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ragg2 - Man Page

radare2 frontend for r_egg, compile programs into tiny binaries for x86-32/64 and arm.


ragg2[-a arch] [-b bits] [-k kernel] [-f format] [-o file] [-i shellcode] [-I path] [-e eggstr] [-E encoder] [-B hexpairs] [-c k=v] [-C file] [-n num32] [-N num64] [-d off:dword] [-D off:qword] [-w off:hexpair] [-p padding] [-P pattern] [-q fragment] [-FOLsrxvhz]


ragg2 is a frontend for r_egg, compile programs into tiny binaries for x86-32/64 and arm.

This tool is experimental and it is a rewrite of the old rarc2 and rarc2-tool programs as a library and integrated with r_asm and r_bin.

Programs generated by r_egg are relocatable and can be injected in a running process or on-disk binary file.

Since the ragg2-cc merge, ragg2 can now generate shellcodes from C code. The final code can be linked with rabin2 and it is relocatable, so it can be used to inject it on any remote process. This feature is conceptually based on shellforge4, but only linux/osx x86-32/64 platforms are supported.


The rr2 (ragg2) configuration file accepts the following directives, described as key=value entries and comments defined as lines starting with '#'.

-a arch

set architecture x86, arm

-b bits

32 or 64

-k kernel

windows, linux or osx

-f format

output format (raw, c, pe, elf, mach0, python, javascript)

-o file

output file to write result of compilation

-i shellcode

specify shellcode name to be used (see -L)

-e encoder

pass egg program as argument instead of in a file

-E encoder

specify encoder name to be used (see -L)

-B hexpair

specify shellcode as hexpairs

-c k=v

set configure option for the shellcode encoder. The argument must be key=value.

-C file

include contents of file

-d off:dword

Patch final buffer with given dword at specified offset

-D off:qword

Patch final buffer with given qword at specified offset

-w off:hexpairs

Patch final buffer with given hexpairs at specified offset

-n num32

Append a 32bit number in little endian

-N num64

Append a 64bit number in little endian

-p padding

Specify generic paddings with a format string. Use lowercase letters to prefix, and uppercase to suffix, keychars are: 'n' for nop, 't' for trap, 'a' for sequence and 's' for zero.

-P size

Prepend debruijn sequence of given length.

-q fragment

Output offset of debruijn sequence fragment.


autodetect native file format (osx=mach0, linux=elf, ..)


use default output file (filename without extension or a.out)

-I path

add include path


show assembler code


append a string


show raw bytes instead of hexpairs


execute (just-in-time)


execute rop chain


list all plugins (shellcodes and encoders)


show this help


output in C string syntax


show version


$ cat hi.r
/* hello world in r_egg */
write@syscall(4); //x64 write@syscall(1);
exit@syscall(1); //x64 exit@syscall(60);

main@global(128) {
.var0 = "hi!\n";
write(1,.var0, 4);
$ ragg2 -O -F hi.r
$ ./hi

# With C file :
$ cat hi.c
main() {
write(1, "Hello\n", 6);
$ ragg2 -O -F hi.c

$ ./hi

# Linked into a tiny binary. This is 165 bytes
$ wc -c < hi

# The compiled shellcode has zeroes
$ ragg2 hi.c | tail -1

# Use a xor encoder with key 64 to bypass
$ ragg2 -e xor -c key=64 -B $(ragg2 hi.c | tail -1)

See Also



Written by pancake <pancake@nopcode.org>.

Referenced By


May 4, 2021