nghttpx man page

nghttpx — HTTP/2 proxy

Synopsis

nghttpx [Options]... [<PRIVATE_KEY> <CERT>]

Description

A reverse proxy for HTTP/2, HTTP/1 and SPDY.

<PRIVATE_KEY>
Set path to server's private key. Required unless "no-tls" parameter is used in --frontend option.
<CERT>
Set path to server's certificate. Required unless "no-tls" parameter is used in --frontend option. To make OCSP stapling work, this must be an absolute path.

Options

The options are categorized into several groups.

Connections

-b, --backend=(<HOST>,<PORT>|unix:<PATH>)[;[<PATTERN>[:...]][[;<PARAM>]...]
Set backend host and port. The multiple backend addresses are accepted by repeating this option. UNIX domain socket can be specified by prefixing path name with "unix:" (e.g., unix:/var/run/backend.sock).

Optionally, if <PATTERN>s are given, the backend address is only used if request matches the pattern. If --http2-proxy is used, <PATTERN>s are ignored. The pattern matching is closely designed to ServeMux in net/http package of Go programming language. <PATTERN> consists of path, host + path or just host. The path must start with "/". If it ends with "/", it matches all request path in its subtree. To deal with the request to the directory without trailing slash, the path which ends with "/" also matches the request path which only lacks trailing '/' (e.g., path "/foo/" matches request path "/foo"). If it does not end with "/", it performs exact match against the request path. If host is given, it performs exact match against the request host. If host alone is given, "/" is appended to it, so that it matches all request paths under the host (e.g., specifying "nghttp2.org" equals to "nghttp2.org/").

Patterns with host take precedence over patterns with just path. Then, longer patterns take precedence over shorter ones.

Host can include "*" in the left most position to indicate wildcard match (only suffix match is done). The "*" must match at least one character. For example, host pattern "*.nghttp2.org" matches against "www.nghttp2.org" and "git.ngttp2.org", but does not match against "nghttp2.org". The exact hosts match takes precedence over the wildcard hosts match.

If <PATTERN> is omitted or empty string, "/" is used as pattern, which matches all request paths (catch-all pattern). The catch-all backend must be given.

When doing a match, nghttpx made some normalization to pattern, request host and path. For host part, they are converted to lower case. For path part, percent-encoded unreserved characters defined in RFC 3986 are decoded, and any dot-segments (".." and ".") are resolved and removed.

For example, -b'127.0.0.1,8080;nghttp2.org/httpbin/' matches the request host "nghttp2.org" and the request path "/httpbin/get", but does not match the request host "nghttp2.org" and the request path "/index.html".

The multiple <PATTERN>s can be specified, delimiting them by ":". Specifying -b'127.0.0.1,8080;nghttp2.org:www.nghttp2.org' has the same effect to specify -b'127.0.0.1,8080;nghttp2.org' and -b'127.0.0.1,8080;www.nghttp2.org'.

The backend addresses sharing same <PATTERN> are grouped together forming load balancing group.

Several parameters <PARAM> are accepted after <PATTERN>. The parameters are delimited by ";". The available parameters are: "proto=<PROTO>", "tls", "sni=<SNI_HOST>", "fall=<N>", "rise=<N>", and "affinity=<METHOD>". The parameter consists of keyword, and optionally followed by "=" and value. For example, the parameter "proto=h2" consists of the keyword "proto" and value "h2". The parameter "tls" consists of the keyword "tls" without value. Each parameter is described as follows.

The backend application protocol can be specified using optional "proto" parameter, and in the form of "proto=<PROTO>". <PROTO> should be one of the following list without quotes: "h2", "http/1.1". The default value of <PROTO> is "http/1.1". Note that usually "h2" refers to HTTP/2 over TLS. But in this option, it may mean HTTP/2 over cleartext TCP unless "tls" keyword is used (see below).

TLS can be enabled by specifying optional "tls" parameter. TLS is not enabled by default.

With "sni=<SNI_HOST>" parameter, it can override the TLS SNI field value with given <SNI_HOST>. This will default to the backend <HOST> name

The feature to detect whether backend is online or offline can be enabled using optional "fall" and "rise" parameters. Using "fall=<N>" parameter, if nghttpx cannot connect to a this backend <N> times in a row, this backend is assumed to be offline, and it is excluded from load balancing. If <N> is 0, this backend never be excluded from load balancing whatever times nghttpx cannot connect to it, and this is the default. There is also "rise=<N>" parameter. After backend was excluded from load balancing group, nghttpx periodically attempts to make a connection to the failed backend, and if the connection is made successfully <N> times in a row, the backend is assumed to be online, and it is now eligible for load balancing target. If <N> is 0, a backend is permanently offline, once it goes in that state, and this is the default behaviour.

The session affinity is enabled using "affinity=<METHOD>" parameter. If "ip" is given in <METHOD>, client IP based session affinity is enabled. If "none" is given in <METHOD>, session affinity is disabled, and this is the default. The session affinity is enabled per <PATTERN>. If at least one backend has "affinity" parameter, and its <METHOD> is not "none", session affinity is enabled for all backend servers sharing the same <PATTERN>. It is advised to set "affinity" parameter to all backend explicitly if session affinity is desired. The session affinity may break if one of the backend gets unreachable, or backend settings are reloaded or replaced by API.

Since ";" and ":" are used as delimiter, <PATTERN> must not contain these characters. Since ";" has special meaning in shell, the option value must be quoted.

Default: 127.0.0.1,80
-f, --frontend=(<HOST>,<PORT>|unix:<PATH>)[[;<PARAM>]...]
Set frontend host and port. If <HOST> is '*', it assumes all addresses including both IPv4 and IPv6. UNIX domain socket can be specified by prefixing path name with "unix:" (e.g., unix:/var/run/nghttpx.sock). This option can be used multiple times to listen to multiple addresses.

This option can take 0 or more parameters, which are described below. Note that "api" and "healthmon" parameters are mutually exclusive.

Optionally, TLS can be disabled by specifying "no-tls" parameter. TLS is enabled by default.

To make this frontend as API endpoint, specify "api" parameter. This is disabled by default. It is important to limit the access to the API frontend. Otherwise, someone may change the backend server, and break your services, or expose confidential information to the outside the world.

To make this frontend as health monitor endpoint, specify "healthmon" parameter. This is disabled by default. Any requests which come through this address are replied with 200 HTTP status, without no body.

Default: *,3000
--backlog=<N>
Set listen backlog size.

Default: 512
--backend-address-family=(auto|IPv4|IPv6)
Specify address family of backend connections. If "auto" is given, both IPv4 and IPv6 are considered. If "IPv4" is given, only IPv4 address is considered. If "IPv6" is given, only IPv6 address is considered.

Default: auto
--backend-http-proxy-uri=<URI>
Specify proxy URI in the form http://[<USER>:<PASS>@]<PROXY>:<PORT>. If a proxy requires authentication, specify <USER> and <PASS>. Note that they must be properly percent-encoded. This proxy is used when the backend connection is HTTP/2. First, make a CONNECT request to the proxy and it connects to the backend on behalf of nghttpx. This forms tunnel. After that, nghttpx performs SSL/TLS handshake with the downstream through the tunnel. The timeouts when connecting and making CONNECT request can be specified by --backend-read-timeout and --backend-write-timeout options.
--accept-proxy-protocol
Accept PROXY protocol version 1 on frontend connection.

Performance

-n, --workers=<N>
Set the number of worker threads.

Default: 1
--read-rate=<SIZE>
Set maximum average read rate on frontend connection. Setting 0 to this option means read rate is unlimited.

Default: 0
--read-burst=<SIZE>
Set maximum read burst size on frontend connection. Setting 0 to this option means read burst size is unlimited.

Default: 0
--write-rate=<SIZE>
Set maximum average write rate on frontend connection. Setting 0 to this option means write rate is unlimited.

Default: 0
--write-burst=<SIZE>
Set maximum write burst size on frontend connection. Setting 0 to this option means write burst size is unlimited.

Default: 0
--worker-read-rate=<SIZE>
Set maximum average read rate on frontend connection per worker. Setting 0 to this option means read rate is unlimited. Not implemented yet.

Default: 0
--worker-read-burst=<SIZE>
Set maximum read burst size on frontend connection per worker. Setting 0 to this option means read burst size is unlimited. Not implemented yet.

Default: 0
--worker-write-rate=<SIZE>
Set maximum average write rate on frontend connection per worker. Setting 0 to this option means write rate is unlimited. Not implemented yet.

Default: 0
--worker-write-burst=<SIZE>
Set maximum write burst size on frontend connection per worker. Setting 0 to this option means write burst size is unlimited. Not implemented yet.

Default: 0
--worker-frontend-connections=<N>
Set maximum number of simultaneous connections frontend accepts. Setting 0 means unlimited.

Default: 0
--backend-connections-per-host=<N>
Set maximum number of backend concurrent connections (and/or streams in case of HTTP/2) per origin host. This option is meaningful when --http2-proxy option is used. The origin host is determined by authority portion of request URI (or :authority header field for HTTP/2). To limit the number of connections per frontend for default mode, use --backend-connections-per-frontend.

Default: 8
--backend-connections-per-frontend=<N>
Set maximum number of backend concurrent connections (and/or streams in case of HTTP/2) per frontend. This option is only used for default mode. 0 means unlimited. To limit the number of connections per host with --http2-proxy option, use --backend-connections-per-host.

Default: 0
--rlimit-nofile=<N>
Set maximum number of open files (RLIMIT_NOFILE) to <N>. If 0 is given, nghttpx does not set the limit.

Default: 0
--backend-request-buffer=<SIZE>
Set buffer size used to store backend request.

Default: 16K
--backend-response-buffer=<SIZE>
Set buffer size used to store backend response.

Default: 128K
--fastopen=<N>
Enables "TCP Fast Open" for the listening socket and limits the maximum length for the queue of connections that have not yet completed the three-way handshake. If value is 0 then fast open is disabled.

Default: 0
--no-kqueue
Don't use kqueue. This option is only applicable for the platforms which have kqueue. For other platforms, this option will be simply ignored.

Timeout

--frontend-http2-read-timeout=<DURATION>
Specify read timeout for HTTP/2 and SPDY frontend connection.

Default: 3m
--frontend-read-timeout=<DURATION>
Specify read timeout for HTTP/1.1 frontend connection.

Default: 1m
--frontend-write-timeout=<DURATION>
Specify write timeout for all frontend connections.

Default: 30s
--stream-read-timeout=<DURATION>
Specify read timeout for HTTP/2 and SPDY streams. 0 means no timeout.

Default: 0
--stream-write-timeout=<DURATION>
Specify write timeout for HTTP/2 and SPDY streams. 0 means no timeout.

Default: 0
--backend-read-timeout=<DURATION>
Specify read timeout for backend connection.

Default: 1m
--backend-write-timeout=<DURATION>
Specify write timeout for backend connection.

Default: 30s
--backend-connect-timeout=<DURATION>
Specify timeout before establishing TCP connection to backend.

Default: 30s
--backend-keep-alive-timeout=<DURATION>
Specify keep-alive timeout for backend connection.

Default: 2s
--listener-disable-timeout=<DURATION>
After accepting connection failed, connection listener is disabled for a given amount of time. Specifying 0 disables this feature.

Default: 30s
--frontend-http2-setting-timeout=<DURATION>
Specify timeout before SETTINGS ACK is received from client.

Default: 10s
--backend-http2-settings-timeout=<DURATION>
Specify timeout before SETTINGS ACK is received from backend server.

Default: 10s
--backend-max-backoff=<DURATION>
Specify maximum backoff interval. This is used when doing health check against offline backend (see "fail" parameter in --backend option). It is also used to limit the maximum interval to temporarily disable backend when nghttpx failed to connect to it. These intervals are calculated using exponential backoff, and consecutive failed attempts increase the interval. This option caps its maximum value.

Default: 2m

SSL/TLS

--ciphers=<SUITE>
Set allowed cipher list. The format of the string is described in OpenSSL ciphers(1).
--ecdh-curves=<LIST>
Set supported curve list for frontend connections. <LIST> is a colon separated list of curve NID or names in the preference order. The supported curves depend on the linked OpenSSL library. This function requires OpenSSL >= 1.0.2.

Default: X25519:P-256:P-384:P-521
-k, --insecure
Don't verify backend server's certificate if TLS is enabled for backend connections.
--cacert=<PATH>
Set path to trusted CA certificate file used in backend TLS connections. The file must be in PEM format. It can contain multiple certificates. If the linked OpenSSL is configured to load system wide certificates, they are loaded at startup regardless of this option.
--private-key-passwd-file=<PATH>
Path to file that contains password for the server's private key. If none is given and the private key is password protected it'll be requested interactively.
--subcert=<KEYPATH>:<CERTPATH>[[;<PARAM>]...]
Specify additional certificate and private key file. nghttpx will choose certificates based on the hostname indicated by client using TLS SNI extension. This option can be used multiple times. To make OCSP stapling work, <CERTPATH> must be absolute path.

Additional parameter can be specified in <PARAM>. The available <PARAM> is "sct-dir=<DIR>".

"sct-dir=<DIR>" specifies the path to directory which contains *.sct files for TLS signed_certificate_timestamp extension (RFC 6962). This feature requires OpenSSL >= 1.0.2. See also --tls-sct-dir option.
--dh-param-file=<PATH>
Path to file that contains DH parameters in PEM format. Without this option, DHE cipher suites are not available.
--npn-list=<LIST>
Comma delimited list of ALPN protocol identifier sorted in the order of preference. That means most desirable protocol comes first. This is used in both ALPN and NPN. The parameter must be delimited by a single comma only and any white spaces are treated as a part of protocol string.

Default: h2,h2-16,h2-14,spdy/3.1,http/1.1
--verify-client
Require and verify client certificate.
--verify-client-cacert=<PATH>
Path to file that contains CA certificates to verify client certificate. The file must be in PEM format. It can contain multiple certificates.
--client-private-key-file=<PATH>
Path to file that contains client private key used in backend client authentication.
--client-cert-file=<PATH>
Path to file that contains client certificate used in backend client authentication.
--tls-proto-list=<LIST>
Comma delimited list of SSL/TLS protocol to be enabled. The following protocols are available: TLSv1.2, TLSv1.1 and TLSv1.0. The name matching is done in case-insensitive manner. The parameter must be delimited by a single comma only and any white spaces are treated as a part of protocol string. If the protocol list advertised by client does not overlap this list, you will receive the error message "unknown protocol".

Default: TLSv1.2,TLSv1.1
--tls-ticket-key-file=<PATH>
Path to file that contains random data to construct TLS session ticket parameters. If aes-128-cbc is given in --tls-ticket-key-cipher, the file must contain exactly 48 bytes. If aes-256-cbc is given in --tls-ticket-key-cipher, the file must contain exactly 80 bytes. This options can be used repeatedly to specify multiple ticket parameters. If several files are given, only the first key is used to encrypt TLS session tickets. Other keys are accepted but server will issue new session ticket with first key. This allows session key rotation. Please note that key rotation does not occur automatically. User should rearrange files or change options values and restart nghttpx gracefully. If opening or reading given file fails, all loaded keys are discarded and it is treated as if none of this option is given. If this option is not given or an error occurred while opening or reading a file, key is generated every 1 hour internally and they are valid for 12 hours. This is recommended if ticket key sharing between nghttpx instances is not required.
--tls-ticket-key-memcached=<HOST>,<PORT>[;tls]
Specify address of memcached server to get TLS ticket keys for session resumption. This enables shared TLS ticket key between multiple nghttpx instances. nghttpx does not set TLS ticket key to memcached. The external ticket key generator is required. nghttpx just gets TLS ticket keys from memcached, and use them, possibly replacing current set of keys. It is up to extern TLS ticket key generator to rotate keys frequently. See "TLS SESSION TICKET RESUMPTION" section in manual page to know the data format in memcached entry. Optionally, memcached connection can be encrypted with TLS by specifying "tls" parameter.
--tls-ticket-key-memcached-address-family=(auto|IPv4|IPv6)
Specify address family of memcached connections to get TLS ticket keys. If "auto" is given, both IPv4 and IPv6 are considered. If "IPv4" is given, only IPv4 address is considered. If "IPv6" is given, only IPv6 address is considered.

Default: auto
--tls-ticket-key-memcached-interval=<DURATION>
Set interval to get TLS ticket keys from memcached.

Default: 10m
--tls-ticket-key-memcached-max-retry=<N>
Set maximum number of consecutive retries before abandoning TLS ticket key retrieval. If this number is reached, the attempt is considered as failure, and "failure" count is incremented by 1, which contributed to the value controlled --tls-ticket-key-memcached-max-fail option.

Default: 3
--tls-ticket-key-memcached-max-fail=<N>
Set maximum number of consecutive failure before disabling TLS ticket until next scheduled key retrieval.

Default: 2
--tls-ticket-key-cipher=<CIPHER>
Specify cipher to encrypt TLS session ticket. Specify either aes-128-cbc or aes-256-cbc. By default, aes-128-cbc is used.
--tls-ticket-key-memcached-cert-file=<PATH>
Path to client certificate for memcached connections to get TLS ticket keys.
--tls-ticket-key-memcached-private-key-file=<PATH>
Path to client private key for memcached connections to get TLS ticket keys.
--fetch-ocsp-response-file=<PATH>
Path to fetch-ocsp-response script file. It should be absolute path.

Default: /usr/local/share/nghttp2/fetch-ocsp-response
--ocsp-update-interval=<DURATION>
Set interval to update OCSP response cache.

Default: 4h
--no-ocsp
Disable OCSP stapling.
--tls-session-cache-memcached=<HOST>,<PORT>[;tls]
Specify address of memcached server to store session cache. This enables shared session cache between multiple nghttpx instances. Optionally, memcached connection can be encrypted with TLS by specifying "tls" parameter.
--tls-session-cache-memcached-address-family=(auto|IPv4|IPv6)
Specify address family of memcached connections to store session cache. If "auto" is given, both IPv4 and IPv6 are considered. If "IPv4" is given, only IPv4 address is considered. If "IPv6" is given, only IPv6 address is considered.

Default: auto
--tls-session-cache-memcached-cert-file=<PATH>
Path to client certificate for memcached connections to store session cache.
--tls-session-cache-memcached-private-key-file=<PATH>
Path to client private key for memcached connections to store session cache.
--tls-dyn-rec-warmup-threshold=<SIZE>
Specify the threshold size for TLS dynamic record size behaviour. During a TLS session, after the threshold number of bytes have been written, the TLS record size will be increased to the maximum allowed (16K). The max record size will continue to be used on the active TLS session. After --tls-dyn-rec-idle-timeout has elapsed, the record size is reduced to 1300 bytes. Specify 0 to always use the maximum record size, regardless of idle period. This behaviour applies to all TLS based frontends, and TLS HTTP/2 backends.

Default: 1M
--tls-dyn-rec-idle-timeout=<DURATION>
Specify TLS dynamic record size behaviour timeout. See --tls-dyn-rec-warmup-threshold for more information. This behaviour applies to all TLS based frontends, and TLS HTTP/2 backends.

Default: 1s
--no-http2-cipher-black-list
Allow black listed cipher suite on HTTP/2 connection. See https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc7540#app… for the complete HTTP/2 cipher suites black list.
--tls-sct-dir=<DIR>
Specifies the directory where *.sct files exist. All *.sct files in <DIR> are read, and sent as extension_data of TLS signed_certificate_timestamp (RFC 6962) to client. These *.sct files are for the certificate specified in positional command-line argument <CERT>, or certificate option in configuration file. For additional certificates, use --subcert option. This option requires OpenSSL >= 1.0.2.

HTTP/2 and SPDY

-c, --frontend-http2-max-concurrent-streams=<N>
Set the maximum number of the concurrent streams in one frontend HTTP/2 and SPDY session.

Default: `` 100``
--backend-http2-max-concurrent-streams=<N>
Set the maximum number of the concurrent streams in one backend HTTP/2 session. This sets maximum number of concurrent opened pushed streams. The maximum number of concurrent requests are set by a remote server.

Default: 100
--frontend-http2-window-size=<SIZE>
Sets the per-stream initial window size of HTTP/2 and SPDY frontend connection.

Default: 65535
--frontend-http2-connection-window-size=<SIZE>
Sets the per-connection window size of HTTP/2 and SPDY frontend connection. For SPDY connection, the value less than 64KiB is rounded up to 64KiB.

Default: 65535
--backend-http2-window-size=<SIZE>
Sets the initial window size of HTTP/2 backend connection.

Default: 65535
--backend-http2-connection-window-size=<SIZE>
Sets the per-connection window size of HTTP/2 backend connection.

Default: 2147483647
--http2-no-cookie-crumbling
Don't crumble cookie header field.
--padding=<N>
Add at most <N> bytes to a HTTP/2 frame payload as padding. Specify 0 to disable padding. This option is meant for debugging purpose and not intended to enhance protocol security.
--no-server-push
Disable HTTP/2 server push. Server push is supported by default mode and HTTP/2 frontend via Link header field. It is also supported if both frontend and backend are HTTP/2 in default mode. In this case, server push from backend session is relayed to frontend, and server push via Link header field is also supported. SPDY frontend does not support server push.
--frontend-http2-optimize-write-buffer-size
(Experimental) Enable write buffer size optimization in frontend HTTP/2 TLS connection. This optimization aims to reduce write buffer size so that it only contains bytes which can send immediately. This makes server more responsive to prioritized HTTP/2 stream because the buffering of lower priority stream is reduced. This option is only effective on recent Linux platform.
--frontend-http2-optimize-window-size
(Experimental) Automatically tune connection level window size of frontend HTTP/2 TLS connection. If this feature is enabled, connection window size starts with the default window size, 65535 bytes. nghttpx automatically adjusts connection window size based on TCP receiving window size. The maximum window size is capped by the value specified by --frontend-http2-connection-window-size. Since the stream is subject to stream level window size, it should be adjusted using --frontend-http2-window-size option as well. This option is only effective on recent Linux platform.
--frontend-http2-encoder-dynamic-table-size=<SIZE>
Specify the maximum dynamic table size of HPACK encoder in the frontend HTTP/2 connection. The decoder (client) specifies the maximum dynamic table size it accepts. Then the negotiated dynamic table size is the minimum of this option value and the value which client specified.

Default: 4K
--frontend-http2-decoder-dynamic-table-size=<SIZE>
Specify the maximum dynamic table size of HPACK decoder in the frontend HTTP/2 connection.

Default: 4K
--backend-http2-encoder-dynamic-table-size=<SIZE>
Specify the maximum dynamic table size of HPACK encoder in the backend HTTP/2 connection. The decoder (backend) specifies the maximum dynamic table size it accepts. Then the negotiated dynamic table size is the minimum of this option value and the value which backend specified.

Default: 4K
--backend-http2-decoder-dynamic-table-size=<SIZE>
Specify the maximum dynamic table size of HPACK decoder in the backend HTTP/2 connection.

Default: 4K

Mode

(default mode)
Accept HTTP/2, SPDY and HTTP/1.1 over SSL/TLS. "no-tls" parameter is used in --frontend option, accept HTTP/2 and HTTP/1.1 over cleartext TCP. The incoming HTTP/1.1 connection can be upgraded to HTTP/2 through HTTP Upgrade.
-s, --http2-proxy
Like default mode, but enable forward proxy. This is so called HTTP/2 proxy mode.

Logging

-L, --log-level=<LEVEL>
Set the severity level of log output. <LEVEL> must be one of INFO, NOTICE, WARN, ERROR and FATAL.

Default: NOTICE
--accesslog-file=<PATH>
Set path to write access log. To reopen file, send USR1 signal to nghttpx.
--accesslog-syslog
Send access log to syslog. If this option is used, --accesslog-file option is ignored.
--accesslog-format=<FORMAT>

Specify format string for access log. The default format is combined format. The following variables are available:

·
$remote_addr: client IP address.
·
$time_local: local time in Common Log format.
·
$time_iso8601: local time in ISO 8601 format.
·
$request: HTTP request line.
·
$status: HTTP response status code.
·
$body_bytes_sent: the number of bytes sent to client as response body.
·
$http_<VAR>: value of HTTP request header <VAR> where '_' in <VAR> is replaced with '-'.
·
$remote_port: client port.
·
$server_port: server port.
·
$request_time: request processing time in seconds with milliseconds resolution.
·
$pid: PID of the running process.
·
$alpn: ALPN identifier of the protocol which generates the response. For HTTP/1, ALPN is always http/1.1, regardless of minor version.
·
$ssl_cipher: cipher used for SSL/TLS connection.
·
$ssl_protocol: protocol for SSL/TLS connection.
·
$ssl_session_id: session ID for SSL/TLS connection.
·
$ssl_session_reused: "r" if SSL/TLS session was reused. Otherwise, "."
·
$backend_host: backend host used to fulfill the request. "-" if backend host is not available.
·
$backend_port: backend port used to fulfill the request. "-" if backend host is not available.

The variable can be enclosed by "{" and "}" for disambiguation (e.g., ${remote_addr}).

Default: $remote_addr - - [$time_local] "$request" $status $body_bytes_sent "$http_referer" "$http_user_agent"

--errorlog-file=<PATH>
Set path to write error log. To reopen file, send USR1 signal to nghttpx. stderr will be redirected to the error log file unless --errorlog-syslog is used.

Default: /dev/stderr
--errorlog-syslog
Send error log to syslog. If this option is used, --errorlog-file option is ignored.
--syslog-facility=<FACILITY>
Set syslog facility to <FACILITY>.

Default: daemon

HTTP

--add-x-forwarded-for
Append X-Forwarded-For header field to the downstream request.
--strip-incoming-x-forwarded-for
Strip X-Forwarded-For header field from inbound client requests.
--add-forwarded=<LIST>
Append RFC 7239 Forwarded header field with parameters specified in comma delimited list <LIST>. The supported parameters are "by", "for", "host", and "proto". By default, the value of "by" and "for" parameters are obfuscated string. See --forwarded-by and --forwarded-for options respectively. Note that nghttpx does not translate non-standard X-Forwarded-* header fields into Forwarded header field, and vice versa.
--strip-incoming-forwarded
Strip Forwarded header field from inbound client requests.
--forwarded-by=(obfuscated|ip|<VALUE>)
Specify the parameter value sent out with "by" parameter of Forwarded header field. If "obfuscated" is given, the string is randomly generated at startup. If "ip" is given, the interface address of the connection, including port number, is sent with "by" parameter. In case of UNIX domain socket, "localhost" is used instead of address and port. User can also specify the static obfuscated string. The limitation is that it must start with "_", and only consists of character set [A-Za-z0-9._-], as described in RFC 7239.

Default: obfuscated
--forwarded-for=(obfuscated|ip)
Specify the parameter value sent out with "for" parameter of Forwarded header field. If "obfuscated" is given, the string is randomly generated for each client connection. If "ip" is given, the remote client address of the connection, without port number, is sent with "for" parameter. In case of UNIX domain socket, "localhost" is used instead of address.

Default: obfuscated
--no-via
Don't append to Via header field. If Via header field is received, it is left unaltered.
--no-location-rewrite
Don't rewrite location header field in default mode. When --http2-proxy is used, location header field will not be altered regardless of this option.
--host-rewrite
Rewrite host and :authority header fields in default mode. When --http2-proxy is used, these headers will not be altered regardless of this option.
--altsvc=<PROTOID,PORT[,HOST,[ORIGIN]]>
Specify protocol ID, port, host and origin of alternative service. <HOST> and <ORIGIN> are optional. They are advertised in alt-svc header field only in HTTP/1.1 frontend. This option can be used multiple times to specify multiple alternative services. Example: --altsvc=h2,443
--add-request-header=<HEADER>
Specify additional header field to add to request header set. This option just appends header field and won't replace anything already set. This option can be used several times to specify multiple header fields. Example: --add-request-header="foo: bar"
--add-response-header=<HEADER>
Specify additional header field to add to response header set. This option just appends header field and won't replace anything already set. This option can be used several times to specify multiple header fields. Example: --add-response-header="foo: bar"
--request-header-field-buffer=<SIZE>
Set maximum buffer size for incoming HTTP request header field list. This is the sum of header name and value in bytes. If trailer fields exist, they are counted towards this number.

Default: 64K
--max-request-header-fields=<N>
Set maximum number of incoming HTTP request header fields. If trailer fields exist, they are counted towards this number.

Default: 100
--response-header-field-buffer=<SIZE>
Set maximum buffer size for incoming HTTP response header field list. This is the sum of header name and value in bytes. If trailer fields exist, they are counted towards this number.

Default: 64K
--max-response-header-fields=<N>
Set maximum number of incoming HTTP response header fields. If trailer fields exist, they are counted towards this number.

Default: 500
--error-page=(<CODE>|*)=<PATH>
Set file path to custom error page served when nghttpx originally generates HTTP error status code <CODE>. <CODE> must be greater than or equal to 400, and at most 599. If "*" is used instead of <CODE>, it matches all HTTP status code. If error status code comes from backend server, the custom error pages are not used.
--server-name=<NAME>
Change server response header field value to <NAME>.

Default: nghttpx nghttp2/1.17.0
--no-server-rewrite
Don't rewrite server header field in default mode. When --http2-proxy is used, these headers will not be altered regardless of this option.

API

--api-max-request-body=<SIZE>
Set the maximum size of request body for API request.

Default: 16K

Debug

--frontend-http2-dump-request-header=<PATH>
Dumps request headers received by HTTP/2 frontend to the file denoted in <PATH>. The output is done in HTTP/1 header field format and each header block is followed by an empty line. This option is not thread safe and MUST NOT be used with option -n<N>, where <N> >= 2.
--frontend-http2-dump-response-header=<PATH>
Dumps response headers sent from HTTP/2 frontend to the file denoted in <PATH>. The output is done in HTTP/1 header field format and each header block is followed by an empty line. This option is not thread safe and MUST NOT be used with option -n<N>, where <N> >= 2.
-o, --frontend-frame-debug
Print HTTP/2 frames in frontend to stderr. This option is not thread safe and MUST NOT be used with option -n=N, where N >= 2.

Process

-D, --daemon
Run in a background. If -D is used, the current working directory is changed to '/'.
--pid-file=<PATH>
Set path to save PID of this program.
--user=<USER>
Run this program as <USER>. This option is intended to be used to drop root privileges.

Scripting

--mruby-file=<PATH>
Set mruby script file

Misc

--conf=<PATH>
Load configuration from <PATH>.

Default: /etc/nghttpx/nghttpx.conf
--include=<PATH>
Load additional configurations from <PATH>. File <PATH> is read when configuration parser encountered this option. This option can be used multiple times, or even recursively.
-v, --version
Print version and exit.
-h, --help
Print this help and exit.

The <SIZE> argument is an integer and an optional unit (e.g., 10K is 10 * 1024). Units are K, M and G (powers of 1024).

The <DURATION> argument is an integer and an optional unit (e.g., 1s is 1 second and 500ms is 500 milliseconds). Units are h, m, s or ms (hours, minutes, seconds and milliseconds, respectively). If a unit is omitted, a second is used as unit.

Files

/etc/nghttpx/nghttpx.conf

The default configuration file path nghttpx searches at startup. The configuration file path can be changed using --conf option.

Those lines which are staring # are treated as comment.

The option name in the configuration file is the long command-line option name with leading -- stripped (e.g., frontend). Put = between option name and value. Don't put extra leading or trailing spaces.

When specifying arguments including characters which have special meaning to a shell, we usually use quotes so that shell does not interpret them. When writing this configuration file, quotes for this purpose must not be used. For example, specify additional request header field, do this:

add-request-header=foo: bar

instead of:

add-request-header="foo: bar"

The options which do not take argument in the command-line take argument in the configuration file. Specify yes as an argument (e.g., http2-proxy=yes). If other string is given, it is ignored.

To specify private key and certificate file which are given as positional arguments in command-line, use private-key-file and certificate-file.

--conf option cannot be used in the configuration file and will be ignored if specified.

Signals

SIGQUIT
Shutdown gracefully. First accept pending connections and stop accepting connection. After all connections are handled, nghttpx exits.
SIGHUP
Reload configuration file given in --conf.
SIGUSR1
Reopen log files.
SIGUSR2
Fork and execute nghttpx. It will execute the binary in the same path with same command-line arguments and environment variables. After new process comes up, sending SIGQUIT to the original process to perform hot swapping. The difference between SIGUSR2 + SIGQUIT and SIGHUP is that former is usually used to execute new binary, and the master process is newly spawned. On the other hand, the latter just reloads configuration file, and the same master process continues to exist.

NOTE:

nghttpx consists of multiple processes: one process for processing these signals, and another one for processing requests. The former spawns the latter. The former is called master process, and the latter is called worker process. If neverbleed is enabled, the worker process spawns neverbleed daemon process which does RSA key processing. The above signal must be sent to the master process. If the other processes received one of them, it is ignored. This behaviour of these processes may change in the future release. In other words, in the future release, the processes other than master process may terminate upon the reception of these signals. Therefore these signals should not be sent to the processes other than master process.

Server Push

nghttpx supports HTTP/2 server push in default mode with Link header field. nghttpx looks for Link header field (RFC 5988) in response headers from backend server and extracts URI-reference with parameter rel=preload (see preload) and pushes those URIs to the frontend client. Here is a sample Link header field to initiate server push:

Link: </fonts/font.woff>; rel=preload
Link: </css/theme.css>; rel=preload

Currently, the following restriction is applied for server push:

1.
The associated stream must have method "GET" or "POST". The associated stream's status code must be 200.

This limitation may be loosened in the future release.

nghttpx also supports server push if both frontend and backend are HTTP/2 in default mode. In this case, in addition to server push via Link header field, server push from backend is forwarded to frontend HTTP/2 session.

HTTP/2 server push will be disabled if --http2-proxy is used.

Unix Domain Socket

nghttpx supports UNIX domain socket with a filename for both frontend and backend connections.

Please note that current nghttpx implementation does not delete a socket with a filename. And on start up, if nghttpx detects that the specified socket already exists in the file system, nghttpx first deletes it. However, if SIGUSR2 is used to execute new binary and both old and new configurations use same filename, new binary does not delete the socket and continues to use it.

Ocsp Stapling

OCSP query is done using external Python script fetch-ocsp-response, which has been originally developed in Perl as part of h2o project (https://github.com/h2o/h2o), and was translated into Python.

The script file is usually installed under $(prefix)/share/nghttp2/ directory. The actual path to script can be customized using --fetch-ocsp-response-file option.

If OCSP query is failed, previous OCSP response, if any, is continued to be used.

TLS Session Resumption

nghttpx supports TLS session resumption through both session ID and session ticket.

Session Id Resumption

By default, session ID is shared by all worker threads.

If --tls-session-cache-memcached is given, nghttpx will insert serialized session data to memcached with nghttpx:tls-session-cache: + lowercased hex string of session ID as a memcached entry key, with expiry time 12 hours. Session timeout is set to 12 hours.

By default, connections to memcached server are not encrypted. To enable encryption, use tls keyword in --tls-session-cache-memcached option.

TLS Session Ticket Resumption

By default, session ticket is shared by all worker threads. The automatic key rotation is also enabled by default. Every an hour, new encryption key is generated, and previous encryption key becomes decryption only key. We set session timeout to 12 hours, and thus we keep at most 12 keys.

If --tls-ticket-key-memcached is given, encryption keys are retrieved from memcached. nghttpx just reads keys from memcached; one has to deploy key generator program to update keys frequently (e.g., every 1 hour). The example key generator tlsticketupdate.go is available under contrib directory in nghttp2 archive. The memcached entry key is nghttpx:tls-ticket-key. The data format stored in memcached is the binary format described below:

+--------------+-------+----------------+
| VERSION (4)  |LEN (2)|KEY(48 or 80) ...
+--------------+-------+----------------+
               ^                        |
               |                        |
               +------------------------+
               (LEN, KEY) pair can be repeated

All numbers in the above figure is bytes. All integer fields are network byte order.

First 4 bytes integer VERSION field, which must be 1. The 2 bytes integer LEN field gives the length of following KEY field, which contains key. If --tls-ticket-key-cipher=aes-128-cbc is used, LEN must be 48. If --tls-ticket-key-cipher=aes-256-cbc is used, LEN must be 80. LEN and KEY pair can be repeated multiple times to store multiple keys. The key appeared first is used as encryption key. All the remaining keys are used as decryption only.

By default, connections to memcached server are not encrypted. To enable encryption, use tls keyword in --tls-ticket-key-memcached option.

If --tls-ticket-key-file is given, encryption key is read from the given file. In this case, nghttpx does not rotate key automatically. To rotate key, one has to restart nghttpx (see Signals).

Certificate Transparency

nghttpx supports TLS signed_certificate_timestamp extension (RFC 6962). The relevant options are --tls-sct-dir and sct-dir parameter in --subcert. They takes a directory, and nghttpx reads all files whose extension is .sct under the directory. The *.sct files are encoded as SignedCertificateTimestamp struct described in section 3.2 of RFC 69662. This format is the same one used by nginx-ct and mod_ssl_ct. ct-submit can be used to submit certificates to log servers, and obtain the SignedCertificateTimestamp struct which can be used with nghttpx.

Mruby Scripting

WARNING:

The current mruby extension API is experimental and not frozen. The API is subject to change in the future release.

nghttpx allows users to extend its capability using mruby scripts. nghttpx has 2 hook points to execute mruby script: request phase and response phase. The request phase hook is invoked after all request header fields are received from client. The response phase hook is invoked after all response header fields are received from backend server. These hooks allows users to modify header fields, or common HTTP variables, like authority or request path, and even return custom response without forwarding request to backend servers.

To specify mruby script file, use --mruby-file option. The script will be evaluated once per thread on startup, and it must instantiate object and evaluate it as the return value (e.g., App.new). This object is called app object. If app object defines on_req method, it is called with Nghttpx::Env object on request hook. Similarly, if app object defines on_resp method, it is called with Nghttpx::Env object on response hook. For each method invocation, user can can access Nghttpx::Request and Nghttpx::Response objects via Nghttpx::Env#req and Nghttpx::Env#resp respectively.

Nghttpx::REQUEST_PHASE
Constant to represent request phase.
Nghttpx::RESPONSE_PHASE
Constant to represent response phase.
class Nghttpx::Env

Object to represent current request specific context.

attribute [R] req
Return Request object.
attribute [R] resp
Return Response object.
attribute [R] ctx
Return Ruby hash object. It persists until request finishes. So values set in request phase hoo can be retrieved in response phase hook.
attribute [R] phase
Return the current phase.
attribute [R] remote_addr
Return IP address of a remote client. If connection is made via UNIX domain socket, this returns the string "localhost".
attribute [R] server_addr
Return address of server that accepted the connection. This is a string which specified in --frontend option, excluding port number, and not a resolved IP address. For UNIX domain socket, this is a path to UNIX domain socket.
attribute [R] server_port
Return port number of the server frontend which accepted the connection from client.
attribute [R] tls_used
Return true if TLS is used on the connection.
attribute [R] tls_sni
Return the TLS SNI value which client sent in this connection.
class Nghttpx::Request

Object to represent request from client. The modification to Request object is allowed only in request phase hook.

attribute [R] http_version_major
Return HTTP major version.
attribute [R] http_version_minor
Return HTTP minor version.
attribute [R/W] method
HTTP method. On assignment, copy of given value is assigned. We don't accept arbitrary method name. We will document them later, but well known methods, like GET, PUT and POST, are all supported.
attribute [R/W] authority
Authority (i.e., example.org), including optional port component . On assignment, copy of given value is assigned.
attribute [R/W] scheme
Scheme (i.e., http, https). On assignment, copy of given value is assigned.
attribute [R/W] path
Request path, including query component (i.e., /index.html). On assignment, copy of given value is assigned. The path does not include authority component of URI. This may include query component. nghttpx makes certain normalization for path. It decodes percent-encoding for unreserved characters (see https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc3986#sec…), and resolves ".." and ".". But it may leave characters which should be percent-encoded as is. So be careful when comparing path against desired string.
attribute [R] headers
Return Ruby hash containing copy of request header fields. Changing values in returned hash does not change request header fields actually used in request processing. Use Nghttpx::Request#add_header or Nghttpx::Request#set_header to change request header fields.
add_header(key, value)
Add header entry associated with key. The value can be single string or array of string. It does not replace any existing values associated with key.
set_header(key, value)
Set header entry associated with key. The value can be single string or array of string. It replaces any existing values associated with key.
clear_headers()
Clear all existing request header fields.
push(uri)
Initiate to push resource identified by uri. Only HTTP/2 protocol supports this feature. For the other protocols, this method is noop. uri can be absolute URI, absolute path or relative path to the current request. For absolute or relative path, scheme and authority are inherited from the current request. Currently, method is always GET. nghttpx will issue request to backend servers to fulfill this request. The request and response phase hooks will be called for pushed resource as well.
class Nghttpx::Response

Object to represent response from backend server.

attribute [R] http_version_major
Return HTTP major version.
attribute [R] http_version_minor
Return HTTP minor version.
attribute [R/W] status
HTTP status code. It must be in the range [200, 999], inclusive. The non-final status code is not supported in mruby scripting at the moment.
attribute [R] headers
Return Ruby hash containing copy of response header fields. Changing values in returned hash does not change response header fields actually used in response processing. Use Nghttpx::Response#add_header or Nghttpx::Response#set_header to change response header fields.
add_header(key, value)
Add header entry associated with key. The value can be single string or array of string. It does not replace any existing values associated with key.
set_header(key, value)
Set header entry associated with key. The value can be single string or array of string. It replaces any existing values associated with key.
clear_headers()
Clear all existing response header fields.
return(body)
Return custom response body to a client. When this method is called in request phase hook, the request is not forwarded to the backend, and response phase hook for this request will not be invoked. When this method is called in response phase hook, response from backend server is canceled and discarded. The status code and response header fields should be set before using this method. To set status code, use :rb:meth To set response header fields, use Nghttpx::Response#status. If status code is not set, 200 is used. Nghttpx::Response#add_header and Nghttpx::Response#set_header. When this method is invoked in response phase hook, the response headers are filled with the ones received from backend server. To send completely custom header fields, first call Nghttpx::Response#clear_headers to erase all existing header fields, and then add required header fields. It is an error to call this method twice for a given request.

Mruby Examples

Modify request path:

class App
  def on_req(env)
    env.req.path = "/apps#{env.req.path}"
  end
end

App.new

Don't forget to instantiate and evaluate object at the last line.

Restrict permission of viewing a content to a specific client addresses:

class App
  def on_req(env)
    allowed_clients = ["127.0.0.1", "::1"]

    if env.req.path.start_with?("/log/") &&
       !allowed_clients.include?(env.remote_addr) then
      env.resp.status = 404
      env.resp.return "permission denied"
    end
  end
end

App.new

API Endpoints

nghttpx exposes API endpoints to manipulate it via HTTP based API. By default, API endpoint is disabled. To enable it, add a dedicated frontend for API using --frontend option with "api" parameter. All requests which come from this frontend address, will be treated as API request.

The response is normally JSON dictionary, and at least includes the following keys:

status

The status of the request processing. The following values are defined:

Success
The request was successful.
Failure
The request was failed. No change has been made.
code
HTTP status code

We wrote "normally", since nghttpx may return ordinal HTML response in some cases where the error has occurred before reaching API endpoint (e.g., header field is too large).

The following section describes available API endpoints.

PUT /api/v1beta1/backendconfig

This API replaces the current backend server settings with the requested ones. The request method should be PUT, but POST is also acceptable. The request body must be nghttpx configuration file format. For configuration file format, see Files section. The line separator inside the request body must be single LF (0x0A). Currently, only backend option is parsed, the others are simply ignored. The semantics of this API is replace the current backend with the backend options in request body. Describe the desired set of backend severs, and nghttpx makes it happen. If there is no backend option is found in request body, the current set of backend is replaced with the backend option's default value, which is 127.0.0.1,80.

The replacement is done instantly without breaking existing connections or requests. It also avoids any process creation as is the case with hot swapping with signals.

The one limitation is that only numeric IP address is allowd in backend in request body while non numeric hostname is allowed in command-line or configuration file is read using --conf.

See Also

nghttp(1), nghttpd(1), h2load(1)

Author

Tatsuhiro Tsujikawa

Referenced By

h2load(1), nghttp(1), nghttpd(1).

Nov 27, 2016 1.17.0 nghttp2