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GRASS GIS 7.8.5 Reference Manual

Geographic Resources Analysis Support System, commonly referred to as GRASS GIS, is a Geographic Information System (GIS) used for geospatial data management and analysis, image processing, graphics/maps production, spatial modeling, and visualization. GRASS is currently used in academic and commercial settings around the world, as well as by many governmental agencies and environmental consulting companies.

This reference manual details the use of modules distributed with Geographic Resources Analysis Support System (GRASS), an open source (GNU GPLed), image processing and geographic information system (GIS). Go to raster introduction | topics

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Raster commands

r.basins.fillGenerates watershed subbasins raster map.
r.blendBlends color components of two raster maps by a given ratio.
r.bufferCreates a raster map showing buffer zones surrounding cells that contain non-NULL category values.
r.buffer.lowmemCreates a raster map showing buffer zones surrounding cells that contain non-NULL category values.
r.buildvrtBuild a VRT (Virtual Raster) from the list of input raster maps.
r.carveGenerates stream channels.
r.categoryManages category values and labels associated with user-specified raster map layers.
r.circleCreates a raster map containing concentric rings around a given point.
r.clumpRecategorizes data in a raster map by grouping cells that form physically discrete areas into unique categories.
r.coinTabulates the mutual occurrence (coincidence) of categories for two raster map layers.
r.colorsCreates/modifies the color table associated with a raster map.
r.colors.outExports the color table associated with a raster map.
r.colors.stddevSets color rules based on stddev from a raster map’s mean value.
r.compositeCombines red, green and blue raster maps into a single composite raster map.
r.compressCompresses and decompresses raster maps.
r.contourProduces a vector map of specified contours from a raster map.
r.costCreates a raster map showing the cumulative cost of moving between different geographic locations on an input raster map whose cell category values represent cost.
r.covarOutputs a covariance/correlation matrix for user-specified raster map layer(s).
r.crossCreates a cross product of the category values from multiple raster map layers.
r.describePrints terse list of category values found in a raster map layer.
r.distanceLocates the closest points between objects in two raster maps.
r.drainTraces a flow through an elevation model or cost surface on a raster map.
r.externalLinks GDAL supported raster data as a pseudo GRASS raster map.
r.external.outRedirects raster output to file utilizing GDAL library rather than storing in GRASS raster format.
r.fill.dirFilters and generates a depressionless elevation map and a flow direction map from a given elevation raster map.
r.fill.statsRapidly fills ’no data’ cells (NULLs) of a raster map with interpolated values (IDW).
r.fillnullsFills no-data areas in raster maps using spline interpolation.
r.flowConstructs flowlines.
r.geomorphonCalculates geomorphons (terrain forms) and associated geometry using machine vision approach.
r.grow.distanceGenerates a raster map containing distances to nearest raster features and/or the value of the nearest non-null cell.
r.growGenerates a raster map layer with contiguous areas grown by one cell.
r.gwflowNumerical calculation program for transient, confined and unconfined groundwater flow in two dimensions.
r.hisGenerates red, green and blue (RGB) raster map layers combining hue, intensity and saturation (HIS) values from user-specified input raster map layers.
r.horizonComputes horizon angle height from a digital elevation model.
r.importImports raster data into a GRASS raster map using GDAL library and reprojects on the fly.
r.in.asciiConverts a GRASS ASCII raster file to binary raster map.
r.in.asterGeoreference, rectify, and import Terra-ASTER imagery and relative DEMs using gdalwarp.
r.in.binImport a binary raster file into a GRASS raster map layer.
r.in.gdalImports raster data into a GRASS raster map using GDAL library.
r.in.gridatbImports GRIDATB.FOR map file (TOPMODEL) into a GRASS raster map.
r.in.matImports a binary MAT-File(v4) to a GRASS raster.
r.in.pngImports non-georeferenced PNG format image.
r.in.polyCreates raster maps from ASCII polygon/line/point data files.
r.in.srtmImports SRTM HGT files into raster map.
r.in.wmsDownloads and imports data from OGC WMS and OGC WMTS web mapping servers.
r.in.xyzCreates a raster map from an assemblage of many coordinates using univariate statistics.
r.infoOutputs basic information about a raster map.
r.kappaCalculates error matrix and kappa parameter for accuracy assessment of classification result.
r.lakeFills lake at given point to given level.
r.latlongCreates a latitude/longitude raster map.
r.li.cwedCalculates contrast weighted edge density index on a raster map
r.li.daemonSupport module for r.li landscape index calculations.
r.li.dominanceCalculates dominance’s diversity index on a raster map
r.li.edgedensityCalculates edge density index on a raster map, using a 4 neighbour algorithm
r.liToolset for multiscale analysis of landscape structure
r.li.mpaCalculates mean pixel attribute index on a raster map
r.li.mpsCalculates mean patch size index on a raster map, using a 4 neighbour algorithm
r.li.padcvCalculates coefficient of variation of patch area on a raster map
r.li.padrangeCalculates range of patch area size on a raster map
r.li.padsdCalculates standard deviation of patch area a raster map
r.li.patchdensityCalculates patch density index on a raster map, using a 4 neighbour algorithm
r.li.patchnumCalculates patch number index on a raster map, using a 4 neighbour algorithm.
r.li.pielouCalculates Pielou’s diversity index on a raster map
r.li.renyiCalculates Renyi’s diversity index on a raster map
r.li.richnessCalculates richness index on a raster map
r.li.shannonCalculates Shannon’s diversity index on a raster map
r.li.shapeCalculates shape index on a raster map
r.li.simpsonCalculates Simpson’s diversity index on a raster map
r.mapcalcRaster map calculator.
r.mapcalc.simpleCalculates a new raster map from a simple r.mapcalc expression.
r.maskCreates a MASK for limiting raster operation.
r.mfilterPerforms raster map matrix filter.
r.modeFinds the mode of values in a cover map within areas assigned the same category value in a user-specified base map.
r.neighborsMakes each cell category value a function of the category values assigned to the cells around it, and stores new cell values in an output raster map layer.
r.nullManages NULL-values of given raster map.
r.out.asciiConverts a raster map layer into a GRASS ASCII text file.
r.out.binExports a GRASS raster to a binary array.
r.out.gdalExports GRASS raster maps into GDAL supported formats.
r.out.gridatbExports GRASS raster map to GRIDATB.FOR map file (TOPMODEL).
r.out.matExports a GRASS raster to a binary MAT-File.
r.out.mpegConverts raster map series to MPEG movie.
r.out.pngExport a GRASS raster map as a non-georeferenced PNG image.
r.out.povConverts a raster map layer into a height-field file for POV-Ray.
r.out.ppmConverts a GRASS raster map to a PPM image file.
r.out.ppm3Converts 3 GRASS raster layers (R,G,B) to a PPM image file.
r.out.vrmlExports a raster map to the Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML).
r.out.vtkConverts raster maps into the VTK-ASCII format.
r.out.xyzExports a raster map to a text file as x,y,z values based on cell centers.
r.packExports a raster map as GRASS GIS specific archive file
r.param.scaleExtracts terrain parameters from a DEM.
r.patchCreates a composite raster map layer by using known category values from one (or more) map layer(s) to fill in areas of "no data" in another map layer.
r.pathTraces paths from starting points following input directions.
r.planeCreates raster plane map given dip (inclination), aspect (azimuth) and one point.
r.profileOutputs the raster map layer values lying on user-defined line(s).
r.projRe-projects a raster map from given location to the current location.
r.quantProduces the quantization file for a floating-point map.
r.quantileCompute quantiles using two passes.
r.random.cellsGenerates random cell values with spatial dependence.
r.randomCreates a raster map layer and vector point map containing randomly located points.
r.random.surfaceGenerates random surface(s) with spatial dependence.
r.reclass.areaReclasses a raster map greater or less than user specified area size (in hectares).
r.reclassReclassify raster map based on category values.
r.recodeRecodes categorical raster maps.
r.regionSets the boundary definitions for a raster map.
r.regression.lineCalculates linear regression from two raster maps: y = a + b*x.
r.regression.multiCalculates multiple linear regression from raster maps.
r.reliefCreates shaded relief map from an elevation map (DEM).
r.reportReports statistics for raster maps.
r.resamp.bsplinePerforms bilinear or bicubic spline interpolation with Tykhonov regularization.
r.resamp.filterResamples raster map layers using an analytic kernel.
r.resamp.interpResamples raster map to a finer grid using interpolation.
r.resamp.rstReinterpolates and optionally computes topographic analysis from input raster map to a new raster map (possibly with different resolution) using regularized spline with tension and smoothing.
r.resamp.statsResamples raster map layers to a coarser grid using aggregation.
r.resampleGRASS raster map layer data resampling capability.
r.rescale.eqRescales histogram equalized the range of category values in a raster map layer.
r.rescaleRescales the range of category values in a raster map layer.
r.rgbSplits a raster map into red, green and blue maps.
r.rosGenerates rate of spread raster maps.
r.series.accumulateMakes each output cell value a accumulationfunction of the values assigned to the corresponding cells in the input raster map layers.
r.seriesMakes each output cell value a function of the values assigned to the corresponding cells in the input raster map layers.
r.series.interpInterpolates raster maps located (temporal or spatial) in between input raster maps at specific sampling positions.
r.shadeDrapes a color raster over an shaded relief or aspect map.
r.sim.sedimentSediment transport and erosion/deposition simulation using path sampling method (SIMWE).
r.sim.waterOverland flow hydrologic simulation using path sampling method (SIMWE).
r.slope.aspectGenerates raster maps of slope, aspect, curvatures and partial derivatives from an elevation raster map.
r.solute.transportNumerical calculation program for transient, confined and unconfined solute transport in two dimensions
r.spreadSimulates elliptically anisotropic spread.
r.spreadpathRecursively traces the least cost path backwards to cells from which the cumulative cost was determined.
r.statisticsCalculates category or object oriented statistics.
r.statsGenerates area statistics for raster map.
r.stats.quantileCompute category quantiles using two passes.
r.stats.zonalCalculates category or object oriented statistics (accumulator-based statistics).
r.stream.extractPerforms stream network extraction.
r.sunSolar irradiance and irradiation model.
r.sunhoursCalculates solar elevation, solar azimuth, and sun hours.
r.sunmaskCalculates cast shadow areas from sun position and elevation raster map.
r.supportAllows creation and/or modification of raster map layer support files.
r.support.statsUpdate raster map statistics
r.surf.areaPrints estimation of surface area for raster map.
r.surf.contourGenerates surface raster map from rasterized contours.
r.surf.fractalCreates a fractal surface of a given fractal dimension.
r.surf.gaussGenerates a raster map using gaussian random number generator.
r.surf.idwProvides surface interpolation from raster point data by Inverse Distance Squared Weighting.
r.surf.randomProduces a raster surface map of uniform random deviates with defined range.
r.terraflowPerforms flow computation for massive grids.
r.textureGenerate images with textural features from a raster map.
r.thinThins non-null cells that denote linear features in a raster map layer.
r.tileSplits a raster map into tiles.
r.tilesetProduces tilings of the source projection for use in the destination region and projection.
r.timestampModifies a timestamp for a raster map.
r.to.rast3Converts 2D raster map slices to one 3D raster volume map.
r.to.rast3elevCreates a 3D volume map based on 2D elevation and value raster maps.
r.to.vectConverts a raster map into a vector map.
r.topidxCreates a topographic index (wetness index) raster map from an elevation raster map.
r.topmodelSimulates TOPMODEL which is a physically based hydrologic model.
r.transectOutputs raster map layer values lying along user defined transect line(s).
r.univarCalculates univariate statistics from the non-null cells of a raster map.
r.unpackImports a GRASS GIS specific raster archive file (packed with r.pack) as a raster map
r.uslekComputes USLE Soil Erodibility Factor (K).
r.uslerComputes USLE R factor, Rainfall erosivity index.
r.viewshedComputes the viewshed of a point on an elevation raster map.
r.volumeCalculates the volume of data "clumps".
r.walkCreates a raster map showing the anisotropic cumulative cost of moving between different geographic locations on an input raster map whose cell category values represent cost.
r.water.outletCreates watershed basins from a drainage direction map.
r.watershedCalculates hydrological parameters and RUSLE factors.
r.what.colorQueries colors for a raster map layer.
r.whatQueries raster maps on their category values and category labels.

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© 2003-2020 GRASS Development Team, GRASS GIS 7.8.5 Reference Manual

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GRASS 7.8.5 GRASS GIS User's Manual