# r.grow.1grass man page

**r.grow** — Generates a raster map layer with contiguous areas grown by one cell.

## Keywords

raster, distance, proximity

## Synopsis

**r.grow****r.grow --help****r.grow** [**-m**] **input**=*name* **output**=*name* [**radius**=*float*] [**metric**=*string*] [**old**=*integer*] [**new**=*integer*] [**--overwrite**] [**--help**] [**--verbose**] [**--quiet**] [**--ui**]

### Flags

**-m**- Radius is in map units rather than cells
**--overwrite**- Allow output files to overwrite existing files
**--help**- Print usage summary
**--verbose**- Verbose module output
**--quiet**- Quiet module output
**--ui**- Force launching GUI dialog

### Parameters

**input**=*name***[required]**- Name of input raster map
**output**=*name***[required]**- Name for output raster map
**radius**=*float*- Radius of buffer in raster cells

Default:*1.01* **metric**=*string*- Metric

Options:*euclidean, maximum, manhattan*

Default:*euclidean* **old**=*integer*- Value to write for input cells which are non-NULL (-1 => NULL)
**new**=*integer*- Value to write for "grown" cells

## Description

*r.grow* adds cells around the perimeters of all areas in a user-specified raster map layer and stores the output in a new raster map layer. The user can use it to grow by one or more than one cell (by varying the size of the **radius** parameter), or like *r.buffer*, but with the option of preserving the original cells (similar to combining *r.buffer* and *r.patch*).

## Notes

The user has the option of specifying three different metrics which control the geometry in which grown cells are created, (controlled by the **metric** parameter): *Euclidean*, *Manhattan*, and *Maximum*.

The *Euclidean distance* or *Euclidean metric* is the "ordinary" distance between two points that one would measure with a ruler, which can be proven by repeated application of the Pythagorean theorem. The formula is given by:

`d(dx,dy) = sqrt(dx^2 + dy^2)`

Cells grown using this metric would form isolines of distance that are circular from a given point, with the distance given by the **radius**.

The *Manhattan metric*, or *Taxicab geometry*, is a form of geometry in which the usual metric of Euclidean geometry is replaced by a new metric in which the distance between two points is the sum of the (absolute) differences of their coordinates. The name alludes to the grid layout of most streets on the island of Manhattan, which causes the shortest path a car could take between two points in the city to have length equal to the points’ distance in taxicab geometry. The formula is given by:

`d(dx,dy) = abs(dx) + abs(dy)`

where cells grown using this metric would form isolines of distance that are rhombus-shaped from a given point.

The *Maximum metric* is given by the formula

`d(dx,dy) = max(abs(dx),abs(dy))`

where the isolines of distance from a point are squares.

If there are two cells which are equal candidates to grow into an empty space, *r.grow* will choose the northernmost candidate; if there are multiple candidates with the same northing, the westernmost is chosen.

## Example

In this example, the lakes map in the North Carolina sample dataset location is buffered:

```
g.region raster=lakes -p
r.grow input=lakes output=lakes_grown_50m radius=10
```

## See Also

*r.buffer, r.grow.distance, r.patch*

*Wikipedia Entry: Euclidean Metric**Wikipedia Entry: Manhattan Metric*

## Authors

Marjorie Larson, U.S. Army Construction Engineering Research Laboratory

Glynn Clements

*Last changed: $Date: 2014-12-19 22:55:37 +0100 (Fri, 19 Dec 2014) $*

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