ps.map.1grass man page

ps.map — Produces hardcopy PostScript map output.

Keywords

postscript, printing

Synopsis

ps.map
ps.map --help
ps.map [-rpeb] input=name output=name [copies=integer] [--overwrite] [--help] [--verbose] [--quiet] [--ui]

Flags

-r
Rotate plot 90 degrees
-p
List paper formats (name width height left right top bottom(margin))
-e
Create Eps (Encapsulated PostScript) instead of PostScript file
-b
Describe map-box’s position on the page and exit (inches from top-left of paper)
--overwrite
Allow output files to overwrite existing files
--help
Print usage summary
--verbose
Verbose module output
--quiet
Quiet module output
--ui
Force launching GUI dialog

Parameters

input=name [required]
File containing mapping instructions
Use ’-’ to enter instructions from keyboard)
output=name [required]
Name for PostScript output file
copies=integer
Number of copies to print
Options: 1-20

Description

ps.map is a cartographic mapping program for producing high quality hardcopy maps in PostScript format. Output can include a raster map, any number of vector overlays, text labels, decorations, and other spatial data.

A file of mapping instructions that describes the various spatial and textual information to be printed must be prepared prior to running ps.map.

Notes

The order of commands is generally unimportant but may affect how some layers are drawn. For example to plot vpoints above vareas list the vpoints entry first. Raster maps are always drawn first, and only a single raster map (or 3 if part of a Rgb group) may be used.

The hash character (’#’) may be used at the beginning of a line to indicate that the line is a comment. Blank lines will also be ignored.

Be aware that some mapping instructions require the end command and some do not. Any instruction that allows subcommands will require it, any instruction that does not allow subcommands will not.

The resolution and extent of raster maps plotted with ps.map are controlled by the current region settings via the g.region module. The output filesize is largely a function of the region resolution, so special care should be taken if working with large raster datasets. For example if the desired output is US-Letter sized paper at 300dpi, with 1" margins and the raster filling the entire page, the usable area on the page will be 6.5" x 9", which at 300 dots/inch is equivalent to a region of 1950 columns x 2700 rows (see "g.region -p"). Any higher resolution settings will make the output file larger, but with a consumer printer you probably won’t be able to resolve any better detail in the hardcopy.

The user can specify negative or greater than 100 percentage values for positioning several map decorations and embedded EPS-files, to move them outside the current map box region (for example to position a caption, barscale, or legend above or below the map box).

One point ("pixel") is 1/72 of an inch.

For users wanting to use special characters (such as accented characters) it is important to note that ps.map uses ISO-8859-1 encoding. This means that your instructions file will have to be encoded in this encoding. If you normally work in a different encoding environment (such as UTF-8), you have to transform your file to the ISO-8859-1 encoding, for example by using the iconv utility:

iconv -f UTF-8 -t ISO_8859-1 utf_file > iso_file

Mapping Instructions

The mapping instructions allow the user to specify various spatial data to be plotted. These instructions are normally prepared in a regular text file using a system editor. Some instructions are single line instructions while others are multiple line. Multiple line instructions consist of the main instruction followed by a subsection of one or more additional instructions and are terminated with an end instruction.

Instruction keywords

[ border | colortable | comments | copies | eps | geogrid | greyrast | grid | group | header | labels | line | mapinfo | maploc | maskcolor | outline | paper | point | psfile | raster | read | rectangle | region | rgb | scale | scalebar | setcolor | text | vareas | vlines | vpoints | vlegend | end ]

Common instructions

Instructions that may be included in the subsection under several different main instructions are:

where x y
The top left corner of the bounding box of the item to be plotted is located x inches from the left edge of the paper and y inches from the top edge of the paper. If x is less than or equal to zero, the default horizontal location is used. If y is less than or equal to zero, the default vertical location is used.
font font name
The name of the PostScript font. Fonts present in all PostScript implementations are: Times-Roman, Times-Italic, Times-Bold, Times-BoldItalic, Helvetica, Helvetica-Oblique, Helvetica-Bold, Helvetica-BoldOblique, Courier, Courier-Oblique, Courier-Bold, and Courier-BoldOblique.
The default is Helvetica.
fontsize font size
The size of the PostScript font (in 1/72nds of an inch). The default is 10 point.
color name
The following colors names are accepted by ps.map: aqua, black, blue, brown, cyan, gray, grey, green, indigo, magenta, orange, purple, red, violet, white, yellow .

For vectors and some plotting commands you can also specify ’none’ or ’R:G:B’ (e.g ’255:0:0’).
yes|no
For options that take a yes or no answer, you can simply use the letters "y" or "n", or type out the full words "Yes" or "No" if you prefer. It is not case-sensitive. Typically the option with have a default answer and you only need to specify one if you wish to override it.

Command usage

border

Controls the border which is drawn around the map area.

USAGE:  border [y|n]
	color color
	width #
	end

The color may be either a standard GRASS color, a R:G:B triplet, or "none". The width is specified in points, unless followed by an "i" in which case it is measured in inches. The default is a black border box of width 1 point.

The border can be turned off completely with the "border n" instruction. In this case the end command should not be given as the main command will be treated as a single line instruction.

This example would create a grey border 0.1" wide.

EXAMPLE:
	border
	color grey
	width 0.1i
	end

colortable

Prints the color table legend for the raster map layer anywhere on the page.

USAGE:	colortable [y|n]
	where x y
	raster raster map
	range minimum maximum
	width table width
	height table height (FP legend only)
	cols table columns
	font font name
	fontsize font size
	color text color
	nodata [Y|n]
	tickbar [y|N]
	discrete [y|n]
	end

For a categorical (CELL) map the color table will create a legend displaying the colors for each of a raster map’s category values along with its associated category label. For a floating point (FCELL or DCELL) map a continuous gradient legend will be created.

If raster is omitted, the colortable defaults to the previously registered raster layer.

The default location for the colortable is immediately below any other map legend information, starting at the left margin. The default text color is black.

Omitting the colortable instruction would result in no color table. If the colortable is turned off with a "colortable N" instruction the end command should not be given as the main command will be treated as a single line instruction.

See also the vlegend command for creating vector map legends.

Categorical (CELL) Maps

Adding the nodata N instruction will prevent the "no data" box from being drawn (category based legends only). If you have manually added a "no data" label to the cats/ file it will be shown regardless.

Note: Be careful about asking for color tables for integer raster map layers which have many categories, such as elevation. This could result in the printing of an extremely long color table! In this situation it is useful to use the discrete N instruction to force a continuous color gradient legend.

Be aware that the color table only includes categories which have a label. You can use the r.category module to add labels.

Floating point (FCELL and DCELL) Maps

The legend’s range can be adjusted for floating point rasters, but if set beyond the extent of the map’s range be sure that you have set up color rules with r.colors which cover this range. If the map has been given a data-units label with r.support then this label will be displayed. For floating point legends width is width of color band only. height is used only for floating point legend. A horizontal gradient legend can be achieved by setting the legend width greater than its height. Adding the tickbar Y instruction will change the tick mark style so that ticks are drawn across the color table instead of protruding out to the right (floating point legends only). Adding the discrete Y instruction will command the program to treat the map as a categorical map. In this way the legend can be created with discrete range bands instead of a continuous gradient. You must use the r.category or r.support module to set up the range labels first.

This example would print a color table immediately below any other map legend information, starting at the left margin, with 4 columns:

EXAMPLE:
	colortable y
        cols 4
        width 4
        end

comments

Prints comments anywhere on the page.

USAGE:	comments commentfile
	where x y
	font font name
	fontsize font size
	color text color
	end

The default location is immediately below the last item item printed, starting at the left margin. The default text color is black.

If you wish to use parentheses spanning multiple lines you will need to quote them with a backslash to prevent the PostScript interpreter from getting confused. e.g. ’\(’ and ’\)

This example prints in blue whatever is in the file veg.comments starting at 1.5 inches from the left edge of the page and 7.25 inches from the top of the page, using a 15/72 inch Helvetica Bold font.

EXAMPLE:
	raster vegetation
	comments veg.comments
	where 1.5 7.25
	font Helvetica Bold
	fontsize 15
	color blue
	end

Presumably, the file veg.comments contain comments pertaining to the raster map layer vegetation, such as "This map was created by classifying a LANDSAT TM image".

copies

Specifies the number of copies to be printed.

USAGE:	copies n

Each page will be printed n times.

This instruction is identical to the copies command line parameter.

eps

Places Eps (Encapsulated PostScript) pictures on the output map.

USAGE:	eps east north
	eps x% y%
	epsfile EPS file
	scale #
	rotate #
	masked [y|n]
	end

The Eps picture location is entered in the main instruction line by giving either the map coordinates or by using percentages of the geographic region. The Eps picture will be centered at the given position. The user must specify full Eps file path epsfile. The user may also specify the scale of the icon (default is 1.0), the rotate i.e. rotation in degrees (default is 0) and whether the point is to be masked by the current mask. (See manual entry for r.mask for more information on the mask.)

This example would place a Eps file ./epsf/logo.eps at the point (E456000 N7890000). This picture would be rotated 20 degrees clockwise, 3 times bigger than in original file and would not be masked by the current mask.

EXAMPLE:
	eps 456000 7890000
	epsfile ./epsf/logo.eps
	scale 3
	rotate 20
	masked n
	end

Of course, multiple Eps pictures may be drawn with multiple eps instructions.

geogrid

Overlays a geographic grid onto the output map.

USAGE:	geogrid spacing unit
	color color
	numbers # [color]
	font font name
	fontsize font size
	width #
	end

The spacing and spacing unit of the geographic grid is given on the main instruction line. The spacing unit is given as one of d for degrees, m for minutes, and s for seconds. The subsection instructions allow the user to specify the color of the geographic grid lines, whether coordinate numbers should appear on the geographic grid lines, the width of the lines (accepts decimal points [floating points] as well as integers), and if they should appear every grid line (1), every other grid line (2), etc., and what color the numbers should be. The defaults are black grid lines, unnumbered.

NOTE: The geogrid draws grid numbers on the east and south borders of the map.

This example would overlay a blue geographic grid with a spacing of 30 minutes onto the output map. Alternate grid lines would be numbered with yellow numbers.

EXAMPLE:
	geogrid 30 m
	color blue
	numbers 2 yellow
	end

greyrast

Selects a raster map layer for output in shades of grey.

USAGE:	greyrast mapname

For each ps.map run, only one raster map layer can be requested (using either the greyrast or the raster instruction).

grid

Overlays a coordinate grid onto the output map.

USAGE:	grid spacing
	color color
	numbers # [color]
	cross cross size
	font font name
	fontsize font size
	width #
	end

The spacing of the grid is given (in the geographic coordinate system units) on the main instruction line. The subsection instructions allow the user to specify the color of the grid lines, whether coordinate numbers should appear on the grid lines, and if they should appear every grid line (1), every other grid line (2), etc., and what color the numbers should be. The cross argument draws grid intersection crosses instead of grid lines, with cross size given in geographic coordinate system units. The defaults are black grid lines, unnumbered.

This example would overlay a green grid with a spacing of 10000 meters (for a metered database, like UTM) onto the output map. Alternate grid lines would be numbered with red numbers.

EXAMPLE:
	grid 10000
	color green
	numbers 2 red
	end

group

Selects an Rgb imagery group for output.

USAGE:	group groupname

This is similar to raster, except that it uses an imagery group instead of a raster map layer. The group must contain three raster map layers, comprising the red, green and blue bands of the image.

labels

Selects a labels file for output (see manual entry for v.label ).

USAGE:	labels  labelfile
	font font name
	end

NOTE: ps.map can read new option ’ROTATE:’ from labels file, which specifies counter clockwise rotation in degrees.

This example would paint labels from the labels file called town.names. Presumably, these labels would indicate the names of towns on the map.

EXAMPLE:
	labels town.names
	end

line

Draws lines on the output map.

USAGE:	line east north east north
	line x% y% x% y%
	color color
	width #
	masked [y|n]
	end

The beginning and ending points of the line are entered on the main instruction. These points can be defined either by map coordinates or by using percentages of the geographic region. The user may also specify line color, width in points (1/72"; accepts decimal values as well as integers), and if the line is to be masked by the current mask. (See manual entry for r.mask for more information on the mask.) The line width (if given) is measured in points; an i directly following the number indicates that the width is given in inches instead.

This example would draw a yellow line from the point x=10% y=80% to the point x=30% y=70%. This line would be 2 points wide (2/72") and would appear even if there is a mask.

EXAMPLE:
	line 10% 80% 30% 70%
	color yellow
	width 2
	masked n
	end

Of course, multiple lines may be drawn with multiple line instructions.

mapinfo

Prints the portion of the map legend containing the scale, grid and region information, on or below the map.

USAGE:	mapinfo
	where x y
	font font name
	fontsize font size
	color text color
	background box color|none
	border color|none
	end

The default location is immediately below the map, starting at the left edge of the map. The default text color is black. The default background box color is white.

border will draw a border around the legend using the specified color. (see NAMED COLORS)

This example prints (in brown) the scale, grid and region information immediately below the map and starting 1.5 inches from the left edge of the page, using a 12/72 inch Courier font.

EXAMPLE:
	mapinfo
	where 1.5 0
	font Courier
	fontsize 12
	color brown
	end

maploc

Positions the map on the page.

USAGE:	maploc  x y [width height]

The upper left corner of the map will be positioned x inches from the left edge of the page and y inches from the top of the page. If width and height (in inches) are present, the map will be rescaled, if necessary, to fit.

This example positions the upper left corner of the map 2.0 inches from the left edge and 3.5 inches from the top edge of the map.

EXAMPLE:
	maploc 2.0 3.5

maskcolor

Color to be used for mask.

USAGE:	maskcolor  color

outline

Outlines the areas of a raster map layer with a specified color.

USAGE:	outline
	color  color
	width  width of line in points
	end

Distinct areas of the raster map will be separated from each other visually by drawing a border (or outline) in the specified color (default: black). For width the program accepts decimal points [floating points] as well as integers. Note: it is important the user enter the instruction end even if a color is not chosen. (It is hoped that in the future the outline of a different raster map layer other than the one currently being painted may be placed on the map.)

This example would outline the category areas of the soils raster map layer in grey.

EXAMPLE:
	raster soils
	outline
	color grey
	width 2
	end

paper

Specifies paper size and margins.

USAGE:	paper paper name
	height #
	width #
	left #
	right #
	bottom #
	top #
	end

paper may select predefined paper name (a4,a3,a2,a1,a0,us-legal,us-letter,us-tabloid). Default paper size is a4. The measures are defined in inches. left, right, bottom and top are paper margins. If the plot is rotated with the -r command line flag, measures are applied to the rotated page.

EXAMPLE:
	paper a3
	end
EXAMPLE:
	paper
	width 10
	height 10
	left 2
	right 2
	bottom 2
	top 2
	end

point

Places additional points or icons on the output map.

USAGE:	point east north
	point x% y%
	color color
	fcolor color
	symbol symbol group/name
	size #
	width #
	rotate #
	masked [y|n]
	end

The point location is entered in the main instruction line by giving either the map coordinates or by using percentages of the geographic region. The user may also specify the point color, the size of symbol in points, the rotation angle (in degrees CCW), and whether the point is to be masked by the current mask. (See manual entry for r.mask for more information on the mask.) The symbol line width (if given) is measured in points; an i directly following the number indicates that the width is given in inches instead. If a width is not given it will be set proportional to the symbol size.

This example would place a purple diamond (from icon file diamond) at the point (E456000 N7890000). This diamond would be the the size of a 15 points and would not be masked by the current mask.

EXAMPLE:
	point 456000 7890000
	fcolor purple
	color black
	symbol basic/diamond
	size 15
	masked n
	end

Of course, multiple points may be drawn with multiple point instructions.

psfile

Copies a file containing PostScript commands into the output file.

Note: ps.map will not search for this file. The user must be in the correct directory or specify the full path on the psfile instruction. (Note to /bin/csh users: ~ won’t work with this instruction).

USAGE:	psfile filename

This example copies the file "logo.ps" into the output file.

EXAMPLE:
	psfile logo.ps

raster

Selects a raster map layer for output.

USAGE:	raster mapname

For each ps.map run, only one raster map layer (or set of layers or imagery group; see below) can be requested. If no raster map layer is requested, a completely white map will be produced. It can be useful to select no raster map layer in order to provide a white background for vector maps.

Note that an imagery group selected with the group option, or a set of three raster layers selected with the rgb option, count as a raster map layer for the purposes of the preceding paragraph.

The PostScript file’s internal title will be set to the raster map’s title, which in turn may be set with the r.suppport module.

This example would paint a map of the raster map layer soils.

EXAMPLE:
	raster soils

read

Provides ps.map with a previously prepared input stream.

USAGE:	read previously prepared UNIX file

Mapping instructions can be placed into a file and read into ps.map.

Note: ps.map will not search for this file. The user must be in the correct directory or specify the full path on the read instruction. (Note to /bin/csh users: ~ won’t work with this instruction).

This example reads the UNIX file pmap.roads into ps.map. This file may contain all the ps.map instructions for placing the vector map layer roads onto the output map.

EXAMPLE:
	read pmap.roads

The user may have created this file because this vector map layer is particularly useful for many ps.map outputs. By using the read option, the user need not enter all the input for the vector instruction, but simply read the previously prepared file with the correct instructions.

rectangle

Draws rectangle on the output map.

USAGE:	rectangle east north east north
	rectangle x% y% x% y%
	color color
	fcolor fill color
	width #
	masked [y|n]
	end

The two corners of the rectangle are entered on the main instruction. These points can be defined either by map coordinates or by using percentages of the geographic region. The user may also specify line color, fill color fcolor, width in points (accepts decimal points [floating points] as well as integers), and if the rectangle is to be masked by the current mask. (See manual entry for r.mask for more information on the mask.) The border line width (if given) is measured in points; an i directly following the number indicates that the width is given in inches instead.
Multiple rectangles may be drawn by using multiple rectangle instructions.

This example would draw a yellow rectangle filled by green from the point x=10% y=80% to the point x=30% y=70%. The border line would be 1/16" wide and would appear even if there is a mask.

EXAMPLE:
	rectangle 10% 80% 30% 70%
	color yellow
	fcolor green
	width 0.0625i
	masked n
	end

region

Places the outline of a smaller geographic region on the output.

USAGE:	region regionfile
	color color
	width #
	end

Geographic region settings are created and saved using the g.region module. The ps.map region option can be used to show an outline of a smaller region which was printed on a separate run of ps.map on other user-created maps.

The user can specify the color and the width in point units (accepts decimal points [floating points] as well as integers) of the outline. The default is a black border of one point width (1/72").

This example would place a white outline, 2 points wide, of the geographic region called fire.zones onto the output map. This geographic region would have been created and saved using g.region.

EXAMPLE:
	region fire.zones
	color white
	width 2
	end

rgb

Selects three raster map layers for output as an Rgb color image.

USAGE:	rgb red green blue

This is similar to raster, except that it uses three raster map layers instead of a single layer. The three layers are composed to form a color image, similar to d.rgb.

For each layer, only one of the components of the layer’s color table is used: the red component for the red layer, and so on. This will give the desired result if all of the layers have a grey-scale color table, or if each layer’s color table uses the hue appropriate to the layer.

scale

Selects a scale for the output map.

USAGE:	scale scale

The scale can be selected either as:

a relative ratio, e.g. 1:25000;

an absolute width of the printed map, e.g. 10 inches;

the number of printed paper panels, e.g. 3 panels .I (at the present time, only 1 panel is supported);

the number of miles per inch, e.g. 1 inch equals 4 miles.

This example would set the scale of the map to 1 unit = 25000 units.

EXAMPLE:
	scale 1:25000

scalebar

Draws a scalebar on the map.

USAGE:	scalebar [f|s]
	where x y
	length overall distance in map units
	units [auto|meters|kilometers|feet|miles|nautmiles]
	height scale height in inches
	segment number of segments
	numbers #
	fontsize font size
	background [Y|n]
	end

Draw one of two types of scale bar. Fancy (f) draws alternating black and white scale boxes. Simple (s) draws a plain line scale. The default type is fancy. The subsection instructions allow the user to set where the scalebar is placed, the length of the scalebar (in geographic coordinate system units, or those given by units), the height of the scalebar in inches, and the number of segments (or tics for simple). The number of annotations numbers every n-th segment. The background command can turn off the background box for the text.

The scalebar length is the only required argument. The defaults are a fancy scalebar with 4 segments, each segment labeled, and a height of 0.1 inches. The default location is 2 inches from the top of the page and halfway across.

NOTE: The scalebar is centered on the location given.

This example draws a simple scalebar 1000 meters (for a metered database, like UTM) long, with tics every 200 meters, labeled every second tic. The scalebar is drawn 5 inches from the top and 4 inches from the left and is 0.25 inches high.

EXAMPLE:
	scalebar s
	where 4 5
	length 1000
	height 0.25
	segment 5
	numbers 2
	end

setcolor

Overrides the color assigned to one or more categories of the raster map layer.

USAGE:	setcolor cat(s) color

This example would set the color for categories 2,5 and 8 of the raster map layer watersheds to white and category 10 to green. (NOTE: no spaces are inserted between the category values.)

EXAMPLE:
	raster watersheds
	setcolor 2,5,8 white
	setcolor 10 green

Of course, setcolor can be requested more than once to override the default color for additional categories. More than one category can be changed for each request by listing all the category values separated by commas (but with no spaces). Also ranges can be included, for example "1,2,6-10,12". Colors for "null" and the "default" (i.e. out-of-range) color may also be reassigned.

text

Places text on the map.

USAGE:	text  east north text
	text  x% y% text
	font fontname
	color color|none
	width #
	hcolor color|none
	hwidth #
	background color|none
	border color|none
	fontsize font size
	size #
	ref reference point
	rotate degrees CCW
	xoffset #
	yoffset #
	opaque [y|n]
	end

The user specifies where the text will be placed by providing map coordinates or percentages of the geographic region. The text follows these coordinates on the same instruction line. More than one line of text can be specified by notating the end of a line with \n (e.g. USA\nCERL).

The user can then specify various text features:

font: the PostScript font. Common possibilities are listed at the start of this help page. The default is Helvetica.

color (see NAMED COLORS);

width of the lines used to draw the text to make thicker letters (accepts decimal points [floating points] as well as integers);

size and fontsize. size gives the vertical height of the letters in meters on the ground (text size will grow or shrink depending on the scale at which the map is painted). Alternatively fontsize can set the font size directly. If neither size or fontsize is given, a default font size of 10 will be used;

the highlight color (hcolor) and the width of the highlight color (hwidth);

the text-enclosing-box background color; the text box border color;

ref. This reference point specifies the text handle - what part of the text should be placed on the location specified by the map coordinates. Reference points can refer to: [lower|upper|center] [left|right|center] of the text to be printed; The default is center center, i.e. the text is centered on the reference point.

rotate sets the text rotation angle, measured in degrees counter-clockwise.

yoffset, which provides finer placement of text by shifting the text a vertical distance in points (1/72") from the specified north. The vertical offset will shift the location to the south if positive, north if negative;

xoffset, which shifts the text a horizontal distance in points from the specified east The horizontal offset will shift the location east if positive, west if negative;

opaque, whether or not the text should be opaque to vectors. Entering no to the opaque option will allow the user to see any vectors which go through the text’s background box. Otherwise, they will end at the box’s edge.

The following example would place the text SPEARFISH LAND COVER at the coordinates E650000 N7365000. The text would be a total of 3 points wide (2 pixels of red text and 1 pixel black highlight), have a white background enclosed in a red box, and be 500 meters in size. The lower right corner of the text would be centered over the coordinates provided. All vectors on the map would stop at the border of this text.

EXAMPLE:
	text 650000 7365000 SPEARFISH LAND COVER
	font romand
	color red
	width 2
	hcolor black
	hwidth 1
	background white
	border red
	size 500
	ref lower left
	opaque y
	end

vareas

Selects a vector map layer for output and plots areas.

USAGE:	vareas vectormap
	layer # (layer number used with cats/where option)
	cats list of categories (e.g. 1,3,5-7)
	where SQL where statement
	masked [y|n]
	color color
	fcolor color
	rgbcolumn column
	width #
	label label to use in legend
	lpos position in legend
	pat pattern file
	pwidth #
	scale #
	end

The user can specify:

color - color of the vector lines or area boundaries;

fcolor - the area fill color;

rgbcolumn - name of color definition column used for the area fill color;

width - width of the vectors lines or area boundaries in points (accepts decimal points [floating points] as well as integers);

masked - whether or not the raster map layer is to be masked by the current mask; (see manual entry r.mask for more information on the mask)

cats - which categories should be plotted (default is all);

where - select features using a SQL where statement. For example: vlastnik = ’Cimrman’;

label - for description in vlegend. Default is: map(mapset);

lpos - position vector is plotted in legend. If lpos is 0 then this vector is omitted in legend. If more vectors used the same lpos then their symbols in legend are merged and label for first vector is used.

pat - full path to pattern file. The pattern file contains header and simple PostScript commands. It is similar to Eps but more limited, meaning that while each pattern file is a true Eps file, most Eps files are not useful as pattern files because they contain restricted commands. Color of patterns are set by fcolor (red, green, ..., none, R:G:B). Color of the boundaries remain set by the color instruction. Pattern may be scaled with the scale command. Several standard hatching patterns are provided in $GISBASE/etc/paint/patterns/. Demonstrative images can be found on the GRASS Wiki site. You can also create your own custom pattern files in a text editor. Example of pattern file:

%!PS-Adobe-2.0 EPSF-1.2
%%BoundingBox: 0 0 10 10
newpath
5 0 moveto
5 10 lineto
stroke

scale - pattern scale

pwidth - pattern line width, width is used by pattern until the width is overwritten in pattern file.

EXAMPLE:
	vareas forest
	color blue
	width 1
	masked y
	cats 2,5-7
	end

vlines

Selects a vector map layer for output and plots lines.

USAGE:	vlines vectormap
	type line and/or boundary
	layer # (layer number used with cats/where option)
	cats list of categories (e.g. 1,3,5-7)
	where SQL where statement like: vlastnik = ’Cimrman’
	masked [y|n]
	color color
	rgbcolumn column
	width #
	cwidth #
	hcolor color
	hwidth #
	offset #
	coffset #
	ref left|right
	style 00001111
	linecap style
	label label
	lpos #
	end

The user can specify:

type - the default is lines only;

color - color of the vector lines or area boundaries;

rgbcolumn - name of color definition column used for the vector lines or area boundaries;

width - width of the vectors lines or area boundaries in points (accepts decimal points [floating points] as well as integers);

cwidth - width of the vectors lines. If cwidth is used then width of line is equal to cwidth * category value and width is used in legend;

hcolor - the highlight color for the vector lines;

hwidth - the width of the highlight color in points;

offset (experimental) - offset for the vectors lines in points (1/72") for plotting parallel lines in distance equal to offset (accepts positive or negative decimal points). Useful to print streets with several parallel lanes;

coffset (experimental) - offset for the vectors lines. If coffset is used then offset of line is equal to coffset * category value and offset is used in legend;

ref (experimental) - line justification.

masked - whether or not the raster map layer is to be masked by the current mask; (see manual entry r.mask for more information on the mask);

style - the line style allows the vectors to be dashed in different patterns. This is done by either typing "solid", "dashed", "dotted", or "dashdotted", or as a series of 0’s and 1’s in a desired sequence or pattern. The first block of repeated zeros or ones represents "draw", the second block represents "blank". An even number of blocks will repeat the pattern, an odd number of blocks will alternate the pattern. The default is "solid";

linecap - the linecap specifies the look of the ends of the line, or the end of the dashes in a dashed line. The parameters are: ’butt’ for butt caps (default), ’round’ for round caps and ’extended_butt’ for extended butt caps. The shape of the round and the extended butt caps is related to the line thickness: for round butts the radius is half the linewidth, while for extended butt the line will extend for half the linewidth.

cats - which categories should be plotted (default is all);

label - for description in vlegend. Default is: map(mapset);

lpos - position vector is plotted in legend. If lpos is 0 then this vector is omitted in legend. If more vectors used the same lpos then their symbols in legend are merged and label for first vector is used.

EXAMPLE:
	vlines streams
	color blue
	width 2
	hcolor white
	hwidth 1
	masked y
	cats 2
	label Streams - category 2
	end

vpoints

Selects vector point data to be placed on the output map

USAGE:	vpoints vectormap
	type point and/or centroid
	layer # (layer number used with cats/where/sizecol options)
	cats list of categories (e.g. 1,3,5-7)
	where SQL where statement like: vlastnik = ’Cimrman’
	masked [y|n]
	color color
	fcolor color
	rgbcolumn column
	width #
	eps epsfile
	symbol symbol group/name
	size #
	sizecolumn attribute column used for symbol sizing
	scale scaling factor for sizecolumn values
	rotate #
	rotatecolumn column
	label legend label
	lpos position in legend
	end

The user may specify the the color of the sites (see section on NAMED COLORS); either the GRASS symbol or the eps Encapsulated Postscript file to be used to represent the presence of a site (if ’$’ is used in the Eps file path it will be replaced by category number); and rotate (in degrees) for counter-clockwise rotation.
The size of the icon (number of times larger than the size it is in the icon file) is typically given by the size option. Alternatively the size of the symbol or Eps graphic can be taken from an attribute column by using the sizecolumn command. The value given by sizecolumn may be scaled by using the scale factor setting (default scaling is 1.0). In a similar manner symbol color can be read from rgbcolumn and the rotation angle read from rotatecolumn.

EXAMPLE:
	vpoints windmills
	color blue
	symbol mills/windmill
	size 10
	end

vlegend

Prints the portion of the map legend containing the vector information, on or below the map.

USAGE:	vlegend
	where x y
	font font name
	fontsize font size
	width width of color symbol
	cols number of columns to print
	span column separation
	border color|none
	end

The default location is immediately below the legend containing the scale, grid and region information, starting at the left edge of the map. If the where instruction is present and y is less than or equal to zero, the vector legend will be positioned immediately below the map, starting x inches from the left edge of the page.

width is the width in inches of the color symbol (for lines) in front of the legend text. The default is 1/24 * fontsize inches.

cols is the number of columns to split the legend into. The default is one column. The maximum number of colums is 10, or equal to the number of legend entries if there are less than 10 entries.

span is the column separation distance between the left edges of two columns in a multicolumn legend. It is given in inches. The default is automatic scaling based on the left margin and the right hand side of the map box.

border will draw a border around the legend using the specified color. (see NAMED COLORS)

Alternatively, the user can create a custom legend by using the rectangle, point, and text instructions.

See also the colortable command for creating raster map legends.

This example prints the vector legend immediately below the map and starting 4.5 inches from the left edge of the page, using a 12/72 inch Helvetica font.

EXAMPLE:
	vlegend
	where 4.5 0
	font Courier
	fontsize 12
	end

end

Terminates input and begin painting the map.

USAGE:	end

Examples

The following are examples of ps.map script files.

Simple example

The file has been named spear.basic:

# this ps.map example draws a map of Spearfish, SD
raster elevation.dem
header
  end
vlines roads
  color brown
  end
end

Generate map as Postsript file:

ps.map input=spear.basic output=spear_basic.ps

More complicated example

The file has been named spear.soils:

# this ps.map example draws a map of Spearfish, SD
raster soils
outline
   color black
   width 1
   end
comments soil.cmt
   where 1 6
   font Helvetica
   end
colortable y
   where 1 6.5
   cols 4
   width 4
   font Helvetica
   end
setcolor 6,8,9 white
setcolor 10 green
vlines roads
   width 2
   style 0111
   color grey
   masked n
   end
vlegend
   where 4.5 0
   font Courier
   fontsize 8
   end
text 30% 100% SPEARFISH SOILS MAP
   color red
   width 1
   hcolor black
   hwidth 1
   background white
   border red
   size 500
   ref lower left
   end
line 606969.73 3423092.91 616969.73 3423092.91
   color yellow
   width 2
   end
point 40% 60%
   color purple
   symbol basic/diamond
   size 25
   masked n
   end
scale 1:125000
scalebar f
   where 4.5 6.5
   length 5000
   height 0.05
   segment 5
   numbers 5
   end
geogrid 60 s
   color blue
   numbers 2 yellow
   end
paper a4
    end
end

This script file can be entered at the command line:

# First set the region
g.region raster=soils
# Generate comment file (or use text editor)
echo "Spearfish (SD) soils" > soil.cmt
# Generate map as Postsript file
ps.map input=spear.soils output=soils.ps

More examples can be found on the GRASS Wiki help site.

CHANGES BETWEEN VERSION 5.0.x/5.4.x and 6.0

·
Devices and ps.select do not exist any more. Paper is defined by the paper instruction.
·
vpoints are used instead of sites (points are read from vector).
·
vector is substituted by vpoints, vlines and vareas.
·
Symbols are used instead of icons (different format and directory).
·
Map legend can be printed in columns.

See Also

g.region, v.label

Author

Paul Carlson, USDA, SCS, NHQ-CGIS
Modifications: Radim Blazek, Glynn Clements, Bob Covill, Hamish Bowman

Last changed: $Date: 2014-12-19 22:55:37 +0100 (Fri, 19 Dec 2014) $

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© 2003-2016 GRASS Development Team, GRASS GIS 7.0.4 Reference Manual

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GRASS 7.0.4 Grass User's Manual