openstack man page

openstack — OpenStack Command Line Client

OpenStack Command Line

Synopsis

openstack [<global-options>] <command> [<command-arguments>]

openstack help <command>

openstack --help

Description

openstack provides a common command-line interface to OpenStack APIs.  It is generally equivalent to the CLIs provided by the OpenStack project client libraries, but with a distinct and consistent command structure.

Authentication Methods

openstack uses a similar authentication scheme as the OpenStack project CLIs, with the credential information supplied either as environment variables or as options on the command line.  The primary difference is the use of 'project' in the name of the options OS_PROJECT_NAME/OS_PROJECT_ID over the old tenant-based names.

export OS_AUTH_URL=<url-to-openstack-identity>
export OS_PROJECT_NAME=<project-name>
export OS_USERNAME=<user-name>
export OS_PASSWORD=<password>  # (optional)

openstack can use different types of authentication plugins provided by the keystoneclient library. The following default plugins are available:

  • token: Authentication with a token
  • password: Authentication with a username and a password

Refer to the keystoneclient library documentation for more details about these plugins and their options, and for a complete list of available plugins. Please bear in mind that some plugins might not support all of the functionalities of openstack; for example the v3unscopedsaml plugin can deliver only unscoped tokens, some commands might not be available through this authentication method.

Additionally, it is possible to use Keystone's service token to authenticate, by setting the options --os-token and --os-url (or the environment variables OS_TOKEN and OS_URL respectively). This method takes precedence over authentication plugins.

NOTE:

To use the v3unscopedsaml method, the lxml package will need to be installed.

Options

openstack takes global options that control overall behaviour and command-specific options that control the command operation.  Most global options have a corresponding environment variable that may also be used to set the value. If both are present, the command-line option takes priority. The environment variable names are derived from the option name by dropping the leading dashes ('--'), converting each embedded dash ('-') to an underscore ('_'), and converting to upper case.

openstack recognizes the following global options:

--os-cloud <cloud-name>

openstack will look for a clouds.yaml file that contains a cloud configuration to use for authentication.  See Cloud Configuration below for more information.

--os-auth-type <auth-type>

The authentication plugin type to use when connecting to the Identity service. If this option is not set, openstack will attempt to guess the authentication method to use based on the other options. If this option is set, its version must match --os-identity-api-version

--os-auth-url <auth-url>

Authentication URL

--os-url <service-url>

Service URL, when using a service token for authentication

--os-domain-name <auth-domain-name> | --os-domain-id <auth-domain-id>

Domain-level authorization scope (name or ID)

--os-project-name <auth-project-name> | --os-project-id <auth-project-id>

Project-level authentication scope (name or ID)

--os-project-domain-name <auth-project-domain-name> | --os-project-domain-id <auth-project-domain-id>

Domain name or ID containing project

--os-username <auth-username>

Authentication username

--os-password <auth-password>

Authentication password

--os-token <token>

Authenticated token or service token

--os-user-domain-name <auth-user-domain-name> | --os-user-domain-id <auth-user-domain-id>

Domain name or ID containing user

--os-trust-id <trust-id>

ID of the trust to use as a trustee user

--os-default-domain <auth-domain>

Default domain ID (Default: 'default')

--os-region-name <auth-region-name>

Authentication region name

--os-cacert <ca-bundle-file>

CA certificate bundle file

--verify | --insecure

Verify or ignore server certificate (default: verify)

--os-cert <certificate-file>

Client certificate bundle file

--os-key <key-file>

Client certificate key file

--os-identity-api-version <identity-api-version>

Identity API version (Default: 2.0)

--os-XXXX-api-version <XXXX-api-version>

Additional API version options will be available depending on the installed API libraries.

--os-interface <interface>

Interface type. Valid options are public, admin and internal.

--os-profile <hmac-key>

Performance profiling HMAC key for encrypting context data

This key should be the value of one of the HMAC keys defined in the configuration files of OpenStack services to be traced.

--os-beta-command

Enable beta commands which are subject to change

--log-file <LOGFILE>

Specify a file to log output. Disabled by default.

-v, --verbose

Increase verbosity of output. Can be repeated.

-q, --quiet

Suppress output except warnings and errors

--debug

Show tracebacks on errors and set verbosity to debug

Commands

To get a list of the available commands:

openstack --help

To get a description of a specific command:

openstack help <command>

Note that the set of commands shown will vary depending on the API versions that are in effect at that time.  For example, to force the display of the Identity v3 commands:

openstack --os-identity-api-version 3 --help

complete

Print the bash completion functions for the current command set.

help

Print help for an individual command

Additional information on the OpenStackClient command structure and arguments is available in the OpenStackClient Commands wiki page.

Command Objects

The list of command objects is growing longer with the addition of OpenStack project support.  The object names may consist of multiple words to compose a unique name.  Occasionally when multiple APIs have a common name with common overlapping purposes there will be options to select which object to use, or the API resources will be merged, as in the quota object that has options referring to both Compute and Block Storage quotas.

Command Actions

The actions used by OpenStackClient are defined with specific meaning to provide a consistent behavior for each object.  Some actions have logical opposite actions, and those pairs will always match for any object that uses them.

Cloud Configuration

Working with multiple clouds can be simplified by keeping the configuration information for those clouds in a local file.  openstack supports using a clouds.yaml configuration file.

Config Files

openstack will look for a file called clouds.yaml in the following locations:

  • Current Directory
  • ~/.config/openstack
  • /etc/openstack

The first file found wins.

The keys match the openstack global options but without the --os- prefix:

clouds:
  devstack:
    auth:
      auth_url: http://192.168.122.10:35357/
      project_name: demo
      username: demo
      password: 0penstack
    region_name: RegionOne
  ds-admin:
    auth:
      auth_url: http://192.168.122.10:35357/
      project_name: admin
      username: admin
      password: 0penstack
    region_name: RegionOne
  infra:
    cloud: rackspace
    auth:
      project_id: 275610
      username: openstack
      password: xyzpdq!lazydog
    region_name: DFW,ORD,IAD

In the above example, the auth_url for the rackspace cloud is taken from clouds-public.yaml:

public-clouds:
  rackspace:
    auth:
      auth_url: 'https://identity.api.rackspacecloud.com/v2.0/'

Authentication Settings

OpenStackClient uses the Keystone authentication plugins so the required auth settings are not always known until the authentication type is selected.  openstack will attempt to detect a couple of common auth types based on the arguments passed in or found in the configuration file, but if those are incomplete it may be impossible to know which auth type is intended.  The --os-auth-type option can always be used to force a specific type.

When --os-token and --os-url are both present the token_endpoint auth type is selected automatically.  If --os-auth-url and --os-username are present password auth type is selected.

Logging Settings

openstack can record the operation history by logging settings in configuration file. Recording the user operation, it can identify the change of the resource and it becomes useful information for troubleshooting.

See ../configuration about Logging Settings for more details.

Notes

The command list displayed in help output reflects the API versions selected.  For example, to see Identity v3 commands OS_IDENTITY_API_VERSION must be set to 3.

Examples

Show the detailed information for server appweb01:

openstack \
    --os-project-name ExampleCo \
    --os-username demo --os-password secrete \
    --os-auth-url http://localhost:5000:/v2.0 \
    server show appweb01

The same command if the auth environment variables (OS_AUTH_URL, OS_PROJECT_NAME, OS_USERNAME, OS_PASSWORD) are set:

openstack server show appweb01

Create a new image:

openstack image create \
    --disk-format=qcow2 \
    --container-format=bare \
    --public \
    --copy-from http://somewhere.net/foo.img \
    foo

Files

~/.config/openstack/clouds.yaml

Configuration file used by the --os-cloud global option.

~/.config/openstack/clouds-public.yaml

Configuration file containing public cloud provider information such as authentication URLs and service definitions.  The contents of this file should be public and sharable.  clouds.yaml may contain references to clouds defined here as shortcuts.

~/.openstack

Placeholder for future local state directory.  This directory is intended to be shared among multiple OpenStack-related applications; contents are namespaced with an identifier for the app that owns it.  Shared contents (such as ~/.openstack/cache) have no prefix and the contents must be portable.

Environment Variables

The following environment variables can be set to alter the behaviour of openstack.  Most of them have corresponding command-line options that take precedence if set.

OS_CLOUD

The name of a cloud configuration in clouds.yaml.

OS_AUTH_PLUGIN

The authentication plugin to use when connecting to the Identity service, its version must match the Identity API version

OS_AUTH_URL

Authentication URL

OS_URL

Service URL (when using the service token)

OS_DOMAIN_NAME

Domain-level authorization scope (name or ID)

OS_PROJECT_NAME

Project-level authentication scope (name or ID)

OS_PROJECT_DOMAIN_NAME

Domain name or ID containing project

OS_USERNAME

Authentication username

OS_TOKEN

Authenticated or service token

OS_PASSWORD

Authentication password

OS_USER_DOMAIN_NAME

Domain name or ID containing user

OS_TRUST_ID

ID of the trust to use as a trustee user

OS_DEFAULT_DOMAIN

Default domain ID (Default: 'default')

OS_REGION_NAME

Authentication region name

OS_CACERT

CA certificate bundle file

OS_CERT

Client certificate bundle file

OS_KEY

Client certificate key file

OS_IDENTITY_API_VERSION

Identity API version (Default: 2.0)

OS_XXXX_API_VERSION

Additional API version options will be available depending on the installed API libraries.

OS_INTERFACE

Interface type. Valid options are public, admin and internal.

Bugs

Bug reports are accepted at the python-openstackclient LaunchPad project "https://bugs.launchpad.net/python-openstackclient/+bugs".

Authors

Please refer to the Authors file distributed with OpenStackClient.

License

http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0

See Also

The OpenStackClient page in the OpenStack Wiki contains further documentation.

The individual OpenStack project CLIs, the OpenStack API references.

Author

OpenStack contributors

Info

Feb 11, 2017 3.2.0 OpenStack Command Line Client