# r3.flow.1grass - Man Page

Computes 3D flow lines and 3D flow accumulation.

## Keywords

raster3d, hydrology, voxel

## Synopsis

**r3.flow****r3.flow --help****r3.flow** [**-a**] [**input**=*name*] [**vector_field**=*name*[,*name*,...]] [**seed_points**=*name*] [**flowline**=*name*] [**flowaccumulation**=*name*] [**sampled**=*name*] [**unit**=*string*] [**step**=*float*] [**limit**=*integer*] [**max_error**=*float*] [**skip**=*integer*[,*integer*,...]] [**direction**=*string*] [**--overwrite**] [**--help**] [**--verbose**] [**--quiet**] [**--ui**]

### Flags

- -a
Create and fill attribute table

- --overwrite
Allow output files to overwrite existing files

- --help
Print usage summary

- --verbose
Verbose module output

- --quiet
Quiet module output

- --ui
Force launching GUI dialog

### Parameters

**input**=*name*Name of input 3D raster map

**vector_field**=*name[,name*,...]Names of three 3D raster maps describing x, y, z components of vector field

**seed_points**=*name*Name of vector map with points from which flow lines are generated

If no map is provided, flow lines are generated from each cell of the input 3D raster**flowline**=*name*Name for vector map of flow lines

**flowaccumulation**=*name*Name for output flowaccumulation 3D raster

**sampled**=*name*Name for 3D raster sampled by flowlines

Values of this 3D raster will be stored as attributes of flowlines segments**unit**=*string*Unit of integration step

Default unit is cell

Options:*time, length, cell*

Default:*cell***time**: elapsed time**length**: length in map units**cell**: length in cells (voxels)**step**=*float*Integration step in selected unit

Default step is 0.25 cell

Default:*0.25***limit**=*integer*Maximum number of steps

Default:*2000***max_error**=*float*Maximum error of integration

Influences step, increase maximum error to allow bigger steps

Default:*1e-5***skip**=*integer[,integer*,...]Number of cells between flow lines in x, y and z direction

**direction**=*string*Compute flowlines upstream, downstream or in both direction.

Options:*up, down, both*

Default:*down*

## Description

Module *r3.flow* computes 3D flow lines and 3D flow accumulation. It accepts either three 3D raster maps representing the vector field or one 3D raster map. In case of one map, it computes on-the-fly gradient field.

### Flow lines

Flow lines are computed either from points (seeds) provided in **seed_points** vector map, or if there are no seeds, it creates seeds in a regular grid in the center of voxels (3D raster cells). Parameter **skip** then controls the step between the regularly distributed seeds. If skip is not provided, r3.flow decides optimal skip for each dimension based on current 3D region as one tenth of the number of columns, rows, and depths. Flow lines can be computed in upstream direction (in the direction of gradient or vector field), in downstream direction or in both directions.

### Flow accumulation

Flow accumulation is computed as the number of flow lines traversing each voxel. Since the flow lines are computed for each voxel, the flow accumulation computation can be more demanding. Parameter skip does not influence the flow accumulation computation, parameter direction does.

### Flow line integration

Flow line integration can be influenced by several parameters. Option **step** controls the integration step and influences the precision and computational time. The unit of step can be defined either in terms of the size of the voxel (3D raster cell), length in map units, or as elapsed time. Option **limit** specifies the maximum number of steps of each flow line.

### Attributes

Without using flag **a**, no attribute table is created and each flow line is represented by one vector line with one category. With **a** flag, an attribute table is created and each category (record) represents one segment of a flowline, so that attributes specific for segments can be written. In case of **vector_field** input, only velocity is written, in case of **input** option, also values of the input 3D raster are written. Option **sampled** allows sampling (query) given 3D raster by flow lines (computed from different 3D raster) and write the values of the given 3D raster as attributes of the flow line segments. Note that using **a** flag results in longer computation time, so consider increasing **step** and **max_error** parameter.

## Notes

r3.flow uses Runge-Kutta with adaptive step size (Cash-Karp method).

## Examples

First we create input data using example 1 from r3.gwflow manual page:

# set the region accordingly g.region res=25 res3=25 t=100 b=0 n=1000 s=0 w=0 e=1000 -p3 # now create the input raster maps for a confined aquifer r3.mapcalc expression="phead = if(row() == 1 && depth() == 4, 50, 40)" r3.mapcalc expression="status = if(row() == 1 && depth() == 4, 2, 1)" r3.mapcalc expression="well = if(row() == 20 && col() == 20 && depth() == 2, -0.25, 0)" r3.mapcalc expression="hydcond = 0.00025" r3.mapcalc expression="syield = 0.0001" r.mapcalc expression="recharge = 0.0" r3.gwflow solver=cg phead=phead status=status hc_x=hydcond hc_y=hydcond \ hc_z=hydcond q=well s=syield r=recharge output=gwresult dt=8640000 vx=vx vy=vy vz=vz budget=budget

Then we compute flow lines in both directions and downstream flowaccumulation.

r3.flow vector_field=vx,vy,vz flowline=gw_flowlines skip=5,5,2 direction=both r3.flow vector_field=vx,vy,vz flowaccumulation=gw_flowacc

We can visualize the result in 3D view:

We can store velocity values (and values of the input 3D raster map if we use option **input**) for each segment of flow line in an attribute table.

r3.flow -a vector_field=vx,vy,vz flowline=gw_flowlines skip=5,5,2 direction=both v.colors map=flowlines_color@user1 use=attr column=velocity color=bcyr

Again, we visualize the result in 3D view and we check ’use color for thematic rendering’ on 3D view vector page.

## See Also

*r.flow, r3.gradient, r3.gwflow*

## Authors

Anna Petrasova, NCSU OSGeoREL, developed during GSoC 2014.

## Source Code

Available at: r3.flow source code (history)

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