mysqlbinlog man page

mysqlbinlog — utility for processing binary log files

Synopsis

mysqlbinlog [options] log_file ...

Description

The server´s binary log consists of files containing “events” that describe modifications to database contents. The server writes these files in binary format. To display their contents in text format, use the mysqlbinlog utility. You can also use mysqlbinlog to display the contents of relay log files written by a slave server in a replication setup because relay logs have the same format as binary logs.

Invoke mysqlbinlog like this:

shell> mysqlbinlog [options] log_file ...

For example, to display the contents of the binary log file named binlog.000003, use this command:

shell> mysqlbinlog binlog.0000003

The output includes events contained in binlog.000003. For statement-based logging, event information includes the SQL statement, the ID of the server on which it was executed, the timestamp when the statement was executed, how much time it took, and so forth. For row-based logging, the event indicates a row change rather than an SQL statement.

Events are preceded by header comments that provide additional information. For example:

# at 141
#100309  9:28:36 server id 123  end_log_pos 245
  Query thread_id=3350  exec_time=11  error_code=0

In the first line, the number following at indicates the starting position of the event in the binary log file.

The second line starts with a date and time indicating when the statement started on the server where the event originated. For replication, this timestamp is propagated to slave servers. server id is the server_id value of the server where the event originated. end_log_pos indicates where the next event starts (that is, it is the end position of the current event + 1). thread_id indicates which thread executed the event. exec_time is the time spent executing the event, on a master server. On a slave, it is the difference of the end execution time on the slave minus the beginning execution time on the master. The difference serves as an indicator of how much replication lags behind the master. error_code indicates the result from executing the event. Zero means that no error occurred.

The output from mysqlbinlog can be re-executed (for example, by using it as input to mysql) to redo the statements in the log. This is useful for recovery operations after a server crash. For other usage examples, see the discussion later in this section.

Normally, you use mysqlbinlog to read binary log files directly and apply them to the local MariaDB server. It is also possible to read binary logs from a remote server by using the --read-from-remote-server option. To read remote binary logs, the connection parameter options can be given to indicate how to connect to the server. These options are --host, --password, --port, --protocol, --socket, and --user; they are ignored except when you also use the --read-from-remote-server option.

mysqlbinlog supports the following options, which can be specified on the command line or in the [mysqlbinlog] and [client] option file groups.

You can also set the following variable by using --var_name=value syntax:

· open_files_limit

Specify the number of open file descriptors to reserve.

You can pipe the output of mysqlbinlog into the mysql client to execute the events contained in the binary log. This technique is used to recover from a crash when you have an old  backup. For example:

shell> mysqlbinlog binlog.000001 | mysql -u root -p

Or:

shell> mysqlbinlog binlog.[0-9]* | mysql -u root -p

You can also redirect the output of mysqlbinlog to a text file instead, if you need to modify the statement log first (for example, to remove statements that you do not want to execute for some reason). After editing the file, execute the statements that it contains by using it as input to the mysql program:

shell> mysqlbinlog binlog.000001 > tmpfile
shell> ... edit tmpfile ...
shell> mysql -u root -p < tmpfile

When mysqlbinlog is invoked with the --start-position option, it displays only those events with an offset in the binary log greater than or equal to a given position (the given position must match the start of one event). It also has options to stop and start when it sees an event with a given date and time. This enables you to perform point-in-time recovery using the --stop-datetime option (to be able to say, for example, “roll forward my databases to how they were today at 10:30 a.m.”).

If you have more than one binary log to execute on the MariaDB server, the safe method is to process them all using a single connection to the server. Here is an example that demonstrates what may be unsafe:

shell> mysqlbinlog binlog.000001 | mysql -u root -p # DANGER!!
shell> mysqlbinlog binlog.000002 | mysql -u root -p # DANGER!!

Processing binary logs this way using different connections to the server causes problems if the first log file contains a CREATE TEMPORARY TABLE statement and the second log contains a statement that uses the temporary table. When the first mysql process terminates, the server drops the temporary table. When the second mysql process attempts to use the table, the server reports “unknown table.”

To avoid problems like this, use a single mysql process to execute the contents of all binary logs that you want to process. Here is one way to do so:

shell> mysqlbinlog binlog.000001 binlog.000002 | mysql -u root -p

Another approach is to write all the logs to a single file and then process the file:

shell> mysqlbinlog binlog.000001 >  /tmp/statements.sql
shell> mysqlbinlog binlog.000002 >> /tmp/statements.sql
shell> mysql -u root -p -e "source /tmp/statements.sql"

mysqlbinlog can produce output that reproduces a LOAD DATA INFILE operation without the original data file. mysqlbinlog copies the data to a temporary file and writes a LOAD DATA LOCAL INFILE statement that refers to the file. The default location of the directory where these files are written is system-specific. To specify a directory explicitly, use the --local-load option.

Because mysqlbinlog converts LOAD DATA INFILE statements to LOAD DATA LOCAL INFILE statements (that is, it adds LOCAL), both the client and the server that you use to process the statements must be configured with the LOCAL capability enabled.

Warning

The temporary files created for LOAD DATA LOCAL statements are not automatically deleted because they are needed until you actually execute those statements. You should delete the temporary files yourself after you no longer need the statement log. The files can be found in the temporary file directory and have names like original_file_name-#-#.

Mysqlbinlog Hex Dump Format

The --hexdump option causes mysqlbinlog to produce a hex dump of the binary log contents:

shell> mysqlbinlog --hexdump master-bin.000001

The hex output consists of comment lines beginning with #, so the output might look like this for the preceding command:

/*!40019 SET @@session.max_insert_delayed_threads=0*/;
/*!50003 SET @OLD_COMPLETION_TYPE=@@COMPLETION_TYPE,COMPLETION_TYPE=0*/;
# at 4
#051024 17:24:13 server id 1  end_log_pos 98
# Position  Timestamp   Type   Master ID        Size      Master Pos    Flags
# 00000004 9d fc 5c 43   0f   01 00 00 00   5e 00 00 00   62 00 00 00   00 00
# 00000017 04 00 35 2e 30 2e 31 35  2d 64 65 62 75 67 2d 6c |..5.0.15.debug.l|
# 00000027 6f 67 00 00 00 00 00 00  00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 |og..............|
# 00000037 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00  00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 |................|
# 00000047 00 00 00 00 9d fc 5c 43  13 38 0d 00 08 00 12 00 |.......C.8......|
# 00000057 04 04 04 04 12 00 00 4b  00 04 1a                |.......K...|
#       Start: binlog v 4, server v 5.0.15-debug-log created 051024 17:24:13
#       at startup
ROLLBACK;

Hex dump output currently contains the elements in the following list. This format is subject to change. (For more information about binary log format, see http://forge.mysql.com/wiki/MySQL_Internals_Binary_Log.)

Mysqlbinlog Row Event Display

The following examples illustrate how mysqlbinlog displays row events that specify data modifications. These correspond to events with the WRITE_ROWS_EVENT, UPDATE_ROWS_EVENT, and DELETE_ROWS_EVENT type codes. The --base64-output=DECODE-ROWS and --verbose options may be used to affect row event output.

Suppose that the server is using row-based binary logging and that you execute the following sequence of statements:

CREATE TABLE t
(
  id   INT NOT NULL,
  name VARCHAR(20) NOT NULL,
  date DATE NULL
) ENGINE = InnoDB;
START TRANSACTION;
INSERT INTO t VALUES(1, ´apple´, NULL);
UPDATE t SET name = ´pear´, date = ´2009-01-01´ WHERE id = 1;
DELETE FROM t WHERE id = 1;
COMMIT;

By default, mysqlbinlog displays row events encoded as base-64 strings using BINLOG statements. Omitting extraneous lines, the output for the row events produced by the preceding statement sequence looks like this:

shell> mysqlbinlog log_file
...
# at 218
#080828 15:03:08 server id 1  end_log_pos 258 	Write_rows: table id 17 flags: STMT_END_F
BINLOG ´
fAS3SBMBAAAALAAAANoAAAAAABEAAAAAAAAABHRlc3QAAXQAAwMPCgIUAAQ=
fAS3SBcBAAAAKAAAAAIBAAAQABEAAAAAAAEAA//8AQAAAAVhcHBsZQ==
´/*!*/;
...
# at 302
#080828 15:03:08 server id 1  end_log_pos 356 	Update_rows: table id 17 flags: STMT_END_F
BINLOG ´
fAS3SBMBAAAALAAAAC4BAAAAABEAAAAAAAAABHRlc3QAAXQAAwMPCgIUAAQ=
fAS3SBgBAAAANgAAAGQBAAAQABEAAAAAAAEAA////AEAAAAFYXBwbGX4AQAAAARwZWFyIbIP
´/*!*/;
...
# at 400
#080828 15:03:08 server id 1  end_log_pos 442 	Delete_rows: table id 17 flags: STMT_END_F
BINLOG ´
fAS3SBMBAAAALAAAAJABAAAAABEAAAAAAAAABHRlc3QAAXQAAwMPCgIUAAQ=
fAS3SBkBAAAAKgAAALoBAAAQABEAAAAAAAEAA//4AQAAAARwZWFyIbIP
´/*!*/;

To see the row events as comments in the form of “pseudo-SQL” statements, run mysqlbinlog with the --verbose or -v option. The output will contain lines beginning with ###:

shell> mysqlbinlog -v log_file
...
# at 218
#080828 15:03:08 server id 1  end_log_pos 258 	Write_rows: table id 17 flags: STMT_END_F
BINLOG ´
fAS3SBMBAAAALAAAANoAAAAAABEAAAAAAAAABHRlc3QAAXQAAwMPCgIUAAQ=
fAS3SBcBAAAAKAAAAAIBAAAQABEAAAAAAAEAA//8AQAAAAVhcHBsZQ==
´/*!*/;
### INSERT INTO test.t
### SET
###   @1=1
###   @2=´apple´
###   @3=NULL
...
# at 302
#080828 15:03:08 server id 1  end_log_pos 356 	Update_rows: table id 17 flags: STMT_END_F
BINLOG ´
fAS3SBMBAAAALAAAAC4BAAAAABEAAAAAAAAABHRlc3QAAXQAAwMPCgIUAAQ=
fAS3SBgBAAAANgAAAGQBAAAQABEAAAAAAAEAA////AEAAAAFYXBwbGX4AQAAAARwZWFyIbIP
´/*!*/;
### UPDATE test.t
### WHERE
###   @1=1
###   @2=´apple´
###   @3=NULL
### SET
###   @1=1
###   @2=´pear´
###   @3=´2009:01:01´
...
# at 400
#080828 15:03:08 server id 1  end_log_pos 442 	Delete_rows: table id 17 flags: STMT_END_F
BINLOG ´
fAS3SBMBAAAALAAAAJABAAAAABEAAAAAAAAABHRlc3QAAXQAAwMPCgIUAAQ=
fAS3SBkBAAAAKgAAALoBAAAQABEAAAAAAAEAA//4AQAAAARwZWFyIbIP
´/*!*/;
### DELETE FROM test.t
### WHERE
###   @1=1
###   @2=´pear´
###   @3=´2009:01:01´

Specify --verbose or -v twice to also display data types and some metadata for each column. The output will contain an additional comment following each column change:

shell> mysqlbinlog -vv log_file
...
# at 218
#080828 15:03:08 server id 1  end_log_pos 258 	Write_rows: table id 17 flags: STMT_END_F
BINLOG ´
fAS3SBMBAAAALAAAANoAAAAAABEAAAAAAAAABHRlc3QAAXQAAwMPCgIUAAQ=
fAS3SBcBAAAAKAAAAAIBAAAQABEAAAAAAAEAA//8AQAAAAVhcHBsZQ==
´/*!*/;
### INSERT INTO test.t
### SET
###   @1=1 /* INT meta=0 nullable=0 is_null=0 */
###   @2=´apple´ /* VARSTRING(20) meta=20 nullable=0 is_null=0 */
###   @3=NULL /* VARSTRING(20) meta=0 nullable=1 is_null=1 */
...
# at 302
#080828 15:03:08 server id 1  end_log_pos 356 	Update_rows: table id 17 flags: STMT_END_F
BINLOG ´
fAS3SBMBAAAALAAAAC4BAAAAABEAAAAAAAAABHRlc3QAAXQAAwMPCgIUAAQ=
fAS3SBgBAAAANgAAAGQBAAAQABEAAAAAAAEAA////AEAAAAFYXBwbGX4AQAAAARwZWFyIbIP
´/*!*/;
### UPDATE test.t
### WHERE
###   @1=1 /* INT meta=0 nullable=0 is_null=0 */
###   @2=´apple´ /* VARSTRING(20) meta=20 nullable=0 is_null=0 */
###   @3=NULL /* VARSTRING(20) meta=0 nullable=1 is_null=1 */
### SET
###   @1=1 /* INT meta=0 nullable=0 is_null=0 */
###   @2=´pear´ /* VARSTRING(20) meta=20 nullable=0 is_null=0 */
###   @3=´2009:01:01´ /* DATE meta=0 nullable=1 is_null=0 */
...
# at 400
#080828 15:03:08 server id 1  end_log_pos 442 	Delete_rows: table id 17 flags: STMT_END_F
BINLOG ´
fAS3SBMBAAAALAAAAJABAAAAABEAAAAAAAAABHRlc3QAAXQAAwMPCgIUAAQ=
fAS3SBkBAAAAKgAAALoBAAAQABEAAAAAAAEAA//4AQAAAARwZWFyIbIP
´/*!*/;
### DELETE FROM test.t
### WHERE
###   @1=1 /* INT meta=0 nullable=0 is_null=0 */
###   @2=´pear´ /* VARSTRING(20) meta=20 nullable=0 is_null=0 */
###   @3=´2009:01:01´ /* DATE meta=0 nullable=1 is_null=0 */

You can tell mysqlbinlog to suppress the BINLOG statements for row events by using the --base64-output=DECODE-ROWS option. This is similar to --base64-output=NEVER but does not exit with an error if a row event is found. The combination of --base64-output=DECODE-ROWS and --verbose provides a convenient way to see row events only as SQL statements:

shell> mysqlbinlog -v --base64-output=DECODE-ROWS log_file
...
# at 218
#080828 15:03:08 server id 1  end_log_pos 258 	Write_rows: table id 17 flags: STMT_END_F
### INSERT INTO test.t
### SET
###   @1=1
###   @2=´apple´
###   @3=NULL
...
# at 302
#080828 15:03:08 server id 1  end_log_pos 356 	Update_rows: table id 17 flags: STMT_END_F
### UPDATE test.t
### WHERE
###   @1=1
###   @2=´apple´
###   @3=NULL
### SET
###   @1=1
###   @2=´pear´
###   @3=´2009:01:01´
...
# at 400
#080828 15:03:08 server id 1  end_log_pos 442 	Delete_rows: table id 17 flags: STMT_END_F
### DELETE FROM test.t
### WHERE
###   @1=1
###   @2=´pear´
###   @3=´2009:01:01´

Note

You should not suppress BINLOG statements if you intend to re-execute mysqlbinlog output.

The SQL statements produced by --verbose for row events are much more readable than the corresponding BINLOG statements. However, they do not correspond exactly to the original SQL statements that generated the events. The following limitations apply:

Proper interpretation of row events requires the information from the format description event at the beginning of the binary log. Because mysqlbinlog does not know in advance whether the rest of the log contains row events, by default it displays the format description event using a BINLOG statement in the initial part of the output.

If the binary log is known not to contain any events requiring a BINLOG statement (that is, no row events), the --base64-output=NEVER option can be used to prevent this header from being written.

Notes

1.

Bug#42941
http://bugs.mysql.com/bug.php?id=42941

See Also

For more information, please refer to the MariaDB Knowledge Base, available online at https://mariadb.com/kb/

Author

MariaDB Foundation (http://www.mariadb.org/).

Referenced By

mysql-zrm(1), mysql-zrm-abort-backup(1), mysql-zrm-backup(1), mysql-zrm-check(1), mysql-zrm-extract-backup(1), mysql-zrm-list(1), mysql-zrm-parse-binlogs(1), mysql-zrm-purge(1), mysql-zrm-restore(1), mysql-zrm-verify-backup(1).

3 April 2017 MariaDB 10.2 MariaDB Database System