mysql_upgrade man page
mysql_upgrade — check and upgrade MySQL tables
mysql_upgrade examines all tables in all databases for incompatibilities with the current version of MySQL Server. mysql_upgrade also upgrades the system tables so that you can take advantage of new privileges or capabilities that might have been added.
If mysql_upgrade finds that a table has a possible incompatibility, it performs a table check and, if problems are found, attempts a table repair. If the table cannot be repaired, see Section 2.11.3, “Rebuilding or Repairing Tables or Indexes” for manual table repair strategies.
You should execute mysql_upgrade each time you upgrade MySQL.
As of MySQL 5.7.5, mysql_upgrade communicates directly with the MySQL server, sending it the SQL statements required to perform an upgrade. Before 5.7.5, mysql_upgrade invokes the mysql and mysqlcheck client programs to perform the required operations. For the older implementation, if you install MySQL from RPM packages on Linux, you must install the server and client RPMs. mysql_upgrade is included in the server RPM but requires the client RPM because the latter includes mysqlcheck. (See Section 2.5.5, “Installing MySQL on Linux Using RPM Packages from Oracle”.)
As of MySQL 5.7.12, the default --early-plugin-load value is empty. To load the keyring_file plugin, you must use an explicit --early-plugin-load option with a nonempty value.
In MySQL 5.7.11, the default --early-plugin-load value was the name of the keyring_file plugin library file, so that plugin was loaded by default. InnoDB tablespace encryption requires the keyring_file plugin to be loaded prior to InnoDB initialization, so this change of default value introduces an incompatibility for upgrades from 5.7.11 to 5.7.12 or higher. Administrators who have encrypted InnoDB tablespaces must take explicit action to ensure continued loading of the keyring_file plugin: Start the server with an --early-plugin-load option that names the plugin library file. For additional information, see Section 6.5.4, “The MySQL Keyring”.
If you upgrade to MySQL 5.7.2 or later from a version older than 5.7.2, a change to the mysql.user table requires a special sequence of steps to perform an upgrade using mysql_upgrade. For details, see Section 126.96.36.199, “Changes Affecting Upgrades to MySQL 5.7”.
On Windows Server 2008, Vista, and newer, you must run mysql_upgrade with administrator privileges. You can do this by running a Command Prompt as Administrator and running the command. Failure to do so may result in the upgrade failing to execute correctly.
You should always back up your current MySQL installation before performing an upgrade. See Section 7.2, “Database Backup Methods”.
Some upgrade incompatibilities may require special handling before you upgrade your MySQL installation and run mysql_upgrade. See Section 2.11.1, “Upgrading MySQL”, for instructions on determining whether any such incompatibilities apply to your installation and how to handle them.
To use mysql_upgrade, make sure that the server is running. Then invoke it like this to check and repair tables and to upgrade the system tables:
shell> mysql_upgrade [options]
After running mysql_upgrade, stop the server and restart it so that any changes made to the system tables take effect.
If you have multiple MySQL server instances running, invoke mysql_upgrade with connection parameters appropriate for connecting to the desired server. For example, with servers running on the local host on parts 3306 through 3308, upgrade each of them by connecting to the appropriate port:
shell> mysql_upgrade --protocol=tcp -P 3306 [other_options] shell> mysql_upgrade --protocol=tcp -P 3307 [other_options] shell> mysql_upgrade --protocol=tcp -P 3308 [other_options]
For local host connections on Unix, the --protocol=tcp option forces a connection using TCP/IP rather than the Unix socket file.
mysql_upgrade processes all tables in all databases, which might take a long time to complete. Each table is locked and therefore unavailable to other sessions while it is being processed. Check and repair operations can be time-consuming, particularly for large tables.
For details about what table-checking operations entail, see the description of the FOR UPGRADE option of the CHECK TABLE statement (see Section 188.8.131.52, “CHECK TABLE Syntax”).
All checked and repaired tables are marked with the current MySQL version number. This ensures that next time you run mysql_upgrade with the same version of the server, it can tell whether there is any need to check or repair the table again.
mysql_upgrade also saves the MySQL version number in a file named mysql_upgrade_info in the data directory. This is used to quickly check whether all tables have been checked for this release so that table-checking can be skipped. To ignore this file and perform the check regardless, use the --force option.
As of MySQL 5.7.2, mysql_upgrade checks user table rows and, for any row with an empty plugin column, sets that column to 'mysql_native_password' or 'mysql_old_password' depending on the hash format of the Password column value. As of MySQL 5.7.5, support for pre-4.1 password hashing and mysql_old_password is removed, so mysql_upgrade sets empty plugin values to 'mysql_native_password' if the credentials use a hash format compatible with that plugin. Rows with a pre-4.1 password hash must be upgraded manually. For account upgrade instructions, see Section 184.108.40.206, “Migrating Away from Pre-4.1 Password Hashing and the mysql_old_password Plugin”.
mysql_upgrade does not upgrade the contents of the help tables. For upgrade instructions, see Section 5.1.10, “Server-Side Help”.
As of MySQL 5.7.7, unless invoked with the --skip-sys-schema option, mysql_upgrade installs the sys schema if it is not installed, and upgrades it to the current version otherwise. mysql_upgrade returns an error if a sys schema exists but has no version view, on the assumption that its absence indicates a user-created schema:
Error occurred: A sys schema exists with no sys.version view. If you have a user created sys schema, this must be renamed for the upgrade to succeed.
To upgrade in this case, remove or rename the existing sys schema first.
In MySQL 5.7.9 and later, mysql_upgrade checks for partitioned InnoDB tables that were created using the generic partitioning handler and attempts to upgrade them to InnoDB native partitioning (used in MySQL 5.7.6 and later). (Bug #76734, Bug #20727344) Also beginning with MySQL 5.7.9, you can upgrade such tables individually in the mysql client using the ALTER TABLE ... UPGRADE PARTITIONING SQL statement.
By default, mysql_upgrade runs as the MySQL root user. If the root password is expired when you run mysql_upgrade, you will see a message that your password is expired and that mysql_upgrade failed as a result. To correct this, reset the root password to unexpire it and run mysql_upgrade again. First, connect to the server as root:
shell> mysql -u root -p Enter password: **** <- enter root password here
Reset the password using the appropriate SQL statement. As of MySQL 5.7.6, use ALTER USER:
mysql> ALTER USER USER() IDENTIFIED BY 'root-password';
Before 5.7.6, use SET PASSWORD:
mysql> SET PASSWORD = PASSWORD('root-password');
Then exit mysql and run mysql_upgrade again:
shell> mysql_upgrade [options]
mysql_upgrade supports the following options, which can be specified on the command line or in the [mysql_upgrade] and [client] groups of an option file. For information about option files used by MySQL programs, see Section 4.2.6, “Using Option Files”.
Display a short help message and exit.
The path to the MySQL installation directory. This option was removed in MySQL 5.7.2.
On a computer having multiple network interfaces, use this option to select which interface to use for connecting to the MySQL server. This option was added in MySQL 5.7.5.
The directory where character sets are installed. See Section 10.5, “Character Set Configuration”.
- --compress, -C
Compress all information sent between the client and the server if both support compression. The -C form of this option was added in MySQL 5.7.5.
The path to the data directory. This option was removed in MySQL 5.7.2.
- --debug[=debug_options], -# [debug_options]
Write a debugging log. A typical debug_options string is d:t:o,file_name. The default is d:t:O,/tmp/mysql_upgrade.trace.
Print some debugging information when the program exits.
- --debug-info, -T
Print debugging information and memory and CPU usage statistics when the program exits.
A hint about the client-side authentication plugin to use. See Section 6.3.8, “Pluggable Authentication”.
Use charset_name as the default character set. See Section 10.5, “Character Set Configuration”.
Read this option file after the global option file but (on Unix) before the user option file. If the file does not exist or is otherwise inaccessible, an error occurs. file_name is interpreted relative to the current directory if given as a relative path name rather than a full path name.
Use only the given option file. If the file does not exist or is otherwise inaccessible, an error occurs. file_name is interpreted relative to the current directory if given as a relative path name rather than a full path name.
Read not only the usual option groups, but also groups with the usual names and a suffix of str. For example, mysql_upgrade normally reads the [client] and [mysql_upgrade] groups. If the --defaults-group-suffix=_other option is given, mysql_upgrade also reads the [client_other] and [mysql_upgrade_other] groups.
Ignore the mysql_upgrade_info file and force execution even if mysql_upgrade has already been executed for the current version of MySQL.
- --host=host_name, -h host_name
Connect to the MySQL server on the given host.
Read options from the named login path in the .mylogin.cnf login path file. A “login path” is an option group containing options that specify which MySQL server to connect to and which account to authenticate as. To create or modify a login path file, use the mysql_config_editor utility. See mysql_config_editor(1).
The maximum size of the buffer for client/server communication. The default value is 24MB. The minimum and maximum values are 4KB and 2GB. This option was added in MySQL 5.7.5.
The initial size of the buffer for client/server communication. The default value is 1MB - 1KB. The minimum and maximum values are 4KB and 16MB. This option was added in MySQL 5.7.5.
Do not read any option files. If program startup fails due to reading unknown options from an option file, --no-defaults can be used to prevent them from being read.
The exception is that the .mylogin.cnf file, if it exists, is read in all cases. This permits passwords to be specified in a safer way than on the command line even when --no-defaults is used. (.mylogin.cnf is created by the mysql_config_editor utility. See mysql_config_editor(1).)
- --password[=password], -p[password]
The password to use when connecting to the server. If you use the short option form (-p), you cannot have a space between the option and the password. If you omit the password value following the --password or -p option on the command line, mysql_upgrade prompts for one.
Specifying a password on the command line should be considered insecure. See Section 220.127.116.11, “End-User Guidelines for Password Security”. You can use an option file to avoid giving the password on the command line.
- --pipe, -W
On Windows, connect to the server using a named pipe. This option applies only if the server supports named-pipe connections.
The directory in which to look for plugins. Specify this option if the --default-auth option is used to specify an authentication plugin but mysql_upgrade does not find it. See Section 6.3.8, “Pluggable Authentication”.
- --port=port_num, -P port_num
The TCP/IP port number to use for the connection.
Print the program name and all options that it gets from option files.
The connection protocol to use for connecting to the server. It is useful when the other connection parameters normally would cause a protocol to be used other than the one you want. For details on the permissible values, see Section 4.2.2, “Connecting to the MySQL Server”.
On Windows, the shared-memory name to use, for connections made using shared memory to a local server. The default value is MYSQL. The shared-memory name is case sensitive.
The server must be started with the --shared-memory option to enable shared-memory connections.
As of MySQL 5.7.7, mysql_upgrade installs the sys schema if it is not installed, and upgrades it to the current version otherwise. The --skip-sys-schema option suppresses this behavior. This option was added in MySQL 5.7.7.
- --socket=path, -S path
For connections to localhost, the Unix socket file to use, or, on Windows, the name of the named pipe to use.
Options that begin with --ssl specify whether to connect to the server using SSL and indicate where to find SSL keys and certificates. See Section 6.4.5, “Command Options for Secure Connections”.
The protocols permitted by the client for encrypted connections. The value is a comma-separated list containing one or more protocol names. The protocols that can be named for this option depend on the SSL library used to compile MySQL. For details, see Section 6.4.3, “Secure Connection Protocols and Ciphers”.
This option was added in MySQL 5.7.10.
- --tmpdir=dir_name, -t dir_name
The path name of the directory to use for creating temporary files. This option was removed in MySQL 5.7.5 due to a reimplementation that no longer uses temporary files.
- --upgrade-system-tables, -s
Upgrade only the system tables, do not upgrade data.
- --user=user_name, -u user_name
The MySQL user name to use when connecting to the server. The default user name is root.
Verbose mode. Print more information about what the program does.
- --version-check, -k
Check the version of the server to which mysql_upgrade is connecting to verify that it is the same as the version for which mysql_upgrade was built. If not, mysql_upgrade exits. This option is enabled by default; to disable the check, use --skip-version-check. This option was added in MySQL 5.7.2.
By default, binary logging by mysql_upgrade is disabled. Invoke the program with --write-binlog if you want its actions to be written to the binary log.
this option is not recommended on MySQL Servers running with --gtid-mode=ON because mysql_upgrade can make changes to system tables that use the MyISAM storage engine, which is non-transactional.
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