing begins.

Parameters

changed – a list of pagenames that will be re-indexed

BaseSearch.finish_indexing()

Called by the builder when writing has been completed. Use this to perform any finalization or cleanup actions after indexing is complete.

BaseSearch.feed(pagename, filename, title, doctree)

Called by the builder to add a doctree to the index. Converts the doctree to text and passes it to add_document(). You probably won’t want to override this unless you need access to the doctree. Override add_document() instead.

Parameters
  • pagename – the name of the page to be indexed
  • filename – the name of the original source file
  • title – the title of the page to be indexed
  • doctree – is the docutils doctree representation of the page
BaseSearch.add_document(pagename, filename, title, text)

Called by feed() to add a document to the search index. This method should should do everything necessary to add a single document to the search index.

pagename is name of the page being indexed. It is the combination of the source files relative path and filename, minus the extension. For example, if the source file is “ext/builders.rst”, the pagename would be “ext/builders”. This will need to be returned with search results when processing a query.

Parameters
  • pagename – the name of the page being indexed
  • filename – the name of the original source file
  • title – the page’s title
  • text – the full text of the page
BaseSearch.query(q)

Called by the web support api to get search results. This method compiles the regular expression to be used when extracting context, then calls handle_query().  You won’t want to override this unless you don’t want to use the included extract_context() method.  Override handle_query() instead.

Parameters

q – the search query string.

BaseSearch.handle_query(q)

Called by query() to retrieve search results for a search query q. This should return an iterable containing tuples of the following format:

(<path>, <title>, <context>)

path and title are the same values that were passed to add_document(), and context should be a short text snippet of the text surrounding the search query in the document.

The extract_context() method is provided as a simple way to create the context.

Parameters

q – the search query

BaseSearch.extract_context(text, length=240)

Extract the context for the search query from the document’s full text.

Parameters
  • text – the full text of the document to create the context for
  • length – the length of the context snippet to return.

Storage Backends

To create a custom storage backend you will need to subclass the StorageBackend class.  Then create an instance of the new class and pass that as the storage keyword argument when you create the WebSupport object:

support = WebSupport(srcdir=srcdir,
                     builddir=builddir,
                     storage=MyStorage())

For more information about creating a custom storage backend, please see the documentation of the StorageBackend class below.

class sphinxcontrib.websupport.storage.StorageBackend

Defines an interface for storage backends.

Changed in version 1.6: StorageBackend class is moved to sphinxcontrib.websupport.storage from sphinx.websupport.storage.

Methods

StorageBackend.pre_build()

Called immediately before the build process begins. Use this to prepare the StorageBackend for the addition of nodes.

StorageBackend.add_node(id, document, source)

Add a node to the StorageBackend.

Parameters
  • id – a unique id for the comment.
  • document – the name of the document the node belongs to.
  • source – the source files name.
StorageBackend.post_build()

Called after a build has completed. Use this to finalize the addition of nodes if needed.

StorageBackend.add_comment(text, displayed, username, time, proposal, node_id, parent_id, moderator)

Called when a comment is being added.

Parameters
  • text – the text of the comment
  • displayed – whether the comment should be displayed
  • username – the name of the user adding the comment
  • time – a date object with the time the comment was added
  • proposal – the text of the proposal the user made
  • node_id – the id of the node that the comment is being added to
  • parent_id – the id of the comment’s parent comment.
  • moderator – whether the user adding the comment is a moderator
StorageBackend.delete_comment(comment_id, username, moderator)

Delete a comment.

Raises UserNotAuthorizedError if moderator is False and username doesn’t match the username on the comment.

Parameters
  • comment_id – The id of the comment being deleted.
  • username – The username of the user requesting the deletion.
  • moderator – Whether the user is a moderator.
StorageBackend.get_data(node_id, username, moderator)

Called to retrieve all data for a node. This should return a dict with two keys, source and comments as described by WebSupport’s get_data() method.

Parameters
  • node_id – The id of the node to get data for.
  • username – The name of the user requesting the data.
  • moderator – Whether the requestor is a moderator.
StorageBackend.process_vote(comment_id, username, value)

Process a vote that is being cast. value will be either -1, 0, or 1.

Parameters
  • comment_id – The id of the comment being voted on.
  • username – The username of the user casting the vote.
  • value – The value of the vote being cast.
StorageBackend.update_username(old_username, new_username)

If a user is allowed to change their username this method should be called so that there is not stagnate data in the storage system.

Parameters
  • old_username – The username being changed.
  • new_username – What the username is being changed to.
StorageBackend.accept_comment(comment_id)

Called when a moderator accepts a comment. After the method is called the comment should be displayed to all users.

Parameters

comment_id – The id of the comment being accepted.

Sphinx Tutorial

In this tutorial you will build a simple documentation project using Sphinx, and view it in your browser as HTML.  The project will include narrative, handwritten documentation, as well as autogenerated API documentation.

The tutorial is aimed towards Sphinx newcomers willing to learn the fundamentals of how projects are created and structured.  You will create a fictional software library to generate random food recipes that will serve as a guide throughout the process, with the objective of properly documenting it.

To showcase Sphinx capabilities for code documentation you will use Python, which also supports automatic documentation generation.

NOTE:

Several other languages are natively supported in Sphinx for manual code documentation, however they require extensions for automatic code documentation, like Breathe.

To follow the instructions you will need access to a Linux-like command line and a basic understanding of how it works, as well as a working Python installation for development, since you will use Python virtual environments to create the project.

Getting started

Setting up your project and development environment

In a new directory, create a file called README.rst with the following content.

README.rst

Lumache
=======

**Lumache** (/lu'make/) is a Python library for cooks and food lovers that
creates recipes mixing random ingredients.

It is a good moment to create a Python virtual environment and install the required tools.  For that, open a command line terminal, cd into the directory you just created, and run the following commands:

$ python -m venv .venv
$ source .venv/bin/activate
(.venv) $ python -m pip install sphinx
NOTE:

The installation method used above is described in more detail in install-pypi.  For the rest of this tutorial, the instructions will assume a Python virtual environment.

If you executed these instructions correctly, you should have the Sphinx command line tools available.  You can do a basic verification running this command:

(.venv) $ sphinx-build --version
sphinx-build 4.0.2

If you see a similar output, you are on the right path!

Creating the documentation layout

Then from the command line, run the following command:

(.venv) $ sphinx-quickstart docs

This will present to you a series of questions required to create the basic directory and configuration layout for your project inside the docs folder. To proceed, answer each question as follows:

  • > Separate source and build directories (y/n) [n]: Write “y” (without quotes) and press Enter.
  • > Project name: Write “Lumache” (without quotes) and press Enter.
  • > Author name(s): Write “Graziella” (without quotes) and press Enter.
  • > Project release []: Write “0.1” (without quotes) and press Enter.
  • > Project language [en]: Leave it empty (the default, English) and press Enter.

After the last question, you will see the new docs directory with the following content.

docs
├── build
├── make.bat
├── Makefile
└── source
   ├── conf.py
   ├── index.rst
   ├── _static
   └── _templates

The purpose of each of these files is:

build/

An empty directory (for now) that will hold the rendered documentation.

make.bat and Makefile

Convenience scripts to simplify some common Sphinx operations, such as rendering the content.

source/conf.py

A Python script holding the configuration of the Sphinx project.  It contains the project name and release you specified to sphinx-quickstart, as well as some extra configuration keys.

source/index.rst

The root document of the project, which serves as welcome page and contains the root of the “table of contents tree” (or toctree).

Thanks to this bootstrapping step, you already have everything needed to render the documentation as HTML for the first time.  To do that, run this command:

(.venv) $ sphinx-build -b html docs/source/ docs/build/html

And finally, open docs/build/html/index.html in your browser.  You should see something like this:

[image: Freshly created documentation of Lumache] [image] Freshly created documentation of Lumache.UNINDENT

There we go! You created your first HTML documentation using Sphinx. Now you can start customizing it.

First steps to document your project using Sphinx

Building your HTML documentation

The index.rst file that sphinx-quickstart created has some content already, and it gets rendered as the front page of your HTML documentation.  It is written in reStructuredText, a powerful markup language.

Modify the file as follows:

docs/source/index.rst

Welcome to Lumache's documentation!
===================================

**Lumache** (/lu'make/) is a Python library for cooks and food lovers that
creates recipes mixing random ingredients.  It pulls data from the `Open Food
Facts database <https://world.openfoodfacts.org/>`_ and offers a *simple* and
*intuitive* API.

.. note::

   This project is under active development.

This showcases several features of the reStructuredText syntax, including:

  • a section header using === for the underline,
  • two examples of rst-inline-markup: **strong emphasis** (typically bold) and *emphasis* (typically italics),
  • an inline external link,
  • and a note admonition (one of the available directives)

Now to render it with the new content, you can use the sphinx-build command as before, or leverage the convenience script as follows:

(.venv) $ cd docs
(.venv) $ make html

After running this command, you will see that index.html reflects the new changes!

Building your documentation in other formats

Sphinx supports a variety of formats apart from HTML, including PDF, EPUB, and more.  For example, to build your documentation in EPUB format, run this command from the docs directory:

(.venv) $ make epub

After that, you will see the files corresponding to the e-book under docs/build/epub/.  You can either open Lumache.epub with an EPUB-compatible e-book viewer, like Calibre, or preview index.xhtml on a web browser.

NOTE:

To quickly display a complete list of possible output formats, plus some extra useful commands, you can run make help.

Each output format has some specific configuration options that you can tune, including EPUB.  For instance, the default value of epub_show_urls is inline, which means that, by default, URLs are shown right after the corresponding link, in parentheses.  You can change that behavior by adding the following code at the end of your conf.py:

# EPUB options
epub_show_urls = 'footnote'

With this configuration value, and after running make epub again, you will notice that URLs appear now as footnotes, which avoids cluttering the text. Sweet! Read on to explore other ways to customize Sphinx.

NOTE:

Generating a PDF using Sphinx can be done running make latexpdf, provided that the system has a working LaTeX installation, as explained in the documentation of sphinx.builders.latex.LaTeXBuilder. Although this is perfectly feasible, such installations are often big, and in general LaTeX requires careful configuration in some cases, so PDF generation is out of scope for this tutorial.

More Sphinx customization

There are two main ways to customize your documentation beyond what is possible with core Sphinx: extensions and themes.

Enabling a built-in extension

In addition to these configuration values, you can customize Sphinx even more by using extensions.  Sphinx ships several builtin ones, and there are many more maintained by the community.

For example, to enable the sphinx.ext.duration extension, locate the extensions list in your conf.py and add one element as follows:

docs/source/conf.py

# Add any Sphinx extension module names here, as strings. They can be
# extensions coming with Sphinx (named 'sphinx.ext.*') or your custom
# ones.
extensions = [
    'sphinx.ext.duration',
]

After that, every time you generate your documentation, you will see a short durations report at the end of the console output, like this one:

(.venv) $ make html
...
The HTML pages are in build/html.

====================== slowest reading durations =======================
0.042 temp/source/index

Using a third-party HTML theme

Themes, on the other hand, are a way to customize the appearance of your documentation.  Sphinx has several builtin themes, and there are also third-party ones.

For example, to use the Furo third-party theme in your HTML documentation, first you will need to install it with pip in your Python virtual environment, like this:

(.venv) $ pip install furo

And then, locate the html_theme variable on your conf.py and replace its value as follows:

docs/source/conf.py

# The theme to use for HTML and HTML Help pages.  See the documentation for
# a list of builtin themes.
#
html_theme = 'furo'

With this change, you will notice that your HTML documentation has now a new appearance:

[image: HTML documentation of Lumache with the Furo theme] [image] HTML documentation of Lumache with the Furo theme.UNINDENT

It is now time to expand the narrative documentation and split it into several documents.

Narrative documentation in Sphinx

Structuring your documentation across multiple pages

The file index.rst created by sphinx-quickstart is the root document, whose main function is to serve as a welcome page and to contain the root of the “table of contents tree” (or toctree).  Sphinx allows you to assemble a project from different files, which is helpful when the project grows.

As an example, create a new file docs/source/usage.rst (next to index.rst) with these contents:

docs/source/usage.rst

Usage
=====

Installation
------------

To use Lumache, first install it using pip:

.. code-block:: console

   (.venv) $ pip install lumache

This new file contains two section headers, normal paragraph text, and a code-block directive that renders a block of content as source code, with appropriate syntax highlighting (in this case, generic console text).

The structure of the document is determined by the succession of heading styles, which means that, by using --- for the “Installation” section after === for the “Usage” section, you have declared “Installation” to be a subsection of “Usage”.

To complete the process, add a toctree directive at the end of index.rst including the document you just created, as follows:

docs/source/index.rst

Contents
--------

.. toctree::

   usage

This step inserts that document in the root of the toctree, so now it belongs to the structure of your project, which so far looks like this:

index
└── usage

If you build the HTML documentation running make html, you will see that the toctree gets rendered as a list of hyperlinks, and this allows you to navigate to the new page you just created.  Neat!

WARNING:

Documents outside a toctree will result in WARNING: document isn't included in any toctree messages during the build process, and will be unreachable for users.

Adding cross-references

One powerful feature of Sphinx is the ability to seamlessly add cross-references to specific parts of the documentation: a document, a section, a figure, a code object, etc.  This tutorial is full of them!

To add a cross-reference, write this sentence right after the introduction paragraph in index.rst:

docs/source/index.rst

Check out the :doc:`usage` section for further information.

The doc role you used automatically references a specific document in the project, in this case the usage.rst you created earlier.

Alternatively, you can also add a cross-reference to an arbitrary part of the project. For that, you need to use the ref role, and add an explicit label that acts as a target.

For example, to reference the “Installation” subsection, add a label right before the heading, as follows:

docs/source/usage.rst

Usage
=====

.. _installation:

Installation
------------

...

And make the sentence you added in index.rst look like this:

docs/source/index.rst

Check out the :doc:`usage` section for further information, including how to
:ref:`install <installation>` the project.

Notice a trick here: the install part specifies how the link will look like (we want it to be a specific word, so the sentence makes sense), whereas the <installation> part refers to the actual label we want to add a cross-reference to. If you do not include an explicit title, hence using :ref:`installation`, the section title will be used (in this case, Installation). Both the :doc: and the :ref: roles will be rendered as hyperlinks in the HTML documentation.

What about documenting code objects in Sphinx? Read on!

Describing code in Sphinx

In the previous sections of the tutorial you can read how to write narrative or prose documentation in Sphinx. In this section you will describe code objects instead.

Sphinx supports documenting code objects in several languages, namely Python, C, C++, JavaScript, and reStructuredText. Each of them can be documented using a series of directives and roles grouped by domain. For the remainder of the tutorial you will use the Python domain, but all the concepts seen in this section apply for the other domains as well.

Documenting Python objects

Sphinx offers several roles and directives to document Python objects, all grouped together in the Python domain. For example, you can use the py:function directive to document a Python function, as follows:

docs/source/usage.rst

Creating recipes
----------------

To retrieve a list of random ingredients,
you can use the ``lumache.get_random_ingredients()`` function:

.. py:function:: lumache.get_random_ingredients(kind=None)

   Return a list of random ingredients as strings.

   :param kind: Optional "kind" of ingredients.
   :type kind: list[str] or None
   :return: The ingredients list.
   :rtype: list[str]

Which will render like this:

[image: HTML result of documenting a Python function in Sphinx] [image] The rendered result of documenting a Python function in Sphinx.UNINDENT

Notice several things:

  • Sphinx parsed the argument of the .. py:function directive and highlighted the module, the function name, and the parameters appropriately.
  • The directive content includes a one-line description of the function, as well as a info field list containing the function parameter, its expected type, the return value, and the return type.
NOTE:

The py: prefix specifies the domain. You may configure the default domain so you can omit the prefix, either globally using the primary_domain configuration, or use the default-domain directive to change it from the point it is called until the end of the file. For example, if you set it to py (the default), you can write .. function:: directly.

Cross-referencing Python objects

By default, most of these directives generate entities that can be cross-referenced from any part of the documentation by using a corresponding role. For the case of functions, you can use py:func for that, as follows:

docs/source/usage.rst

The ``kind`` parameter should be either ``"meat"``, ``"fish"``,
or ``"veggies"``. Otherwise, :py:func:`lumache.get_random_ingredients`
will raise an exception.

When generating code documentation, Sphinx will generate a cross-reference automatically just by using the name of the object, without you having to explicitly use a role for that. For example, you can describe the custom exception raised by the function using the py:exception directive:

docs/source/usage.rst

.. py:exception:: lumache.InvalidKindError

   Raised if the kind is invalid.

Then, add this exception to the original description of the function:

docs/source/usage.rst

.. py:function:: lumache.get_random_ingredients(kind=None)

   Return a list of random ingredients as strings.

   :param kind: Optional "kind" of ingredients.
   :type kind: list[str] or None
   :raise lumache.InvalidKindError: If the kind is invalid.
   :return: The ingredients list.
   :rtype: list[str]

And finally, this is how the result would look:

[image: HTML result of documenting a Python function in Sphinx with cross-references] [image] HTML result of documenting a Python function in Sphinx with cross-references.UNINDENT

Beautiful, isn’t it?

Including doctests in your documentation

Since you are now describing code from a Python library, it will become useful to keep both the documentation and the code as synchronized as possible. One of the ways to do that in Sphinx is to include code snippets in the documentation, called doctests, that are executed when the documentation is built.

To demonstrate doctests and other Sphinx features covered in this tutorial, Sphinx will need to be able to import the code. To achieve that, write this at the beginning of conf.py:

docs/source/conf.py

# If extensions (or modules to document with autodoc) are in another directory,
# add these directories to sys.path here.
import pathlib
import sys
sys.path.insert(0, pathlib.Path(__file__).parents[2].resolve().as_posix())
NOTE:

An alternative to changing the sys.path variable is to create a pyproject.toml file and make the code installable, so it behaves like any other Python library. However, the sys.path approach is simpler.

Then, before adding doctests to your documentation, enable the doctest extension in conf.py:

docs/source/conf.py

extensions = [
    'sphinx.ext.duration',
    'sphinx.ext.doctest',
]

Next, write a doctest block as follows:

docs/source/usage.rst

>>> import lumache
>>> lumache.get_random_ingredients()
['shells', 'gorgonzola', 'parsley']

Doctests include the Python instructions to be run preceded by >>>, the standard Python interpreter prompt, as well as the expected output of each instruction. This way, Sphinx can check whether the actual output matches the expected one.

To observe how a doctest failure looks like (rather than a code error as above), let’s write the return value incorrectly first. Therefore, add a function get_random_ingredients like this:

lumache.py

def get_random_ingredients(kind=None):
    return ["eggs", "bacon", "spam"]

You can now run make doctest to execute the doctests of your documentation. Initially this will display an error, since the actual code does not behave as specified:

(.venv) $ make doctest
Running Sphinx v4.2.0
loading pickled environment... done
...
running tests...

Document: usage
---------------
**********************************************************************
File "usage.rst", line 44, in default
Failed example:
    lumache.get_random_ingredients()
Expected:
    ['shells', 'gorgonzola', 'parsley']
Got:
    ['eggs', 'bacon', 'spam']
**********************************************************************
...
make: *** [Makefile:20: doctest] Error 1

As you can see, doctest reports the expected and the actual results, for easy examination. It is now time to fix the function:

lumache.py

def get_random_ingredients(kind=None):
    return ["shells", "gorgonzola", "parsley"]

And finally, make test reports success!

For big projects though, this manual approach can become a bit tedious. In the next section, you will see how to automate the process.

Automatic documentation generation from code

In the previous section of the tutorial you manually documented a Python function in Sphinx. However, the description was out of sync with the code itself, since the function signature was not the same. Besides, it would be nice to reuse Python docstrings in the documentation, rather than having to write the information in two places.

Fortunately, the autodoc extension provides this functionality.

Reusing signatures and docstrings with autodoc

To use autodoc, first add it to the list of enabled extensions:

docs/source/conf.py

extensions = [
    'sphinx.ext.duration',
    'sphinx.ext.doctest',
    'sphinx.ext.autodoc',
]

Next, move the content of the .. py:function directive to the function docstring in the original Python file, as follows:

lumache.py

def get_random_ingredients(kind=None):
    """
    Return a list of random ingredients as strings.

    :param kind: Optional "kind" of ingredients.
    :type kind: list[str] or None
    :raise lumache.InvalidKindError: If the kind is invalid.
    :return: The ingredients list.
    :rtype: list[str]

    """
    return ["shells", "gorgonzola", "parsley"]

Finally, replace the .. py:function directive from the Sphinx documentation with autofunction:

docs/source/usage.rst

you can use the ``lumache.get_random_ingredients()`` function:

.. autofunction:: lumache.get_random_ingredients

If you now build the HTML documentation, the output will be the same! With the advantage that it is generated from the code itself. Sphinx took the reStructuredText from the docstring and included it, also generating proper cross-references.

You can also autogenerate documentation from other objects. For example, add the code for the InvalidKindError exception:

lumache.py

class InvalidKindError(Exception):
    """Raised if the kind is invalid."""
    pass

And replace the .. py:exception directive with autoexception as follows:

docs/source/usage.rst

or ``"veggies"``. Otherwise, :py:func:`lumache.get_random_ingredients`
will raise an exception.

.. autoexception:: lumache.InvalidKindError

And again, after running make html, the output will be the same as before.

Generating comprehensive API references

While using sphinx.ext.autodoc makes keeping the code and the documentation in sync much easier, it still requires you to write an auto* directive for every object you want to document. Sphinx provides yet another level of automation: the autosummary extension.

The autosummary directive generates documents that contain all the necessary autodoc directives. To use it, first enable the autosummary extension:

docs/source/conf.py

extensions = [
   'sphinx.ext.duration',
   'sphinx.ext.doctest',
   'sphinx.ext.autodoc',
   'sphinx.ext.autosummary',
]

Next, create a new api.rst file with these contents:

docs/source/api.rst

API
===

.. autosummary::
   :toctree: generated

   lumache

Remember to include the new document in the root toctree:

docs/source/index.rst

Contents
--------

.. toctree::

   usage
   api

Finally, after you build the HTML documentation running make html, it will contain two new pages:

  • api.html, corresponding to docs/source/api.rst and containing a table with the objects you included in the autosummary directive (in this case, only one).
  • generated/lumache.html, corresponding to a newly created reST file generated/lumache.rst and containing a summary of members of the module, in this case one function and one exception.

    [image: Summary page created by autosummary] [image] Summary page created by autosummary.UNINDENT

Each of the links in the summary page will take you to the places where you originally used the corresponding autodoc directive, in this case in the usage.rst document.

NOTE:

The generated files are based on Jinja2 templates that can be customized, but that is out of scope for this tutorial.

Where to go from here

This tutorial covered the very first steps to create a documentation project with Sphinx.  To continue learning more about Sphinx, check out the rest of the documentation.

Extending Sphinx

This guide is aimed at giving a quick introduction for those wishing to develop their own extensions for Sphinx. Sphinx possesses significant extensibility capabilities including the ability to hook into almost every point of the build process.  If you simply wish to use Sphinx with existing extensions, refer to /usage/index. For a more detailed discussion of the extension interface see /extdev/index.

Developing extensions overview

This page contains general information about developing Sphinx extensions.

Make an extension depend on another extension

Sometimes your extension depends on the functionality of another Sphinx extension. Most Sphinx extensions are activated in a project’s conf.py file, but this is not available to you as an extension developer.

To ensure that another extension is activated as a part of your own extension, use the Sphinx.setup_extension() method. This will activate another extension at run-time, ensuring that you have access to its functionality.

For example, the following code activates the recommonmark extension:

def setup(app):
    app.setup_extension("recommonmark")
NOTE:

Since your extension will depend on another, make sure to include it as a part of your extension’s installation requirements.

Extension tutorials

Refer to the following tutorials to get started with extension development.

Developing a “Hello world” extension

The objective of this tutorial is to create a very basic extension that adds a new directive. This directive will output a paragraph containing “hello world”.

Only basic information is provided in this tutorial. For more information, refer to the other tutorials that go into more details.

WARNING:

For this extension, you will need some basic understanding of docutils and Python.

Overview

We want the extension to add the following to Sphinx:

  • A helloworld directive, that will simply output the text “hello world”.

Prerequisites

We will not be distributing this plugin via PyPI and will instead include it as part of an existing project. This means you will need to use an existing project or create a new one using sphinx-quickstart.

We assume you are using separate source (source) and build (build) folders. Your extension file could be in any folder of your project. In our case, let’s do the following:

  1. Create an _ext folder in source
  2. Create a new Python file in the _ext folder called helloworld.py

Here is an example of the folder structure you might obtain:

└── source
    ├── _ext
    │   └── helloworld.py
    ├── _static
    ├── conf.py
    ├── somefolder
    ├── index.rst
    ├── somefile.rst
    └── someotherfile.rst

Writing the extension

Open helloworld.py and paste the following code in it:

from docutils import nodes
from docutils.parsers.rst import Directive


class HelloWorld(Directive):

    def run(self):
        paragraph_node = nodes.paragraph(text='Hello World!')
        return [paragraph_node]


def setup(app):
    app.add_directive("helloworld", HelloWorld)

    return {
        'version': '0.1',
        'parallel_read_safe': True,
        'parallel_write_safe': True,
    }

Some essential things are happening in this example, and you will see them for all directives.

The directive class

Our new directive is declared in the HelloWorld class.

class HelloWorld(Directive):

    def run(self):
        paragraph_node = nodes.paragraph(text='Hello World!')
        return [paragraph_node]

This class extends the docutilsDirective class. All extensions that create directives should extend this class.

SEE ALSO:

The docutils documentation on creating directives

This class contains a run method.  This method is a requirement and it is part of every directive.  It contains the main logic of the directive and it returns a list of docutils nodes to be processed by Sphinx. These nodes are docutils’ way of representing the content of a document. There are many types of nodes available: text, paragraph, reference, table, etc.

SEE ALSO:

The docutils documentation on nodes

The nodes.paragraph class creates a new paragraph node. A paragraph node typically contains some text that we can set during instantiation using the text parameter.

The setup function

This function is a requirement. We use it to plug our new directive into Sphinx.

def setup(app):
    app.add_directive("helloworld", HelloWorld)

    return {
        'version': '0.1',
        'parallel_read_safe': True,
        'parallel_write_safe': True,
    }

The simplest thing you can do it call the add_directive() method, which is what we’ve done here. For this particular call, the first argument is the name of the directive itself as used in a reST file. In this case, we would use helloworld. For example:

Some intro text here...

.. helloworld::

Some more text here...

We also return the extension metadata that indicates the version of our extension, along with the fact that it is safe to use the extension for both parallel reading and writing.

Using the extension

The extension has to be declared in your conf.py file to make Sphinx aware of it. There are two steps necessary here:

  1. Add the _ext directory to the Python path using sys.path.append. This should be placed at the top of the file.
  2. Update or create the extensions list and add the extension file name to the list

For example:

import os
import sys

sys.path.append(os.path.abspath("./_ext"))

extensions = ['helloworld']
TIP:

We’re not distributing this extension as a Python package, we need to modify the Python path so Sphinx can find our extension. This is why we need the call to sys.path.append.

You can now use the extension in a file. For example:

Some intro text here...

.. helloworld::

Some more text here...

The sample above would generate:

Some intro text here...

Hello World!

Some more text here...

Further reading

This is the very basic principle of an extension that creates a new directive.

For a more advanced example, refer to todo.

Developing a “TODO” extension

The objective of this tutorial is to create a more comprehensive extension than that created in helloworld. Whereas that guide just covered writing a custom directive, this guide adds multiple directives, along with custom nodes, additional config values and custom event handlers. To this end, we will cover a todo extension that adds capabilities to include todo entries in the documentation, and to collect these in a central place. This is similar the sphinxext.todo extension distributed with Sphinx.

Overview

NOTE:

To understand the design of this extension, refer to important-objects and build-phases.

We want the extension to add the following to Sphinx:

  • A todo directive, containing some content that is marked with “Todo” and only shown in the output if a new config value is set. Todo entries should not be in the output by default.
  • A todolist directive that creates a list of all todo entries throughout the documentation.

For that, we will need to add the following elements to Sphinx:

  • New directives, called todo and todolist.
  • New document tree nodes to represent these directives, conventionally also called todo and todolist.  We wouldn’t need new nodes if the new directives only produced some content representable by existing nodes.
  • A new config value todo_include_todos (config value names should start with the extension name, in order to stay unique) that controls whether todo entries make it into the output.
  • New event handlers: one for the doctree-resolved event, to replace the todo and todolist nodes, one for env-merge-info to merge intermediate results from parallel builds, and one for env-purge-doc (the reason for that will be covered later).

Prerequisites

As with helloworld, we will not be distributing this plugin via PyPI so once again we need a Sphinx project to call this from. You can use an existing project or create a new one using sphinx-quickstart.

We assume you are using separate source (source) and build (build) folders. Your extension file could be in any folder of your project. In our case, let’s do the following:

  1. Create an _ext folder in source
  2. Create a new Python file in the _ext folder called todo.py

Here is an example of the folder structure you might obtain:

└── source
    ├── _ext
    │   └── todo.py
    ├── _static
    ├── conf.py
    ├── somefolder
    ├── index.rst
    ├── somefile.rst
    └── someotherfile.rst

Writing the extension

Open todo.py and paste the following code in it, all of which we will explain in detail shortly:

from docutils import nodes
from docutils.parsers.rst import Directive

from sphinx.locale import _
from sphinx.util.docutils import SphinxDirective


class todo(nodes.Admonition, nodes.Element):
    pass


class todolist(nodes.General, nodes.Element):
    pass


def visit_todo_node(self, node):
    self.visit_admonition(node)


def depart_todo_node(self, node):
    self.depart_admonition(node)


class TodolistDirective(Directive):

    def run(self):
        return [todolist('')]


class TodoDirective(SphinxDirective):

    # this enables content in the directive
    has_content = True

    def run(self):
        targetid = 'todo-%d' % self.env.new_serialno('todo')
        targetnode = nodes.target('', '', ids=[targetid])

        todo_node = todo('\n'.join(self.content))
        todo_node += nodes.title(_('Todo'), _('Todo'))
        self.state.nested_parse(self.content, self.content_offset, todo_node)

        if not hasattr(self.env, 'todo_all_todos'):
            self.env.todo_all_todos = []

        self.env.todo_all_todos.append({
            'docname': self.env.docname,
            'lineno': self.lineno,
            'todo': todo_node.deepcopy(),
            'target': targetnode,
        })

        return [targetnode, todo_node]


def purge_todos(app, env, docname):
    if not hasattr(env, 'todo_all_todos'):
        return

    env.todo_all_todos = [todo for todo in env.todo_all_todos
                          if todo['docname'] != docname]


def merge_todos(app, env, docnames, other):
    if not hasattr(env, 'todo_all_todos'):
        env.todo_all_todos = []
    if hasattr(other, 'todo_all_todos'):
        env.todo_all_todos.extend(other.todo_all_todos)


def process_todo_nodes(app, doctree, fromdocname):
    if not app.config.todo_include_todos:
        for node in doctree.traverse(todo):
            node.parent.remove(node)

    # Replace all todolist nodes with a list of the collected todos.
    # Augment each todo with a backlink to the original location.
    env = app.builder.env

    if not hasattr(env, 'todo_all_todos'):
        env.todo_all_todos = []

    for node in doctree.traverse(todolist):
        if not app.config.todo_include_todos:
            node.replace_self([])
            continue

        content = []

        for todo_info in env.todo_all_todos:
            para = nodes.paragraph()
            filename = env.doc2path(todo_info['docname'], base=None)
            description = (
                _('(The original entry is located in %s, line %d and can be found ') %
                (filename, todo_info['lineno']))
            para += nodes.Text(description, description)

            # Create a reference
            newnode = nodes.reference('', '')
            innernode = nodes.emphasis(_('here'), _('here'))
            newnode['refdocname'] = todo_info['docname']
            newnode['refuri'] = app.builder.get_relative_uri(
                fromdocname, todo_info['docname'])
            newnode['refuri'] += '#' + todo_info['target']['refid']
            newnode.append(innernode)
            para += newnode
            para += nodes.Text('.)', '.)')

            # Insert into the todolist
            content.append(todo_info['todo'])
            content.append(para)

        node.replace_self(content)


def setup(app):
    app.add_config_value('todo_include_todos', False, 'html')

    app.add_node(todolist)
    app.add_node(todo,
                 html=(visit_todo_node, depart_todo_node),
                 latex=(visit_todo_node, depart_todo_node),
                 text=(visit_todo_node, depart_todo_node))

    app.add_directive('todo', TodoDirective)
    app.add_directive('todolist', TodolistDirective)
    app.connect('doctree-resolved', process_todo_nodes)
    app.connect('env-purge-doc', purge_todos)
    app.connect('env-merge-info', merge_todos)

    return {
        'version': '0.1',
        'parallel_read_safe': True,
        'parallel_write_safe': True,
    }

This is far more extensive extension than the one detailed in helloworld, however, we will will look at each piece step-by-step to explain what’s happening.

The node classes

Let’s start with the node classes:

class todo(nodes.Admonition, nodes.Element):
    pass


class todolist(nodes.General, nodes.Element):
    pass


def visit_todo_node(self, node):
    self.visit_admonition(node)


def depart_todo_node(self, node):
    self.depart_admonition(node)

Node classes usually don’t have to do anything except inherit from the standard docutils classes defined in docutils.nodes.  todo inherits from Admonition because it should be handled like a note or warning, todolist is just a “general” node.

NOTE:

Many extensions will not have to create their own node classes and work fine with the nodes already provided by docutils and Sphinx.

ATTENTION:

It is important to know that while you can extend Sphinx without leaving your conf.py, if you declare an inherited node right there, you’ll hit an unobvious PickleError. So if something goes wrong, please make sure that you put inherited nodes into a separate Python module.

For more details, see:

The directive classes

A directive class is a class deriving usually from docutils.parsers.rst.Directive. The directive interface is also covered in detail in the docutils documentation; the important thing is that the class should have attributes that configure the allowed markup, and a run method that returns a list of nodes.

Looking first at the TodolistDirective directive:

class TodolistDirective(Directive):

    def run(self):
        return [todolist('')]

It’s very simple, creating and returning an instance of our todolist node class.  The TodolistDirective directive itself has neither content nor arguments that need to be handled. That brings us to the TodoDirective directive:

class TodoDirective(SphinxDirective):

    # this enables content in the directive
    has_content = True

    def run(self):
        targetid = 'todo-%d' % self.env.new_serialno('todo')
        targetnode = nodes.target('', '', ids=[targetid])

        todo_node = todo('\n'.join(self.content))
        todo_node += nodes.title(_('Todo'), _('Todo'))
        self.state.nested_parse(self.content, self.content_offset, todo_node)

        if not hasattr(self.env, 'todo_all_todos'):
            self.env.todo_all_todos = []

        self.env.todo_all_todos.append({
            'docname': self.env.docname,
            'lineno': self.lineno,
            'todo': todo_node.deepcopy(),
            'target': targetnode,
        })

        return [targetnode, todo_node]

Several important things are covered here. First, as you can see, we’re now subclassing the SphinxDirective helper class instead of the usual Directive class. This gives us access to the build environment instance using the self.env property. Without this, we’d have to use the rather convoluted self.state.document.settings.env. Then, to act as a link target (from TodolistDirective), the TodoDirective directive needs to return a target node in addition to the todo node.  The target ID (in HTML, this will be the anchor name) is generated by using env.new_serialno which returns a new unique integer on each call and therefore leads to unique target names. The target node is instantiated without any text (the first two arguments).

On creating admonition node, the content body of the directive are parsed using self.state.nested_parse.  The first argument gives the content body, and the second one gives content offset.  The third argument gives the parent node of parsed result, in our case the todo node. Following this, the todo node is added to the environment.  This is needed to be able to create a list of all todo entries throughout the documentation, in the place where the author puts a todolist directive.  For this case, the environment attribute todo_all_todos is used (again, the name should be unique, so it is prefixed by the extension name).  It does not exist when a new environment is created, so the directive must check and create it if necessary.  Various information about the todo entry’s location are stored along with a copy of the node.

In the last line, the nodes that should be put into the doctree are returned: the target node and the admonition node.

The node structure that the directive returns looks like this:

+--------------------+
| target node        |
+--------------------+
+--------------------+
| todo node          |
+--------------------+
  \__+--------------------+
     | admonition title   |
     +--------------------+
     | paragraph          |
     +--------------------+
     | ...                |
     +--------------------+

The event handlers

Event handlers are one of Sphinx’s most powerful features, providing a way to do hook into any part of the documentation process. There are many events provided by Sphinx itself, as detailed in the API guide, and we’re going to use a subset of them here.

Let’s look at the event handlers used in the above example.  First, the one for the env-purge-doc event:

def purge_todos(app, env, docname):
    if not hasattr(env, 'todo_all_todos'):
        return

    env.todo_all_todos = [todo for todo in env.todo_all_todos
                          if todo['docname'] != docname]

Since we store information from source files in the environment, which is persistent, it may become out of date when the source file changes.  Therefore, before each source file is read, the environment’s records of it are cleared, and the env-purge-doc event gives extensions a chance to do the same. Here we clear out all todos whose docname matches the given one from the todo_all_todos list.  If there are todos left in the document, they will be added again during parsing.

The next handler, for the env-merge-info event, is used during parallel builds. As during parallel builds all threads have their own env, there’s multiple todo_all_todos lists that need to be merged:

def merge_todos(app, env, docnames, other):
    if not hasattr(env, 'todo_all_todos'):
        env.todo_all_todos = []
    if hasattr(other, 'todo_all_todos'):
        env.todo_all_todos.extend(other.todo_all_todos)

The other handler belongs to the doctree-resolved event:

def process_todo_nodes(app, doctree, fromdocname):
    if not app.config.todo_include_todos:
        for node in doctree.traverse(todo):
            node.parent.remove(node)

    # Replace all todolist nodes with a list of the collected todos.
    # Augment each todo with a backlink to the original location.
    env = app.builder.env

    if not hasattr(env, 'todo_all_todos'):
        env.todo_all_todos = []

    for node in doctree.traverse(todolist):
        if not app.config.todo_include_todos:
            node.replace_self([])
            continue

        content = []

        for todo_info in env.todo_all_todos:
            para = nodes.paragraph()
            filename = env.doc2path(todo_info['docname'], base=None)
            description = (
                _('(The original entry is located in %s, line %d and can be found ') %
                (filename, todo_info['lineno']))
            para += nodes.Text(description, description)

            # Create a reference
            newnode = nodes.reference('', '')
            innernode = nodes.emphasis(_('here'), _('here'))
            newnode['refdocname'] = todo_info['docname']
            newnode['refuri'] = app.builder.get_relative_uri(
                fromdocname, todo_info['docname'])
            newnode['refuri'] += '#' + todo_info['target']['refid']
            newnode.append(innernode)
            para += newnode
            para += nodes.Text('.)', '.)')

            # Insert into the todolist
            content.append(todo_info['todo'])
            content.append(para)

        node.replace_self(content)

The doctree-resolved event is emitted at the end of phase 3 (resolving) and allows custom resolving to be done. The handler we have written for this event is a bit more involved. If the todo_include_todos config value (which we’ll describe shortly) is false, all todo and todolist nodes are removed from the documents. If not, todo nodes just stay where and how they are.  todolist nodes are replaced by a list of todo entries, complete with backlinks to the location where they come from.  The list items are composed of the nodes from the todo entry and docutils nodes created on the fly: a paragraph for each entry, containing text that gives the location, and a link (reference node containing an italic node) with the backreference. The reference URI is built by sphinx.builders.Builder.get_relative_uri() which creates a suitable URI depending on the used builder, and appending the todo node’s (the target’s) ID as the anchor name.

The setup function

As noted previously, the setup function is a requirement and is used to plug directives into Sphinx. However, we also use it to hook up the other parts of our extension. Let’s look at our setup function:

def setup(app):
    app.add_config_value('todo_include_todos', False, 'html')

    app.add_node(todolist)
    app.add_node(todo,
                 html=(visit_todo_node, depart_todo_node),
                 latex=(visit_todo_node, depart_todo_node),
                 text=(visit_todo_node, depart_todo_node))

    app.add_directive('todo', TodoDirective)
    app.add_directive('todolist', TodolistDirective)
    app.connect('doctree-resolved', process_todo_nodes)
    app.connect('env-purge-doc', purge_todos)
    app.connect('env-merge-info', merge_todos)

    return {
        'version': '0.1',
        'parallel_read_safe': True,
        'parallel_write_safe': True,
    }

The calls in this function refer to the classes and functions we added earlier. What the individual calls do is the following:

  • add_config_value() lets Sphinx know that it should recognize the new config value todo_include_todos, whose default value should be False (this also tells Sphinx that it is a boolean value).

    If the third argument was 'html', HTML documents would be full rebuild if the config value changed its value.  This is needed for config values that influence reading (build phase 1 (reading)).

  • add_node() adds a new node class to the build system.  It also can specify visitor functions for each supported output format.  These visitor functions are needed when the new nodes stay until phase 4 (writing). Since the todolist node is always replaced in phase 3 (resolving), it doesn’t need any.
  • add_directive() adds a new directive, given by name and class.
  • Finally, connect() adds an event handler to the event whose name is given by the first argument.  The event handler function is called with several arguments which are documented with the event.

With this, our extension is complete.

Using the extension

As before, we need to enable the extension by declaring it in our conf.py file. There are two steps necessary here:

  1. Add the _ext directory to the Python path using sys.path.append. This should be placed at the top of the file.
  2. Update or create the extensions list and add the extension file name to the list

In addition, we may wish to set the todo_include_todos config value. As noted above, this defaults to False but we can set it explicitly.

For example:

import os
import sys

sys.path.append(os.path.abspath("./_ext"))

extensions = ['todo']

todo_include_todos = False

You can now use the extension throughout your project. For example:

index.rst

Hello, world
============

.. toctree::
   somefile.rst
   someotherfile.rst

Hello world. Below is the list of TODOs.

.. todolist::

somefile.rst

foo
===

Some intro text here...

.. todo:: Fix this

someotherfile.rst

bar
===

Some more text here...

.. todo:: Fix that

Because we have configured todo_include_todos to False, we won’t actually see anything rendered for the todo and todolist directives. However, if we toggle this to true, we will see the output described previously.

Further reading

For more information, refer to the docutils documentation and /extdev/index.

Developing a “recipe” extension

The objective of this tutorial is to illustrate roles, directives and domains. Once complete, we will be able to use this extension to describe a recipe and reference that recipe from elsewhere in our documentation.

NOTE:

This tutorial is based on a guide first published on opensource.com and is provided here with the original author’s permission.

Overview

We want the extension to add the following to Sphinx:

  • A recipe directive, containing some content describing the recipe steps, along with a :contains: option highlighting the main ingredients of the recipe.
  • A ref role, which provides a cross-reference to the recipe itself.
  • A recipe domain, which allows us to tie together the above role and domain, along with things like indices.

For that, we will need to add the following elements to Sphinx:

  • A new directive called recipe
  • New indexes to allow us to reference ingredient and recipes
  • A new domain called recipe, which will contain the recipe directive and ref role

Prerequisites

We need the same setup as in the previous extensions. This time, we will be putting out extension in a file called recipe.py.

Here is an example of the folder structure you might obtain:

└── source
    ├── _ext
    │   └── recipe.py
    ├── conf.py
    └── index.rst

Writing the extension

Open recipe.py and paste the following code in it, all of which we will explain in detail shortly:

from collections import defaultdict

from docutils.parsers.rst import directives

from sphinx import addnodes
from sphinx.directives import ObjectDescription
from sphinx.domains import Domain, Index
from sphinx.roles import XRefRole
from sphinx.util.nodes import make_refnode


class RecipeDirective(ObjectDescription):
    """A custom directive that describes a recipe."""

    has_content = True
    required_arguments = 1
    option_spec = {
        'contains': directives.unchanged_required,
    }

    def handle_signature(self, sig, signode):
        signode += addnodes.desc_name(text=sig)
        return sig

    def add_target_and_index(self, name_cls, sig, signode):
        signode['ids'].append('recipe' + '-' + sig)
        if 'contains' in self.options:
            ingredients = [
                x.strip() for x in self.options.get('contains').split(',')]

            recipes = self.env.get_domain('recipe')
            recipes.add_recipe(sig, ingredients)


class IngredientIndex(Index):
    """A custom index that creates an ingredient matrix."""

    name = 'ingredient'
    localname = 'Ingredient Index'
    shortname = 'Ingredient'

    def generate(self, docnames=None):
        content = defaultdict(list)

        recipes = {name: (dispname, typ, docname, anchor)
                   for name, dispname, typ, docname, anchor, _
                   in self.domain.get_objects()}
        recipe_ingredients = self.domain.data['recipe_ingredients']
        ingredient_recipes = defaultdict(list)

        # flip from recipe_ingredients to ingredient_recipes
        for recipe_name, ingredients in recipe_ingredients.items():
            for ingredient in ingredients:
                ingredient_recipes[ingredient].append(recipe_name)

        # convert the mapping of ingredient to recipes to produce the expected
        # output, shown below, using the ingredient name as a key to group
        #
        # name, subtype, docname, anchor, extra, qualifier, description
        for ingredient, recipe_names in ingredient_recipes.items():
            for recipe_name in recipe_names:
                dispname, typ, docname, anchor = recipes[recipe_name]
                content[ingredient].append(
                    (dispname, 0, docname, anchor, docname, '', typ))

        # convert the dict to the sorted list of tuples expected
        content = sorted(content.items())

        return content, True


class RecipeIndex(Index):
    """A custom index that creates an recipe matrix."""

    name = 'recipe'
    localname = 'Recipe Index'
    shortname = 'Recipe'

    def generate(self, docnames=None):
        content = defaultdict(list)

        # sort the list of recipes in alphabetical order
        recipes = self.domain.get_objects()
        recipes = sorted(recipes, key=lambda recipe: recipe[0])

        # generate the expected output, shown below, from the above using the
        # first letter of the recipe as a key to group thing
        #
        # name, subtype, docname, anchor, extra, qualifier, description
        for name, dispname, typ, docname, anchor, _ in recipes:
            content[dispname[0].lower()].append(
                (dispname, 0, docname, anchor, docname, '', typ))

        # convert the dict to the sorted list of tuples expected
        content = sorted(content.items())

        return content, True


class RecipeDomain(Domain):

    name = 'recipe'
    label = 'Recipe Sample'
    roles = {
        'ref': XRefRole()
    }
    directives = {
        'recipe': RecipeDirective,
    }
    indices = {
        RecipeIndex,
        IngredientIndex
    }
    initial_data = {
        'recipes': [],  # object list
        'recipe_ingredients': {},  # name -> object
    }

    def get_full_qualified_name(self, node):
        return '{}.{}'.format('recipe', node.arguments[0])

    def get_objects(self):
        for obj in self.data['recipes']:
            yield(obj)

    def resolve_xref(self, env, fromdocname, builder, typ, target, node,
                     contnode):
        match = [(docname, anchor)
                 for name, sig, typ, docname, anchor, prio
                 in self.get_objects() if sig == target]

        if len(match) > 0:
            todocname = match[0][0]
            targ = match[0][1]

            return make_refnode(builder, fromdocname, todocname, targ,
                                contnode, targ)
        else:
            print('Awww, found nothing')
            return None

    def add_recipe(self, signature, ingredients):
        """Add a new recipe to the domain."""
        name = '{}.{}'.format('recipe', signature)
        anchor = 'recipe-{}'.format(signature)

        self.data['recipe_ingredients'][name] = ingredients
        # name, dispname, type, docname, anchor, priority
        self.data['recipes'].append(
            (name, signature, 'Recipe', self.env.docname, anchor, 0))


def setup(app):
    app.add_domain(RecipeDomain)

    return {
        'version': '0.1',
        'parallel_read_safe': True,
        'parallel_write_safe': True,
    }

Let’s look at each piece of this extension step-by-step to explain what’s going on.

The directive class

The first thing to examine is the RecipeDirective directive:

class RecipeDirective(ObjectDescription):
    """A custom directive that describes a recipe."""

    has_content = True
    required_arguments = 1
    option_spec = {
        'contains': directives.unchanged_required,
    }

    def handle_signature(self, sig, signode):
        signode += addnodes.desc_name(text=sig)
        return sig

    def add_target_and_index(self, name_cls, sig, signode):
        signode['ids'].append('recipe' + '-' + sig)
        if 'contains' in self.options:
            ingredients = [
                x.strip() for x in self.options.get('contains').split(',')]

            recipes = self.env.get_domain('recipe')
            recipes.add_recipe(sig, ingredients)

Unlike helloworld and todo, this directive doesn’t derive from docutils.parsers.rst.Directive and doesn’t define a run method. Instead, it derives from sphinx.directives.ObjectDescription and defines  handle_signature and add_target_and_index methods. This is because ObjectDescription is a special-purpose directive that’s intended for describing things like classes, functions, or, in our case, recipes. More specifically, handle_signature implements parsing the signature of the directive and passes on the object’s name and type to its superclass, while add_taget_and_index adds a target (to link to) and an entry to the index for this node.

We also see that this directive defines has_content, required_arguments and option_spec. Unlike the TodoDirective directive added in the previous tutorial, this directive takes a single argument, the recipe name, and an option, contains, in addition to the nested reStructuredText in the body.

The index classes

Todo

Add brief overview of indices

class IngredientIndex(Index):
    """A custom index that creates an ingredient matrix."""

    name = 'ingredient'
    localname = 'Ingredient Index'
    shortname = 'Ingredient'

    def generate(self, docnames=None):
        content = defaultdict(list)

        recipes = {name: (dispname, typ, docname, anchor)
                   for name, dispname, typ, docname, anchor, _
                   in self.domain.get_objects()}
        recipe_ingredients = self.domain.data['recipe_ingredients']
        ingredient_recipes = defaultdict(list)

        # flip from recipe_ingredients to ingredient_recipes
        for recipe_name, ingredients in recipe_ingredients.items():
            for ingredient in ingredients:
                ingredient_recipes[ingredient].append(recipe_name)

        # convert the mapping of ingredient to recipes to produce the expected
        # output, shown below, using the ingredient name as a key to group
        #
        # name, subtype, docname, anchor, extra, qualifier, description
        for ingredient, recipe_names in ingredient_recipes.items():
            for recipe_name in recipe_names:
                dispname, typ, docname, anchor = recipes[recipe_name]
                content[ingredient].append(
                    (dispname, 0, docname, anchor, docname, '', typ))

        # convert the dict to the sorted list of tuples expected
        content = sorted(content.items())

        return content, True
class RecipeIndex(Index):
    """A custom index that creates an recipe matrix."""

    name = 'recipe'
    localname = 'Recipe Index'
    shortname = 'Recipe'

    def generate(self, docnames=None):
        content = defaultdict(list)

        # sort the list of recipes in alphabetical order
        recipes = self.domain.get_objects()
        recipes = sorted(recipes, key=lambda recipe: recipe[0])

        # generate the expected output, shown below, from the above using the
        # first letter of the recipe as a key to group thing
        #
        # name, subtype, docname, anchor, extra, qualifier, description
        for name, dispname, typ, docname, anchor, _ in recipes:
            content[dispname[0].lower()].append(
                (dispname, 0, docname, anchor, docname, '', typ))

        # convert the dict to the sorted list of tuples expected
        content = sorted(content.items())

        return content, True

Both IngredientIndex and RecipeIndex are derived from Index. They implement custom logic to generate a tuple of values that define the index. Note that RecipeIndex is a simple index that has only one entry. Extending it to cover more object types is not yet part of the code.

Both indices use the method Index.generate() to do their work. This method combines the information from our domain, sorts it, and returns it in a list structure that will be accepted by Sphinx. This might look complicated but all it really is is a list of tuples like ('tomato', 'TomatoSoup', 'test', 'rec-TomatoSoup',...). Refer to the domain API guide for more information on this API.

These index pages can be referred by combination of domain name and its name using ref role.  For example, RecipeIndex can be referred by :ref:`recipe-recipe`.

The domain

A Sphinx domain is a specialized container that ties together roles, directives, and indices, among other things. Let’s look at the domain we’re creating here.

class RecipeDomain(Domain):

    name = 'recipe'
    label = 'Recipe Sample'
    roles = {
        'ref': XRefRole()
    }
    directives = {
        'recipe': RecipeDirective,
    }
    indices = {
        RecipeIndex,
        IngredientIndex
    }
    initial_data = {
        'recipes': [],  # object list
        'recipe_ingredients': {},  # name -> object
    }

    def get_full_qualified_name(self, node):
        return '{}.{}'.format('recipe', node.arguments[0])

    def get_objects(self):
        for obj in self.data['recipes']:
            yield(obj)

    def resolve_xref(self, env, fromdocname, builder, typ, target, node,
                     contnode):
        match = [(docname, anchor)
                 for name, sig, typ, docname, anchor, prio
                 in self.get_objects() if sig == target]

        if len(match) > 0:
            todocname = match[0][0]
            targ = match[0][1]

            return make_refnode(builder, fromdocname, todocname, targ,
                                contnode, targ)
        else:
            print('Awww, found nothing')
            return None

    def add_recipe(self, signature, ingredients):
        """Add a new recipe to the domain."""
        name = '{}.{}'.format('recipe', signature)
        anchor = 'recipe-{}'.format(signature)

        self.data['recipe_ingredients'][name] = ingredients
        # name, dispname, type, docname, anchor, priority
        self.data['recipes'].append(
            (name, signature, 'Recipe', self.env.docname, anchor, 0))

There are some interesting things to note about this recipe domain and domains in general. Firstly, we actually register our directives, roles and indices here, via the directives, roles and indices attributes, rather than via calls later on in setup. We can also note that we aren’t actually defining a custom role and are instead reusing the sphinx.roles.XRefRole role and defining the sphinx.domains.Domain.resolve_xref method. This method takes two arguments, typ and target, which refer to the cross-reference type and its target name. We’ll use target to resolve our destination from our domain’s recipes because we currently have only one type of node.

Moving on, we can see that we’ve defined initial_data. The values defined in initial_data will be copied to env.domaindata[domain_name] as the initial data of the domain, and domain instances can access it via self.data. We see that we have defined two items in initial_data: recipes and recipe2ingredient. These contain a list of all objects defined (i.e. all recipes) and a hash that maps a canonical ingredient name to the list of objects. The way we name objects is common across our extension and is defined in the get_full_qualified_name method. For each object created, the canonical name is recipe.<recipename>, where <recipename> is the name the documentation writer gives the object (a recipe). This enables the extension to use different object types that share the same name. Having a canonical name and central place for our objects is a huge advantage. Both our indices and our cross-referencing code use this feature.

The setup function

As always, the setup function is a requirement and is used to hook the various parts of our extension into Sphinx. Let’s look at the setup function for this extension.

def setup(app):
    app.add_domain(RecipeDomain)

    return {
        'version': '0.1',
        'parallel_read_safe': True,
        'parallel_write_safe': True,
    }

This looks a little different to what we’re used to seeing. There are no calls to add_directive() or even add_role(). Instead, we have a single call to add_domain() followed by some initialization of the standard domain. This is because we had already registered our directives, roles and indexes as part of the directive itself.

Using the extension

You can now use the extension throughout your project. For example:

index.rst

Joe's Recipes
=============

Below are a collection of my favourite recipes. I highly recommend the
:recipe:ref:`TomatoSoup` recipe in particular!

.. toctree::

   tomato-soup

tomato-soup.rst

The recipe contains `tomato` and `cilantro`.

.. recipe:recipe:: TomatoSoup
   :contains: tomato, cilantro, salt, pepper

   This recipe is a tasty tomato soup, combine all ingredients
   and cook.

The important things to note are the use of the :recipe:ref: role to cross-reference the recipe actually defined elsewhere (using the :recipe:recipe: directive.

Further reading

For more information, refer to the docutils documentation and /extdev/index.

Developing autodoc extension for IntEnum

The objective of this tutorial is to create an extension that adds support for new type for autodoc. This autodoc extension will format the IntEnum class from Python standard library. (module enum)

Overview

We want the extension that will create auto-documentation for IntEnum. IntEnum is the integer enum class from standard library enum module.

Currently this class has no special auto documentation behavior.

We want to add following to autodoc:

  • A new autointenum directive that will document the IntEnum class.
  • The generated documentation will have all the enum possible values with names.
  • The autointenum directive will have an option :hex: which will cause the integers be printed in hexadecimal form.

Prerequisites

We need the same setup as in the previous extensions. This time, we will be putting out extension in a file called autodoc_intenum.py. The my_enums.py will contain the sample enums we will document.

Here is an example of the folder structure you might obtain:

└── source
    ├── _ext
    │   └── autodoc_intenum.py
    ├── conf.py
    ├── index.rst
    └── my_enums.py

Writing the extension

Start with setup function for the extension.

def setup(app: Sphinx) -> None:
    app.setup_extension('sphinx.ext.autodoc')  # Require autodoc extension
    app.add_autodocumenter(IntEnumDocumenter)

The setup_extension() method will pull the autodoc extension because our new extension depends on autodoc. add_autodocumenter() is the method that registers our new auto documenter class.

We want to import certain objects from the autodoc extension:

from enum import IntEnum
from typing import Any, Optional

from docutils.statemachine import StringList

from sphinx.application import Sphinx
from sphinx.ext.autodoc import ClassDocumenter, bool_option

There are several different documenter classes such as MethodDocumenter or AttributeDocumenter available in the autodoc extension but our new class is the subclass of ClassDocumenter which a documenter class used by autodoc to document classes.

This is the definition of our new the auto-documenter class:

class IntEnumDocumenter(ClassDocumenter):
    objtype = 'intenum'
    directivetype = 'class'
    priority = 10 + ClassDocumenter.priority
    option_spec = dict(ClassDocumenter.option_spec)
    option_spec['hex'] = bool_option

    @classmethod
    def can_document_member(cls,
                            member: Any, membername: str,
                            isattr: bool, parent: Any) -> bool:
        return isinstance(member, IntEnum)

    def add_directive_header(self, sig: str) -> None:
        super().add_directive_header(sig)
        self.add_line('   :final:', self.get_sourcename())

    def add_content(self,
                    more_content: Optional[StringList],
                    no_docstring: bool = False
                    ) -> None:

        super().add_content(more_content, no_docstring)

        source_name = self.get_sourcename()
        enum_object: IntEnum = self.object
        use_hex = self.options.hex
        self.add_line('', source_name)

        for enum_value in enum_object:
            the_value_name = enum_value.name
            the_value_value = enum_value.value
            if use_hex:
                the_value_value = hex(the_value_value)

            self.add_line(
                f"**{the_value_name}**: {the_value_value}", source_name)
            self.add_line('', source_name)

Important attributes of the new class:

objtype

This attribute determines the auto directive name. In this case the auto directive will be autointenum.

directivetype

This attribute sets the generated directive name. In this example the generated directive will be .. :py:class::.

priority

the larger the number the higher is the priority. We want our documenter be higher priority than the parent.

option_spec

option specifications. We copy the parent class options and add a new option hex.

Overridden members:

can_document_member

This member is important to override. It should return True when the passed object can be documented by this class.

add_directive_header

This method generates the directive header. We add :final: directive option. Remember to call super or no directive will be generated.

add_content

This method generates the body of the class documentation. After calling the super method we generate lines for enum description.

Using the extension

You can now use the new autodoc directive to document any IntEnum.

For example, you have the following IntEnum:

my_enums.py

class Colors(IntEnum):
    """Colors enumerator"""
    NONE = 0
    RED = 1
    GREEN = 2
    BLUE = 3

This will be the documentation file with auto-documentation directive:

index.rst

.. autointenum:: my_enums.Colors

Configuring builders

Discover builders by entry point

New in version 1.6.

builder extensions can be discovered by means of entry points so that they do not have to be listed in the extensions configuration value.

Builder extensions should define an entry point in the sphinx.builders group. The name of the entry point needs to match your builder’s name attribute, which is the name passed to the sphinx-build -b option. The entry point value should equal the dotted name of the extension module. Here is an example of how an entry point for ‘mybuilder’ can be defined in the extension’s setup.py

setup(
    # ...
    entry_points={
        'sphinx.builders': [
            'mybuilder = my.extension.module',
        ],
    }
)

Note that it is still necessary to register the builder using add_builder() in the extension’s setup() function.

HTML theme development

New in version 0.6.

NOTE:

This document provides information about creating your own theme. If you simply wish to use a pre-existing HTML themes, refer to /usage/theming.

Sphinx supports changing the appearance of its HTML output via themes.  A theme is a collection of HTML templates, stylesheet(s) and other static files. Additionally, it has a configuration file which specifies from which theme to inherit, which highlighting style to use, and what options exist for customizing the theme’s look and feel.

Themes are meant to be project-unaware, so they can be used for different projects without change.

NOTE:

See dev-extensions for more information that may be helpful in developing themes.

Creating themes

Themes take the form of either a directory or a zipfile (whose name is the theme name), containing the following:

  • A theme.conf file.
  • HTML templates, if needed.
  • A static/ directory containing any static files that will be copied to the output static directory on build.  These can be images, styles, script files.

The theme.conf file is in INI format [1] (readable by the standard Python ConfigParser module) and has the following structure:

[theme]
inherit = base theme
stylesheet = main CSS name
pygments_style = stylename
sidebars = localtoc.html, relations.html, sourcelink.html, searchbox.html

[options]
variable = default value
  • The inherit setting gives the name of a “base theme”, or none.  The base theme will be used to locate missing templates (most themes will not have to supply most templates if they use basic as the base theme), its options will be inherited, and all of its static files will be used as well. If you want to also inherit the stylesheet, include it via CSS’ @import in your own.
  • The stylesheet setting gives the name of a CSS file which will be referenced in the HTML header.  If you need more than one CSS file, either include one from the other via CSS’ @import, or use a custom HTML template that adds <link rel="stylesheet"> tags as necessary.  Setting the html_style config value will override this setting.
  • The pygments_style setting gives the name of a Pygments style to use for highlighting.  This can be overridden by the user in the pygments_style config value.
  • The pygments_dark_style setting gives the name of a Pygments style to use for highlighting when the CSS media query (prefers-color-scheme: dark) evaluates to true. It is injected into the page using add_css_file().
  • The sidebars setting gives the comma separated list of sidebar templates for constructing sidebars.  This can be overridden by the user in the html_sidebars config value.
  • The options section contains pairs of variable names and default values. These options can be overridden by the user in html_theme_options and are accessible from all templates as theme_<name>.

New in version 1.7: sidebar settings

Distribute your theme as a Python package

As a way to distribute your theme, you can use Python package.  Python package brings to users easy setting up ways.

To distribute your theme as a Python package, please define an entry point called sphinx.html_themes in your setup.py file, and write a setup() function to register your themes using add_html_theme() API in it:

# 'setup.py'
setup(
    ...
    entry_points = {
        'sphinx.html_themes': [
            'name_of_theme = your_package',
        ]
    },
    ...
)

# 'your_package.py'
from os import path

def setup(app):
    app.add_html_theme('name_of_theme', path.abspath(path.dirname(__file__)))

If your theme package contains two or more themes, please call add_html_theme() twice or more.

New in version 1.2: ‘sphinx_themes’ entry_points feature.

Deprecated since version 1.6: sphinx_themes entry_points has been deprecated.

New in version 1.6: sphinx.html_themes entry_points feature.

Templating

The guide to templating is helpful if you want to write your own templates.  What is important to keep in mind is the order in which Sphinx searches for templates:

  • First, in the user’s templates_path directories.
  • Then, in the selected theme.
  • Then, in its base theme, its base’s base theme, etc.

When extending a template in the base theme with the same name, use the theme name as an explicit directory: {% extends "basic/layout.html" %}.  From a user templates_path template, you can still use the “exclamation mark” syntax as described in the templating document.

Static templates

Since theme options are meant for the user to configure a theme more easily, without having to write a custom stylesheet, it is necessary to be able to template static files as well as HTML files.  Therefore, Sphinx supports so-called “static templates”, like this:

If the name of a file in the static/ directory of a theme (or in the user’s static path, for that matter) ends with _t, it will be processed by the template engine.  The _t will be left from the final file name.  For example, the classic theme has a file static/classic.css_t which uses templating to put the color options into the stylesheet.  When a documentation is built with the classic theme, the output directory will contain a _static/classic.css file where all template tags have been processed.

Use custom page metadata in HTML templates

Any key / value pairs in field lists that are placed before the page’s title will be available to the Jinja template when building the page within the meta attribute. For example, if a page had the following text before its first title:

:mykey: My value

My first title
--------------

Then it could be accessed within a Jinja template like so:

{%- if meta is mapping %}
    {{ meta.get("mykey") }}
{%- endif %}

Note the check that meta is a dictionary (“mapping” in Jinja terminology) to ensure that using it in this way is valid.

Defining custom template functions

Sometimes it is useful to define your own function in Python that you wish to then use in a template. For example, if you’d like to insert a template value with logic that depends on the user’s configuration in the project, or if you’d like to include non-trivial checks and provide friendly error messages for incorrect configuration in the template.

To define your own template function, you’ll need to define two functions inside your module:

  • A page context event handler (or registration) function. This is connected to the Sphinx application via an event callback.
  • A template function that you will use in your Jinja template.

First, define the registration function, which accepts the arguments for html-page-context.

Within the registration function, define the template function that you’d like to use within Jinja. The template function should return a string or Python objects (lists, dictionaries) with strings inside that Jinja uses in the templating process

NOTE:

The template function will have access to all of the variables that are passed to the registration function.

At the end of the registration function, add the template function to the Sphinx application’s context with context['template_func'] = template_func.

Finally, in your extension’s setup() function, add your registration function as a callback for html-page-context.

# The registration function
 def setup_my_func(app, pagename, templatename, context, doctree):
     # The template function
     def my_func(mystring):
         return "Your string is %s" % mystring
     # Add it to the page's context
     context['my_func'] = my_func

 # Your extension's setup function
 def setup(app):
     app.connect("html-page-context", setup_my_func)

Now, you will have access to this function in jinja like so:

<div>
{{ my_func("some string") }}
</div>

Add your own static files to the build assets

If you are packaging your own build assets with an extension (e.g., a CSS or JavaScript file), you need to ensure that they are placed in the _static/ folder of HTML outputs. To do so, you may copy them directly into a build’s _static/ folder at build time, generally via an event hook. Here is some sample code to accomplish this:

from os import path
from sphinx.util.fileutil import copy_asset_file

def copy_custom_files(app, exc):
    if app.builder.format == 'html' and not exc:
        staticdir = path.join(app.builder.outdir, '_static')
        copy_asset_file('path/to/myextension/_static/myjsfile.js', staticdir)

def setup(app):
    app.connect('builder-inited', copy_custom_files)

Inject JavaScript based on user configuration

If your extension makes use of JavaScript, it can be useful to allow users to control its behavior using their Sphinx configuration. However, this can be difficult to do if your JavaScript comes in the form of a static library (which will not be built with Jinja).

There are two ways to inject variables into the JavaScript space based on user configuration.

First, you may append _t to the end of any static files included with your extension. This will cause Sphinx to process these files with the templating engine, allowing you to embed variables and control behavior.

For example, the following JavaScript structure:

mymodule/
├── _static
│   └── myjsfile.js_t
└── mymodule.py

Will result in the following static file placed in your HTML’s build output:

_build/
└── html
    └── _static
        └── myjsfile.js

See Static templates for more information.

Second, you may use the Sphinx.add_js_file() method without pointing it to a file. Normally, this method is used to insert a new JavaScript file into your site. However, if you do not pass a file path, but instead pass a string to the “body” argument, then this text will be inserted as JavaScript into your site’s head. This allows you to insert variables into your project’s JavaScript from Python.

For example, the following code will read in a user-configured value and then insert this value as a JavaScript variable, which your extension’s JavaScript code may use:

# This function reads in a variable and inserts it into JavaScript
def add_js_variable(app):
    # This is a configuration that you've specified for users in `conf.py`
    js_variable = app.config['my_javascript_variable']
    js_text = "var my_variable = '%s';" % js_variable
    app.add_js_file(None, body=js_text)
# We connect this function to the step after the builder is initialized
def setup(app):
    # Tell Sphinx about this configuration variable
    app.add_config_value('my_javascript_variable')
    # Run the function after the builder is initialized
    app.connect('builder-inited', add_js_variable)

As a result, in your theme you can use code that depends on the presence of this variable. Users can control the variable’s value by defining it in their conf.py file.

[1]

It is not an executable Python file, as opposed to conf.py, because that would pose an unnecessary security risk if themes are shared.

Man Pages

These are the applications provided as part of Sphinx.

Core Applications

sphinx-quickstart

Synopsis

sphinx-quickstart

Description

sphinx-quickstart is an interactive tool that asks some questions about your project and then generates a complete documentation directory and sample Makefile to be used with sphinx-build(1).

Options

-q,  --quiet

Quiet mode that skips the interactive wizard for specifying options. This option requires -p, -a and -v options.

-h,  --help,  --version

Display usage summary or Sphinx version.

Structure Options

--sep

If specified, separate source and build directories.

--no-sep

If specified, create build directory under source directory.

--dot=DOT

Inside the root directory, two more directories will be created; “_templates” for custom HTML templates and “_static” for custom stylesheets and other static files. You can enter another prefix (such as “.”) to replace the underscore.

Project Basic Options

-p PROJECT, --project=PROJECT

Project name will be set. (see project).

-a AUTHOR, --author=AUTHOR

Author names. (see copyright).

-v VERSION

Version of project. (see version).

-r RELEASE, --release=RELEASE

Release of project. (see release).

-l LANGUAGE, --language=LANGUAGE

Document language. (see language).

--suffix=SUFFIX

Source file suffix. (see source_suffix).

--master=MASTER

Master document name. (see root_doc).

Extension Options

--ext-autodoc

Enable sphinx.ext.autodoc extension.

--ext-doctest

Enable sphinx.ext.doctest extension.

--ext-intersphinx

Enable sphinx.ext.intersphinx extension.

--ext-todo

Enable sphinx.ext.todo extension.

--ext-coverage

Enable sphinx.ext.coverage extension.

--ext-imgmath

Enable sphinx.ext.imgmath extension.

--ext-mathjax

Enable sphinx.ext.mathjax extension.

--ext-ifconfig

Enable sphinx.ext.ifconfig extension.

--ext-viewcode

Enable sphinx.ext.viewcode extension.

--ext-githubpages

Enable sphinx.ext.githubpages extension.

--extensions=EXTENSIONS

Enable arbitrary extensions.

Makefile and Batchfile Creation Options

--use-make-mode (-m), --no-use-make-mode (-M)

Makefile/make.bat uses (or doesn’t use) make-mode. Default is use, which generates a more concise Makefile/make.bat.

Changed in version 1.5: make-mode is default.

--makefile,  --no-makefile

Create (or not create) makefile.

--batchfile,  --no-batchfile

Create (or not create) batchfile

Project templating

New in version 1.5: Project templating options for sphinx-quickstart

-t,  --templatedir=TEMPLATEDIR

Template directory for template files.  You can modify the templates of sphinx project files generated by quickstart.  Following Jinja2 template files are allowed:

  • root_doc.rst_t
  • conf.py_t
  • Makefile_t
  • Makefile.new_t
  • make.bat_t
  • make.bat.new_t

In detail, please refer the system template files Sphinx provides. (sphinx/templates/quickstart)

-d NAME=VALUE

Define a template variable

See also

sphinx-build(1)

sphinx-build

Synopsis

sphinx-build [options] <sourcedir> <outputdir> [filenames …]

Description

sphinx-build generates documentation from the files in <sourcedir> and places it in the <outputdir>.

sphinx-build looks for <sourcedir>/conf.py for the configuration settings.  sphinx-quickstart(1) may be used to generate template files, including conf.py.

sphinx-build can create documentation in different formats.  A format is selected by specifying the builder name on the command line; it defaults to HTML.  Builders can also perform other tasks related to documentation processing.  For a list of available builders, refer to sphinx-build -b.

By default, everything that is outdated is built.  Output only for selected files can be built by specifying individual filenames.

Options

-b buildername

The most important option: it selects a builder.  The most common builders are:

html

Build HTML pages.  This is the default builder.

dirhtml

Build HTML pages, but with a single directory per document.  Makes for prettier URLs (no .html) if served from a webserver.

singlehtml

Build a single HTML with the whole content.

htmlhelp, qthelp, devhelp, epub

Build HTML files with additional information for building a documentation collection in one of these formats.

applehelp

Build an Apple Help Book.  Requires hiutil and codesign, which are not Open Source and presently only available on Mac OS X 10.6 and higher.

latex

Build LaTeX sources that can be compiled to a PDF document using pdflatex.

man

Build manual pages in groff format for UNIX systems.

texinfo

Build Texinfo files that can be processed into Info files using makeinfo.

text

Build plain text files.

gettext

Build gettext-style message catalogs (.pot files).

doctest

Run all doctests in the documentation, if the doctest extension is enabled.

linkcheck

Check the integrity of all external links.

xml

Build Docutils-native XML files.

pseudoxml

Build compact pretty-printed “pseudo-XML” files displaying the internal structure of the intermediate document trees.

See /usage/builders/index for a list of all builders shipped with Sphinx.  Extensions can add their own builders.

-M buildername

Alternative to -b. Uses the Sphinx make_mode module, which provides the same build functionality as a default Makefile or Make.bat. In addition to all Sphinx /usage/builders/index, the following build pipelines are available:

latexpdf

Build LaTeX files and run them through pdflatex, or as per latex_engine setting. If language is set to 'ja', will use automatically the platex/dvipdfmx latex to PDF pipeline.

info

Build Texinfo files and run them through makeinfo.

IMPORTANT:

Sphinx only recognizes the -M option if it is placed first.

New in version 1.2.1.

-a

If given, always write all output files. The default is to only write output files for new and changed source files. (This may not apply to all builders.)

-E

Don’t use a saved environment (the structure caching all cross-references), but rebuild it completely.  The default is to only read and parse source files that are new or have changed since the last run.

-t tag

Define the tag tag.  This is relevant for only directives that only include their content if this tag is set.

New in version 0.6.

-d path

Since Sphinx has to read and parse all source files before it can write an output file, the parsed source files are cached as “doctree pickles”. Normally, these files are put in a directory called .doctrees under the build directory; with this option you can select a different cache directory (the doctrees can be shared between all builders).

-j N

Distribute the build over N processes in parallel, to make building on multiprocessor machines more effective.  Note that not all parts and not all builders of Sphinx can be parallelized.  If auto argument is given, Sphinx uses the number of CPUs as N.

New in version 1.2: This option should be considered experimental.

Changed in version 1.7: Support auto argument.

-c path

Don’t look for the conf.py in the source directory, but use the given configuration directory instead.  Note that various other files and paths given by configuration values are expected to be relative to the configuration directory, so they will have to be present at this location too.

New in version 0.3.

-C

Don’t look for a configuration file; only take options via the -D option.

New in version 0.5.

-D setting=value

Override a configuration value set in the conf.py file.  The value must be a number, string, list or dictionary value.

For lists, you can separate elements with a comma like this: -D html_theme_path=path1,path2.

For dictionary values, supply the setting name and key like this: -D latex_elements.docclass=scrartcl.

For boolean values, use 0 or 1 as the value.

Changed in version 0.6: The value can now be a dictionary value.

Changed in version 1.3: The value can now also be a list value.

-A name=value

Make the name assigned to value in the HTML templates.

New in version 0.5.

-n

Run in nit-picky mode.  Currently, this generates warnings for all missing references.  See the config value nitpick_ignore for a way to exclude some references as “known missing”.

-N

Do not emit colored output.

-v

Increase verbosity (loglevel).  This option can be given up to three times to get more debug logging output.  It implies -T.

New in version 1.2.

-q

Do not output anything on standard output, only write warnings and errors to standard error.

-Q

Do not output anything on standard output, also suppress warnings.  Only errors are written to standard error.

-w file

Write warnings (and errors) to the given file, in addition to standard error.

-W

Turn warnings into errors.  This means that the build stops at the first warning and sphinx-build exits with exit status 1.

--keep-going

With -W option, keep going processing when getting warnings to the end of build, and sphinx-build exits with exit status 1.

New in version 1.8.

-T

Display the full traceback when an unhandled exception occurs.  Otherwise, only a summary is displayed and the traceback information is saved to a file for further analysis.

New in version 1.2.

-P

(Useful for debugging only.)  Run the Python debugger, pdb, if an unhandled exception occurs while building.

-h, --help, --version

Display usage summary or Sphinx version.

New in version 1.2.

You can also give one or more filenames on the command line after the source and build directories. Sphinx will then try to build only these output files (and their dependencies).

Environment Variables

The sphinx-build refers following environment variables:

MAKE

A path to make command.  A command name is also allowed. sphinx-build uses it to invoke sub-build process on make-mode.

Makefile Options

The Makefile and make.bat files created by sphinx-quickstart usually run sphinx-build only with the -b and -d options.  However, they support the following variables to customize behavior:

PAPER

This sets the 'papersize' key of latex_elements: i.e. PAPER=a4 sets it to 'a4paper' and PAPER=letter to 'letterpaper'.

NOTE:

Usage of this environment variable got broken at Sphinx 1.5 as a4 or letter ended up as option to LaTeX document in place of the needed a4paper, resp. letterpaper.  Fixed at 1.7.7.

SPHINXBUILD

The command to use instead of sphinx-build.

BUILDDIR

The build directory to use instead of the one chosen in sphinx-quickstart.

SPHINXOPTS

Additional options for sphinx-build. These options can also be set via the shortcut variable O (capital ‘o’).

Deprecation Warnings

If any deprecation warning like RemovedInSphinxXXXWarning are displayed when building a user’s document, some Sphinx extension is using deprecated features. In that case, please report it to author of the extension.

To disable the deprecation warnings, please set PYTHONWARNINGS= environment variable to your environment. For example:

  • PYTHONWARNINGS= make html (Linux/Mac)
  • export PYTHONWARNINGS= and do make html (Linux/Mac)
  • set PYTHONWARNINGS= and do make html (Windows)
  • modify your Makefile/make.bat and set the environment variable

See also

sphinx-quickstart(1)

Additional Applications

sphinx-apidoc

Synopsis

sphinx-apidoc [Options] -o <OUTPUT_PATH> <MODULE_PATH> [EXCLUDE_PATTERN …]

Description

sphinx-apidoc is a tool for automatic generation of Sphinx sources that, using the autodoc extension, document a whole package in the style of other automatic API documentation tools.

MODULE_PATH is the path to a Python package to document, and OUTPUT_PATH is the directory where the generated sources are placed. Any EXCLUDE_PATTERNs given are fnmatch-style file and/or directory patterns that will be excluded from generation.

WARNING:

sphinx-apidoc generates source files that use sphinx.ext.autodoc to document all found modules.  If any modules have side effects on import, these will be executed by autodoc when sphinx-build is run.

If you document scripts (as opposed to library modules), make sure their main routine is protected by a if __name__ == '__main__' condition.

Options

-o <OUTPUT_PATH>

Directory to place the output files. If it does not exist, it is created.

-q

Do not output anything on standard output, only write warnings and errors to standard error.

-f, --force

Force overwriting of any existing generated files.

-l, --follow-links

Follow symbolic links.

-n, --dry-run

Do not create any files.

-s <suffix>

Suffix for the source files generated. Defaults to rst.

-d <MAXDEPTH>

Maximum depth for the generated table of contents file.

--tocfile

Filename for a table of contents file. Defaults to modules.

-T, --no-toc

Do not create a table of contents file. Ignored when --full is provided.

-F, --full

Generate a full Sphinx project (conf.py, Makefile etc.) using the same mechanism as sphinx-quickstart.

-e, --separate

Put documentation for each module on its own page.

New in version 1.2.

-E, --no-headings

Do not create headings for the modules/packages. This is useful, for example, when docstrings already contain headings.

-P, --private

Include “_private” modules.

New in version 1.2.

--implicit-namespaces

By default sphinx-apidoc processes sys.path searching for modules only. Python 3.3 introduced PEP 420 implicit namespaces that allow module path structures such as foo/bar/module.py or foo/bar/baz/__init__.py (notice that bar and foo are namespaces, not modules).

Interpret paths recursively according to PEP-0420.

-M, --module-first

Put module documentation before submodule documentation.

These options are used when --full is specified:

-a

Append module_path to sys.path.

-H <project>

Sets the project name to put in generated files (see project).

-A <author>

Sets the author name(s) to put in generated files (see copyright).

-V <version>

Sets the project version to put in generated files (see version).

-R <release>

Sets the project release to put in generated files (see release).

Project templating

New in version 2.2: Project templating options for sphinx-apidoc

-t, --templatedir=TEMPLATEDIR

Template directory for template files.  You can modify the templates of sphinx project files generated by apidoc.  Following Jinja2 template files are allowed:

  • module.rst_t
  • package.rst_t
  • toc.rst_t
  • root_doc.rst_t
  • conf.py_t
  • Makefile_t
  • Makefile.new_t
  • make.bat_t
  • make.bat.new_t

In detail, please refer the system template files Sphinx provides. (sphinx/templates/apidoc and sphinx/templates/quickstart)

Environment

SPHINX_APIDOC_OPTIONS

A comma-separated list of option to append to generated automodule directives. Defaults to members,undoc-members,show-inheritance.

See also

sphinx-build(1), sphinx-autogen(1)

sphinx-autogen

Synopsis

sphinx-autogen [options] <sourcefile> …

Description

sphinx-autogen is a tool for automatic generation of Sphinx sources that, using the autodoc extension, document items included in autosummary listing(s).

sourcefile is the path to one or more reStructuredText documents containing autosummary entries with the :toctree:: option set. sourcefile can be an fnmatch-style pattern.

Options

-o <outputdir>

Directory to place the output file. If it does not exist, it is created. Defaults to the value passed to the :toctree: option.

-s <suffix>, --suffix <suffix>

Default suffix to use for generated files. Defaults to rst.

-t <templates>, --templates <templates>

Custom template directory. Defaults to None.

-i, --imported-members

Document imported members.

Example

Given the following directory structure:

docs
├── index.rst
└── ...
foobar
├── foo
│   └── __init__.py
└── bar
    ├── __init__.py
    └── baz
        └── __init__.py

and assuming docs/index.rst contained the following:

Modules
=======

.. autosummary::
   :toctree: modules

   foobar.foo
   foobar.bar
   foobar.bar.baz

If you run the following:

$ PYTHONPATH=. sphinx-autogen docs/index.rst

then the following stub files will be created in docs:

docs
├── index.rst
└── modules
    ├── foobar.bar.rst
    ├── foobar.bar.baz.rst
    └── foobar.foo.rst

and each of those files will contain a autodoc directive and some other information.

See also

sphinx-build(1), sphinx-apidoc(1)

Templating

Sphinx uses the Jinja templating engine for its HTML templates.  Jinja is a text-based engine, inspired by Django templates, so anyone having used Django will already be familiar with it. It also has excellent documentation for those who need to make themselves familiar with it.

Do I need to use Sphinx’s templates to produce HTML?

No.  You have several other options:

  • You can write a TemplateBridge subclass that calls your template engine of choice, and set the template_bridge configuration value accordingly.
  • You can write a custom builder that derives from StandaloneHTMLBuilder and calls your template engine of choice.
  • You can use the PickleHTMLBuilder that produces pickle files with the page contents, and postprocess them using a custom tool, or use them in your Web application.

Jinja/Sphinx Templating Primer

The default templating language in Sphinx is Jinja.  It’s Django/Smarty inspired and easy to understand.  The most important concept in Jinja is template inheritance, which means that you can overwrite only specific blocks within a template, customizing it while also keeping the changes at a minimum.

To customize the output of your documentation you can override all the templates (both the layout templates and the child templates) by adding files with the same name as the original filename into the template directory of the structure the Sphinx quickstart generated for you.

Sphinx will look for templates in the folders of templates_path first, and if it can’t find the template it’s looking for there, it falls back to the selected theme’s templates.

A template contains variables, which are replaced with values when the template is evaluated, tags, which control the logic of the template and blocks which are used for template inheritance.

Sphinx’s basic theme provides base templates with a couple of blocks it will fill with data.  These are located in the themes/basic subdirectory of the Sphinx installation directory, and used by all builtin Sphinx themes. Templates with the same name in the templates_path override templates supplied by the selected theme.

For example, to add a new link to the template area containing related links all you have to do is to add a new template called layout.html with the following contents:

{% extends "!layout.html" %}
{% block rootrellink %}
    <li><a href="https://project.invalid/">Project Homepage</a> &raquo;</li>
    {{ super() }}
{% endblock %}

By prefixing the name of the overridden template with an exclamation mark, Sphinx will load the layout template from the underlying HTML theme.

IMPORTANT:

If you override a block, call {{ super() }} somewhere to render the block’s original content in the extended template – unless you don’t want that content to show up.

Working with the builtin templates

The builtin basic theme supplies the templates that all builtin Sphinx themes are based on.  It has the following elements you can override or use:

Blocks

The following blocks exist in the layout.html template:

doctype

The doctype of the output format.  By default this is XHTML 1.0 Transitional as this is the closest to what Sphinx and Docutils generate and it’s a good idea not to change it unless you want to switch to HTML 5 or a different but compatible XHTML doctype.

linktags

This block adds a couple of <link> tags to the head section of the template.

extrahead

This block is empty by default and can be used to add extra contents into the <head> tag of the generated HTML file.  This is the right place to add references to JavaScript or extra CSS files.

relbar1, relbar2

This block contains the relation bar, the list of related links (the parent documents on the left, and the links to index, modules etc. on the right).  relbar1 appears before the document, relbar2 after the document.  By default, both blocks are filled; to show the relbar only before the document, you would override relbar2 like this:

{% block relbar2 %}{% endblock %}
rootrellink, relbaritems

Inside the relbar there are three sections: The rootrellink, the links from the documentation and the custom relbaritems.  The rootrellink is a block that by default contains a list item pointing to the root document by default, the relbaritems is an empty block.  If you override them to add extra links into the bar make sure that they are list items and end with the reldelim1.

document

The contents of the document itself.  It contains the block “body” where the individual content is put by subtemplates like page.html.

NOTE:

In order for the built-in JavaScript search to show a page preview on the results page, the document or body content should be wrapped in an HTML element containing the role="main" attribute. For example:

<div role="main">
  {% block document %}{% endblock %}
</div>
sidebar1, sidebar2

A possible location for a sidebar.  sidebar1 appears before the document and is empty by default, sidebar2 after the document and contains the default sidebar.  If you want to swap the sidebar location override this and call the sidebar helper:

{% block sidebar1 %}{{ sidebar() }}{% endblock %}
{% block sidebar2 %}{% endblock %}

(The sidebar2 location for the sidebar is needed by the sphinxdoc.css stylesheet, for example.)

sidebarlogo

The logo location within the sidebar.  Override this if you want to place some content at the top of the sidebar.

footer

The block for the footer div.  If you want a custom footer or markup before or after it, override this one.

The following four blocks are only used for pages that do not have assigned a list of custom sidebars in the html_sidebars config value.  Their use is deprecated in favor of separate sidebar templates, which can be included via html_sidebars.

sidebartoc

The table of contents within the sidebar.

Deprecated since version 1.0.

sidebarrel

The relation links (previous, next document) within the sidebar.

Deprecated since version 1.0.

sidebarsourcelink

The “Show source” link within the sidebar (normally only shown if this is enabled by html_show_sourcelink).

Deprecated since version 1.0.

sidebarsearch

The search box within the sidebar.  Override this if you want to place some content at the bottom of the sidebar.

Deprecated since version 1.0.

Configuration Variables

Inside templates you can set a couple of variables used by the layout template using the {% set %} tag:

reldelim1

The delimiter for the items on the left side of the related bar.  This defaults to ' &raquo;' Each item in the related bar ends with the value of this variable.

reldelim2

The delimiter for the items on the right side of the related bar.  This defaults to ' |'.  Each item except of the last one in the related bar ends with the value of this variable.

Overriding works like this:

{% extends "!layout.html" %}
{% set reldelim1 = ' &gt;' %}
script_files

Add additional script files here, like this:

{% set script_files = script_files + ["_static/myscript.js"] %}

Deprecated since version 1.8.0: Please use .Sphinx.add_js_file() instead.

Helper Functions

Sphinx provides various Jinja functions as helpers in the template.  You can use them to generate links or output multiply used elements.

pathto(document)

Return the path to a Sphinx document as a URL.  Use this to refer to built documents.

pathto(file, 1)

Return the path to a file which is a filename relative to the root of the generated output.  Use this to refer to static files.

hasdoc(document)

Check if a document with the name document exists.

sidebar()

Return the rendered sidebar.

relbar()

Return the rendered relation bar.

warning(message)

Emit a warning message.

Global Variables

These global variables are available in every template and are safe to use. There are more, but most of them are an implementation detail and might change in the future.

builder

The name of the builder (e.g. html or htmlhelp).

copyright

The value of copyright.

docstitle

The title of the documentation (the value of html_title), except when the “single-file” builder is used, when it is set to None.

embedded

True if the built HTML is meant to be embedded in some viewing application that handles navigation, not the web browser, such as for HTML help or Qt help formats.  In this case, the sidebar is not included.

favicon

The path to the HTML favicon in the static path, or URL to the favicon, or ''.

Deprecated since version 4.0: Recommend to use favicon_url instead.

favicon_url

The relative path to the HTML favicon image from the current document, or URL to the favicon, or ''.

New in version 4.0.

file_suffix

The value of the builder’s out_suffix attribute, i.e. the file name extension that the output files will get.  For a standard HTML builder, this is usually .html.

has_source

True if the reST document sources are copied (if html_copy_source is True).

language

The value of language.

last_updated

The build date.

logo

The path to the HTML logo image in the static path, or URL to the logo, or ''.

Deprecated since version 4.0: Recommend to use logo_url instead.

logo_url

The relative path to the HTML logo image from the current document, or URL to the logo, or ''.

New in version 4.0.

master_doc

Same as root_doc.

Changed in version 4.0: Renamed to root_doc.

root_doc

The value of root_doc, for usage with pathto().

Changed in version 4.0: Renamed from master_doc.

pagename

The “page name” of the current file, i.e. either the document name if the file is generated from a reST source, or the equivalent hierarchical name relative to the output directory ([directory/]filename_without_extension).

project

The value of project.

release

The value of release.

rellinks

A list of links to put at the left side of the relbar, next to “next” and “prev”.  This usually contains links to the general index and other indices, such as the Python module index.  If you add something yourself, it must be a tuple (pagename, link title, accesskey, link text).

shorttitle

The value of html_short_title.

show_source

True if html_show_sourcelink is True.

sphinx_version

The version of Sphinx used to build represented as a string for example “3.5.1”.

sphinx_version_tuple

The version of Sphinx used to build represented as a tuple of five elements. For Sphinx version 3.5.1 beta 3 this would be (3, 5, 1, ‘beta’, 3)`. The fourth element can be one of: alpha, beta, rc, final. final always has 0 as the last element.

New in version 4.2.

style

The name of the main stylesheet, as given by the theme or html_style.

title

The title of the current document, as used in the <title> tag.

use_opensearch

The value of html_use_opensearch.

version

The value of version.

In addition to these values, there are also all theme options available (prefixed by theme_), as well as the values given by the user in html_context.

In documents that are created from source files (as opposed to automatically-generated files like the module index, or documents that already are in HTML form), these variables are also available:

body

A string containing the content of the page in HTML form as produced by the HTML builder, before the theme is applied.

display_toc

A boolean that is True if the toc contains more than one entry.

meta

Document metadata (a dictionary), see metadata.

metatags

A string containing the page’s HTML meta tags.

next

The next document for the navigation.  This variable is either false or has two attributes link and title.  The title contains HTML markup.  For example, to generate a link to the next page, you can use this snippet:

{% if next %}
<a href="{{ next.link|e }}">{{ next.title }}</a>
{% endif %}
page_source_suffix

The suffix of the file that was rendered. Since we support a list of source_suffix, this will allow you to properly link to the original source file.

parents

A list of parent documents for navigation, structured like the next item.

prev

Like next, but for the previous page.

sourcename

The name of the copied source file for the current document.  This is only nonempty if the html_copy_source value is True. This has empty value on creating automatically-generated files.

toc

The local table of contents for the current page, rendered as HTML bullet lists.

toctree

A callable yielding the global TOC tree containing the current page, rendered as HTML bullet lists.  Optional keyword arguments:

collapse

If true, all TOC entries that are not ancestors of the current page are collapsed. True by default.

maxdepth

The maximum depth of the tree. Set it to -1 to allow unlimited depth. Defaults to the max depth selected in the toctree directive.

titles_only

If true, put only top-level document titles in the tree. False by default.

includehidden

If true, the ToC tree will also contain hidden entries. False by default.

Latex Customization

Unlike the HTML builders, the latex builder does not benefit from prepared themes. The latex-options, and particularly the latex_elements variable, provides much of the interface for customization. For example:

# inside conf.py
latex_engine = 'xelatex'
latex_elements = {
    'fontpkg': r'''
\setmainfont{DejaVu Serif}
\setsansfont{DejaVu Sans}
\setmonofont{DejaVu Sans Mono}
''',
    'preamble': r'''
\usepackage[titles]{tocloft}
\cftsetpnumwidth {1.25cm}\cftsetrmarg{1.5cm}
\setlength{\cftchapnumwidth}{0.75cm}
\setlength{\cftsecindent}{\cftchapnumwidth}
\setlength{\cftsecnumwidth}{1.25cm}
''',
    'fncychap': r'\usepackage[Bjornstrup]{fncychap}',
    'printindex': r'\footnotesize\raggedright\printindex',
}
latex_show_urls = 'footnote'
NOTE:

Keep in mind that backslashes must be doubled in Python string literals to avoid interpretation as escape sequences. Alternatively, you may use raw strings as is done above.

The latex_elements configuration setting

A dictionary that contains LaTeX snippets overriding those Sphinx usually puts into the generated .tex files.  Its 'sphinxsetup' key is described separately.

Keys that you may want to override include:

'papersize'

Paper size option of the document class ('a4paper' or 'letterpaper')

Default: 'letterpaper'

'pointsize'

Point size option of the document class ('10pt', '11pt' or '12pt')

Default: '10pt'

'pxunit'

The value of the px when used in image attributes width and height. The default value is '0.75bp' which achieves 96px=1in (in TeX 1in = 72bp = 72.27pt.) To obtain for example 100px=1in use '0.01in' or '0.7227pt' (the latter leads to TeX computing a more precise value, due to the smaller unit used in the specification); for 72px=1in, simply use '1bp'; for 90px=1in, use '0.8bp' or '0.803pt'.

Default: '0.75bp'

New in version 1.5.

'passoptionstopackages'

A string which will be positioned early in the preamble, designed to contain \\PassOptionsToPackage{options}{foo} commands.

HINT:

It may be also used for loading LaTeX packages very early in the preamble.  For example package fancybox is incompatible with being loaded via the 'preamble' key, it must be loaded earlier.

Default: ''

New in version 1.4.

'babel'

“babel” package inclusion, default '\\usepackage{babel}' (the suitable document language string is passed as class option, and english is used if no language.) For Japanese documents, the default is the empty string.

With XeLaTeX and LuaLaTeX, Sphinx configures the LaTeX document to use polyglossia, but one should be aware that current babel has improved its support for Unicode engines in recent years and for some languages it may make sense to prefer babel over polyglossia.

HINT:

After modifiying a core LaTeX key like this one, clean up the LaTeX build repertory before next PDF build, else left-over auxiliary files are likely to break the build.

Default:  '\\usepackage{babel}' ('' for Japanese documents)

Changed in version 1.5: For latex_engine set to 'xelatex', the default is '\\usepackage{polyglossia}\n\\setmainlanguage{<language>}'.

Changed in version 1.6: 'lualatex' uses same default setting as 'xelatex'

Changed in version 1.7.6: For French, xelatex and lualatex default to using babel, not polyglossia.

'fontpkg'

Font package inclusion. The default is:

r"""\usepackage{tgtermes}
\usepackage{tgheros}
\renewcommand\ttdefault{txtt}
"""

For 'xelatex' and 'lualatex' however the default is to use the GNU FreeFont.

Changed in version 1.2: Defaults to '' when the language uses the Cyrillic script.

Changed in version 2.0: Incorporates some font substitution commands to help support occasional Greek or Cyrillic in a document using 'pdflatex' engine.

Changed in version 4.0.0:

  • The font substitution commands added at 2.0 have been moved to the 'fontsubstitution' key, as their presence here made it complicated for user to customize the value of 'fontpkg'.
  • The default font setting has changed: it still uses Times and Helvetica clones for serif and sans serif, but via better, more complete TeX fonts and associated LaTeX packages.  The monospace font has been changed to better match the Times clone.
'fncychap'

Inclusion of the “fncychap” package (which makes fancy chapter titles), default '\\usepackage[Bjarne]{fncychap}' for English documentation (this option is slightly customized by Sphinx), '\\usepackage[Sonny]{fncychap}' for internationalized docs (because the “Bjarne” style uses numbers spelled out in English).  Other “fncychap” styles you can try are “Lenny”, “Glenn”, “Conny”, “Rejne” and “Bjornstrup”.  You can also set this to '' to disable fncychap.

Default: '\\usepackage[Bjarne]{fncychap}' for English documents, '\\usepackage[Sonny]{fncychap}' for internationalized documents, and '' for Japanese documents.

'preamble'

Additional preamble content.  One may move all needed macros into some file mystyle.tex.txt of the project source repertory, and get LaTeX to import it at run time:

'preamble': r'\input{mystyle.tex.txt}',
# or, if the \ProvidesPackage LaTeX macro is used in a file mystyle.sty
'preamble': r'\usepackage{mystyle}',

It is then needed to set appropriately latex_additional_files, for example:

latex_additional_files = ["mystyle.sty"]

Default: ''

'figure_align'

Latex figure float alignment. Whenever an image doesn’t fit into the current page, it will be ‘floated’ into the next page but may be preceded by any other text.  If you don’t like this behavior, use ‘H’ which will disable floating and position figures strictly in the order they appear in the source.

Default: 'htbp' (here, top, bottom, page)

New in version 1.3.

'atendofbody'

Additional document content (right before the indices).

Default: ''

New in version 1.5.

'extrapackages'

Additional LaTeX packages.  For example:

latex_elements = {
    'packages': r'\usepackage{isodate}'
}

The specified LaTeX packages will be loaded before hyperref package and packages loaded from Sphinx extensions.

HINT:

If you’d like to load additional LaTeX packages after hyperref, use 'preamble' key instead.

Default: ''

New in version 2.3.

'footer'

Additional footer content (before the indices).

Default: ''

Deprecated since version 1.5: Use 'atendofbody' key instead.

Keys that don’t need to be overridden unless in special cases are:

'extraclassoptions'

The default is the empty string. Example: 'extraclassoptions': 'openany' will allow chapters (for documents of the 'manual' type) to start on any page.

Default: ''

New in version 1.2.

Changed in version 1.6: Added this documentation.

'maxlistdepth'

LaTeX allows by default at most 6 levels for nesting list and quote-like environments, with at most 4 enumerated lists, and 4 bullet lists. Setting this key for example to '10' (as a string) will allow up to 10 nested levels (of all sorts). Leaving it to the empty string means to obey the LaTeX default.

WARNING:

  • Using this key may prove incompatible with some LaTeX packages or special document classes which do their own list customization.
  • The key setting is silently ignored if \usepackage{enumitem} is executed inside the document preamble. Use then rather the dedicated commands of this LaTeX package.

Default: 6

New in version 1.5.

'inputenc'

“inputenc” package inclusion.

Default: '\\usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}' when using pdflatex, else ''.

NOTE:

If using utf8x in place of utf8 it is mandatory to extend the LaTeX preamble with suitable \PreloadUnicodePage{<number>} commands, as per the utf8x documentation (texdoc ucs on a TeXLive based TeX installation).  Else, unexpected and possibly hard-to-spot problems (i.e. not causing a build crash) may arise in the PDF, in particular regarding hyperlinks.

Even if these precautions are taken, PDF build via pdflatex engine may crash due to upstream LaTeX not being fully compatible with utf8x.  For example, in certain circumstances related to code-blocks, or attempting to include images whose filenames contain Unicode characters.  Indeed, starting in 2015, upstream LaTeX with pdflatex engine has somewhat enhanced native support for Unicode and is becoming more and more incompatible with utf8x.  In particular, since the October 2019 LaTeX release, filenames can use Unicode characters, and even spaces.  At Sphinx level this means e.g. that the image and figure directives are now compatible with such filenames for PDF via LaTeX output.  But this is broken if utf8x is in use.

Changed in version 1.4.3: Previously '\\usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}' was used for all compilers.

'cmappkg'

“cmap” package inclusion.

Default: '\\usepackage{cmap}'

New in version 1.2.

'fontenc'

Customize this from its default '\\usepackage[T1]{fontenc}' to:

  • '\\usepackage[X2,T1]{fontenc}' if you need occasional Cyrillic letters (физика частиц),
  • '\\usepackage[LGR,T1]{fontenc}' if you need occasional Greek letters (Σωματιδιακή φυσική).

Use [LGR,X2,T1] rather if both are needed.

ATTENTION:

  • Do not use this key for a latex_engine other than 'pdflatex'.
  • If Greek is main language, do not use this key.  Since Sphinx 2.2.1, xelatex will be used automatically as latex_engine.
  • The TeX installation may need some extra packages. For example, on Ubuntu xenial, packages texlive-lang-greek and cm-super are needed for LGR to work. And texlive-lang-cyrillic and cm-super are needed for support of Cyrillic.

Changed in version 1.5: Defaults to '\\usepackage{fontspec}' when latex_engine is 'xelatex'.

Changed in version 1.6: 'lualatex' uses fontspec per default like 'xelatex'.

Changed in version 2.0: 'lualatex' executes \defaultfontfeatures[\rmfamily,\sffamily]{} to disable TeX ligatures transforming << and >> as escaping working with pdflatex/xelatex failed with lualatex.

Changed in version 2.0: Detection of LGR, T2A, X2 to trigger support of occasional Greek or Cyrillic letters ('pdflatex').

Changed in version 2.3.0: 'xelatex' executes \defaultfontfeatures[\rmfamily,\sffamily]{} in order to avoid contractions of -- into en-dash or transforms of straight quotes into curly ones in PDF (in non-literal text paragraphs) despite smartquotes being set to False.

'fontsubstitution'

Ignored if 'fontenc' was not configured to use LGR or X2 (or T2A).  In case 'fontpkg' key is configured for usage with some TeX fonts known to be available in the LGR or X2 encodings, set this one to be the empty string.  Else leave to its default.

Ignored with latex_engine other than 'pdflatex'.

New in version 4.0.0.

'textgreek'

For the support of occasional Greek letters.

It is ignored with 'platex', 'xelatex' or 'lualatex' as latex_engine and defaults to either the empty string or to '\\usepackage{textalpha}' for 'pdflatex' depending on whether the 'fontenc' key was used with LGR or not.  Only expert LaTeX users may want to customize this key.

It can also be used as r'\usepackage{textalpha,alphabeta}' to let 'pdflatex' support Greek Unicode input in math context. For example :math:`α` (U+03B1) will render as \alpha.

Default: '\\usepackage{textalpha}' or '' if fontenc does not include the LGR option.

New in version 2.0.

'geometry'

“geometry” package inclusion, the default definition is:

'\\usepackage{geometry}'

with an additional [dvipdfm] for Japanese documents. The Sphinx LaTeX style file executes:

\PassOptionsToPackage{hmargin=1in,vmargin=1in,marginpar=0.5in}{geometry}

which can be customized via corresponding ‘sphinxsetup’ options.

Default: '\\usepackage{geometry}' (or '\\usepackage[dvipdfm]{geometry}' for Japanese documents)

New in version 1.5.

Changed in version 1.5.2: dvipdfm option if latex_engine is 'platex'.

New in version 1.5.3: The ‘sphinxsetup’ keys for the margins.

Changed in version 1.5.3: The location in the LaTeX file has been moved to after \usepackage{sphinx} and \sphinxsetup{..}, hence also after insertion of 'fontpkg' key. This is in order to handle the paper layout options in a special way for Japanese documents: the text width will be set to an integer multiple of the zenkaku width, and the text height to an integer multiple of the baseline. See the hmargin documentation for more.

'hyperref'

“hyperref” package inclusion; also loads package “hypcap” and issues \urlstyle{same}. This is done after sphinx.sty file is loaded and before executing the contents of 'preamble' key.

ATTENTION:

Loading of packages “hyperref” and “hypcap” is mandatory.

New in version 1.5: Previously this was done from inside sphinx.sty.

'maketitle'

“maketitle” call. Override if you want to generate a differently styled title page.

HINT:

If the key value is set to r'\newcommand\sphinxbackoftitlepage{<Extra material>}\sphinxmaketitle', then <Extra material> will be typeset on back of title page ('manual' docclass only).

Default: '\\sphinxmaketitle'

Changed in version 1.8.3: Original \maketitle from document class is not overwritten, hence is re-usable as part of some custom setting for this key.

New in version 1.8.3: \sphinxbackoftitlepage optional macro.  It can also be defined inside 'preamble' key rather than this one.

'releasename'

Value that prefixes 'release' element on title page.  As for title and author used in the tuples of latex_documents, it is inserted as LaTeX markup.

Default: 'Release'

'tableofcontents'

“tableofcontents” call. The default of '\\sphinxtableofcontents' is a wrapper of unmodified \tableofcontents, which may itself be customized by user loaded packages. Override if you want to generate a different table of contents or put content between the title page and the TOC.

Default: '\\sphinxtableofcontents'

Changed in version 1.5: Previously the meaning of \tableofcontents itself was modified by Sphinx. This created an incompatibility with dedicated packages modifying it also such as “tocloft” or “etoc”.

'transition'

Commands used to display transitions. Override if you want to display transitions differently.

Default: '\n\n\\bigskip\\hrule\\bigskip\n\n'

New in version 1.2.

Changed in version 1.6: Remove unneeded {} after \\hrule.

'makeindex'

“makeindex” call, the last thing before \begin{document}. With '\\usepackage[columns=1]{idxlayout}\\makeindex' the index will use only one column. You may have to install idxlayout LaTeX package.

Default: '\\makeindex'

'printindex'

“printindex” call, the last thing in the file. Override if you want to generate the index differently, append some content after the index, or change the font. As LaTeX uses two-column mode for the index it is often advisable to set this key to '\\footnotesize\\raggedright\\printindex'. Or, to obtain a one-column index, use '\\def\\twocolumn[#1]{#1}\\printindex' (this trick may fail if using a custom document class; then try the idxlayout approach described in the documentation of the 'makeindex' key).

Default: '\\printindex'

'fvset'

Customization of fancyvrb LaTeX package.

The default value is '\\fvset{fontsize=auto}' which means that the font size will adjust correctly if a code-block ends up in a footnote. You may need to modify this if you use custom fonts: '\\fvset{fontsize=\\small}' if the monospace font is Courier-like.

Default: '\\fvset{fontsize=auto}'

New in version 1.8.

Changed in version 2.0: For 'xelatex' and 'lualatex' defaults to '\\fvset{fontsize=\\small}' as this is adapted to the relative widths of the FreeFont family.

Changed in version 4.0.0: Changed default for 'pdflatex'. Previously it was using '\\fvset{fontsize=\\small}'.

Changed in version 4.1.0: Changed default for Chinese documents to '\\fvset{fontsize=\\small,formatcom=\\xeCJKVerbAddon}'

Keys that are set by other options and therefore should not be overridden are:

'docclass' 'classoptions' 'title' 'release' 'author'

The sphinxsetup configuration setting

New in version 1.5.

The 'sphinxsetup' key of latex_elements provides a LaTeX-type customization interface:

latex_elements = {
    'sphinxsetup': 'key1=value1, key2=value2, ...',
}

It defaults to empty.  If non-empty, it will be passed as argument to the \sphinxsetup macro inside the document preamble, like this:

\usepackage{sphinx}
\sphinxsetup{key1=value1, key2=value2,...}

The colors used in the above are provided by the svgnames option of the “xcolor” package:

latex_elements = {
    'passoptionstopackages': r'\PassOptionsToPackage{svgnames}{xcolor}',
}

It is possible to insert further uses of the \sphinxsetup LaTeX macro directly into the body of the document, via the help of the raw directive. This chapter is styled in the PDF output using the following at the start of the chapter:

.. raw:: latex

   \begingroup
   \sphinxsetup{%
         verbatimwithframe=false,
         VerbatimColor={named}{OldLace},
         TitleColor={named}{DarkGoldenrod},
         hintBorderColor={named}{LightCoral},
         attentionborder=3pt,
         attentionBorderColor={named}{Crimson},
         attentionBgColor={named}{FloralWhite},
         noteborder=2pt,
         noteBorderColor={named}{Olive},
         cautionborder=3pt,
         cautionBorderColor={named}{Cyan},
         cautionBgColor={named}{LightCyan}}

The below is included at the end of the chapter:

.. raw:: latex

   \endgroup

LaTeX syntax for boolean keys requires lowercase true or false e.g 'sphinxsetup': "verbatimwrapslines=false".  If setting the boolean key to true, =true is optional. Spaces around the commas and equal signs are ignored, spaces inside LaTeX macros may be significant. Do not use quotes to enclose values, whether numerical or strings.

bookmarksdepth

Controls the depth of the collapsible bookmarks panel in the PDF. May be either a number (e.g. 3) or a LaTeX sectioning name (e.g. subsubsection, i.e. without backslash). For details, refer to the hyperref LaTeX docs.

Default: 5

New in version 4.0.0.

hmargin, vmargin

The dimensions of the horizontal (resp. vertical) margins, passed as hmargin (resp. vmargin) option to the geometry package. Example:

'sphinxsetup': 'hmargin={2in,1.5in}, vmargin={1.5in,2in}, marginpar=1in',

Japanese documents currently accept only the one-dimension format for these parameters. The geometry package is then passed suitable options to get the text width set to an exact multiple of the zenkaku width, and the text height set to an integer multiple of the baselineskip, with the closest fit for the margins.

Default: 1in (equivalent to {1in,1in})

HINT:

For Japanese 'manual' docclass with pointsize 11pt or 12pt, use the nomag extra document class option (cf. 'extraclassoptions' key of latex_elements) or so-called TeX “true” units:

'sphinxsetup': 'hmargin=1.5truein, vmargin=1.5truein, marginpar=5zw',

New in version 1.5.3.

marginpar

The \marginparwidth LaTeX dimension. For Japanese documents, the value is modified to be the closest integer multiple of the zenkaku width.

Default: 0.5in

New in version 1.5.3.

verbatimwithframe

Boolean to specify if code-blocks and literal includes are framed. Setting it to false does not deactivate use of package “framed”, because it is still in use for the optional background colour.

Default: true.

verbatimwrapslines

Boolean to specify if long lines in code-block‘s contents are wrapped.

If true, line breaks may happen at spaces (the last space before the line break will be rendered using a special symbol), and at ascii punctuation characters (i.e. not at letters or digits). Whenever a long string has no break points, it is moved to next line. If its length is longer than the line width it will overflow.

Default: true

verbatimforcewraps

Boolean to specify if long lines in code-block‘s contents should be forcefully wrapped to never overflow due to long strings.

NOTE:

It is assumed that the Pygments LaTeXFormatter has not been used with its texcomments or similar options which allow additional (arbitrary) LaTeX mark-up.

Also, in case of latex_engine set to 'pdflatex', only the default LaTeX handling of Unicode code points, i.e. utf8 not utf8x is allowed.

Default: false

New in version 3.5.0.

verbatimmaxoverfull

A number. If an unbreakable long string has length larger than the total linewidth plus this number of characters, and if verbatimforcewraps mode is on, the input line will be reset using the forceful algorithm which applies breakpoints at each character.

Default: 3

New in version 3.5.0.

verbatimmaxunderfull

A number. If verbatimforcewraps mode applies, and if after applying the line wrapping at spaces and punctuation, the first part of the split line is lacking at least that number of characters to fill the available width, then the input line will be reset using the forceful algorithm.

As the default is set to a high value, the forceful algorithm is triggered only in overfull case, i.e. in presence of a string longer than full linewidth. Set this to 0 to force all input lines to be hard wrapped at the current available linewidth:

latex_elements = {
    'sphinxsetup': "verbatimforcewraps, verbatimmaxunderfull=0",
}

This can be done locally for a given code-block via the use of raw latex directives to insert suitable \sphinxsetup (before and after) into the latex file.

Default: 100

New in version 3.5.0.

verbatimhintsturnover

Boolean to specify if code-blocks display “continued on next page” and “continued from previous page” hints in case of pagebreaks.

Default: true

New in version 1.6.3.

Changed in version 1.7: the default changed from false to true.

verbatimcontinuedalign, verbatimcontinuesalign

Horizontal position relative to the framed contents: either l (left aligned), r (right aligned) or c (centered).

Default: r

New in version 1.7.

parsedliteralwraps

Boolean to specify if long lines in parsed-literal‘s contents should wrap.

Default: true

New in version 1.5.2: set this option value to false to recover former behaviour.

inlineliteralwraps

Boolean to specify if line breaks are allowed inside inline literals: but extra potential break-points (additionally to those allowed by LaTeX at spaces or for hyphenation) are currently inserted only after the characters . , ; ? ! / and \. Due to TeX internals, white space in the line will be stretched (or shrunk) in order to accommodate the linebreak.

Default: true

New in version 1.5: set this option value to false to recover former behaviour.

Changed in version 2.3.0: added potential breakpoint at \ characters.

verbatimvisiblespace

When a long code line is split, the last space character from the source code line right before the linebreak location is typeset using this.

Default: \textcolor{red}{\textvisiblespace}

verbatimcontinued

A LaTeX macro inserted at start of continuation code lines. Its (complicated…) default typesets a small red hook pointing to the right:

\makebox[2\fontcharwd\font`\x][r]{\textcolor{red}{\tiny$\hookrightarrow$}}

Changed in version 1.5: The breaking of long code lines was added at 1.4.2. The default definition of the continuation symbol was changed at 1.5 to accommodate various font sizes (e.g. code-blocks can be in footnotes).

TitleColor

The colour for titles (as configured via use of package “titlesec”.)

Default: {rgb}{0.126,0.263,0.361}

WARNING:

Colours set via 'sphinxsetup'  must obey the syntax of the argument of the color/xcolor packages \definecolor command.

InnerLinkColor

A colour passed to hyperref as value of linkcolor  and citecolor.

Default: {rgb}{0.208,0.374,0.486}.

OuterLinkColor

A colour passed to hyperref as value of filecolor, menucolor, and urlcolor.

Default: {rgb}{0.216,0.439,0.388}

VerbatimColor

The background colour for code-blocks.

Default: {rgb}{1,1,1} (white)

VerbatimBorderColor

The frame color.

Default: {rgb}{0,0,0} (black)

VerbatimHighlightColor

The color for highlighted lines.

Default: {rgb}{0.878,1,1}

New in version 1.6.6.

NOTE:

Starting with this colour, and for all others following, the names declared to “color” or “xcolor” are prefixed with “sphinx”.

verbatimsep

The separation between code lines and the frame.

Default: \fboxsep

verbatimborder

The width of the frame around code-blocks.

Default: \fboxrule

shadowsep

The separation between contents and frame for contents and topic boxes.

Default: 5pt

shadowsize

The width of the lateral “shadow” to the right.

Default: 4pt

shadowrule

The width of the frame around topic boxes.

Default: \fboxrule

noteBorderColor, hintBorderColor,

importantBorderColor, tipBorderColor The colour for the two horizontal rules used by Sphinx in LaTeX for styling a note type admonition.

Default: {rgb}{0,0,0} (black)

noteborder, hintborder, importantborder, tipborder

The width of the two horizontal rules.

Default: 0.5pt

warningBorderColor, cautionBorderColor,

attentionBorderColor, dangerBorderColor, errorBorderColor The colour for the admonition frame.

Default: {rgb}{0,0,0} (black)

warningBgColor, cautionBgColor,

attentionBgColor, dangerBgColor, errorBgColor The background colours for the respective admonitions.

Default: {rgb}{1,1,1} (white)

warningborder, cautionborder,

attentionborder, dangerborder, errorborder The width of the frame.

Default: 1pt

AtStartFootnote

LaTeX macros inserted at the start of the footnote text at bottom of page, after the footnote number.

Default: \mbox{ }

BeforeFootnote

LaTeX macros inserted before the footnote mark. The default removes possible space before it (else, TeX could insert a line break there).

Default: \leavevmode\unskip

New in version 1.5.

HeaderFamily

default \sffamily\bfseries. Sets the font used by headings.

LaTeX macros and environments

The “LaTeX package” file sphinx.sty loads various components providing support macros (aka commands), and environments, which are used in the mark-up produced on output from the latex builder, before conversion to pdf via the LaTeX toolchain.  Also the “LaTeX class” files sphinxhowto.cls and sphinxmanual.cls define or customize some environments.  All of these files can be found in the latex build repertory.

Some of these provide facilities not available from pre-existing LaTeX packages and work around LaTeX limitations with lists, table cells, verbatim rendering, footnotes, etc…

Others simply define macros with public names to make overwriting their defaults easy via user-added contents to the preamble.  We will survey most of those public names here, but defaults have to be looked at in their respective definition files.

HINT:

Sphinx LaTeX support code is split across multiple smaller-sized files. Rather than adding code to the preamble via latex_elements['preamble'] it is also possible to replace entirely one of the component files of Sphinx LaTeX code with a custom version, simply by including a modified copy in the project source and adding the filename to the latex_additional_files list.  Check the LaTeX build repertory for the filenames and contents.

Changed in version 4.0.0: split of sphinx.sty into multiple smaller units, to facilitate customization of many aspects simultaneously.

Macros

  • Text styling commands:

    • \sphinxstrong,
    • \sphinxbfcode,
    • \sphinxemail,
    • \sphinxtablecontinued,
    • \sphinxtitleref,
    • \sphinxmenuselection,
    • \sphinxaccelerator,
    • \sphinxcrossref,
    • \sphinxtermref,
    • \sphinxoptional.

    New in version 1.4.5: Use of \sphinx prefixed macro names to limit possibilities of conflict with LaTeX packages.

  • More text styling:

    • \sphinxstyleindexentry,
    • \sphinxstyleindexextra,
    • \sphinxstyleindexpageref,
    • \sphinxstyletopictitle,
    • \sphinxstylesidebartitle,
    • \sphinxstyleothertitle,
    • \sphinxstylesidebarsubtitle,
    • \sphinxstyletheadfamily,
    • \sphinxstyleemphasis,
    • \sphinxstyleliteralemphasis,
    • \sphinxstylestrong,
    • \sphinxstyleliteralstrong,
    • \sphinxstyleabbreviation,
    • \sphinxstyleliteralintitle,
    • \sphinxstylecodecontinued,
    • \sphinxstylecodecontinues.

    New in version 1.5: These macros were formerly hard-coded as non customizable \texttt, \emph, etc…

    New in version 1.6: \sphinxstyletheadfamily which defaults to \sffamily and allows multiple paragraphs in header cells of tables.

    New in version 1.6.3: \sphinxstylecodecontinued and \sphinxstylecodecontinues.

    New in version 3.0: \sphinxkeyboard

  • \sphinxtableofcontents: A wrapper (defined differently in sphinxhowto.cls and in sphinxmanual.cls) of standard \tableofcontents.  The macro \sphinxtableofcontentshook is executed during its expansion right before \tableofcontents itself.

    Changed in version 1.5: Formerly, the meaning of \tableofcontents was modified by Sphinx.

    Changed in version 2.0: Hard-coded redefinitions of \l@section and \l@subsection formerly done during loading of 'manual' docclass are now executed later via \sphinxtableofcontentshook.  This macro is also executed by the 'howto' docclass, but defaults to empty with it.

  • \sphinxmaketitle: Used as the default setting of the 'maketitle' latex_elements key. Defined in the class files sphinxmanual.cls and sphinxhowto.cls.

    Changed in version 1.8.3: Formerly, \maketitle from LaTeX document class was modified by Sphinx.

  • \sphinxbackoftitlepage: For 'manual' docclass, and if it is defined, it gets executed at end of \sphinxmaketitle, before the final \clearpage.  Use either the 'maketitle' key or the 'preamble' key of latex_elements to add a custom definition of \sphinxbackoftitlepage.

    New in version 1.8.3.

  • \sphinxcite: A wrapper of standard \cite for citation references.

Environments

  • A figure may have an optional legend with arbitrary body elements: they are rendered in a sphinxlegend environment. The default definition issues \small, and ends with \par.

    New in version 1.5.6: Formerly, the \small was hardcoded in LaTeX writer and the ending \par was lacking.

  • Environments associated with admonitions:

    • sphinxnote,
    • sphinxhint,
    • sphinximportant,
    • sphinxtip,
    • sphinxwarning,
    • sphinxcaution,
    • sphinxattention,
    • sphinxdanger,
    • sphinxerror.

    They may be \renewenvironment ‘d individually, and must then be defined with one argument (it is the heading of the notice, for example Warning: for warning directive, if English is the document language). Their default definitions use either the sphinxheavybox (for the last 5 ones) or the sphinxlightbox environments, configured to use the parameters (colours, border thickness) specific to each type, which can be set via 'sphinxsetup' string.

    Changed in version 1.5: Use of public environment names, separate customizability of the parameters, such as noteBorderColor, noteborder, warningBgColor, warningBorderColor, warningborder, …

  • The contents directive (with :local: option) and the topic directive are implemented by environment sphinxShadowBox.

    New in version 1.4.2: Former code refactored into an environment allowing page breaks.

    Changed in version 1.5: Options shadowsep, shadowsize,  shadowrule.

  • The literal blocks (via :: or code-block), are implemented using sphinxVerbatim environment which is a wrapper of Verbatim environment from package fancyvrb.sty. It adds the handling of the top caption and the wrapping of long lines, and a frame which allows pagebreaks. Inside tables the used environment is sphinxVerbatimintable (it does not draw a frame, but allows a caption).

    Changed in version 1.5: Verbatim keeps exact same meaning as in fancyvrb.sty (also under the name OriginalVerbatim); sphinxVerbatimintable is used inside tables.

    New in version 1.5: Options verbatimwithframe, verbatimwrapslines, verbatimsep, verbatimborder.

    New in version 1.6.6: Support for :emphasize-lines: option

    New in version 1.6.6: Easier customizability of the formatting via exposed to user LaTeX macros such as \sphinxVerbatimHighlightLine.

  • The bibliography uses sphinxthebibliography and the Python Module index as well as the general index both use sphinxtheindex; these environments are wrappers of the thebibliography and respectively theindex environments as provided by the document class (or packages).

    Changed in version 1.5: Formerly, the original environments were modified by Sphinx.

Miscellany

  • Every text paragraph in document body starts with \sphinxAtStartPar. Currently, this is used to insert a zero width horizontal skip which is a trick to allow TeX hyphenation of the first word of a paragraph in a narrow context (like a table cell). For 'lualatex' which does not need the trick, the \sphinxAtStartPar does nothing.

    New in version 3.5.0.

  • The section, subsection, … headings are set using  titlesec’s \titleformat command.
  • For the 'manual' docclass, the chapter headings can be customized using fncychap’s commands \ChNameVar, \ChNumVar, \ChTitleVar. File sphinx.sty has custom re-definitions in case of fncychap option Bjarne.

    Changed in version 1.5: Formerly, use of fncychap with other styles than Bjarne was dysfunctional.

  • Docutils container directives are supported in LaTeX output: to let a container class with name foo influence the final PDF via LaTeX, it is only needed to define in the preamble an environment sphinxclassfoo.  A simple example would be:

    \newenvironment{sphinxclassred}{\color{red}}{}

    Currently the class names must contain only ascii characters and avoid characters special to LaTeX such as \.

    New in version 4.1.0.

HINT:

As an experimental feature, Sphinx can use user-defined template file for LaTeX source if you have a file named _templates/latex.tex_t in your project.

Additional files longtable.tex_t, tabulary.tex_t and tabular.tex_t can be added to _templates/ to configure some aspects of table rendering (such as the caption position).

New in version 1.6: currently all template variables are unstable and undocumented.

Developing Extensions for Sphinx

Since many projects will need special features in their documentation, Sphinx is designed to be extensible on several levels.

Here are a few things you can do in an extension:

An extension is simply a Python module with a setup() function. A user activates the extension by placing the extension’s module name (or a sub-module) in their extensions configuration value.

When sphinx-build is executed, Sphinx will attempt to import each module that is listed, and execute yourmodule.setup(app). This function is used to prepare the extension (e.g., by executing Python code), linking resources that Sphinx uses in the build process (like CSS or HTML files), and notifying Sphinx of everything the extension offers (such as directive or role definitions). The app argument is an instance of Sphinx and gives you control over most aspects of the Sphinx build.

NOTE:

The configuration file itself can be treated as an extension if it contains a setup() function.  All other extensions to load must be listed in the extensions configuration value.

The rest of this page describes some high-level aspects of developing extensions and various parts of Sphinx’s behavior that you can control. For some examples of how extensions can be built and used to control different parts of Sphinx, see the extension-tutorials-index.

Important objects

There are several key objects whose API you will use while writing an extension. These are:

Application

The application object (usually called app) is an instance of Sphinx.  It controls most high-level functionality, such as the setup of extensions, event dispatching and producing output (logging).

If you have the environment object, the application is available as env.app.

Environment

The build environment object (usually called env) is an instance of BuildEnvironment.  It is responsible for parsing the source documents, stores all metadata about the document collection and is serialized to disk after each build.

Its API provides methods to do with access to metadata, resolving references, etc.  It can also be used by extensions to cache information that should persist for incremental rebuilds.

If you have the application or builder object, the environment is available as app.env or builder.env.

Builder

The builder object (usually called builder) is an instance of a specific subclass of Builder.  Each builder class knows how to convert the parsed documents into an output format, or otherwise process them (e.g. check external links).

If you have the application object, the builder is available as app.builder.

Config

The config object (usually called config) provides the values of configuration values set in conf.py as attributes.  It is an instance of Config.

The config is available as app.config or env.config.

To see an example of use of these objects, refer to ../development/tutorials/index.

Build Phases

One thing that is vital in order to understand extension mechanisms is the way in which a Sphinx project is built: this works in several phases.

Phase 0: Initialization

In this phase, almost nothing of interest to us happens.  The source directory is searched for source files, and extensions are initialized. Should a stored build environment exist, it is loaded, otherwise a new one is created.

Phase 1: Reading

In Phase 1, all source files (and on subsequent builds, those that are new or changed) are read and parsed.  This is the phase where directives and roles are encountered by docutils, and the corresponding code is executed.  The output of this phase is a doctree for each source file; that is a tree of docutils nodes.  For document elements that aren’t fully known until all existing files are read, temporary nodes are created.

There are nodes provided by docutils, which are documented in the docutils documentation. Additional nodes are provided by Sphinx and documented here.

During reading, the build environment is updated with all meta- and cross reference data of the read documents, such as labels, the names of headings, described Python objects and index entries.  This will later be used to replace the temporary nodes.

The parsed doctrees are stored on the disk, because it is not possible to hold all of them in memory.

Phase 2: Consistency checks

Some checking is done to ensure no surprises in the built documents.

Phase 3: Resolving

Now that the metadata and cross-reference data of all existing documents is known, all temporary nodes are replaced by nodes that can be converted into output using components called transforms.  For example, links are created for object references that exist, and simple literal nodes are created for those that don’t.

Phase 4: Writing

This phase converts the resolved doctrees to the desired output format, such as HTML or LaTeX.  This happens via a so-called docutils writer that visits the individual nodes of each doctree and produces some output in the process.

NOTE:

Some builders deviate from this general build plan, for example, the builder that checks external links does not need anything more than the parsed doctrees and therefore does not have phases 2–4.

To see an example of application, refer to ../development/tutorials/todo.

Extension metadata

New in version 1.3.

The setup() function can return a dictionary.  This is treated by Sphinx as metadata of the extension.  Metadata keys currently recognized are:

  • 'version': a string that identifies the extension version.  It is used for extension version requirement checking (see needs_extensions) and informational purposes.  If not given, "unknown version" is substituted.
  • 'env_version': an integer that identifies the version of env data structure if the extension stores any data to environment.  It is used to detect the data structure has been changed from last build.  The extensions have to increment the version when data structure has changed.  If not given, Sphinx considers the extension does not stores any data to environment.
  • 'parallel_read_safe': a boolean that specifies if parallel reading of source files can be used when the extension is loaded.  It defaults to False, i.e. you have to explicitly specify your extension to be parallel-read-safe after checking that it is.

    NOTE:

    The parallel-read-safe extension must satisfy the following conditions:

    • The core logic of the extension is parallelly executable during the reading phase.
    • It has event handlers for env-merge-info and env-purge-doc events if it stores dataa to the build environment object (env) during the reading phase.
  • 'parallel_write_safe': a boolean that specifies if parallel writing of output files can be used when the extension is loaded.  Since extensions usually don’t negatively influence the process, this defaults to True.

    NOTE:

    The parallel-write-safe extension must satisfy the following conditions:

    • The core logic of the extension is parallelly executable during the writing phase.

APIs used for writing extensions

These sections provide a more complete description of the tools at your disposal when developing Sphinx extensions. Some are core to Sphinx (such as the appapi) while others trigger specific behavior (such as the i18n)

Application API

Each Sphinx extension is a Python module with at least a setup() function.  This function is called at initialization time with one argument, the application object representing the Sphinx process.

class sphinx.application.Sphinx

This application object has the public API described in the following.

Extension setup

These methods are usually called in an extension’s setup() function.

Examples of using the Sphinx extension API can be seen in the sphinx.ext package.

Sphinx.setup_extension(extname: str) -> None

Import and setup a Sphinx extension module.

Load the extension given by the module name.  Use this if your extension needs the features provided by another extension.  No-op if called twice.

Sphinx.require_sphinx(version: str) -> None

Check the Sphinx version if requested.

Compare version with the version of the running Sphinx, and abort the build when it is too old.

Parameters

version – The required version in the form of major.minor.

New in version 1.0.

Sphinx.connect(event: str, callback: Callable, priority: int = 500) -> int

Register callback to be called when event is emitted.

For details on available core events and the arguments of callback functions, please see Sphinx core events.

Parameters
  • event – The name of target event
  • callback – Callback function for the event
  • priority – The priority of the callback.  The callbacks will be invoked in order of priority (ascending).
Returns

A listener ID.  It can be used for disconnect().

Changed in version 3.0: Support priority

Sphinx.disconnect(listener_id: int) -> None

Unregister callback by listener_id.

Parameters

listener_id – A listener_id that connect() returns

Sphinx.add_builder(builder: Type[Builder], override: bool = False) -> None

Register a new builder.

Parameters
  • builder – A builder class
  • override – If true, install the builder forcedly even if another builder is already installed as the same name

Changed in version 1.8: Add override keyword.

Sphinx.add_config_value(name: str, default: Any, rebuild: Union[bool, str], types: Any = ()) -> None

Register a configuration value.

This is necessary for Sphinx to recognize new values and set default values accordingly.

Parameters
  • name – The name of the configuration value.  It is recommended to be prefixed with the extension name (ex. html_logo, epub_title)
  • default – The default value of the configuration.
  • rebuild

    The condition of rebuild.  It must be one of those values:

    • 'env' if a change in the setting only takes effect when a document is parsed – this means that the whole environment must be rebuilt.
    • 'html' if a change in the setting needs a full rebuild of HTML documents.
    • '' if a change in the setting will not need any special rebuild.
  • types – The type of configuration value.  A list of types can be specified.  For example, [str] is used to describe a configuration that takes string value.

Changed in version 0.4: If the default value is a callable, it will be called with the config object as its argument in order to get the default value. This can be used to implement config values whose default depends on other values.

Changed in version 0.6: Changed rebuild from a simple boolean (equivalent to '' or 'env') to a string.  However, booleans are still accepted and converted internally.

Sphinx.add_event(name: str) -> None

Register an event called name.

This is needed to be able to emit it.

Parameters

name – The name of the event

Sphinx.set_translator(name: str, translator_class: Type[docutils.nodes.NodeVisitor], override: bool = False) -> None

Register or override a Docutils translator class.

This is used to register a custom output translator or to replace a builtin translator.  This allows extensions to use a custom translator and define custom nodes for the translator (see add_node()).

Parameters
  • name – The name of the builder for the translator
  • translator_class – A translator class
  • override – If true, install the translator forcedly even if another translator is already installed as the same name

New in version 1.3.

Changed in version 1.8: Add override keyword.

Sphinx.add_node(node: Type[docutils.nodes.Element], override: bool = False, **kwargs: Tuple[Callable, Optional[Callable]]) -> None

Register a Docutils node class.

This is necessary for Docutils internals.  It may also be used in the future to validate nodes in the parsed documents.

Parameters
  • node – A node class
  • kwargs – Visitor functions for each builder (see below)
  • override – If true, install the node forcedly even if another node is already installed as the same name

Node visitor functions for the Sphinx HTML, LaTeX, text and manpage writers can be given as keyword arguments: the keyword should be one or more of 'html', 'latex', 'text', 'man', 'texinfo' or any other supported translators, the value a 2-tuple of (visit, depart) methods.  depart can be None if the visit function raises docutils.nodes.SkipNode.  Example:

class math(docutils.nodes.Element): pass

def visit_math_html(self, node):
    self.body.append(self.starttag(node, 'math'))
def depart_math_html(self, node):
    self.body.append('</math>')

app.add_node(math, html=(visit_math_html, depart_math_html))

Obviously, translators for which you don’t specify visitor methods will choke on the node when encountered in a document to translate.

Changed in version 0.5: Added the support for keyword arguments giving visit functions.

Sphinx.add_enumerable_node(node: Type[docutils.nodes.Element], figtype: str, title_getter: Optional[Callable[[docutils.nodes.Node], str]] = None, override: bool = False, **kwargs: Tuple[Callable, Callable]) -> None

Register a Docutils node class as a numfig target.

Sphinx numbers the node automatically. And then the users can refer it using numref.

Parameters
  • node – A node class
  • figtype – The type of enumerable nodes.  Each figtype has individual numbering sequences.  As system figtypes, figure, table and code-block are defined.  It is possible to add custom nodes to these default figtypes.  It is also possible to define new custom figtype if a new figtype is given.
  • title_getter – A getter function to obtain the title of node.  It takes an instance of the enumerable node, and it must return its title as string.  The title is used to the default title of references for ref.  By default, Sphinx searches docutils.nodes.caption or docutils.nodes.title from the node as a title.
  • kwargs – Visitor functions for each builder (same as add_node())
  • override – If true, install the node forcedly even if another node is already installed as the same name

New in version 1.4.

Sphinx.add_directive(name: str, cls: Type[docutils.parsers.rst.Directive], override: bool = False) -> None

Register a Docutils directive.

Parameters
  • name – The name of the directive
  • cls – A directive class
  • override – If true, install the directive forcedly even if another directive is already installed as the same name

For example, a custom directive named my-directive would be added like this:

from docutils.parsers.rst import Directive, directives

class MyDirective(Directive):
    has_content = True
    required_arguments = 1
    optional_arguments = 0
    final_argument_whitespace = True
    option_spec = {
        'class': directives.class_option,
        'name': directives.unchanged,
    }

    def run(self):
        ...

def setup(app):
    app.add_directive('my-directive', MyDirective)

For more details, see the Docutils docs .

Changed in version 0.6: Docutils 0.5-style directive classes are now supported.

Deprecated since version 1.8: Docutils 0.4-style (function based) directives support is deprecated.

Changed in version 1.8: Add override keyword.

Sphinx.add_role(name: str, role: Any, override: bool = False) -> None

Register a Docutils role.

Parameters
  • name – The name of role
  • role – A role function
  • override – If true, install the role forcedly even if another role is already installed as the same name

For more details about role functions, see the Docutils docs .

Changed in version 1.8: Add override keyword.

Sphinx.add_generic_role(name: str, nodeclass: Any, override: bool = False) -> None

Register a generic Docutils role.

Register a Docutils role that does nothing but wrap its contents in the node given by nodeclass.

If override is True, the given nodeclass is forcedly installed even if a role named as name is already installed.

New in version 0.6.

Changed in version 1.8: Add override keyword.

Sphinx.add_domain(domain: Type[sphinx.domains.Domain], override: bool = False) -> None

Register a domain.

Parameters
  • domain – A domain class
  • override – If true, install the domain forcedly even if another domain is already installed as the same name

New in version 1.0.

Changed in version 1.8: Add override keyword.

Sphinx.add_directive_to_domain(domain: str, name: str, cls: Type[docutils.parsers.rst.Directive], override: bool = False) -> None

Register a Docutils directive in a domain.

Like add_directive(), but the directive is added to the domain named domain.

Parameters
  • domain – The name of target domain
  • name – A name of directive
  • cls – A directive class
  • override – If true, install the directive forcedly even if another directive is already installed as the same name

New in version 1.0.

Changed in version 1.8: Add override keyword.

Sphinx.add_role_to_domain(domain: str, name: str, role: Union[Callable[[str, str, str, int, docutils.parsers.rst.states.Inliner, Dict[str, Any], List[str]], Tuple[List[docutils.nodes.Node], List[docutils.nodes.system_message]]], sphinx.roles.XRefRole], override: bool = False) -> None

Register a Docutils role in a domain.

Like add_role(), but the role is added to the domain named domain.

Parameters
  • domain – The name of the target domain
  • name – The name of the role
  • role – The role function
  • override – If true, install the role forcedly even if another role is already installed as the same name

New in version 1.0.

Changed in version 1.8: Add override keyword.

Sphinx.add_index_to_domain(domain: str, index: Type[sphinx.domains.Index], override: bool = False) -> None

Register a custom index for a domain.

Add a custom index class to the domain named domain.

Parameters
  • domain – The name of the target domain
  • index – The index class
  • override – If true, install the index forcedly even if another index is already installed as the same name

New in version 1.0.

Changed in version 1.8: Add override keyword.

Sphinx.add_object_type(directivename: str, rolename: str, indextemplate: str = '', parse_node: Optional[Callable] = None, ref_nodeclass: Optional[Type[docutils.nodes.TextElement]] = None, objname: str = '', doc_field_types: List = [], override: bool = False) -> None

Register a new object type.

This method is a very convenient way to add a new object type that can be cross-referenced.  It will do this:

  • Create a new directive (called directivename) for documenting an object.  It will automatically add index entries if indextemplate is nonempty; if given, it must contain exactly one instance of %s.  See the example below for how the template will be interpreted.
  • Create a new role (called rolename) to cross-reference to these object descriptions.
  • If you provide parse_node, it must be a function that takes a string and a docutils node, and it must populate the node with children parsed from the string.  It must then return the name of the item to be used in cross-referencing and index entries.  See the conf.py file in the source for this documentation for an example.
  • The objname (if not given, will default to directivename) names the type of object.  It is used when listing objects, e.g. in search results.

For example, if you have this call in a custom Sphinx extension:

app.add_object_type('directive', 'dir', 'pair: %s; directive')

you can use this markup in your documents:

.. rst:directive:: function

   Document a function.

<...>

See also the :rst:dir:`function` directive.

For the directive, an index entry will be generated as if you had prepended

.. index:: pair: function; directive

The reference node will be of class literal (so it will be rendered in a proportional font, as appropriate for code) unless you give the ref_nodeclass argument, which must be a docutils node class.  Most useful are docutils.nodes.emphasis or docutils.nodes.strong – you can also use docutils.nodes.generated if you want no further text decoration.  If the text should be treated as literal (e.g. no smart quote replacement), but not have typewriter styling, use sphinx.addnodes.literal_emphasis or sphinx.addnodes.literal_strong.

For the role content, you have the same syntactical possibilities as for standard Sphinx roles (see xref-syntax).

If override is True, the given object_type is forcedly installed even if an object_type having the same name is already installed.

Changed in version 1.8: Add override keyword.

Sphinx.add_crossref_type(directivename: str, rolename: str, indextemplate: str = '', ref_nodeclass: Optional[Type[docutils.nodes.TextElement]] = None, objname: str = '', override: bool = False) -> None

Register a new crossref object type.

This method is very similar to add_object_type() except that the directive it generates must be empty, and will produce no output.

That means that you can add semantic targets to your sources, and refer to them using custom roles instead of generic ones (like ref).  Example call:

app.add_crossref_type('topic', 'topic', 'single: %s',
                      docutils.nodes.emphasis)

Example usage:

.. topic:: application API

The application API
-------------------

Some random text here.

See also :topic:`this section <application API>`.

(Of course, the element following the topic directive needn’t be a section.)

If override is True, the given crossref_type is forcedly installed even if a crossref_type having the same name is already installed.

Changed in version 1.8: Add override keyword.

Sphinx.add_transform(transform: Type[docutils.transforms.Transform]) -> None

Register a Docutils transform to be applied after parsing.

Add the standard docutils Transform subclass transform to the list of transforms that are applied after Sphinx parses a reST document.

Parameters

transform – A transform class

priority range categories for Sphinx transforms

PriorityMain purpose in Sphinx
0-99Fix invalid nodes by docutils. Translate a doctree.
100-299Preparation
300-399early
400-699main
700-799Post processing. Deadline to modify text and referencing.
800-899Collect referencing and referenced nodes. Domain processing.
900-999Finalize and clean up.

refs: Transform Priority Range Categories

Sphinx.add_post_transform(transform: Type[docutils.transforms.Transform]) -> None

Register a Docutils transform to be applied before writing.

Add the standard docutils Transform subclass transform to the list of transforms that are applied before Sphinx writes a document.

Parameters

transform – A transform class

Sphinx.add_js_file(filename: str, priority: int = 500, **kwargs: Any) -> None

Register a JavaScript file to include in the HTML output.

Add filename to the list of JavaScript files that the default HTML template will include in order of priority (ascending).  The filename must be relative to the HTML static path , or a full URI with scheme. If the priority of the JavaScript file is the same as others, the JavaScript files will be included in order of registration.  If the keyword argument body is given, its value will be added between the <script> tags. Extra keyword arguments are included as attributes of the <script> tag.

Example:

app.add_js_file('example.js')
# => <script src="_static/example.js"></script>

app.add_js_file('example.js', async="async")
# => <script src="_static/example.js" async="async"></script>

app.add_js_file(None, body="var myVariable = 'foo';")
# => <script>var myVariable = 'foo';</script>

priority range for JavaScript files

PriorityMain purpose in Sphinx
200default priority for built-in JavaScript files
500default priority for extensions
800default priority for html_js_files

A JavaScript file can be added to the specific HTML page when an extension calls this method on html-page-context event.

New in version 0.5.

Changed in version 1.8: Renamed from app.add_javascript(). And it allows keyword arguments as attributes of script tag.

Changed in version 3.5: Take priority argument.  Allow to add a JavaScript file to the specific page.

Sphinx.add_css_file(filename: str, priority: int = 500, **kwargs: Any) -> None

Register a stylesheet to include in the HTML output.

Add filename to the list of CSS files that the default HTML template will include in order of priority (ascending).  The filename must be relative to the HTML static path, or a full URI with scheme.  If the priority of the CSS file is the same as others, the CSS files will be included in order of registration.  The keyword arguments are also accepted for attributes of <link> tag.

Example:

app.add_css_file('custom.css')
# => <link rel="stylesheet" href="_static/custom.css" type="text/css" />

app.add_css_file('print.css', media='print')
# => <link rel="stylesheet" href="_static/print.css"
#          type="text/css" media="print" />

app.add_css_file('fancy.css', rel='alternate stylesheet', title='fancy')
# => <link rel="alternate stylesheet" href="_static/fancy.css"
#          type="text/css" title="fancy" />

priority range for CSS files

PriorityMain purpose in Sphinx
200default priority for built-in CSS files
500default priority for extensions
800default priority for html_css_files

A CSS file can be added to the specific HTML page when an extension calls this method on html-page-context event.

New in version 1.0.

Changed in version 1.6: Optional alternate and/or title attributes can be supplied with the arguments alternate (a Boolean) and title (a string). The default is no title and alternate = False. For more information, refer to the documentation.

Changed in version 1.8: Renamed from app.add_stylesheet(). And it allows keyword arguments as attributes of link tag.

Changed in version 3.5: Take priority argument.  Allow to add a CSS file to the specific page.

Sphinx.add_latex_package(packagename: str, options: Optional[str] = None, after_hyperref: bool = False) -> None

Register a package to include in the LaTeX source code.

Add packagename to the list of packages that LaTeX source code will include.  If you provide options, it will be taken to the usepackage declaration.  If you set after_hyperref truthy, the package will be loaded after hyperref package.

app.add_latex_package('mypackage')
# => \usepackage{mypackage}
app.add_latex_package('mypackage', 'foo,bar')
# => \usepackage[foo,bar]{mypackage}

New in version 1.3.

New in version 3.1: after_hyperref option.

Sphinx.add_lexer(alias: str, lexer: Type[pygments.lexer.Lexer]) -> None

Register a new lexer for source code.

Use lexer to highlight code blocks with the given language alias.

New in version 0.6.

Changed in version 2.1: Take a lexer class as an argument.  An instance of lexers are still supported until Sphinx-3.x.

Sphinx.add_autodocumenter(cls: Any, override: bool = False) -> None

Register a new documenter class for the autodoc extension.

Add cls as a new documenter class for the sphinx.ext.autodoc extension.  It must be a subclass of sphinx.ext.autodoc.Documenter.  This allows auto-documenting new types of objects.  See the source of the autodoc module for examples on how to subclass Documenter.

If override is True, the given cls is forcedly installed even if a documenter having the same name is already installed.

See autodoc_ext_tutorial.

New in version 0.6.

Changed in version 2.2: Add override keyword.

Sphinx.add_autodoc_attrgetter(typ: Type, getter: Callable[[Any, str, Any], Any]) -> None

Register a new getattr-like function for the autodoc extension.

Add getter, which must be a function with an interface compatible to the getattr() builtin, as the autodoc attribute getter for objects that are instances of typ.  All cases where autodoc needs to get an attribute of a type are then handled by this function instead of getattr().

New in version 0.6.

Sphinx.add_search_language(cls: Any) -> None

Register a new language for the HTML search index.

Add cls, which must be a subclass of sphinx.search.SearchLanguage, as a support language for building the HTML full-text search index.  The class must have a lang attribute that indicates the language it should be used for.  See html_search_language.

New in version 1.1.

Sphinx.add_source_suffix(suffix: str, filetype: str, override: bool = False) -> None

Register a suffix of source files.

Same as source_suffix.  The users can override this using the config setting.

If override is True, the given suffix is forcedly installed even if the same suffix is already installed.

New in version 1.8.

Sphinx.add_source_parser(parser: Type[docutils.parsers.Parser], override: bool = False) -> None

Register a parser class.

If override is True, the given parser is forcedly installed even if a parser for the same suffix is already installed.

New in version 1.4.

Changed in version 1.8: suffix argument is deprecated.  It only accepts parser argument. Use add_source_suffix() API to register suffix instead.

Changed in version 1.8: Add override keyword.

Sphinx.add_env_collector(collector: Type[sphinx.environment.collectors.EnvironmentCollector]) -> None

Register an environment collector class.

Refer to collector-api.

New in version 1.6.

Sphinx.add_html_theme(name: str, theme_path: str) -> None

Register a HTML Theme.

The name is a name of theme, and theme_path is a full path to the theme (refs: distribute-your-theme).

New in version 1.6.

Sphinx.add_html_math_renderer(name: str, inline_renderers: Optional[Tuple[Callable, Callable]] = None, block_renderers: Optional[Tuple[Callable, Callable]] = None) -> None

Register a math renderer for HTML.

The name is a name of math renderer.  Both inline_renderers and block_renderers are used as visitor functions for the HTML writer: the former for inline math node (nodes.math), the latter for block math node (nodes.math_block).  Regarding visitor functions, see add_node() for details.

New in version 1.8.

Sphinx.add_message_catalog(catalog: str, locale_dir: str) -> None

Register a message catalog.

Parameters
  • catalog – The name of the catalog
  • locale_dir – The base path of the message catalog

For more details, see sphinx.locale.get_translation().

New in version 1.8.

Sphinx.is_parallel_allowed(typ: str) -> bool

Check whether parallel processing is allowed or not.

Parameters

typ – A type of processing; 'read' or 'write'.

exception sphinx.application.ExtensionError

All these methods raise this exception if something went wrong with the extension API.

Emitting events

class sphinx.application.Sphinx
emit(event: str, *args: Any, allowed_exceptions: Tuple[Type[Exception], ...] = ()) -> List

Emit event and pass arguments to the callback functions.

Return the return values of all callbacks as a list.  Do not emit core Sphinx events in extensions!

Parameters
  • event – The name of event that will be emitted
  • args – The arguments for the event
  • allowed_exceptions – The list of exceptions that are allowed in the callbacks

Changed in version 3.1: Added allowed_exceptions to specify path-through exceptions

emit_firstresult(event: str, *args: Any, allowed_exceptions: Tuple[Type[Exception], ...] = ()) -> Any

Emit event and pass arguments to the callback functions.

Return the result of the first callback that doesn’t return None.

Parameters
  • event – The name of event that will be emitted
  • args – The arguments for the event
  • allowed_exceptions – The list of exceptions that are allowed in the callbacks

New in version 0.5.

Changed in version 3.1: Added allowed_exceptions to specify path-through exceptions

Sphinx runtime information

The application object also provides runtime information as attributes.

Sphinx.project

Target project.  See Project.

Sphinx.srcdir

Source directory.

Sphinx.confdir

Directory containing conf.py.

Sphinx.doctreedir

Directory for storing pickled doctrees.

Sphinx.outdir

Directory for storing built document.

Sphinx core events

These events are known to the core.  The arguments shown are given to the registered event handlers.  Use Sphinx.connect() in an extension’s setup function (note that conf.py can also have a setup function) to connect handlers to the events.  Example:

def source_read_handler(app, docname, source):
    print('do something here...')

def setup(app):
    app.connect('source-read', source_read_handler)

Below is an overview of each event that happens during a build. In the list below, we include the event name, its callback parameters, and the input and output type for that event:

1. event.config-inited(app,config)
2. event.builder-inited(app)
3. event.env-get-outdated(app, env, added, changed, removed)
4. event.env-before-read-docs(app, env, docnames)

for docname in docnames:
   5. event.env-purge-doc(app, env, docname)

   if doc changed and not removed:
      6. source-read(app, docname, source)
      7. run source parsers: text -> docutils.document
         - parsers can be added with the app.add_source_parser() API
      8. apply transforms based on priority: docutils.document -> docutils.document
         - event.doctree-read(app, doctree) is called in the middle of transforms,
           transforms come before/after this event depending on their priority.

9. event.env-merge-info(app, env, docnames, other)
   - if running in parallel mode, this event will be emitted for each process

10. event.env-updated(app, env)
11. event.env-get-updated(app, env)
12. event.env-check-consistency(app, env)

# The updated-docs list can be builder dependent, but generally includes all new/changed documents,
# plus any output from `env-get-updated`, and then all "parent" documents in the ToC tree
# For builders that output a single page, they are first joined into a single doctree before post-transforms
# or the doctree-resolved event is emitted
for docname in updated-docs:
   13. apply post-transforms (by priority): docutils.document -> docutils.document
   14. event.doctree-resolved(app, doctree, docname)
       - In the event that any reference nodes fail to resolve, the following may emit:
       - event.missing-reference(env, node, contnode)
       - event.warn-missing-reference(domain, node)

15. Generate output files
16. event.build-finished(app, exception)

Here is a more detailed list of these events.

builder-inited(app)

Emitted when the builder object has been created.  It is available as app.builder.

config-inited(app, config)

Emitted when the config object has been initialized.

New in version 1.8.

env-get-outdated(app, env, added, changed, removed)

Emitted when the environment determines which source files have changed and should be re-read.  added, changed and removed are sets of docnames that the environment has determined.  You can return a list of docnames to re-read in addition to these.

New in version 1.1.

env-purge-doc(app, env, docname)

Emitted when all traces of a source file should be cleaned from the environment, that is, if the source file is removed or before it is freshly read.  This is for extensions that keep their own caches in attributes of the environment.

For example, there is a cache of all modules on the environment.  When a source file has been changed, the cache’s entries for the file are cleared, since the module declarations could have been removed from the file.

New in version 0.5.

env-before-read-docs(app, env, docnames)

Emitted after the environment has determined the list of all added and changed files and just before it reads them.  It allows extension authors to reorder the list of docnames (inplace) before processing, or add more docnames that Sphinx did not consider changed (but never add any docnames that are not in env.found_docs).

You can also remove document names; do this with caution since it will make Sphinx treat changed files as unchanged.

New in version 1.3.

source-read(app, docname, source)

Emitted when a source file has been read.  The source argument is a list whose single element is the contents of the source file.  You can process the contents and replace this item to implement source-level transformations.

For example, if you want to use $ signs to delimit inline math, like in LaTeX, you can use a regular expression to replace $...$ by :math:`...`.

New in version 0.5.

object-description-transform(app, domain, objtype, contentnode)

Emitted when an object description directive has run.  The domain and objtype arguments are strings indicating object description of the object. And contentnode is a content for the object.  It can be modified in-place.

New in version 2.4.

doctree-read(app, doctree)

Emitted when a doctree has been parsed and read by the environment, and is about to be pickled.  The doctree can be modified in-place.

missing-reference(app, env, node, contnode)

Emitted when a cross-reference to an object cannot be resolved. If the event handler can resolve the reference, it should return a new docutils node to be inserted in the document tree in place of the node node.  Usually this node is a reference node containing contnode as a child. If the handler can not resolve the cross-reference, it can either return None to let other handlers try, or raise NoUri to prevent other handlers in trying and suppress a warning about this cross-reference being unresolved.

Parameters
  • env – The build environment (app.builder.env).
  • node – The pending_xref node to be resolved.  Its attributes reftype, reftarget, modname and classname attributes determine the type and target of the reference.
  • contnode – The node that carries the text and formatting inside the future reference and should be a child of the returned reference node.

New in version 0.5.

warn-missing-reference(app, domain, node)

Emitted when a cross-reference to an object cannot be resolved even after missing-reference.  If the event handler can emit warnings for the missing reference, it should return True.

New in version 3.4.

doctree-resolved(app, doctree, docname)

Emitted when a doctree has been “resolved” by the environment, that is, all references have been resolved and TOCs have been inserted.  The doctree can be modified in place.

Here is the place to replace custom nodes that don’t have visitor methods in the writers, so that they don’t cause errors when the writers encounter them.

env-merge-info(app, env, docnames, other)

This event is only emitted when parallel reading of documents is enabled.  It is emitted once for every subprocess that has read some documents.

You must handle this event in an extension that stores data in the environment in a custom location.  Otherwise the environment in the main process will not be aware of the information stored in the subprocess.

other is the environment object from the subprocess, env is the environment from the main process.  docnames is a set of document names that have been read in the subprocess.

New in version 1.3.

env-updated(app, env)

Emitted when the update() method of the build environment has completed, that is, the environment and all doctrees are now up-to-date.

You can return an iterable of docnames from the handler.  These documents will then be considered updated, and will be (re-)written during the writing phase.

New in version 0.5.

Changed in version 1.3: The handlers’ return value is now used.

env-check-consistency(app, env)

Emitted when Consistency checks phase.  You can check consistency of metadata for whole of documents.

New in version 1.6: As a experimental event

html-collect-pages(app)

Emitted when the HTML builder is starting to write non-document pages.  You can add pages to write by returning an iterable from this event consisting of (pagename, context, templatename).

New in version 1.0.

html-page-context(app, pagename, templatename, context, doctree)

Emitted when the HTML builder has created a context dictionary to render a template with – this can be used to add custom elements to the context.

The pagename argument is the canonical name of the page being rendered, that is, without .html suffix and using slashes as path separators.  The templatename is the name of the template to render, this will be 'page.html' for all pages from reST documents.

The context argument is a dictionary of values that are given to the template engine to render the page and can be modified to include custom values.  Keys must be strings.

The doctree argument will be a doctree when the page is created from a reST documents; it will be None when the page is created from an HTML template alone.

You can return a string from the handler, it will then replace 'page.html' as the HTML template for this page.

NOTE:

You can install JS/CSS files for the specific page via Sphinx.add_js_file() and Sphinx.add_css_file() since v3.5.0.

New in version 0.4.

Changed in version 1.3: The return value can now specify a template name.

linkcheck-process-uri(app, uri)

Emitted when the linkcheck builder collects hyperlinks from document.  uri is a collected URI.  The event handlers can modify the URI by returning a string.

New in version 4.1.

build-finished(app, exception)

Emitted when a build has finished, before Sphinx exits, usually used for cleanup.  This event is emitted even when the build process raised an exception, given as the exception argument.  The exception is reraised in the application after the event handlers have run.  If the build process raised no exception, exception will be None.  This allows to customize cleanup actions depending on the exception status.

New in version 0.5.

Checking the Sphinx version

Use this to adapt your extension to API changes in Sphinx.

sphinx.version_info = (4, 3, 1, 'final', 0)

Version info for better programmatic use.

A tuple of five elements; for Sphinx version 1.2.1 beta 3 this would be (1, 2, 1, 'beta', 3). The fourth element can be one of: alpha, beta, rc, final. final always has 0 as the last element.

New in version 1.2: Before version 1.2, check the string sphinx.__version__.

The Config object

class sphinx.config.Config(config: Dict[str, Any] = {}, overrides: Dict[str, Any] = {})

Configuration file abstraction.

The config object makes the values of all config values available as attributes.

It is exposed via the sphinx.application.Application.config and sphinx.environment.Environment.config attributes. For example, to get the value of language, use either app.config.language or env.config.language.

The template bridge

class sphinx.application.TemplateBridge

This class defines the interface for a “template bridge”, that is, a class that renders templates given a template name and a context.

init(builder: Builder, theme: sphinx.theming.Theme = None, dirs: List[str] = None) -> None

Called by the builder to initialize the template system.

builder is the builder object; you’ll probably want to look at the value of builder.config.templates_path.

theme is a sphinx.theming.Theme object or None; in the latter case, dirs can be list of fixed directories to look for templates.

newest_template_mtime() -> float

Called by the builder to determine if output files are outdated because of template changes.  Return the mtime of the newest template file that was changed.  The default implementation returns 0.

render(template: str, context: Dict) -> None

Called by the builder to render a template given as a filename with a specified context (a Python dictionary).

render_string(template: str, context: Dict) -> str

Called by the builder to render a template given as a string with a specified context (a Python dictionary).

Exceptions

exception sphinx.errors.SphinxError

Base class for Sphinx errors.

This is the base class for “nice” exceptions.  When such an exception is raised, Sphinx will abort the build and present the exception category and message to the user.

Extensions are encouraged to derive from this exception for their custom errors.

Exceptions not derived from SphinxError are treated as unexpected and shown to the user with a part of the traceback (and the full traceback saved in a temporary file).

category

Description of the exception “category”, used in converting the exception to a string (“category: message”).  Should be set accordingly in subclasses.

exception sphinx.errors.ConfigError

Configuration error.

exception sphinx.errors.ExtensionError(message: str, orig_exc: Optional[Exception] = None, modname: Optional[str] = None)

Extension error.

exception sphinx.errors.ThemeError

Theme error.

exception sphinx.errors.VersionRequirementError

Incompatible Sphinx version error.

Project API

class sphinx.project.Project(srcdir: str, source_suffix: Dict[str, str])

A project is the source code set of the Sphinx document(s).

discover(exclude_paths: List[str] = []) -> Set[str]

Find all document files in the source directory and put them in docnames.

doc2path(docname: str, basedir: bool = True) -> str

Return the filename for the document name.

If basedir is True, return as an absolute path. Else, return as a relative path to the source directory.

path2doc(filename: str) -> Optional[str]

Return the docname for the filename if the file is a document.

filename should be absolute or relative to the source directory.

restore(other: sphinx.project.Project) -> None

Take over a result of last build.

docnames: Set[str]

The name of documents belongs to this project.

source_suffix

source_suffix. Same as source_suffix.

srcdir

Source directory.

Build environment API

class sphinx.environment.BuildEnvironment

Attributes

app

Reference to the Sphinx (application) object.

config

Reference to the Config object.

project

Target project.  See Project.

srcdir

Source directory.

doctreedir

Directory for storing pickled doctrees.

events

An EventManager object.

found_docs

A set of all existing docnames.

metadata

Dictionary mapping docnames to “metadata” (see metadata).

titles

Dictionary mapping docnames to the docutils node for their main title.

docname

Returns the docname of the document currently being parsed.

Utility methods

doc2path(docname: str, base: bool = True) -> str

Return the filename for the document name.

If base is True, return absolute path under self.srcdir. If base is False, return relative path to self.srcdir.

relfn2path(filename: str, docname: Optional[str] = None) -> Tuple[str, str]

Return paths to a file referenced from a document, relative to documentation root and absolute.

In the input “filename”, absolute filenames are taken as relative to the source dir, while relative filenames are relative to the dir of the containing document.

note_dependency(filename: str) -> None

Add filename as a dependency of the current document.

This means that the document will be rebuilt if this file changes.

filename should be absolute or relative to the source directory.

new_serialno(category: str = '') -> int

Return a serial number, e.g. for index entry targets.

The number is guaranteed to be unique in the current document.

note_reread() -> None

Add the current document to the list of documents that will automatically be re-read at the next build.

Builder API

Todo

Expand this.

class sphinx.builders.Builder

This is the base class for all builders.

These attributes should be set on builder classes:

name = ''

The builder’s name, for the -b command line option.

format = ''

The builder’s output format, or ‘’ if no document output is produced.

epilog = ''

The message emitted upon successful build completion. This can be a printf-style template string with the following keys: outdir, project

allow_parallel = False

allow parallel write_doc() calls

supported_image_types: List[str] = []

The list of MIME types of image formats supported by the builder. Image files are searched in the order in which they appear here.

supported_remote_images = False

The builder supports remote images or not.

supported_data_uri_images = False

The builder supports data URIs or not.

default_translator_class: Type[docutils.nodes.NodeVisitor] = None

default translator class for the builder.  This can be overridden by app.set_translator().

These methods are predefined and will be called from the application:

get_relative_uri(from_: str, to: str, typ: Optional[str] = None) -> str

Return a relative URI between two source filenames.

May raise environment.NoUri if there’s no way to return a sensible URI.

build_all() -> None

Build all source files.

build_specific(filenames: List[str]) -> None

Only rebuild as much as needed for changes in the filenames.

build_update() -> None

Only rebuild what was changed or added since last build.

build(docnames: Iterable[str], summary: Optional[str] = None, method: str = 'update') -> None

Main build method.

First updates the environment, and then calls write().

These methods can be overridden in concrete builder classes:

init() -> None

Load necessary templates and perform initialization.  The default implementation does nothing.

get_outdated_docs() -> Union[str, Iterable[str]]

Return an iterable of output files that are outdated, or a string describing what an update build will build.

If the builder does not output individual files corresponding to source files, return a string here.  If it does, return an iterable of those files that need to be written.

get_target_uri(docname: str, typ: Optional[str] = None) -> str

Return the target URI for a document name.

typ can be used to qualify the link characteristic for individual builders.

prepare_writing(docnames: Set[str]) -> None

A place where you can add logic before write_doc() is run

write_doc(docname: str, doctree: docutils.nodes.document) -> None

Where you actually write something to the filesystem.

finish() -> None

Finish the building process.

The default implementation does nothing.

Attributes

events

An EventManager object.

Environment Collector API

class sphinx.environment.collectors.EnvironmentCollector

An EnvironmentCollector is a specific data collector from each document.

It gathers data and stores BuildEnvironment as a database.  Examples of specific data would be images, download files, section titles, metadatas, index entries and toctrees, etc.

clear_doc(app: Sphinx, env: sphinx.environment.BuildEnvironment, docname: str) -> None

Remove specified data of a document.

This method is called on the removal of the document.

get_outdated_docs(app: Sphinx, env: sphinx.environment.BuildEnvironment, added: Set[str], changed: Set[str], removed: Set[str]) -> List[str]

Return a list of docnames to re-read.

This methods is called before reading the documents.

get_updated_docs(app: Sphinx, env: sphinx.environment.BuildEnvironment) -> List[str]

Return a list of docnames to re-read.

This methods is called after reading the whole of documents (experimental).

merge_other(app: Sphinx, env: sphinx.environment.BuildEnvironment, docnames: Set[str], other: sphinx.environment.BuildEnvironment) -> None

Merge in specified data regarding docnames from a different BuildEnvironment object which coming from a subprocess in parallel builds.

process_doc(app: Sphinx, doctree: docutils.nodes.document) -> None

Process a document and gather specific data from it.

This method is called after the document is read.

Docutils markup API

This section describes the API for adding ReST markup elements (roles and directives).

Roles

Directives

Directives are handled by classes derived from docutils.parsers.rst.Directive.  They have to be registered by an extension using Sphinx.add_directive() or Sphinx.add_directive_to_domain().

class docutils.parsers.rst.Directive

The markup syntax of the new directive is determined by the follow five class attributes:

required_arguments = 0

Number of required directive arguments.

optional_arguments = 0

Number of optional arguments after the required arguments.

final_argument_whitespace = False

May the final argument contain whitespace?

option_spec = None

Mapping of option names to validator functions.

Option validator functions take a single parameter, the option argument (or None if not given), and should validate it or convert it to the proper form.  They raise ValueError or TypeError to indicate failure.

There are several predefined and possibly useful validators in the docutils.parsers.rst.directives module.

has_content = False

May the directive have content?

New directives must implement the run() method:

run()

This method must process the directive arguments, options and content, and return a list of Docutils/Sphinx nodes that will be inserted into the document tree at the point where the directive was encountered.

Instance attributes that are always set on the directive are:

name

The directive name (useful when registering the same directive class under multiple names).

arguments

The arguments given to the directive, as a list.

options

The options given to the directive, as a dictionary mapping option names to validated/converted values.

content

The directive content, if given, as a ViewList.

lineno

The absolute line number on which the directive appeared.  This is not always a useful value; use srcline instead.

content_offset

Internal offset of the directive content.  Used when calling nested_parse (see below).

block_text

The string containing the entire directive.

state
state_machine

The state and state machine which controls the parsing.  Used for nested_parse.

ViewLists

Docutils represents document source lines in a class docutils.statemachine.ViewList.  This is a list with extended functionality – for one, slicing creates views of the original list, and also the list contains information about the source line numbers.

The Directive.content attribute is a ViewList.  If you generate content to be parsed as ReST, you have to create a ViewList yourself.  Important for content generation are the following points:

  • The constructor takes a list of strings (lines) and a source (document) name.
  • The .append() method takes a line and a source name as well.

Parsing directive content as ReST

Many directives will contain more markup that must be parsed.  To do this, use one of the following APIs from the Directive.run() method:

  • self.state.nested_parse
  • sphinx.util.nodes.nested_parse_with_titles() – this allows titles in the parsed content.

Both APIs parse the content into a given node. They are used like this:

node = docutils.nodes.paragraph()
# either
nested_parse_with_titles(self.state, self.result, node)
# or
self.state.nested_parse(self.result, 0, node)
NOTE:

sphinx.util.docutils.switch_source_input() allows to change a target file during nested_parse.  It is useful to mixed contents.  For example, sphinx. ext.autodoc uses it to parse docstrings:

from sphinx.util.docutils import switch_source_input

# Switch source_input between parsing content.
# Inside this context, all parsing errors and warnings are reported as
# happened in new source_input (in this case, ``self.result``).
with switch_source_input(self.state, self.result):
    node = docutils.nodes.paragraph()
    self.state.nested_parse(self.result, 0, node)

Deprecated since version 1.7: Until Sphinx-1.6, sphinx.ext.autodoc.AutodocReporter is used for this purpose.  For now, it is replaced by switch_source_input().

If you don’t need the wrapping node, you can use any concrete node type and return node.children from the Directive.

SEE ALSO:

Creating directives HOWTO of the Docutils documentation

Domain API

class sphinx.domains.Domain(env: BuildEnvironment)

A Domain is meant to be a group of “object” description directives for objects of a similar nature, and corresponding roles to create references to them.  Examples would be Python modules, classes, functions etc., elements of a templating language, Sphinx roles and directives, etc.

Each domain has a separate storage for information about existing objects and how to reference them in self.data, which must be a dictionary.  It also must implement several functions that expose the object information in a uniform way to parts of Sphinx that allow the user to reference or search for objects in a domain-agnostic way.

About self.data: since all object and cross-referencing information is stored on a BuildEnvironment instance, the domain.data object is also stored in the env.domaindata dict under the key domain.name.  Before the build process starts, every active domain is instantiated and given the environment object; the domaindata dict must then either be nonexistent or a dictionary whose ‘version’ key is equal to the domain class’ data_version attribute.  Otherwise, OSError is raised and the pickled environment is discarded.

add_object_type(name: str, objtype: sphinx.domains.ObjType) -> None

Add an object type.

check_consistency() -> None

Do consistency checks (experimental).

clear_doc(docname: str) -> None

Remove traces of a document in the domain-specific inventories.

directive(name: str) -> Optional[Callable]

Return a directive adapter class that always gives the registered directive its full name (‘domain:name’) as self.name.

get_enumerable_node_type(node: docutils.nodes.Node) -> Optional[str]

Get type of enumerable nodes (experimental).

get_full_qualified_name(node: docutils.nodes.Element) -> Optional[str]

Return full qualified name for given node.

get_objects() -> Iterable[Tuple[str, str, str, str, str, int]]

Return an iterable of “object descriptions”.

Object descriptions are tuples with six items:

name

Fully qualified name.

dispname

Name to display when searching/linking.

type

Object type, a key in self.object_types.

docname

The document where it is to be found.

anchor

The anchor name for the object.

priority

How “important” the object is (determines placement in search results). One of:

1

Default priority (placed before full-text matches).

0

Object is important (placed before default-priority objects).

2

Object is unimportant (placed after full-text matches).

-1

Object should not show up in search at all.

get_type_name(type: sphinx.domains.ObjType, primary: bool = False) -> str

Return full name for given ObjType.

merge_domaindata(docnames: List[str], otherdata: Dict) -> None

Merge in data regarding docnames from a different domaindata inventory (coming from a subprocess in parallel builds).

process_doc(env: BuildEnvironment, docname: str, document: docutils.nodes.document) -> None

Process a document after it is read by the environment.

process_field_xref(pnode: sphinx.addnodes.pending_xref) -> None

Process a pending xref created in a doc field. For example, attach information about the current scope.

resolve_any_xref(env: BuildEnvironment, fromdocname: str, builder: Builder, target: str, node: sphinx.addnodes.pending_xref, contnode: docutils.nodes.Element) -> List[Tuple[str, docutils.nodes.Element]]

Resolve the pending_xref node with the given target.

The reference comes from an “any” or similar role, which means that we don’t know the type.  Otherwise, the arguments are the same as for resolve_xref().

The method must return a list (potentially empty) of tuples ('domain:role', newnode), where 'domain:role' is the name of a role that could have created the same reference, e.g. 'py:func'. newnode is what resolve_xref() would return.

New in version 1.3.

resolve_xref(env: BuildEnvironment, fromdocname: str, builder: Builder, typ: str, target: str, node: sphinx.addnodes.pending_xref, contnode: docutils.nodes.Element) -> Optional[docutils.nodes.Element]

Resolve the pending_xref node with the given typ and target.

This method should return a new node, to replace the xref node, containing the contnode which is the markup content of the cross-reference.

If no resolution can be found, None can be returned; the xref node will then given to the missing-reference event, and if that yields no resolution, replaced by contnode.

The method can also raise sphinx.environment.NoUri to suppress the missing-reference event being emitted.

role(name: str) -> Optional[Callable[[str, str, str, int, docutils.parsers.rst.states.Inliner, Dict[str, Any], List[str]], Tuple[List[docutils.nodes.Node], List[docutils.nodes.system_message]]]]

Return a role adapter function that always gives the registered role its full name (‘domain:name’) as the first argument.

setup() -> None

Set up domain object.

dangling_warnings: Dict[str, str] = {}

role name -> a warning message if reference is missing

data: Dict

data value

data_version = 0

data version, bump this when the format of self.data changes

directives: Dict[str, Any] = {}

directive name -> directive class

enumerable_nodes: Dict[Type[docutils.nodes.Node], Tuple[str, Callable]] = {}

node_class -> (enum_node_type, title_getter)

indices: List[Type[sphinx.domains.Index]] = []

a list of Index subclasses

initial_data: Dict = {}

data value for a fresh environment

label = ''

domain label: longer, more descriptive (used in messages)

name = ''

domain name: should be short, but unique

object_types: Dict[str, sphinx.domains.ObjType] = {}

type (usually directive) name -> ObjType instance

roles: Dict[str, Union[Callable[[str, str, str, int, docutils.parsers.rst.states.Inliner, Dict[str, Any], List[str]], Tuple[List[docutils.nodes.Node], List[docutils.nodes.system_message]]], sphinx.roles.XRefRole]] = {}

role name -> role callable

class sphinx.domains.ObjType(lname: str, *roles: Any, **attrs: Any)

An ObjType is the description for a type of object that a domain can document.  In the object_types attribute of Domain subclasses, object type names are mapped to instances of this class.

Constructor arguments:

  • lname: localized name of the type (do not include domain name)
  • roles: all the roles that can refer to an object of this type
  • attrs: object attributes – currently only “searchprio” is known, which defines the object’s priority in the full-text search index, see Domain.get_objects().
class sphinx.domains.Index(domain: sphinx.domains.Domain)

An Index is the description for a domain-specific index.  To add an index to a domain, subclass Index, overriding the three name attributes:

  • name is an identifier used for generating file names. It is also used for a hyperlink target for the index. Therefore, users can refer the index page using ref role and a string which is combined domain name and name attribute (ex. :ref:`py-modindex`).
  • localname is the section title for the index.
  • shortname is a short name for the index, for use in the relation bar in HTML output.  Can be empty to disable entries in the relation bar.

and providing a generate() method.  Then, add the index class to your domain’s indices list.  Extensions can add indices to existing domains using add_index_to_domain().

Changed in version 3.0: Index pages can be referred by domain name and index name via ref role.

abstract generate(docnames: Optional[Iterable[str]] = None) -> Tuple[List[Tuple[str, List[sphinx.domains.IndexEntry]]], bool]

Get entries for the index.

If docnames is given, restrict to entries referring to these docnames.

The return value is a tuple of (content, collapse):

collapse

A boolean that determines if sub-entries should start collapsed (for output formats that support collapsing sub-entries).

content:

A sequence of (letter, entries) tuples, where letter is the “heading” for the given entries, usually the starting letter, and entries is a sequence of single entries. Each entry is a sequence [name, subtype, docname, anchor, extra, qualifier, descr]. The items in this sequence have the following meaning:

name

The name of the index entry to be displayed.

subtype

The sub-entry related type. One of:

0

A normal entry.

1

An entry with sub-entries.

2

A sub-entry.

docname

docname where the entry is located.

anchor

Anchor for the entry within docname

extra

Extra info for the entry.

qualifier

Qualifier for the description.

descr

Description for the entry.

Qualifier and description are not rendered for some output formats such as LaTeX.

class sphinx.directives.ObjectDescription(name, arguments, options, content, lineno, content_offset, block_text, state, state_machine)

Directive to describe a class, function or similar object.  Not used directly, but subclassed (in domain-specific directives) to add custom behavior.

add_target_and_index(name: sphinx.directives.T, sig: str, signode: sphinx.addnodes.desc_signature) -> None

Add cross-reference IDs and entries to self.indexnode, if applicable.

name is whatever handle_signature() returned.

after_content() -> None

Called after parsing content. Used to reset information about the current directive context on the build environment.

before_content() -> None

Called before parsing content. Used to set information about the current directive context on the build environment.

get_signatures() -> List[str]

Retrieve the signatures to document from the directive arguments.  By default, signatures are given as arguments, one per line.

handle_signature(sig: str, signode: sphinx.addnodes.desc_signature) -> sphinx.directives.T

Parse the signature sig into individual nodes and append them to signode. If ValueError is raised, parsing is aborted and the whole sig is put into a single desc_name node.

The return value should be a value that identifies the object.  It is passed to add_target_and_index() unchanged, and otherwise only used to skip duplicates.

run() -> List[docutils.nodes.Node]

Main directive entry function, called by docutils upon encountering the directive.

This directive is meant to be quite easily subclassable, so it delegates to several additional methods.  What it does:

  • find out if called as a domain-specific directive, set self.domain
  • create a desc node to fit all description inside
  • parse standard options, currently noindex
  • create an index node if needed as self.indexnode
  • parse all given signatures (as returned by self.get_signatures()) using self.handle_signature(), which should either return a name or raise ValueError
  • add index entries using self.add_target_and_index()
  • parse the content and handle doc fields in it
transform_content(contentnode: sphinx.addnodes.desc_content) -> None

Called after creating the content through nested parsing, but before the object-description-transform event is emitted, and before the info-fields are transformed. Can be used to manipulate the content.

Python Domain

class sphinx.domains.python.PythonDomain(env: BuildEnvironment)

Python language domain.

objects

modules

note_object(name: str, objtype: str, node_id: str, aliased: bool = False, location: Optional[Any] = None) -> None

Note a python object for cross reference.

New in version 2.1.

note_module(name: str, node_id: str, synopsis: str, platform: str, deprecated: bool) -> None

Note a python module for cross reference.

New in version 2.1.

Parser API

The docutils documentation describes parsers as follows:

The Parser analyzes the input document and creates a node tree representation.

In Sphinx, the parser modules works as same as docutils.  The parsers are registered to Sphinx by extensions using Application APIs; Sphinx.add_source_suffix() and Sphinx.add_source_parser().

The source suffix is a mapping from file suffix to file type.  For example, .rst file is mapped to 'restructuredtext' type.  Sphinx uses the file type to looking for parsers from registered list.  On searching, Sphinx refers to the Parser.supported attribute and picks up a parser which contains the file type in the attribute.

The users can override the source suffix mappings using source_suffix like following:

# a mapping from file suffix to file types
source_suffix = {
    '.rst': 'restructuredtext',
    '.md': 'markdown',
}

You should indicate file types your parser supports. This will allow users to configure their settings appropriately.

class sphinx.parsers.Parser

A base class of source parsers.  The additional parsers should inherit this class instead of docutils.parsers.Parser.  Compared with docutils.parsers.Parser, this class improves accessibility to Sphinx APIs.

The subclasses can access the following objects and functions:

self.app

The application object (sphinx.application.Sphinx)

self.config

The config object (sphinx.config.Config)

self.env

The environment object (sphinx.environment.BuildEnvironment)

self.warn()

Emit a warning. (Same as sphinx.application.Sphinx.warn())

self.info()

Emit an info message. (Same as sphinx.application.Sphinx.info())

Deprecated since version 1.6: warn() and info() is deprecated.  Use sphinx.util.logging instead.

Deprecated since version 3.0: parser.app is deprecated.

Doctree node classes added by Sphinx

Nodes for domain-specific object descriptions

Top-level nodes

These nodes form the top-most levels of object descriptions.

class sphinx.addnodes.desc(rawsource='', *children, **attributes)

Node for a list of object signatures and a common description of them.

Contains one or more desc_signature nodes and then a single desc_content node.

This node always has two classes:

  • The name of the domain it belongs to, e.g., py or cpp.
  • The name of the object type in the domain, e.g., function.
class sphinx.addnodes.desc_signature(*args: Any, **kwargs: Any)

Node for a single object signature.

As default the signature is a single-line signature. Set is_multiline = True to describe a multi-line signature. In that case all child nodes must be desc_signature_line nodes.

This node always has the classes sig, sig-object, and the domain it belongs to.

class sphinx.addnodes.desc_signature_line(rawsource='', text='', *children, **attributes)

Node for a line in a multi-line object signature.

It should only be used as a child of a desc_signature with is_multiline set to True. Set add_permalink = True for the line that should get the permalink.

class sphinx.addnodes.desc_content(rawsource='', *children, **attributes)

Node for object description content.

Must be the last child node in a desc node.

class sphinx.addnodes.desc_inline(domain: str, *args: Any, **kwargs: Any)

Node for a signature fragment in inline text.

This is for example used for roles like cpp:expr.

This node always has the classes sig, sig-inline, and the name of the domain it belongs to.

Nodes for high-level structure in signatures

These nodes occur in in non-multiline desc_signature nodes and in desc_signature_line nodes.

class sphinx.addnodes.desc_name(*args: Any, **kwargs: Any)

Node for the main object name.

For example, in the declaration of a Python class MyModule.MyClass, the main name is MyClass.

This node always has the class sig-name.

class sphinx.addnodes.desc_addname(*args: Any, **kwargs: Any)

Node for additional name parts for an object.

For example, in the declaration of a Python class MyModule.MyClass, the additional name part is MyModule..

This node always has the class sig-prename.

class sphinx.addnodes.desc_type(rawsource='', text='', *children, **attributes)

Node for return types or object type names.

class sphinx.addnodes.desc_returns(rawsource='', text='', *children, **attributes)

Node for a “returns” annotation (a la -> in Python).

class sphinx.addnodes.desc_parameterlist(rawsource='', text='', *children, **attributes)

Node for a general parameter list.

class sphinx.addnodes.desc_parameter(rawsource='', text='', *children, **attributes)

Node for a single parameter.

class sphinx.addnodes.desc_optional(rawsource='', text='', *children, **attributes)

Node for marking optional parts of the parameter list.

class sphinx.addnodes.desc_annotation(rawsource='', text='', *children, **attributes)

Node for signature annotations (not Python 3-style annotations).

New admonition-like constructs

class sphinx.addnodes.versionmodified(rawsource='', text='', *children, **attributes)

Node for version change entries.

Currently used for “versionadded”, “versionchanged” and “deprecated” directives.

class sphinx.addnodes.seealso(rawsource='', *children, **attributes)

Custom “see also” admonition.

Other paragraph-level nodes

class sphinx.addnodes.compact_paragraph(rawsource='', text='', *children, **attributes)

Node for a compact paragraph (which never makes a <p> node).

New inline nodes

class sphinx.addnodes.index(rawsource='', text='', *children, **attributes)

Node for index entries.

This node is created by the index directive and has one attribute, entries.  Its value is a list of 5-tuples of (entrytype, entryname, target, ignored, key).

entrytype is one of “single”, “pair”, “double”, “triple”.

key is categorization characters (usually a single character) for general index page. For the details of this, please see also: glossary and issue #2320.

class sphinx.addnodes.pending_xref(rawsource='', *children, **attributes)

Node for cross-references that cannot be resolved without complete information about all documents.

These nodes are resolved before writing output, in BuildEnvironment.resolve_references.

class sphinx.addnodes.pending_xref_condition(rawsource='', text='', *children, **attributes)

Node for cross-references that are used to choose appropriate content of the reference by conditions on the resolving phase.

When the pending_xref node contains one or more pending_xref_condition nodes, the cross-reference resolver should choose the content of the reference using defined conditions in condition attribute of each pending_xref_condition nodes:

<pending_xref refdomain="py" reftarget="io.StringIO ...>
    <pending_xref_condition condition="resolved">
        <literal>
            StringIO
    <pending_xref_condition condition="*">
        <literal>
            io.StringIO

After the processing of cross-reference resolver, one of the content node under pending_xref_condition node is chosen by its condition and to be removed all of pending_xref_condition nodes:

# When resolved the cross-reference successfully
<reference>
    <literal>
        StringIO

# When resolution is failed
<reference>
    <literal>
        io.StringIO
NOTE:

This node is only allowed to be placed under pending_xref node. It is not allows to place it under other nodes.  In addition, pending_xref node must contain only pending_xref_condition nodes if it contains one or more pending_xref_condition nodes.

The pending_xref_condition node should have condition attribute. Domains can be store their individual conditions into the attribute to filter contents on resolving phase.  As a reserved condition name, condition="*" is used for the fallback of resolution failure. Additionally, as a recommended condition name, condition="resolved" is used for the representation of resolstion success in the intersphinx module.

New in version 4.0.

class sphinx.addnodes.literal_emphasis(rawsource='', text='', *children, **attributes)

Node that behaves like emphasis, but further text processors are not applied (e.g. smartypants for HTML output).

class sphinx.addnodes.download_reference(rawsource='', text='', *children, **attributes)

Node for download references, similar to pending_xref.

Special nodes

class sphinx.addnodes.only(rawsource='', *children, **attributes)

Node for “only” directives (conditional inclusion based on tags).

class sphinx.addnodes.meta(rawsource='', *children, **attributes)

Node for meta directive – same as docutils’ standard meta node, but pickleable.

class sphinx.addnodes.highlightlang(rawsource='', *children, **attributes)

Inserted to set the highlight language and line number options for subsequent code blocks.

You should not need to generate the nodes below in extensions.

class sphinx.addnodes.glossary(rawsource='', *children, **attributes)

Node to insert a glossary.

class sphinx.addnodes.toctree(rawsource='', *children, **attributes)

Node for inserting a “TOC tree”.

class sphinx.addnodes.start_of_file(rawsource='', *children, **attributes)

Node to mark start of a new file, used in the LaTeX builder only.

class sphinx.addnodes.productionlist(rawsource='', *children, **attributes)

Node for grammar production lists.

Contains production nodes.

class sphinx.addnodes.production(rawsource='', text='', *children, **attributes)

Node for a single grammar production rule.

Logging API

sphinx.util.logging.getLogger(name)

Get logger wrapped by sphinx.util.logging.SphinxLoggerAdapter.

Sphinx logger always uses sphinx.* namespace to be independent from settings of root logger.  It ensures logging is consistent even if a third-party extension or imported application resets logger settings.

Example usage:

>>> from sphinx.util import logging
>>> logger = logging.getLogger(__name__)
>>> logger.info('Hello, this is an extension!')
Hello, this is an extension!
class sphinx.util.logging.SphinxLoggerAdapter(logging.LoggerAdapter)

LoggerAdapter allowing type and subtype keywords.

error(msg, *args, **kwargs)

critical(msg, *args, **kwargs)

warning(msg, *args, **kwargs)

Logs a message on this logger with the specified level. Basically, the arguments are as with python’s logging module.

In addition, Sphinx logger supports following keyword arguments:

type, *subtype*

Categories of warning logs.  It is used to suppress warnings by suppress_warnings setting.

location

Where the warning happened.  It is used to include the path and line number in each log.  It allows docname, tuple of docname and line number and nodes:

logger = sphinx.util.logging.getLogger(__name__)
logger.warning('Warning happened!', location='index')
logger.warning('Warning happened!', location=('chapter1/index', 10))
logger.warning('Warning happened!', location=some_node)
color

The color of logs.  By default, error level logs are colored as "darkred", critical level ones is not colored, and warning level ones are colored as "red".

log(level, msg, *args, **kwargs)

info(msg, *args, **kwargs)

verbose(msg, *args, **kwargs)

debug(msg, *args, **kwargs)

Logs a message to this logger with the specified level. Basically, the arguments are as with python’s logging module.

In addition, Sphinx logger supports following keyword arguments:

nonl

If true, the logger does not fold lines at the end of the log message. The default is False.

location

Where the message emitted.  For more detail, see SphinxLoggerAdapter.warning().

color

The color of logs.  By default, info and verbose level logs are not colored, and debug level ones are colored as "darkgray".

sphinx.util.logging.pending_logging()

Context manager to postpone logging all logs temporarily.

For example:

>>> with pending_logging():
>>>     logger.warning('Warning message!')  # not flushed yet
>>>     some_long_process()
>>>
Warning message!  # the warning is flushed here
sphinx.util.logging.pending_warnings()

Context manager to postpone logging warnings temporarily.

Similar to pending_logging().

sphinx.util.logging.prefixed_warnings()

Context manager to prepend prefix to all warning log records temporarily.

For example:

>>> with prefixed_warnings("prefix:"):
>>>     logger.warning('Warning message!')  # => prefix: Warning message!

New in version 2.0.

i18n API

sphinx.locale.init(locale_dirs: List[Optional[str]], language: Optional[str], catalog: str = 'sphinx', namespace: str = 'general') -> Tuple[gettext.NullTranslations, bool]

Look for message catalogs in locale_dirs and ensure that there is at least a NullTranslations catalog set in translators. If called multiple times or if several .mo files are found, their contents are merged together (thus making init reentrant).

sphinx.locale.init_console(locale_dir: str, catalog: str) -> Tuple[gettext.NullTranslations, bool]

Initialize locale for console.

New in version 1.8.

sphinx.locale.get_translation(catalog: str, namespace: str = 'general') -> Callable

Get a translation function based on the catalog and namespace.

The extension can use this API to translate the messages on the extension:

import os
from sphinx.locale import get_translation

MESSAGE_CATALOG_NAME = 'myextension'  # name of *.pot, *.po and *.mo files
_ = get_translation(MESSAGE_CATALOG_NAME)
text = _('Hello Sphinx!')


def setup(app):
    package_dir = os.path.abspath(os.path.dirname(__file__))
    locale_dir = os.path.join(package_dir, 'locales')
    app.add_message_catalog(MESSAGE_CATALOG_NAME, locale_dir)

With this code, sphinx searches a message catalog from ${package_dir}/locales/${language}/LC_MESSAGES/myextension.mo. The language is used for the searching.

New in version 1.8.

sphinx.locale._(message: str, *args: Any) -> str

Translation function for messages on documentation (menu, labels, themes and so on). This function follows language setting.

sphinx.locale.__(message: str, *args: Any) -> str

Translation function for console messages This function follows locale setting (LC_ALL, LC_MESSAGES and so on).

Extension internationalization (i18n) and localization (l10n) using i18n API

New in version 1.8.

An extension may naturally come with message translations.  This is briefly summarized in sphinx.locale.get_translation() help.

In practice, you have to:

  1. Choose a name for your message catalog, which must be unique.  Usually the name of your extension is used for the name of message catalog.
  2. Mark in your extension sources all messages as translatable, via sphinx.locale.get_translation() function, usually renamed _(), e.g.:

    src/__init__.py

    from sphinx.locale import get_translation
    
    MESSAGE_CATALOG_NAME = 'myextension'
    _ = get_translation(MESSAGE_CATALOG_NAME)
    
    translated_text = _('Hello Sphinx!')
  3. Set up your extension to be aware of its dedicated translations:

    src/__init__.py

    def setup(app):
        package_dir = path.abspath(path.dirname(__file__))
        locale_dir = os.path.join(package_dir, 'locales')
        app.add_message_catalog(MESSAGE_CATALOG_NAME, locale_dir)
  4. Generate message catalog template *.pot file, usually in locale/ source directory, for example via Babel:

    $ pybabel extract --output=src/locale/myextension.pot src/
  5. Create message catalogs (*.po) for each language which your extension will provide localization, for example via Babel:

    $ pybabel init --input-file=src/locale/myextension.pot --domain=myextension --output-dir=src/locale --locale=fr_FR
  6. Translate message catalogs for each language manually
  7. Compile message catalogs into *.mo files, for example via Babel:

    $ pybabel compile --directory=src/locale --domain=myextension
  8. Ensure that message catalog files are distributed when your package will be installed, by adding equivalent line in your extension MANIFEST.in:

    MANIFEST.in

    recursive-include src *.pot *.po *.mo

When the messages on your extension has been changed, you need to also update message catalog template and message catalogs, for example via Babel:

$ pybabel extract --output=src/locale/myextension.pot src/
$ pybabel update --input-file=src/locale/myextension.pot --domain=myextension --output-dir=src/locale

Utilities

Sphinx provides utility classes and functions to develop extensions.

Base classes for components

These base classes are useful to allow your extensions to obtain Sphinx components (e.g. Config, BuildEnvironment and so on) easily.

NOTE:

The subclasses of them might not work with bare docutils because they are strongly coupled with Sphinx.

class sphinx.transforms.SphinxTransform(document, startnode=None)

A base class of Transforms.

Compared with docutils.transforms.Transform, this class improves accessibility to Sphinx APIs.

property app: Sphinx

Reference to the Sphinx object.

property config: sphinx.config.Config

Reference to the Config object.

property env: BuildEnvironment

Reference to the BuildEnvironment object.

class sphinx.transforms.post_transforms.SphinxPostTransform(document, startnode=None)

A base class of post-transforms.

Post transforms are invoked to modify the document to restructure it for outputting. They resolve references, convert images, do special transformation for each output formats and so on.  This class helps to implement these post transforms.

apply(**kwargs: Any) -> None

Override to apply the transform to the document tree.

is_supported() -> bool

Check this transform working for current builder.

run(**kwargs: Any) -> None

Main method of post transforms.

Subclasses should override this method instead of apply().

class sphinx.util.docutils.SphinxDirective(name, arguments, options, content, lineno, content_offset, block_text, state, state_machine)

A base class for Sphinx directives.

This class provides helper methods for Sphinx directives.

NOTE:

The subclasses of this class might not work with docutils. This class is strongly coupled with Sphinx.

get_location() -> str

Get current location info for logging.

get_source_info() -> Tuple[str, int]

Get source and line number.

set_source_info(node: docutils.nodes.Node) -> None

Set source and line number to the node.

property config: Config

Reference to the Config object.

property env: BuildEnvironment

Reference to the BuildEnvironment object.

class sphinx.util.docutils.SphinxRole

A base class for Sphinx roles.

This class provides helper methods for Sphinx roles.

NOTE:

The subclasses of this class might not work with docutils. This class is strongly coupled with Sphinx.

get_location() -> str

Get current location info for logging.

property config: Config

Reference to the Config object.

content: List[str]

A list of strings, the directive content for customization

property env: BuildEnvironment

Reference to the BuildEnvironment object.

inliner: docutils.parsers.rst.states.Inliner

The docutils.parsers.rst.states.Inliner object.

lineno: int

The line number where the interpreted text begins.

name: str

The role name actually used in the document.

options: Dict

A dictionary of directive options for customization

rawtext: str

A string containing the entire interpreted text input.

text: str

The interpreted text content.

class sphinx.util.docutils.ReferenceRole

A base class for reference roles.

The reference roles can accept link title <target> style as a text for the role.  The parsed result; link title and target will be stored to self.title and self.target.

disabled: bool

A boolean indicates the reference is disabled.

has_explicit_title: bool

A boolean indicates the role has explicit title or not.

target: str

The link target for the interpreted text.

title: str

The link title for the interpreted text.

class sphinx.transforms.post_transforms.images.ImageConverter(*args: Any, **kwargs: Any)

A base class for image converters.

An image converter is kind of Docutils transform module.  It is used to convert image files which are not supported by a builder to the appropriate format for that builder.

For example, LaTeX builder supports PDF, PNG and JPEG as image formats.  However it does not support SVG images. For such case, using image converters allows to embed these unsupported images into the document.  One of the image converters; sphinx.ext.imgconverter can convert a SVG image to PNG format using Imagemagick internally.

There are three steps to make your custom image converter:

1.

Make a subclass of ImageConverter class

2.

Override conversion_rules, is_available() and convert()

3.

Register your image converter to Sphinx using Sphinx.add_post_transform()

convert(_from: str, _to: str) -> bool

Convert an image file to the expected format.

_from is a path of the source image file, and _to is a path of the destination file.

is_available() -> bool

Return the image converter is available or not.

available: Optional[bool] = None

The converter is available or not.  Will be filled at the first call of the build.  The result is shared in the same process.

Todo

This should be refactored not to store the state without class variable.

conversion_rules: List[Tuple[str, str]] = []

A conversion rules the image converter supports. It is represented as a list of pair of source image format (mimetype) and destination one:

conversion_rules = [
    ('image/svg+xml', 'image/png'),
    ('image/gif', 'image/png'),
    ('application/pdf', 'image/png'),
]

Utility components

class sphinx.events.EventManager(app: Sphinx)

Event manager for Sphinx.

add(name: str) -> None

Register a custom Sphinx event.

connect(name: str, callback: Callable, priority: int) -> int

Connect a handler to specific event.

disconnect(listener_id: int) -> None

Disconnect a handler.

emit(name: str, *args: Any, allowed_exceptions: Tuple[Type[Exception], ...] = ()) -> List

Emit a Sphinx event.

emit_firstresult(name: str, *args: Any, allowed_exceptions: Tuple[Type[Exception], ...] = ()) -> Any

Emit a Sphinx event and returns first result.

This returns the result of the first handler that doesn’t return None.

Deprecated APIs

On developing Sphinx, we are always careful to the compatibility of our APIs. But, sometimes, the change of interface are needed for some reasons.  In such cases, we’ve marked them as deprecated. And they are kept during the two major versions (for more details, please see deprecation-policy).

The following is a list of deprecated interfaces.

deprecated APIs

TargetDeprecated(will be) RemovedAlternatives
sphinx.ext.autodoc.AttributeDocumenter._datadescriptor4.36.0N/A
sphinx.writers.html.HTMLTranslator._fieldlist_row_index4.36.0sphinx.writers.html.HTMLTranslator._fieldlist_row_indices
sphinx.writers.html.HTMLTranslator._table_row_index4.36.0sphinx.writers.html.HTMLTranslator._table_row_indices
sphinx.writers.html5.HTML5Translator._fieldlist_row_index4.36.0sphinx.writers.html5.HTML5Translator._fieldlist_row_indices
sphinx.writers.html5.HTML5Translator._table_row_index4.36.0sphinx.writers.html5.HTML5Translator._table_row_indices
The optional argument app for sphinx.environment.BuildEnvironment4.16.0The required argument
sphinx.application.Sphinx.html_theme4.16.0sphinx.registry.SphinxComponentRegistry.html_themes
sphinx.ext.autosummary._app4.16.0N/A
sphinx.util.docstrings.extract_metadata()4.16.0sphinx.util.docstrings.separate_metadata()
favicon variable in HTML templates4.0TBDfavicon_url
logo variable in HTML templates4.0TBDlogo_url
sphinx.directives.patches.ListTable4.06.0docutils.parsers.rst.directives.tables.ListSVTable
sphinx.directives.patches.RSTTable4.06.0docutils.parsers.rst.directives.tables.RSTTable
sphinx.ext.autodoc.directive.DocumenterBridge.filename_set4.06.0sphinx.ext.autodoc.directive.DocumenterBridge.record_dependencies
sphinx.ext.autodoc.directive.DocumenterBridge.warn()4.06.0logging-api
sphinx.registry.SphinxComponentRegistry.get_source_input()4.06.0N/A
sphinx.registry.SphinxComponentRegistry.source_inputs4.06.0N/A
sphinx.transforms.FigureAligner4.06.0N/A
sphinx.util.pycompat.convert_with_2to3()4.06.0N/A
sphinx.util.pycompat.execfile_()4.06.0N/A
sphinx.util.smartypants4.06.0docutils.utils.smartquotes
sphinx.util.typing.DirectiveOption4.06.0N/A
pending_xref node for viewcode extension3.55.0sphinx.ext.viewcode.viewcode_anchor
sphinx.builders.linkcheck.CheckExternalLinksBuilder.anchors_ignore3.55.0N/A
sphinx.builders.linkcheck.CheckExternalLinksBuilder.auth3.55.0N/A
sphinx.builders.linkcheck.CheckExternalLinksBuilder.broken3.55.0N/A
sphinx.builders.linkcheck.CheckExternalLinksBuilder.good3.55.0N/A
sphinx.builders.linkcheck.CheckExternalLinksBuilder.redirected3.55.0N/A
sphinx.builders.linkcheck.CheckExternalLinksBuilder.rqueue3.55.0N/A
sphinx.builders.linkcheck.CheckExternalLinksBuilder.to_ignore3.55.0N/A
sphinx.builders.linkcheck.CheckExternalLinksBuilder.workers3.55.0N/A
sphinx.builders.linkcheck.CheckExternalLinksBuilder.wqueue3.55.0N/A
sphinx.builders.linkcheck.node_line_or_0()3.55.0sphinx.util.nodes.get_node_line()
sphinx.ext.autodoc.AttributeDocumenter.isinstanceattribute()3.55.0N/A
sphinx.ext.autodoc.importer.get_module_members()3.55.0sphinx.ext.autodoc.ModuleDocumenter.get_module_members()
sphinx.ext.autosummary.generate._simple_info()3.55.0logging-api
sphinx.ext.autosummary.generate._simple_warn()3.55.0logging-api
sphinx.writers.html.HTMLTranslator.permalink_text3.55.0html_permalinks_icon
sphinx.writers.html5.HTML5Translator.permalink_text3.55.0html_permalinks_icon
The follow_wrapped argument of sphinx.util.inspect.signature()3.45.0N/A
The no_docstring argument of sphinx.ext.autodoc.Documenter.add_content()3.45.0sphinx.ext.autodoc.Documenter.get_doc()
sphinx.ext.autodoc.Documenter.get_object_members()3.46.0sphinx.ext.autodoc.ClassDocumenter.get_object_members()
sphinx.ext.autodoc.DataDeclarationDocumenter3.45.0sphinx.ext.autodoc.DataDocumenter
sphinx.ext.autodoc.GenericAliasDocumenter3.45.0sphinx.ext.autodoc.DataDocumenter
sphinx.ext.autodoc.InstanceAttributeDocumenter3.45.0sphinx.ext.autodoc.AttributeDocumenter
sphinx.ext.autodoc.SlotsAttributeDocumenter3.45.0sphinx.ext.autodoc.AttributeDocumenter
sphinx.ext.autodoc.TypeVarDocumenter3.45.0sphinx.ext.autodoc.DataDocumenter
sphinx.ext.autodoc.directive.DocumenterBridge.reporter3.55.0sphinx.util.logging
sphinx.ext.autodoc.importer._getannotations()3.44.0sphinx.util.inspect.getannotations()
sphinx.ext.autodoc.importer._getmro()3.44.0sphinx.util.inspect.getmro()
sphinx.pycode.ModuleAnalyzer.parse()3.45.0sphinx.pycode.ModuleAnalyzer.analyze()
sphinx.util.osutil.movefile()3.45.0os.replace()
sphinx.util.requests.is_ssl_error()3.45.0N/A
sphinx.builders.latex.LaTeXBuilder.usepackages3.35.0N/A
sphinx.builders.latex.LaTeXBuilder.usepackages_afger_hyperref3.35.0N/A
sphinx.ext.autodoc.SingledispatchFunctionDocumenter3.35.0sphinx.ext.autodoc.FunctionDocumenter
sphinx.ext.autodoc.SingledispatchMethodDocumenter3.35.0sphinx.ext.autodoc.MethodDocumenter
sphinx.ext.autodoc.members_set_option()3.25.0N/A
sphinx.ext.autodoc.merge_special_members_option()3.25.0sphinx.ext.autodoc.merge_members_option()
sphinx.writers.texinfo.TexinfoWriter.desc3.25.0sphinx.writers.texinfo.TexinfoWriter.descs
The first argument for sphinx.ext.autosummary.generate.AutosummaryRenderer has been changed to Sphinx object3.15.0N/A
sphinx.ext.autosummary.generate.AutosummaryRenderer takes an object type as an argument3.15.0N/A
The ignore argument of sphinx.ext.autodoc.Documenter.get_doc()3.15.0N/A
The template_dir argument of sphinx.ext.autosummary.generate.AutosummaryRenderer3.15.0N/A
The module argument of sphinx.ext.autosummary.generate.find_autosummary_in_docstring()3.05.0N/A
The builder argument of sphinx.ext.autosummary.generate.generate_autosummary_docs()3.15.0N/A
The template_dir argument of sphinx.ext.autosummary.generate.generate_autosummary_docs()3.15.0N/A
sphinx.ext.autosummary.generate.AutosummaryRenderer.exists()3.15.0N/A
The ignore argument of sphinx.util.docstring.prepare_docstring()3.15.0N/A
sphinx.util.rpartition()3.15.0str.rpartition()
desc_signature['first']3.0N/A
sphinx.directives.DescDirective3.05.0sphinx.directives.ObjectDescription
sphinx.domains.std.StandardDomain.add_object()3.05.0sphinx.domains.std.StandardDomain.note_object()
sphinx.domains.python.PyDecoratorMixin3.05.0N/A
sphinx.ext.autodoc.get_documenters()3.05.0sphinx.registry.documenters
sphinx.ext.autosummary.process_autosummary_toc()3.05.0N/A
sphinx.parsers.Parser.app3.05.0N/A
sphinx.testing.path.Path.text()3.05.0sphinx.testing.path.Path.read_text()
sphinx.testing.path.Path.bytes()3.05.0sphinx.testing.path.Path.read_bytes()
sphinx.util.inspect.getargspec()3.05.0inspect.getargspec()
sphinx.writers.latex.LaTeXWriter.format_docclass()3.05.0LaTeX Themes
decode argument of sphinx.pycode.ModuleAnalyzer()2.44.0N/A
sphinx.directives.other.Index2.44.0sphinx.domains.index.IndexDirective
sphinx.environment.temp_data['gloss_entries']2.44.0documents.nameids
sphinx.environment.BuildEnvironment.indexentries2.44.0sphinx.domains.index.IndexDomain
sphinx.environment.collectors.indexentries.IndexEntriesCollector2.44.0sphinx.domains.index.IndexDomain
sphinx.io.FiletypeNotFoundError2.44.0sphinx.errors.FiletypeNotFoundError
sphinx.ext.apidoc.INITPY2.44.0N/A
sphinx.ext.apidoc.shall_skip()2.44.0sphinx.ext.apidoc.is_skipped_package
sphinx.io.get_filetype()2.44.0sphinx.util.get_filetype()
sphinx.pycode.ModuleAnalyzer.encoding2.44.0N/A
sphinx.roles.Index2.44.0sphinx.domains.index.IndexRole
sphinx.util.detect_encoding()2.44.0tokenize.detect_encoding()
sphinx.util.get_module_source()2.44.0N/A
sphinx.util.inspect.Signature2.44.0sphinx.util.inspect.signature and sphinx.util.inspect.stringify_signature()
sphinx.util.inspect.safe_getmembers()2.44.0inspect.getmembers()
sphinx.writers.latex.LaTeXTranslator.settings.author2.44.0N/A
sphinx.writers.latex.LaTeXTranslator.settings.contentsname2.44.0document['contentsname']
sphinx.writers.latex.LaTeXTranslator.settings.docclass2.44.0document['docclass']
sphinx.writers.latex.LaTeXTranslator.settings.docname2.44.0N/A
sphinx.writers.latex.LaTeXTranslator.settings.title2.44.0N/A
sphinx.writers.latex.ADDITIONAL_SETTINGS2.44.0sphinx.builders.latex.constants.ADDITIONAL_SETTINGS
sphinx.writers.latex.DEFAULT_SETTINGS2.44.0sphinx.builders.latex.constants.DEFAULT_SETTINGS
sphinx.writers.latex.LUALATEX_DEFAULT_FONTPKG2.44.0sphinx.builders.latex.constants.LUALATEX_DEFAULT_FONTPKG
sphinx.writers.latex.PDFLATEX_DEFAULT_FONTPKG2.44.0sphinx.builders.latex.constants.PDFLATEX_DEFAULT_FONTPKG
sphinx.writers.latex.XELATEX_DEFAULT_FONTPKG2.44.0sphinx.builders.latex.constants.XELATEX_DEFAULT_FONTPKG
sphinx.writers.latex.XELATEX_GREEK_DEFAULT_FONTPKG2.44.0sphinx.builders.latex.constants.XELATEX_GREEK_DEFAULT_FONTPKG
sphinx.builders.gettext.POHEADER2.34.0sphinx/templates/gettext/message.pot_t (template file)
sphinx.io.SphinxStandaloneReader.app2.34.0sphinx.io.SphinxStandaloneReader.setup()
sphinx.io.SphinxStandaloneReader.env2.34.0sphinx.io.SphinxStandaloneReader.setup()
sphinx.util.texescape.tex_escape_map2.34.0sphinx.util.texescape.escape()
sphinx.util.texescape.tex_hl_escape_map_new2.34.0sphinx.util.texescape.hlescape()
sphinx.writers.latex.LaTeXTranslator.no_contractions2.34.0N/A
sphinx.domains.math.MathDomain.add_equation()2.24.0sphinx.domains.math.MathDomain.note_equation()
sphinx.domains.math.MathDomain.get_next_equation_number()2.24.0sphinx.domains.math.MathDomain.note_equation()
The info and warn arguments of sphinx.ext.autosummary.generate.generate_autosummary_docs()2.24.0logging.info() and logging.warning()
sphinx.ext.autosummary.generate._simple_info()2.24.0logging.info()
sphinx.ext.autosummary.generate._simple_warn()2.24.0logging.warning()
sphinx.ext.todo.merge_info()2.24.0sphinx.ext.todo.TodoDomain
sphinx.ext.todo.process_todo_nodes()2.24.0sphinx.ext.todo.TodoDomain
sphinx.ext.todo.process_todos()2.24.0sphinx.ext.todo.TodoDomain
sphinx.ext.todo.purge_todos()2.24.0sphinx.ext.todo.TodoDomain
sphinx.builders.latex.LaTeXBuilder.apply_transforms()2.14.0N/A
sphinx.builders._epub_base.EpubBuilder.esc()2.14.0html.escape()
sphinx.directives.Acks2.14.0sphinx.directives.other.Acks
sphinx.directives.Author2.14.0sphinx.directives.other.Author
sphinx.directives.Centered2.14.0sphinx.directives.other.Centered
sphinx.directives.Class2.14.0sphinx.directives.other.Class
sphinx.directives.CodeBlock2.14.0sphinx.directives.code.CodeBlock
sphinx.directives.Figure2.14.0sphinx.directives.patches.Figure
sphinx.directives.HList2.14.0sphinx.directives.other.HList
sphinx.directives.Highlight2.14.0sphinx.directives.code.Highlight
sphinx.directives.Include2.14.0sphinx.directives.other.Include
sphinx.directives.Index2.14.0sphinx.directives.other.Index
sphinx.directives.LiteralInclude2.14.0sphinx.directives.code.LiteralInclude
sphinx.directives.Meta2.14.0sphinx.directives.patches.Meta
sphinx.directives.Only2.14.0sphinx.directives.other.Only
sphinx.directives.SeeAlso2.14.0sphinx.directives.other.SeeAlso
sphinx.directives.TabularColumns2.14.0sphinx.directives.other.TabularColumns
sphinx.directives.TocTree2.14.0sphinx.directives.other.TocTree
sphinx.directives.VersionChange2.14.0sphinx.directives.other.VersionChange
sphinx.domains.python.PyClassmember2.14.0sphinx.domains.python.PyAttribute, sphinx.domains.python.PyMethod, sphinx.domains.python.PyClassMethod, sphinx.domains.python.PyObject and sphinx.domains.python.PyStaticMethod
sphinx.domains.python.PyModulelevel2.14.0sphinx.domains.python.PyFunction, sphinx.domains.python.PyObject and sphinx.domains.python.PyVariable
sphinx.domains.std.StandardDomain._resolve_citation_xref()2.14.0sphinx.domains.citation.CitationDomain.resolve_xref()
sphinx.domains.std.StandardDomain.note_citations()2.14.0sphinx.domains.citation.CitationDomain.note_citation()
sphinx.domains.std.StandardDomain.note_citation_refs()2.14.0sphinx.domains.citation.CitationDomain.note_citation_reference()
sphinx.domains.std.StandardDomain.note_labels()2.14.0sphinx.domains.std.StandardDomain.process_doc()
sphinx.domains.js.JSObject.display_prefix4.3sphinx.domains.js.JSObject.get_display_prefix()
sphinx.environment.NoUri2.13.0sphinx.errors.NoUri
sphinx.ext.apidoc.format_directive()2.14.0N/A
sphinx.ext.apidoc.format_heading()2.14.0N/A
sphinx.ext.apidoc.makename()2.14.0sphinx.ext.apidoc.module_join()
sphinx.ext.autodoc.importer.MockFinder2.14.0sphinx.ext.autodoc.mock.MockFinder
sphinx.ext.autodoc.importer.MockLoader2.14.0sphinx.ext.autodoc.mock.MockLoader
sphinx.ext.autodoc.importer.mock()2.14.0sphinx.ext.autodoc.mock.mock()
sphinx.ext.autosummary.autolink_role()2.14.0sphinx.ext.autosummary.AutoLink
sphinx.ext.imgmath.DOC_BODY2.14.0N/A
sphinx.ext.imgmath.DOC_BODY_PREVIEW2.14.0N/A
sphinx.ext.imgmath.DOC_HEAD2.14.0N/A
sphinx.transforms.CitationReferences2.14.0sphinx.domains.citation.CitationReferenceTransform
sphinx.transforms.SmartQuotesSkipper2.14.0sphinx.domains.citation.CitationDefinitionTransform
sphinx.util.docfields.DocFieldTransformer.preprocess_fieldtypes()2.14.0sphinx.directives.ObjectDescription.get_field_type_map()
sphinx.util.node.find_source_node()2.14.0sphinx.util.node.get_node_source()
sphinx.util.i18n.find_catalog()2.14.0sphinx.util.i18n.docname_to_domain()
sphinx.util.i18n.find_catalog_files()2.14.0sphinx.util.i18n.CatalogRepository
sphinx.util.i18n.find_catalog_source_files()2.14.0sphinx.util.i18n.CatalogRepository
encoding argument of autodoc.Documenter.get_doc(), autodoc.DocstringSignatureMixin.get_doc(), autodoc.DocstringSignatureMixin._find_signature(), and autodoc.ClassDocumenter.get_doc()2.04.0N/A
arguments of EpubBuilder.build_mimetype(), EpubBuilder.build_container(), EpubBuilder.build_content(), EpubBuilder.build_toc() and EpubBuilder.build_epub()2.04.0N/A
arguments of Epub3Builder.build_navigation_doc()2.04.0N/A
nodetype argument of sphinx.search.WordCollector.is_meta_keywords()2.04.0N/A
suffix argument of BuildEnvironment.doc2path()2.04.0N/A
string style base argument of BuildEnvironment.doc2path()2.04.0os.path.join()
sphinx.addnodes.abbreviation2.04.0docutils.nodes.abbreviation
sphinx.builders.applehelp2.04.0sphinxcontrib.applehelp
sphinx.builders.devhelp2.04.0sphinxcontrib.devhelp
sphinx.builders.epub3.Epub3Builder.validate_config_value()2.04.0sphinx.builders.epub3.validate_config_values()
sphinx.builders.html.JSONHTMLBuilder2.04.0sphinx.builders.serializinghtml.JSONHTMLBuilder
sphinx.builders.html.PickleHTMLBuilder2.04.0sphinx.builders.serializinghtml.PickleHTMLBuilder
sphinx.builders.html.SerializingHTMLBuilder2.04.0sphinx.builders.serializinghtml.SerializingHTMLBuilder
sphinx.builders.html.SingleFileHTMLBuilder2.04.0sphinx.builders.singlehtml.SingleFileHTMLBuilder
sphinx.builders.html.WebHTMLBuilder2.04.0sphinx.builders.serializinghtml.PickleHTMLBuilder
sphinx.builders.htmlhelp2.04.0sphinxcontrib.htmlhelp
sphinx.builders.htmlhelp.HTMLHelpBuilder.open_file()2.04.0open()
sphinx.builders.qthelp2.04.0sphinxcontrib.qthelp
sphinx.cmd.quickstart.term_decode()2.04.0N/A
sphinx.cmd.quickstart.TERM_ENCODING2.04.0sys.stdin.encoding
sphinx.config.check_unicode()2.04.0N/A
sphinx.config.string_classes2.04.0[str]
sphinx.domains.cpp.DefinitionError.description2.04.0str(exc)
sphinx.domains.cpp.NoOldIdError.description2.04.0str(exc)
sphinx.domains.cpp.UnsupportedMultiCharacterCharLiteral.decoded2.04.0str(exc)
sphinx.ext.autosummary.Autosummary.warn()2.04.0N/A
sphinx.ext.autosummary.Autosummary.genopt2.04.0N/A
sphinx.ext.autosummary.Autosummary.warnings2.04.0N/A
sphinx.ext.autosummary.Autosummary.result2.04.0N/A
sphinx.ext.doctest.doctest_encode()2.04.0N/A
sphinx.ext.jsmath2.04.0sphinxcontrib.jsmath
sphinx.roles.abbr_role()2.04.0sphinx.roles.Abbreviation
sphinx.roles.emph_literal_role()2.04.0sphinx.roles.EmphasizedLiteral
sphinx.roles.menusel_role()2.04.0sphinx.roles.GUILabel or sphinx.roles.MenuSelection
sphinx.roles.index_role()2.04.0sphinx.roles.Index
sphinx.roles.indexmarkup_role()2.04.0sphinx.roles.PEP or sphinx.roles.RFC
sphinx.testing.util.remove_unicode_literal()2.04.0N/A
sphinx.util.attrdict2.04.0N/A
sphinx.util.force_decode()2.05.0N/A
sphinx.util.get_matching_docs()2.04.0sphinx.util.get_matching_files()
sphinx.util.inspect.Parameter2.03.0N/A
sphinx.util.jsonimpl2.04.0sphinxcontrib.serializinghtml.jsonimpl
sphinx.util.osutil.EEXIST2.04.0errno.EEXIST or FileExistsError
sphinx.util.osutil.EINVAL2.04.0errno.EINVAL
sphinx.util.osutil.ENOENT2.04.0errno.ENOENT or FileNotFoundError
sphinx.util.osutil.EPIPE2.04.0errno.ENOENT or BrokenPipeError
sphinx.util.osutil.walk()2.04.0os.walk()
sphinx.util.pycompat.NoneType2.04.0sphinx.util.typing.NoneType
sphinx.util.pycompat.TextIOWrapper2.04.0io.TextIOWrapper
sphinx.util.pycompat.UnicodeMixin2.04.0N/A
sphinx.util.pycompat.htmlescape()2.04.0html.escape()
sphinx.util.pycompat.indent()2.04.0textwrap.indent()
sphinx.util.pycompat.sys_encoding2.04.0sys.getdefaultencoding()
sphinx.util.pycompat.terminal_safe()2.04.0sphinx.util.console.terminal_safe()
sphinx.util.pycompat.u2.04.0N/A
sphinx.util.PeekableIterator2.04.0N/A
Omitting the filename argument in an overriddent IndexBuilder.feed() method.2.04.0IndexBuilder.feed(docname, filename, title, doctree)
sphinx.writers.latex.ExtBabel2.04.0sphinx.builders.latex.util.ExtBabel
sphinx.writers.latex.LaTeXTranslator.babel_defmacro()2.04.0N/A
sphinx.application.Sphinx._setting_up_extension2.03.0N/A
The importer argument of sphinx.ext.autodoc.importer._MockModule2.03.0N/A
sphinx.ext.autodoc.importer._MockImporter2.03.0N/A
sphinx.io.SphinxBaseFileInput2.03.0N/A
sphinx.io.SphinxFileInput.supported2.03.0N/A
sphinx.io.SphinxRSTFileInput2.03.0N/A
sphinx.registry.SphinxComponentRegistry.add_source_input()2.03.0N/A
sphinx.writers.latex.LaTeXTranslator._make_visit_admonition()2.03.0N/A
sphinx.writers.latex.LaTeXTranslator.collect_footnotes()2.04.0N/A
sphinx.writers.texinfo.TexinfoTranslator._make_visit_admonition()2.03.0N/A
sphinx.writers.text.TextTranslator._make_depart_admonition()2.03.0N/A
sphinx.writers.latex.LaTeXTranslator.generate_numfig_format()2.04.0N/A
highlightlang1.84.0highlight
add_stylesheet()1.86.0add_css_file()
add_javascript()1.84.0add_js_file()
autodoc_default_flags1.84.0autodoc_default_options
content arguments of sphinx.util.image.guess_mimetype()1.83.0N/A
gettext_compact arguments of sphinx.util.i18n.find_catalog_source_files()1.83.0N/A
sphinx.io.SphinxI18nReader.set_lineno_for_reporter()1.83.0N/A
sphinx.io.SphinxI18nReader.line1.83.0N/A
sphinx.directives.other.VersionChanges1.83.0sphinx.domains.changeset.VersionChanges
sphinx.highlighting.PygmentsBridge.unhighlight()1.83.0N/A
trim_doctest_flags arguments of sphinx.highlighting.PygmentsBridge1.83.0N/A
sphinx.ext.mathbase1.83.0N/A
sphinx.ext.mathbase.MathDomain1.83.0sphinx.domains.math.MathDomain
sphinx.ext.mathbase.MathDirective1.83.0sphinx.directives.patches.MathDirective
sphinx.ext.mathbase.math_role()1.83.0docutils.parsers.rst.roles.math_role()
sphinx.ext.mathbase.setup_math()1.83.0add_html_math_renderer()
sphinx.ext.mathbase.is_in_section_title()1.83.0N/A
sphinx.ext.mathbase.get_node_equation_number()1.83.0sphinx.util.math.get_node_equation_number()
sphinx.ext.mathbase.wrap_displaymath()1.83.0sphinx.util.math.wrap_displaymath()
sphinx.ext.mathbase.math (node)1.83.0docutils.nodes.math
sphinx.ext.mathbase.displaymath (node)1.83.0docutils.nodes.math_block
sphinx.ext.mathbase.eqref (node)1.83.0sphinx.builders.latex.nodes.math_reference
viewcode_import (config value)1.83.0viewcode_follow_imported_members
sphinx.writers.latex.Table.caption_footnotetexts1.83.0N/A
sphinx.writers.latex.Table.header_footnotetexts1.83.0N/A
sphinx.writers.latex.LaTeXTranslator.footnotestack1.83.0N/A
sphinx.writers.latex.LaTeXTranslator.in_container_literal_block1.83.0N/A
sphinx.writers.latex.LaTeXTranslator.next_section_ids1.83.0N/A
sphinx.writers.latex.LaTeXTranslator.next_hyperlink_ids1.83.0N/A
sphinx.writers.latex.LaTeXTranslator.restrict_footnote()1.83.0N/A
sphinx.writers.latex.LaTeXTranslator.unrestrict_footnote()1.83.0N/A
sphinx.writers.latex.LaTeXTranslator.push_hyperlink_ids()1.83.0N/A
sphinx.writers.latex.LaTeXTranslator.pop_hyperlink_ids()1.83.0N/A
sphinx.writers.latex.LaTeXTranslator.bibitems1.83.0N/A
sphinx.writers.latex.LaTeXTranslator.hlsettingstack1.83.0N/A
sphinx.writers.latex.ExtBabel.get_shorthandoff()1.83.0N/A
sphinx.writers.html.HTMLTranslator.highlightlang()1.83.0N/A
sphinx.writers.html.HTMLTranslator.highlightlang_base()1.83.0N/A
sphinx.writers.html.HTMLTranslator.highlightlangopts()1.83.0N/A
sphinx.writers.html.HTMLTranslator.highlightlinenothreshold()1.83.0N/A
sphinx.writers.html5.HTMLTranslator.highlightlang()1.83.0N/A
sphinx.writers.html5.HTMLTranslator.highlightlang_base()1.83.0N/A
sphinx.writers.html5.HTMLTranslator.highlightlangopts()1.83.0N/A
sphinx.writers.html5.HTMLTranslator.highlightlinenothreshold()1.83.0N/A
sphinx.writers.latex.LaTeXTranslator.check_latex_elements()1.83.0Nothing
sphinx.application.CONFIG_FILENAME1.83.0sphinx.config.CONFIG_FILENAME
Config.check_unicode()1.83.0sphinx.config.check_unicode()
Config.check_types()1.83.0sphinx.config.check_confval_types()
dirname, filename and tags arguments of Config.__init__()1.83.0Config.read()
The value of html_search_options1.83.0see html_search_options
sphinx.versioning.prepare()1.83.0sphinx.versioning.UIDTransform
Sphinx.override_domain()1.83.0add_domain()
Sphinx.import_object()1.83.0sphinx.util.import_object()
suffix argument of add_source_parser()1.83.0add_source_suffix()
BuildEnvironment.load()1.83.0pickle.load()
BuildEnvironment.loads()1.83.0pickle.loads()
BuildEnvironment.frompickle()1.83.0pickle.load()
BuildEnvironment.dump()1.83.0pickle.dump()
BuildEnvironment.dumps()1.83.0pickle.dumps()
BuildEnvironment.topickle()1.83.0pickle.dump()
BuildEnvironment._nitpick_ignore1.83.0nitpick_ignore
BuildEnvironment.versionchanges1.83.0N/A
BuildEnvironment.update()1.83.0Builder.read()
BuildEnvironment.read_doc()1.83.0Builder.read_doc()
BuildEnvironment._read_serial()1.83.0Builder.read()
BuildEnvironment._read_parallel()1.83.0Builder.read()
BuildEnvironment.write_doctree()1.83.0Builder.write_doctree()
BuildEnvironment.note_versionchange()1.83.0ChangesDomain.note_changeset()
warn() (template helper function)1.83.0warning()
source_parsers1.83.0add_source_parser()
sphinx.util.docutils.directive_helper()1.83.0Directive class of docutils
sphinx.cmdline1.83.0sphinx.cmd.build
sphinx.make_mode1.83.0sphinx.cmd.make_mode
sphinx.locale.l_()1.83.0sphinx.locale._()
sphinx.locale.lazy_gettext()1.83.0sphinx.locale._()
sphinx.locale.mygettext()1.83.0sphinx.locale._()
sphinx.util.copy_static_entry()1.53.0sphinx.util.fileutil.copy_asset()
sphinx.build_main()1.72.0sphinx.cmd.build.build_main()
sphinx.ext.intersphinx.debug()1.72.0sphinx.ext.intersphinx.inspect_main()
sphinx.ext.autodoc.format_annotation()1.72.0sphinx.util.inspect.Signature
sphinx.ext.autodoc.formatargspec()1.72.0sphinx.util.inspect.Signature
sphinx.ext.autodoc.AutodocReporter1.72.0sphinx.util.docutils.switch_source_input()
sphinx.ext.autodoc.add_documenter()1.72.0add_autodocumenter()
sphinx.ext.autodoc.AutoDirective._register1.72.0add_autodocumenter()
AutoDirective._special_attrgetters1.72.0add_autodoc_attrgetter()
Sphinx.warn(), Sphinx.info()1.62.0logging-api
BuildEnvironment.set_warnfunc()1.62.0logging-api
BuildEnvironment.note_toctree()1.62.0Toctree.note() (in sphinx.environment.adapters.toctree)
BuildEnvironment.get_toc_for()1.62.0Toctree.get_toc_for() (in sphinx.environment.adapters.toctree)
BuildEnvironment.get_toctree_for()1.62.0Toctree.get_toctree_for() (in sphinx.environment.adapters.toctree)
BuildEnvironment.create_index()1.62.0IndexEntries.create_index() (in sphinx.environment.adapters.indexentries)
sphinx.websupport1.62.0sphinxcontrib-websupport
StandaloneHTMLBuilder.css_files1.62.0add_stylesheet()
document.settings.gettext_compact1.81.8gettext_compact
Sphinx.status_iterator()1.61.7sphinx.util.status_iterator()
Sphinx.old_status_iterator()1.61.7sphinx.util.old_status_iterator()
Sphinx._directive_helper()1.61.7sphinx.util.docutils.directive_helper()
sphinx.util.compat.Directive1.61.7docutils.parsers.rst.Directive
sphinx.util.compat.docutils_version1.61.7sphinx.util.docutils.__version_info__
NOTE:

On deprecating on public APIs (internal functions and classes), we also follow the policy as much as possible.

Sphinx Internals

This guide contains information about the Sphinx open source project itself. This is where you can find information about how Sphinx is managed and learn how to contribute to the project.

Contributing to Sphinx

There are many ways you can contribute to Sphinx, be it filing bug reports or feature requests, writing new documentation or submitting patches for new or fixed behavior. This guide serves to illustrate how you can get started with this.

Getting help

The Sphinx community maintains a number of mailing lists and IRC channels.

Stack Overflow with tag python-sphinx

Questions and answers about use and development.

sphinx-users <sphinx-users@googlegroups.com>

Mailing list for user support.

sphinx-dev <sphinx-dev@googlegroups.com>

Mailing list for development related discussions.

#sphinx-doc on irc.freenode.net

IRC channel for development questions and user support.

Bug Reports and Feature Requests

If you have encountered a problem with Sphinx or have an idea for a new feature, please submit it to the issue tracker on GitHub or discuss it on the sphinx-dev mailing list.

For bug reports, please include the output produced during the build process and also the log file Sphinx creates after it encounters an unhandled exception.  The location of this file should be shown towards the end of the error message.

Including or providing a link to the source files involved may help us fix the issue.  If possible, try to create a minimal project that produces the error and post that instead.

Writing code

The Sphinx source code is managed using Git and is hosted on GitHub.  The recommended way for new contributors to submit code to Sphinx is to fork this repository and submit a pull request after committing changes to their fork. The pull request will then need to be approved by one of the core developers before it is merged into the main repository.

Getting started

Before starting on a patch, we recommend checking for open issues or open a fresh issue to start a discussion around a feature idea or a bug. If you feel uncomfortable or uncertain about an issue or your changes, feel free to email the sphinx-dev mailing list.

These are the basic steps needed to start developing on Sphinx.

  1. Create an account on GitHub.
  2. Fork the main Sphinx repository (sphinx-doc/sphinx) using the GitHub interface.
  3. Clone the forked repository to your machine.

    git clone https://github.com/USERNAME/sphinx
    cd sphinx
  4. Checkout the appropriate branch.

    Sphinx adopts Semantic Versioning 2.0.0 (refs: https://semver.org/ ).

    For changes that preserves backwards-compatibility of API and features, they should be included in the next MINOR release, use the A.x branch.

    git checkout A.x

    For incompatible or other substantial changes that should wait until the next MAJOR release, use the master branch.

    For urgent release, a new PATCH branch must be branched from the newest release tag (see release-process for detail).

  5. Setup a virtual environment.

    This is not necessary for unit testing, thanks to tox, but it is necessary if you wish to run sphinx-build locally or run unit tests without the help of tox:

    virtualenv ~/.venv
    . ~/.venv/bin/activate
    pip install -e .
  6. Create a new working branch. Choose any name you like.

    git checkout -b feature-xyz
  7. Hack, hack, hack.

    Write your code along with tests that shows that the bug was fixed or that the feature works as expected.

  8. Add a bullet point to CHANGES if the fix or feature is not trivial (small doc updates, typo fixes), then commit:

    git commit -m '#42: Add useful new feature that does this.'

    GitHub recognizes certain phrases that can be used to automatically update the issue tracker. For example:

    git commit -m 'Closes #42: Fix invalid markup in docstring of Foo.bar.'

    would close issue #42.

  9. Push changes in the branch to your forked repository on GitHub:

    git push origin feature-xyz
  10. Submit a pull request from your branch to the respective branch (master or A.x).
  11. Wait for a core developer to review your changes.

Coding style

Please follow these guidelines when writing code for Sphinx:

  • Try to use the same code style as used in the rest of the project.
  • For non-trivial changes, please update the CHANGES file.  If your changes alter existing behavior, please document this.
  • New features should be documented.  Include examples and use cases where appropriate.  If possible, include a sample that is displayed in the generated output.
  • When adding a new configuration variable, be sure to document it and update sphinx/cmd/quickstart.py if it’s important enough.
  • Add appropriate unit tests.

Style and type checks can be run using tox:

tox -e mypy
tox -e flake8

Unit tests

Sphinx is tested using pytest for Python code and Karma for JavaScript.

To run Python unit tests, we recommend using tox, which provides a number of targets and allows testing against multiple different Python environments:

  • To list all possible targets:

    tox -av
  • To run unit tests for a specific Python version, such as Python 3.6:

    tox -e py36
  • To run unit tests for a specific Python version and turn on deprecation warnings on so they’re shown in the test output:

    PYTHONWARNINGS=all tox -e py36
  • Arguments to pytest can be passed via tox, e.g. in order to run a particular test:

    tox -e py36 tests/test_module.py::test_new_feature

You can also test by installing dependencies in your local environment:

pip install .[test]

To run JavaScript tests, use npm:

npm install
npm run test

New unit tests should be included in the tests directory where necessary:

  • For bug fixes, first add a test that fails without your changes and passes after they are applied.
  • Tests that need a sphinx-build run should be integrated in one of the existing test modules if possible.  New tests that to @with_app and then build_all for a few assertions are not good since the test suite should not take more than a minute to run.

New in version 1.8: Sphinx also runs JavaScript tests.

New in version 1.6: sphinx.testing is added as a experimental.

Changed in version 1.5.2: Sphinx was switched from nose to pytest.

Todo

The below belongs in the developer guide

Utility functions and pytest fixtures for testing are provided in sphinx.testing. If you are a developer of Sphinx extensions, you can write unit tests with using pytest. At this time, sphinx.testing will help your test implementation.

How to use pytest fixtures that are provided by sphinx.testing?  You can require 'sphinx.testing.fixtures' in your test modules or conftest.py files like this:

pytest_plugins = 'sphinx.testing.fixtures'

If you want to know more detailed usage, please refer to tests/conftest.py and other test_*.py files under tests directory.

Writing documentation

Todo

Add a more extensive documentation contribution guide.

You can build documentation using tox:

tox -e docs

Translations

The parts of messages in Sphinx that go into builds are translated into several locales.  The translations are kept as gettext .po files translated from the master template sphinx/locale/sphinx.pot.

Sphinx uses Babel to extract messages and maintain the catalog files.  It is integrated in setup.py:

  • Use python setup.py extract_messages to update the .pot template.
  • Use python setup.py update_catalog to update all existing language catalogs in sphinx/locale/*/LC_MESSAGES with the current messages in the template file.
  • Use python setup.py compile_catalog to compile the .po files to binary .mo files and .js files.

When an updated .po file is submitted, run compile_catalog to commit both the source and the compiled catalogs.

When a new locale is submitted, add a new directory with the ISO 639-1 language identifier and put sphinx.po in there.  Don’t forget to update the possible values for language in doc/usage/configuration.rst.

The Sphinx core messages can also be translated on Transifex.  There tx client tool, which is provided by the transifex_client Python package, can be used to pull translations in .po format from Transifex.  To do this, go to sphinx/locale and then run tx pull -f -l LANG where LANG is an existing language identifier.  It is good practice to run python setup.py update_catalog afterwards to make sure the .po file has the canonical Babel formatting.

Debugging tips

  • Delete the build cache before building documents if you make changes in the code by running the command make clean or using the sphinx-build -E option.
  • Use the sphinx-build -P option to run pdb on exceptions.
  • Use node.pformat() and node.asdom().toxml() to generate a printable representation of the document structure.
  • Set the configuration variable keep_warnings to True so warnings will be displayed in the generated output.
  • Set the configuration variable nitpicky to True so that Sphinx will complain about references without a known target.
  • Set the debugging options in the Docutils configuration file.
  • JavaScript stemming algorithms in sphinx/search/*.py (except en.py) are generated by this modified snowballcode generator.  Generated JSX files are in this repository.  You can get the resulting JavaScript files using the following command:

    npm install
    node_modules/.bin/grunt build # -> dest/*.global.js

Sphinx’s release process

Branch Model

Sphinx project uses following branches for developing that conforms to Semantic Versioning 2.0.0 (refs: https://semver.org/ ).

master

Development for MAJOR version. All changes including incompatible behaviors and public API updates are allowed.

A.x (ex. 2.x)

Where A.x is the MAJOR.MINOR release.  Used to maintain current MINOR release. All changes are allowed if the change preserves backwards-compatibility of API and features.

Only the most recent MAJOR.MINOR branch is currently retained. When a new MAJOR version is released, the old MAJOR.MINOR branch will be deleted and replaced by an equivalent tag.

A.B.x (ex. 2.4.x)

Where A.B.x is the MAJOR.MINOR.PATCH release.  Only backwards-compatible bug fixes are allowed. In Sphinx project, PATCH version is used for urgent bug fix.

MAJOR.MINOR.PATCH branch will be branched from the v prefixed release tag (ex. make 2.3.1 that branched from v2.3.0) when a urgent release is needed. When new PATCH version is released, the branch will be deleted and replaced by an equivalent tag (ex. v2.3.1).

Deprecating a feature

There are a couple reasons that code in Sphinx might be deprecated:

  • If a feature has been improved or modified in a backwards-incompatible way, the old feature or behavior will be deprecated.
  • Sometimes Sphinx will include a backport of a Python library that’s not included in a version of Python that Sphinx currently supports. When Sphinx no longer needs to support the older version of Python that doesn’t include the library, the library will be deprecated in Sphinx.

As the Deprecation policy describes, the first release of Sphinx that deprecates a feature (A.B) should raise a RemovedInSphinxXXWarning (where XX is the Sphinx version where the feature will be removed) when the deprecated feature is invoked. Assuming we have good test coverage, these warnings are converted to errors when running the test suite with warnings enabled:

pytest -Wall

Thus, when adding a RemovedInSphinxXXWarning you need to eliminate or silence any warnings generated when running the tests.

Deprecation policy

MAJOR and MINOR releases may deprecate certain features from previous releases. If a feature is deprecated in a release A.x, it will continue to work in all A.x.x versions (for all versions of x). It will continue to work in all B.x.x versions but raise deprecation warnings. Deprecated features will be removed at the C.0.0. It means the deprecated feature will work during 2 MAJOR releases at least.

So, for example, if we decided to start the deprecation of a function in Sphinx 2.x:

  • Sphinx 2.x will contain a backwards-compatible replica of the function which will raise a RemovedInSphinx40Warning. This is a subclass of python:PendingDeprecationWarning, i.e. it will not get displayed by default.
  • Sphinx 3.x will still contain the backwards-compatible replica, but RemovedInSphinx40Warning will be a subclass of python:DeprecationWarning then, and gets displayed by default.
  • Sphinx 4.0 will remove the feature outright.

Deprecation warnings

Sphinx will enable its RemovedInNextVersionWarning warnings by default, if python:PYTHONWARNINGS is not set.  Therefore you can disable them using:

  • PYTHONWARNINGS= make html (Linux/Mac)
  • export PYTHONWARNINGS= and do make html (Linux/Mac)
  • set PYTHONWARNINGS= and do make html (Windows)

But you can also explicitly enable the pending ones using e.g. PYTHONWARNINGS=default (see the Python docs on configuring warnings) for more details.

Release procedures

The release procedures are listed in utils/release-checklist.

Organization of the Sphinx project

The guide explains how the Sphinx project is organized.

Core developers

The core developers of Sphinx have write access to the main repository.  They can commit changes, accept/reject pull requests, and manage items on the issue tracker.

Guidelines

The following are some general guidelines for core developers:

  • Questionable or extensive changes should be submitted as a pull request instead of being committed directly to the main repository.  The pull request should be reviewed by another core developer before it is merged.
  • Trivial changes can be committed directly but be sure to keep the repository in a good working state and that all tests pass before pushing your changes.
  • When committing code written by someone else, please attribute the original author in the commit message and any relevant CHANGES entry.

Membership

Core membership is predicated on continued active contribution to the project. In general, prospective cores should demonstrate:

  • a good understanding of one of more components of Sphinx
  • a history of helpful, constructive contributions
  • a willingness to invest time improving Sphinx

Refer to contributing for more information on how you can get started.

Other contributors

You do not need to be a core developer or have write access to be involved in the development of Sphinx.  You can submit patches or create pull requests from forked repositories and have a core developer add the changes for you.

Similarly, contributions are not limited to code patches. We also welcome help triaging bugs, input on design decisions, reviews of existing patches and documentation improvements. More information can be found in contributing.

A list of people that have contributed to Sphinx can be found in authors.

Sphinx Code of Conduct

Like the technical community as a whole, the Sphinx team and community is made up of volunteers from all over the world. Diversity is a strength, but it can also lead to communication issues and unhappiness. To that end, we have a few ground rules that we ask people to adhere to.

  • Be friendly and patient.
  • Be welcoming. We strive to be a community that welcomes and supports people of all backgrounds and identities. This includes, but is not limited to members of any race, ethnicity, culture, national origin, colour, immigration status, social and economic class, educational level, sex, sexual orientation, gender identity and expression, age, size, family status, political belief, religion, and mental and physical ability.
  • Be considerate. Your work will be used by other people, and you in turn will depend on the work of others. Any decision you take will affect users and colleagues, and you should take those consequences into account when making decisions. Remember that we’re a world-wide community, so you might not be communicating in someone else’s primary language.
  • Be respectful. Not all of us will agree all the time, but disagreement is no excuse for poor behavior and poor manners. We might all experience some frustration now and then, but we cannot allow that frustration to turn into a personal attack. It’s important to remember that a community where people feel uncomfortable or threatened is not a productive one. Members of the Sphinx community should be respectful when dealing with other members as well as with people outside the Sphinx community.
  • Be careful in the words that you choose. We are a community of professionals, and we conduct ourselves professionally. Be kind to others. Do not insult or put down other participants. Harassment and other exclusionary behavior aren’t acceptable. This includes, but is not limited to:

    • Violent threats or language directed against another person.
    • Discriminatory jokes and language.
    • Posting sexually explicit or violent material.
    • Posting (or threatening to post) other people’s personally identifying information (“doxing”).
    • Personal insults, especially those using racist or sexist terms.
    • Unwelcome sexual attention.
    • Advocating for, or encouraging, any of the above behavior.
    • Repeated harassment of others. In general, if someone asks you to stop, then stop.
  • When we disagree, try to understand why. Disagreements, both social and technical, happen all the time and Sphinx is no exception. It is important that we resolve disagreements and differing views constructively. Remember that we’re different. Different people have different perspectives on issues. Being unable to understand why someone holds a viewpoint doesn’t mean that they’re wrong. Don’t forget that it is human to err and blaming each other doesn’t get us anywhere. Instead, focus on helping to resolve issues and learning from mistakes.

This isn’t an exhaustive list of things that you can’t do. Rather, take it in the spirit in which it’s intended - a guide to make it easier to enrich all of us and the technical communities in which we participate. This code of conduct applies to all spaces of the Sphinx community.

Attribution

Original text courtesy of the Speak Up! project: http://web.archive.org/web/20141109123859/http://speakup.io/coc.html.

Sphinx authors

Sphinx is written and maintained by Georg Brandl <georg@python.org>.

Substantial parts of the templates were written by Armin Ronacher <armin.ronacher@active-4.com>.

Other co-maintainers:

  • Takayuki Shimizukawa <shimizukawa@gmail.com>
  • Daniel Neuhäuser <@DasIch>
  • Jon Waltman <@jonwaltman>
  • Rob Ruana <@RobRuana>
  • Robert Lehmann <@lehmannro>
  • Roland Meister <@rolmei>
  • Takeshi Komiya <@tk0miya>
  • Jean-François Burnol <@jfbu>
  • Yoshiki Shibukawa <@shibu_jp>
  • Timotheus Kampik - <@TimKam>

Other contributors, listed alphabetically, are:

  • Alastair Houghton – Apple Help builder
  • Alexander Todorov – inheritance_diagram tests and improvements
  • Andi Albrecht – agogo theme
  • Jakob Lykke Andersen – Rewritten C++ domain
  • Henrique Bastos – SVG support for graphviz extension
  • Daniel Bültmann – todo extension
  • Marco Buttu – doctest extension (pyversion option)
  • Nathan Damon – bugfix in validation of static paths in html builders
  • Etienne Desautels – apidoc module
  • Michael Droettboom – inheritance_diagram extension
  • Charles Duffy – original graphviz extension
  • Kevin Dunn – MathJax extension
  • Josip Dzolonga – coverage builder
  • Buck Evan – dummy builder
  • Matthew Fernandez – todo extension fix
  • Hernan Grecco – search improvements
  • Horst Gutmann – internationalization support
  • Martin Hans – autodoc improvements
  • Zac Hatfield-Dodds – doctest reporting improvements, intersphinx performance
  • Doug Hellmann – graphviz improvements
  • Tim Hoffmann – theme improvements
  • Antti Kaihola – doctest extension (skipif option)
  • Dave Kuhlman – original LaTeX writer
  • Blaise Laflamme – pyramid theme
  • Chris Lamb – reproducibility fixes
  • Thomas Lamb – linkcheck builder
  • Łukasz Langa – partial support for autodoc
  • Martin Larralde – additional napoleon admonitions
  • Ian Lee – quickstart improvements
  • Robert Lehmann – gettext builder (GSOC project)
  • Dan MacKinlay – metadata fixes
  • Martin Mahner – nature theme
  • Will Maier – directory HTML builder
  • Jacob Mason – websupport library (GSOC project)
  • Glenn Matthews – python domain signature improvements
  • Kurt McKee – documentation updates
  • Roland Meister – epub builder
  • Ezio Melotti – collapsible sidebar JavaScript
  • Bruce Mitchener – Minor epub improvement
  • Daniel Neuhäuser – JavaScript domain, Python 3 support (GSOC)
  • Julien Palard – Colspan and rowspan in text builder
  • Christopher Perkins – autosummary integration
  • Benjamin Peterson – unittests
  • T. Powers – HTML output improvements
  • Jeppe Pihl – literalinclude improvements
  • Rob Ruana – napoleon extension
  • Vince Salvino – JavaScript search improvements
  • Stefan Seefeld – toctree improvements
  • Gregory Szorc – performance improvements
  • Taku Shimizu – epub3 builder
  • Antonio Valentino – qthelp builder, docstring inheritance
  • Filip Vavera – napoleon todo directive
  • Pauli Virtanen – autodoc improvements, autosummary extension
  • Eric N. Vander Weele – autodoc improvements
  • Stefan van der Walt – autosummary extension
  • Thomas Waldmann – apidoc module fixes
  • John Waltman – Texinfo builder
  • Barry Warsaw – setup command improvements
  • Sebastian Wiesner – image handling, distutils support
  • Michael Wilson – Intersphinx HTTP basic auth support
  • Matthew Woodcraft – text output improvements
  • Joel Wurtz – cellspanning support in LaTeX
  • Hong Xu – svg support in imgmath extension and various bug fixes
  • Stephen Finucane – setup command improvements and documentation
  • Daniel Pizetta – inheritance diagram improvements
  • KINEBUCHI Tomohiko – typing Sphinx as well as docutils
  • Adrián Chaves (Gallaecio) – coverage builder improvements
  • Lars Hupfeldt Nielsen - OpenSSL FIPS mode md5 bug fix

Many thanks for all contributions!

There are also a few modules or functions incorporated from other authors and projects:

  • sphinx.util.jsdump uses the basestring encoding from simplejson, written by Bob Ippolito, released under the MIT license
  • sphinx.util.stemmer was written by Vivake Gupta, placed in the Public Domain

Sphinx FAQ

This is a list of Frequently Asked Questions about Sphinx.  Feel free to suggest new entries!

How do I…

… create PDF files without LaTeX?

rinohtype provides a PDF builder that can be used as a drop-in replacement for the LaTeX builder.

… get section numbers?

They are automatic in LaTeX output; for HTML, give a :numbered: option to the toctree directive where you want to start numbering.

… customize the look of the built HTML files?

Use themes, see /usage/theming.

… add global substitutions or includes?

Add them in the rst_prolog or rst_epilog config value.

… display the whole TOC tree in the sidebar?

Use the toctree callable in a custom layout template, probably in the sidebartoc block.

… write my own extension?

See the /development/tutorials/index.

… convert from my existing docs using MoinMoin markup?

The easiest way is to convert to xhtml, then convert xhtml to reST. You’ll still need to mark up classes and such, but the headings and code examples come through cleanly.

For many more extensions and other contributed stuff, see the sphinx-contrib repository.

Using Sphinx with…

Read the Docs

Read the Docs is a documentation hosting service based around Sphinx.  They will host sphinx documentation, along with supporting a number of other features including version support, PDF generation, and more. The Getting Started guide is a good place to start.

Epydoc

There’s a third-party extension providing an api role which refers to Epydoc’s API docs for a given identifier.

Doxygen

Michael Jones is developing a reST/Sphinx bridge to doxygen called breathe.

SCons

Glenn Hutchings has written a SCons build script to build Sphinx documentation; it is hosted here: https://bitbucket.org/zondo/sphinx-scons

PyPI

Jannis Leidel wrote a setuptools command that automatically uploads Sphinx documentation to the PyPI package documentation area at https://pythonhosted.org/.

GitHub Pages

Please add sphinx.ext.githubpages to your project.  It allows you to publish your document in GitHub Pages.  It generates helper files for GitHub Pages on building HTML document automatically.

MediaWiki

See https://bitbucket.org/kevindunn/sphinx-wiki/wiki/Home, a project by Kevin Dunn.

Google Analytics

You can use a custom layout.html template, like this:

{% extends "!layout.html" %}

{%- block extrahead %}
{{ super() }}
<script>
  var _gaq = _gaq || [];
  _gaq.push(['_setAccount', 'XXX account number XXX']);
  _gaq.push(['_trackPageview']);
</script>
{% endblock %}

{% block footer %}
{{ super() }}
<div class="footer">This page uses <a href="https://analytics.google.com/">
Google Analytics</a> to collect statistics. You can disable it by blocking
the JavaScript coming from www.google-analytics.com.
<script>
  (function() {
    var ga = document.createElement('script');
    ga.src = ('https:' == document.location.protocol ?
              'https://ssl' : 'http://www') + '.google-analytics.com/ga.js';
    ga.setAttribute('async', 'true');
    document.documentElement.firstChild.appendChild(ga);
  })();
</script>
</div>
{% endblock %}
Google Search

To replace Sphinx’s built-in search function with Google Search, proceed as follows:

  1. Go to https://cse.google.com/cse/all to create the Google Search code snippet.
  2. Copy the code snippet and paste it into _templates/searchbox.html in your Sphinx project:

    <div>
       <h3>{{ _('Quick search') }}</h3>
       <script>
          (function() {
             var cx = '......';
             var gcse = document.createElement('script');
             gcse.async = true;
             gcse.src = 'https://cse.google.com/cse.js?cx=' + cx;
             var s = document.getElementsByTagName('script')[0];
             s.parentNode.insertBefore(gcse, s);
          })();
       </script>
      <gcse:search></gcse:search>
    </div>
  3. Add searchbox.html to the html_sidebars configuration value.

Sphinx vs. Docutils

tl;dr: docutils converts reStructuredText to multiple output formats. Sphinx builds upon docutils to allow construction of cross-referenced and indexed bodies of documentation.

docutils is a text processing system for converting plain text documentation into other, richer formats. As noted in the docutils documentation, docutils uses readers to read a document, parsers for parsing plain text formats into an internal tree representation made up of different types of nodes, and writers to output this tree in various document formats.  docutils provides parsers for one plain text format - reStructuredText - though other, out-of-tree parsers have been implemented including Sphinx’s Markdown parser. On the other hand, it provides writers for many different formats including HTML, LaTeX, man pages, Open Document Format and XML.

docutils exposes all of its functionality through a variety of front-end tools, such as rst2html, rst2odt and rst2xml. Crucially though, all of these tools, and docutils itself, are concerned with individual documents.  They don’t support concepts such as cross-referencing, indexing of documents, or the construction of a document hierarchy (typically manifesting in a table of contents).

Sphinx builds upon docutils by harnessing docutils’ readers and parsers and providing its own /usage/builders/index. As a result, Sphinx wraps some of the writers provided by docutils. This allows Sphinx to provide many features that would simply not be possible with docutils, such as those outlined above.

Epub info

The following list gives some hints for the creation of epub files:

  • Split the text into several files. The longer the individual HTML files are, the longer it takes the ebook reader to render them.  In extreme cases, the rendering can take up to one minute.
  • Try to minimize the markup.  This also pays in rendering time.
  • For some readers you can use embedded or external fonts using the CSS @font-face directive.  This is extremely useful for code listings which are often cut at the right margin.  The default Courier font (or variant) is quite wide and you can only display up to 60 characters on a line.  If you replace it with a narrower font, you can get more characters on a line.  You may even use FontForge and create narrow variants of some free font.  In my case I get up to 70 characters on a line.

    You may have to experiment a little until you get reasonable results.

  • Test the created epubs. You can use several alternatives.  The ones I am aware of are Epubcheck, Calibre, FBreader (although it does not render the CSS), and Bookworm.  For Bookworm, you can download the source from https://code.google.com/archive/p/threepress and run your own local server.
  • Large floating divs are not displayed properly. If they cover more than one page, the div is only shown on the first page. In that case you can copy the epub.css from the sphinx/themes/epub/static/ directory to your local _static/ directory and remove the float settings.
  • Files that are inserted outside of the toctree directive must be manually included. This sometimes applies to appendixes, e.g. the glossary or the indices.  You can add them with the epub_post_files option.
  • The handling of the epub cover page differs from the reStructuredText procedure which automatically resolves image paths and puts the images into the _images directory.  For the epub cover page put the image in the html_static_path directory and reference it with its full path in the epub_cover config option.
  • kindlegen command can convert from epub3 resulting file to .mobi file for Kindle. You can get yourdoc.mobi under _build/epub after the following command:

    $ make epub
    $ kindlegen _build/epub/yourdoc.epub

    The kindlegen command doesn’t accept documents that have section titles surrounding toctree directive:

    Section Title
    =============
    
    .. toctree::
    
       subdocument
    
    Section After Toc Tree
    ======================

    kindlegen assumes all documents order in line, but the resulting document has complicated order for kindlegen:

    ``parent.xhtml`` -> ``child.xhtml`` -> ``parent.xhtml``

    If you get the following error, fix your document structure:

    Error(prcgen):E24011: TOC section scope is not included in the parent chapter:(title)
    Error(prcgen):E24001: The table of content could not be built.

Texinfo info

There are two main programs for reading Info files, info and GNU Emacs.  The info program has less features but is available in most Unix environments and can be quickly accessed from the terminal.  Emacs provides better font and color display and supports extensive customizatio