mined man page

MinEd — powerful text editor with extensive Unicode and CJK support

Syntax

mined  [ -/+options ] [ +line ] [ +/search ] [ files ... ]

xmined ...
umined ...

wined ...

minmacs ...
mstar ...
mpico ...

→New→ Note: Mined suppresses backup file names from the command line  file list if they appear after their base version name  as generated by command line auto-completion, in order to prevent  their accidental editing; thus after file name "x" the following  would be excluded from the file list (where N is a number): "x~", "x;N", "x.~N~",  so that, e.g., mined x* edits x and x1 but not x~.

Description

(Note: if there is no dotted line below, use 8 bit terminal environment  for proper display of manual page.)
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Mined is a text editor with

Security and safety features

  • →New→ Transparent editing of encrypted files,  using filters configurable by file type
  • Systematic text and file handling safety, avoiding loss of data
  • Backup features, supporting simple or versioned backup
  • Hard link preservation
  • Optional password hiding

Interactive features

  • Intuitive user interface
  • Logical and consistent concept of navigating and editing text  (without ancient line-end handling limitations or insert/append confusion)
  • Supports various control styles:

    • Editing with command control, function key control, or menu control
    • Navigation by cursor keys, control keys, mouse or scrollbar
  • Concise and comprehensive menus (driven by keyboard or mouse)
  • HOP key paradigm doubles the number of navigation functions  that can be most easily reached and remembered by  intuitively amplifying or expanding the associated function
  • Interactive file chooser and interactive file switcher
  • Proper handling of window size changes in any state of interaction

Versatile character encoding support

  • Extensive Unicode support, including double-width and combining characters, script highlighting,  various methods of character input support  (mapped keyboard input methods, mnemonic and numeric input), supporting CJK, Vietnamese, Hebrew, Arabic, and other scripts
  • Character information from recent Unicode version
  • Extensive accented character input support, including  multiple accent prefix keys
  • Support for Greek (monotonic and polytonic)
  • Support for Cyrillic accented characters
  • Support of bidirectional terminals
  • Support of Arabic ligature joining on all terminals
  • East Asian character set support: handling of major CJK encodings  (including GB18030 and JIS encodings with combining characters)
  • Support for a large number of 8 bit encodings  (with combining characters for Vietnamese, Thai, Arabic, Hebrew)
  • Support of CJK input methods by enhanced keyboard  mapping including multiple choice mappings (handled by a pick list menu); characters in the pick list being sorted by relevance of Unicode ranges
  • Han character information with description and pronunciation
  • Auto-detection of text character encoding, edits files with  mixed character encoding sections (e.g. mailboxes), transparent handling and auto-detection of UTF-16 encoded files
  • Auto-detection of UTF-8 / CJK / 8 bit terminal mode and detailed features (like different Unicode width and combining data versions)
  • Comprehensive and flexible (though standard-conformant) set of  mechanisms to specify both text and terminal encodings  with useful precedences
  • Flexible combination of any text encoding with any terminal encoding
  • Encoding support tested with: xterm, mlterm, rxvt,  cxterm, kterm, hanterm,  KDE konsole, gnome-terminal, Linux console,  cygwin console, mintty, PuTTY

Text editing features

  • Text layout features:

    • Paragraph wrapping, also justifying item lists
    • Auto-indentation and Undent function (smart Backspace)
    • Smart quotes (with quotation marks style selection  and auto-detection) and smart dashes
    • →New→ Advanced list support (bullet and numbered lists)
  • Search and replacement patterns can have multiple lines
  • Cross-session paste buffer (copy/paste between multiple  - even subsequent or remote - invocations of mined)
  • Optional Unicode paste buffer mode with implicit conversion
  • Marker stack for quick return to previous text positions
  • Multiple paste buffers (emacs-style)
  • Optional rectangular copy/paste area
  • Interactive selection highlighting (with mouse or keyboard selection),  standard dual-mode Del key behaviour
  • Program editing features, HTML support and syntax highlighting,  identifier and function definition search, also across files;  structure input support
  • Visible indications of special text contents  (TAB characters, different line-end types, character  codes that cannot be displayed in the current mode)
  • Full binary transparent editing with visible indications  (illegal UTF-8 or CJK, mixed line end types, NUL characters, ...)
  • Print function that works in all text encodings
  • Optional emacs command mode

Small-footprint operation, portability and interworking

  • Plain text mode (terminal) operation
  • Optimized use of terminal features for a wide range of terminals, including large terminal support (2015x2015) of recent xterm and mintty
  • Instant start-up
  • Runs on many platforms (including legacy systems): Linux, Android, Raspberry Pi, Unix (SunOS, BSD, Mac OS X, QNX, GNU Hurd, HP-UX, IBM AIX, Irix, SCO UnixWare, Ultrix, Tru64), DOS (djgpp), Windows (cygwin, Interix, MSYS),  OpenVMS, Haiku

This manual contains the main topics

  • Command line options
  • Editing text with mined, an overview

    • Keypad layout
    • The HOP function
    • Mouse control and Menus
    • Paste buffers
    • Visual selection and Keypad modes
    • Rectangular copy/paste
    • Text position marker stack
    • Paragraph justification
    • Auto indentation and Structure input support
    • List support (bullet and numbered lists)
    • Search and replace multiple lines
  • Overview: input support features
  • Handling files with mined

    • Tags file support
    • →New→  Encrypted files
    • Data safety and security,  →New→  Backup and recovery files and File locking
    • Line end modes and binary-transparent editing
    • File info: Memory of file position and editing style parameters
    • →New→  File chooser and File switcher
    • Version control integration
    • Printing
  • Working with mined

    • Quick Options (Mode indication) flags
    • Structured editing support
    • Password hiding
    • Visible indication of line contents

    Language support

  • Character handling support

    • Combining characters
    • Character information display
    • Character conversion features
    • Smart quotes
  • Character input support

    • Accented and mnemonic input support
    • Combining character input
    • Special character input shortcuts
    • Character input mnemonics
    • Keyboard Mapping and Input Methods
  • Character encoding support

    • Auto-detected character encodings
    • CJK and mapped 8 bit encoding support
    • Combining characters
  • Unicode support

    • Character input support
    • Encoding conversion support
    • Bidirectional terminal support
    • Joining characters
  • CJK support

    • CJK input method support
    • Han character information display
  • Terminal encoding support Mined Command reference (command and key function assignments)

    • Generic command modifiers (esp. HOP key)
    • Cursor and screen motion
    • Entering text

      • Input support commands
    • Modifying text
    • Text block and buffer operations
    • Search
    • File operations
    • Menu
    • Miscellaneous
    • MSDOS keyboard functions
    • Emacs mode
    • Windows keyboard mode
    • WordStar mode
  • Configuration of user preferences
  • Environment interworking and configuration hints

    • Mined runtime support library
    • PC versions
    • Vms version
    • Android version
    • Terminal environment

      • Locale configuration
      • PC terminals
      • Terminal setup and configuration
      • Terminal interworking problems
    • Keyboard Mapping / Input Method preselection
    • Smart Quotes style configuration
    • Han info configuration
    • Common paste buffer configuration
    • Keypad configuration
    • Printing configuration
    • Mined configuration
  • Environment variables
  • Author and Acknowledgements

Interactive help is available with F1.

Command line options

Mined can be invoked

Examples

mined x

edits the file x

mined x y z

edits files x, y, and z

cmd | mined

edits the output of program cmd;  a file name for saving can be given later

mined x > y

takes the contents of file x and edits it  for writing into y

mined | mail nn

edits a text to be mailed

cmd1 | mined | cmd2

modifies text within a pipe between  program cmd1 (output)  and cmd2 (as input)

minmacs ...

runs mined in emacs-compatible command mode (like mined -e)

mstar ...

runs mined in WordStar-compatible command mode (like mined -W)

mpico ...

runs mined in pico-compatible command mode (alpha)

xmined ...

starts a new terminal window (xterm or rxvt, depending on  current TERM variable setting) and invokes mined in it

umined ...

starts a new terminal window in UTF-8 mode (xterm or rxvt,  depending on font availability and usage capabilities)  and invokes mined in it

wined ...

(in cygwin) starts mined in a window (using the mintty  terminal, applying Windows look-and-feel)

wined.bat ...

(in Windows) starts mined in a window, using Windows  keyboard emulation mode

Startup options

+number

Mined positions to the given line number.

+/expr

Mined initially searches for the given search expression. →New→  The search can be repeated with F9.

-v

Mined starts in view only mode. The text cannot be modified.

--

Restricted mode (tool mode): no other files can be edited  or otherwise affected. (Also triggered if programm name starts with "r", e.g. rmined).

++

End of options; subsequent file name can start with  "-" or "+".

+@

Apply extended grooming to file info file; drop entries  for files that are not accessible. See File info: Memory of file position and editing style parameters for details.

File handling

+x

Make new files executable (Unix). When cloning a file (with Save As or a similar feature),  or if permissions are restricted by the environment  (umask setting in Unix), executable permission is set  only where also read permission is set.

+bX

Select backup mode, where X is one of:

  • -: no backup files
  • s: simple backup files (F~)
  • e: emacs style numbered backup files (F.~N~)
  • v: Vms style numbered backup files (F;N)
  • n: numbered backup files (whichever style occurs)
  • a: automatic backup files (whichever style occurs)

See Backup files for details.

+zX

Preselect file chooser sort options, where X is one of:

  • x: sort by file name extensions
  • d: list directories first

Line end handling (transparent and transforming)

-r

Convert MSDOS line ends (CR LF) to Unix line ends (LF) (stripping CR at line ends). Can be combined with -R or +R. Also sets line end type for new files to LF for the djgpp  version (which defaults to CR LF).

+r

Convert Unix line ends (LF) to MSDOS line ends (CR LF) (adding CR at line ends). Can be combined with -R or +R. Also sets line end type for new files to CR LF.

-R

Convert Mac line ends (CR) to Unix line ends (LF). Can be combined with -r or +r.

+R

Recognise Mac line ends (CR) and indicate them on display; nothing is transformed with this option. Can be combined with -r or +r.

+u-u

Interpret Unicode line separator and paragraph separator  as normal characters, not line ends (handling them as  line ends was previously enabled with  -uu and is now on by default).

Character set and character handling

-u (character set)

Interprets edited text as UTF-8,  disables UTF and CJK auto detection.
Synonym of -EU.

-l (character set)

Interprets edited text as Latin-1,  disables UTF and CJK auto detection.
Synonym of -EL.

+u-u (character handling)

Interpret text as UTF-8, but interpret Unicode line  separator and paragraph separator as normal  characters, not line ends.

-c (character handling)

Selects separated display mode for combined characters  (separating base character and combining characters). This mode can also be toggled from the Options menu or  by clicking on the Combining flag (next to the  character encoding flag) in the flags area.

-b (character handling)

Toggle "poor man's bidi" mode:  input support for right-to-left scripts, based on  Unicode script ranges. (Enabled by default unless the terminal is detected to  be in bidi mode; so e.g. in mlterm, poor man's bidi  is disabled by default.)

-EX (character set)

Where X is one of B/G/C/J/S/K/H: Selects one of the  supported CJK character encodings for text interpretation  and disables auto-detection of CJK encodings. For details, see CJK encoding support. For more details on supported encodings, see the  Character encoding flags listing  in the Quick Options (Mode indication) flags section.

-EX (character set)

Where X is one of U/L or another 1-letter character  encoding tag: Selects Unicode/UTF-8, Latin-1, or one  of the other supported character encodings for  text interpretation. For details on supported encodings, see the  Quick Options (Mode indication) flags listing.

-E=charmap (character set)

Where charmap is a character encoding name (as  reported by the locale charmap command): Selects the respective character encoding for  text interpretation. For details on locale-related character encoding configuration,  see Locale configuration.

-E.suffix (character set)

Where suffix is a character encoding suffix ("codeset")  as used in locale names: Selects the respective character encoding for  text interpretation. For details on locale-related character encoding configuration,  see Locale configuration.

-E:flag (character set)

Where flag is a 2-letter indication used by mined to  indicate the respective text encoding in the Encoding flag: Selects the respective character encoding for  text interpretation. For details on supported encodings and their flags,  see the Quick Options (Mode indication) flags listing.

-Eu (buffer encoding)

Enables Unicode buffer mode which always maintains the  Copy/Paste buffer in Unicode, thus facilitating conversion  between different encodings being edited. For details, see  Unicode Copy/Paste buffer conversion.

-E? (character set)

Determine the encoding(s) of the text file(s) given  as parameters by auto-detection, print out the  information and quit.

-E or -E-

→New→  Disable text encoding auto-detection and derive it  from the locale environment.

-KX (input method handling)

Configure the Space key to perform a certain function  in keyboard mapping selection menus  ("CJK input method pick lists"), where X is one of:
'n' to navigate to the next choice (like cursor-right),
'r' to navigate to the next row (like cursor-down),
's' to select the current choice (like Enter).

-K=im-im (input method selection)

Select input method and/or standby input method (for  quick switching with Alt-k). The syntax is the same as for the optional environment  variable MINEDKEYMAP (see below).

Terminal mode

-U (terminal mode)

Toggles UTF-8 screen handling assumption, i.e. selects  UTF-8 screen handling unless UTF-8 keyboard input is  already selected (by another -U  option or environment setting). In the latter case, -U  deselects UTF-8 terminal operation. This option should normally not be used as the mode should  be configured in the environment (see  Locale configuration).

+U (terminal mode)

Selects UTF-8 screen handling. Note that none of the options -U  or +U needs to be used if  the environment is correctly configured to indicate  UTF-8 as it should (see  Unicode handling / Terminal environment).
Also, mined performs auto-detection of UTF-8 terminal  encoding and UTF-8 terminal features (different width  data versions, handling of double-width, combining and  joining characters), so even if the environment is  not correctly configured, mined should work without  this explicit terminal mode parameter.

+UU (terminal mode)

Selects bidirectional terminal support.  This mode implies UTF-8 and also assumes that Arabic  ligature joining (of LAM/ALEF combinations) is  applied; it will be handled by mined accordingly.

+UU-U (terminal mode)

Selects bidirectional terminal support  without Arabic ligature joining (like mintty).

-cc (terminal mode)

Assumes that the terminal does not support combining characters. By default - unless otherwise detected - mined assumes  that combining characters work on UTF-8 terminals and  do not work in CJK terminals.

+c (terminal mode)

Assumes that the terminal supports combining characters. This is enabled by default for UTF-8 terminals, and  disabled by default for CJK terminals, unless otherwise  detected.

+EX (terminal mode)

Where X is one of B/G/C/J/X/S/x/K/H: Assumes a CJK encoded  terminal in one of the supported CJK character encodings. For details, see CJK encoding support.

+EX (terminal mode)

Where X is one of g/c/j: Assumes a CJK encoded terminal  in one of the CJK character encodings like G/C/J and  also assumes that the terminal cannot display GB18030  4-byte encodings, CNS 4-byte encodings, EUC-JP 3-byte  encodings, respectively.

+EX (terminal mode)

Where X is one of U/L or another 1-letter character  encoding tag: Assumes a Unicode/UTF-8 or Latin-1  encoded terminal, respectively, or an 8-bit terminal  running one of the other supported character encodings. For details on supported encodings, see the  Quick Options (Mode indication) flags listing. For details on terminal encoding support, see  Terminal encoding support.

+E=charmap (terminal mode)

Where charmap is a character encoding name (as  reported by the locale charmap command): Assumes the terminal to have the respective encoding. For details on locale-related character encoding configuration,  see Locale configuration.

+E.suffix (terminal mode)

Where suffix is a character encoding suffix ("codeset")  as used in locale names: Assumes the terminal to have the respective encoding. For details on locale-related character encoding configuration,  see Locale configuration.

+E:flag (terminal mode)

Where flag is a 2-letter indication used by mined to  indicate the respective encoding as text encoding in  the Encoding flag: Assumes the terminal to have the respective encoding. For details on supported encodings and their flags,  see the Quick Options (Mode indication) flags listing.

+E? (terminal mode)

Determine the terminal encoding and further terminal  encoding features and properties by auto-detection,  print out the information and quit.

-C (character set and terminal mode)

(Deprecated.) Turns a subsequent -E option  (with a single-letter CJK tag) effectively into a  combined -E and  +E option. So mined assumes the given CJK encoding for both  terminal encoding (unless overridden by UTF-8 terminal  auto-detection) and text encoding. Can be used for quick indication of CJK terminals  (e.g. cxterm, kterm, hanterm) if locale environment  is not properly set.

+C (terminal mode)

Displays unknown characters on CJK terminal: Assumes a CJK encoded terminal (e.g. cxterm, kterm, hanterm;  more specific encoding specification is advisable), and  characters encoded in a CJK encoding format are  displayed transparently even if they do not map to a  valid Unicode character.

+CC (terminal mode)

Displays invalid characters on CJK terminal: Implies +C, but even  character codes that do not match the encoding scheme  (e.g. wrt. to specified byte ranges) are written  transparently to the terminal.

+CCC (terminal mode)

Displays extended characters on CJK terminal: Implies +CC and overrides  auto-detection of the terminal capability to display  CJK 3-byte / 4-byte codes which would by default  suppress their display if the terminal does not support them.

+D (keyboard assignment)

Setup xterm (by sending dynamic configuration codes) to  apply two useful keyboard handling modes: Del key on small keypad sends DEL character rather  than an escape sequence and can thus be distinguished  from the Del key on the big (numeric) keypad. Prepend ESC to character if pressed with the Alt or Meta  key in order to enable Alt-commands (e.g. Alt-f to  open the file menu, Alt-Shift-H to enter HTML markers etc). (Unfortunately this cannot be done by default as it cannot  be undone because the previous state cannot be detected.) (This xterm setting should rather be configured permanently  as suggested in the sample file Xdefaults.mined  in the Mined runtime support library.)

+#

→New→  Assume dark terminal background and adjust some colours  accordingly.

-nc

Suppress usage of terminal colour attributes.

Information display

+H

→New→  Enable syntax highlighting for HTML/XML and server scripting.

-H

Disable HTML/XML syntax highlighting.

+?c

Enable character code information display on status line.

+?X

Enable character code information display (implies +?c)  with additional information, where X is one of:

  • s: Unicode script
  • n: Unicode character name
  • →New→  q: Unicode named sequence
  • d: Unicode character decomposition
  • m: mined input mnemonics available for this character

Note: setting any of these options may disable some others  as not all combinations are considered useful.

+?h

Enable full Han character information display as a popup. In addition to the character description, a set of  pronunciations can be selected with the variable MINEDHANINFO.

+?x

Enable compact Han character information on status line. In addition to the character description, a set of  pronunciations can be selected with the variable MINEDHANINFO.

+?f

Enable file and position information display on status line  (enabled by default). Note that when editing a file that does not fit  completely in memory (e.g. large file on old system),  this option may cause considerable swapping. In that  case, disable the feature with -?f.

-?X

Deselect the respective +? option.

Editing behaviour

-q

→New→  Derive quotation marks style from locale information  (environment variables LANGUAGE, TEXTLANG, LC_ALL, LC_CTYPE, LANG). See Smart quotes for details. Note: if either LANGUAGE or TEXTLANG is used,  -q is assumed implicitly.

-q=locale

→New→  Derive quotation marks style from given locale. (-q:locale works too.)

+q or +q=locale

→New→  Like -q but exchange primary and secondary style.

-q:style

→New→  Set given quotation marks style if available for any language, e.g. -q:"«»". (-q=style works too.)

-w

Recognise fewer places as word boundaries for word skip  and delete commands.

-a

Append mode: Append to text buffer or external file for  copy/delete commands instead of replacing it.

+j

Set justification level 1 (or increment level  previously set by environment variable to 1 or 2): Level 1 initially enables automatic word wrap at line  end when typing over right margin. Can be changed by clicking on the j/J flag.

+jj

Set justification level 2: Level 2 initially enables automatic word wrap at line  end when typing within paragraph; buggy. Can be changed by clicking on the j/J flag.

-j

Set justification level 1 or 2 (other than previously  set). Can be changed by clicking on the j/J flag.

-T

When moving vertically over a Tab character, stay  left of the Tab column range (on the Tab character). The default depends on the previous position. Also, stay left on a wide character when moving  vertically over it.

+T

When moving vertically over a Tab character, stay right of  the Tab column range (behind the Tab character). The default depends on the previous position.

-V

Place cursor before pasted region after paste commands. (If this option is enabled already, -V acts like -VV.)

-VV

Like -V, and disable emacs-style paste buffer  functions for "delete word" and "delete to end of  line" commands (^T, ^K).

+V

Place cursor behind pasted region after paste commands. (If this option is enabled already, +V acts like +VV.)

+VV

Like +V, and enable emacs-style paste buffer functions  for "delete word" and "delete to end of line" commands  (^T, ^K).

+[

Initially enable rectangular paste buffer mode. See Rectangular copy/paste.

-[

Initially disable rectangular paste buffer mode.

+V:X or -V:X

→New→  Enable/disable visual selection behaviour, where X is one of

  • k: keep selection when searching
  • c: automatically copy after mouse selection

Keyboard function mode selection

+eX

Select emulation mode, especially control key function  mapping, where X is one of

  • e: emacs mode
  • s: WordStar mode
  • w: Windows keyboard mode
  • W: Windows behaviour (keyboard mode, CRLF for new files, cmd.exe with ESC !)
  • p: pico mode
  • m: mined default
-e

Select emacs mode. This assigns  functions to control keys, M-X commands (ESC commands,  using the "meta" key as emacs calls the Alt prefix)  and C-X commands as defined by the emacs editor. Also  the emacs paste buffer ring and cut/paste behaviour is  enabled.

-W

Select WordStar mode. This  configures WordStar command key layout and enables  many functions of the ^K, ^O, and ^Q menus.

-kX

Select keypad modes, where X is one of

  • m: mined keypad mode.
  • s or S: Shift-select mode: Shifted keypad keys (cursor keys, PgUp/PgDn/Home/End) start or extend text selection (with visual  highlighting) and visual selection behaviour is  slightly adapted to common usage; in addition,  Shift-HOP is mapped to the Copy function. Unshifted keypad keys retain their default mined functions.
  • w: Windows keypad mode; implies -kS  (also implied by +ew):
  • c: Home and End keys of small ("editing") keypad invoke  Mark/Copy to paste buffer (overriding selected mode for them)
  • C: Home and End keys of big ("numeric") keypad invoke  Mark/Copy to paste buffer (overriding selected mode for them)
+t

(Deprecated.) Windows keypad mode, like -kw.

+tt

(Deprecated.) Shift-select mode, like -kS.

-k (as single-letter option)

Switch the Home and End key functions of the two  keypads (small keypad, numeric keypad), i.e. exchange  the two keypads with respect to these keys. This assigns the more usual functions "goto line  beginning", "goto line end" to the Home and End keys  of the right keypad. The (assumedly more useful) mined default is to assign  the frequently used paste buffer functions (mark,  copy) to these keys.
In turn, the assigned functions of the Home and End keys  of the small keypad ("editing keypad") are exchanged to  provide the other function than on the right keypad,  respectively - provided the terminal and its configuration  support this distinction.
Also Alt-Home/End are assigned the respective other  functions on each keypad so the most useful keypad  functions should always be quite easily available.
Regardless of this switching, mined tries to map  fixed functions to modified Home and End keys: Ctrl-Home/End for line begin/end movement (both keypads),  Shift-Home/End for the paste buffer copy functions  (small keypad) - provided the terminal, its mode and  configuration support distinction of modified keypad keys.
See also the section on Keypad layout  for a motivating overview of the mined keypad  assignment features and options.
About terminal support and configuration, see  Keypad configuration for further hints.

+k

Enforce usage of terminal "keypad mode" which switches  the numeric keypad to send "application keypad" escape  sequences. This is normally not needed. On certain  terminals, mined will automatically use this mode (e.g.  Linux console), and in terminal emulators it is usually  not needed unless you are running a misconfigured  X windows system in which case you can enable  distinguished keypad functions by using the NumLock  function of the keyboard and switching on this option.

+Bp

→New→  Backspace should apply "plain backspacing" rather than  "smart backspacing", i.e. no auto-undent and only delete  one combining character of a combined character; without this option, use Control-Backspace for the "plain" function; with this option, use Shift-Control-Backspace for the "smart" function.

-B

(Deprecated.) Enforce the Del control character to delete left,  Backspace to move left. Should normally not be used, see  "Automatic backspace mode adaptation" below.

Appearance

-QX

Select menu border style, where X is one of

  • s: simple border,
  • r: rounded corners,
  • f: fat border,
  • d: double border,
  • a: ASCII border (can be combined with another option -Qs or -Qr),
  • v: VT100 alternate character set graphics border,
  • @: block border (deprecated),
  • 1: (or another digit) add a margin between menu  borders and contents (can be combined with any  other -Q option),
  • B: →New→  full menu background
  • b: →New→  transparent menu background
  • p: →New→  plain menu borders (no lines)
  • P: →New→  very plain: no menu borders
  • Q: stylish selection bar for navigating menu items, see image (can be combined with another option  -Qs or  -Qr or  -Qf or  -Qd).
  • q: disable stylish selection bar

Mined sets an appropriate default based on its  assumptions of the terminal capabilities.

-O

Disable script colour highlighting (for Greek, Cyrillic...).

+O

Enable script colour highlighting (for Greek, Cyrillic...). (Disabled by default in dark terminals.)

-f

Restrict usage of graphic characters: use cell-grained  scrollbar, simple menu borders, no fancy menu bar for  highlighting the selected menu item.

-ff

Further restrict usage of graphic characters:  no Unicode box drawing graphic characters for menu borders.

-fff

Further restrict usage of graphic characters:  no graphic characters (including VT100 graphics)  for menu borders.

-F

Assume a screen font with limited coverage of special  symbols and restrict usage of special marker  characters for display of line indications. (This is  needed e.g. for KDE konsole or for xterm using  TrueType fonts.)
Interpretation of the MINEDUTF* environment variables is suppressed.

-FF

Assume a screen font with even more limited coverage  of special symbols and restrict usage of special characters  for indication of selected menu items. Also, trigger substitution display of a number of special  characters in text (like in non-Unicode terminals).

+F

Revert the effect of one -F  option (e.g. preconfigured in the environment variable  MINEDOPT) or a corresponding assumption of mined about  the specific terminal which would limit font usage.

+FF

Fully enable usage of characters for special indications.

Further mode selection, interface and display behaviour

-N

Set Tab size to either value of 8, 4,  →New→ 2. The effective Tab size can be changed while editing  with the ESC T command or from the Options menu.

-+N

Set Tab spacing expansion mode to either size or 8, 4,  →New→ 2. In this mode, a TAB input character will be expanded  to an appropriate number of spaces. To enter a real Tab character, type Ctrl-V Tab (^V^I). The effective Tab size can be changed while editing  with the ESC T command or from the Options menu. Tab expansion mode can be changed while editing  with the HOP ESC T command or from the Options menu.

-P

Hide passwords; enables hidden display of one word  behind the string "assword" in a line (to accommodate  for "password" or "Password"): hidden characters are  indicated by reverse "*" characters. By default, this mode is activated when editing a file  whose name starts with ".".

+P

Unhide passwords; always display them.

+ZZ

Virtual bold stropping: displays keywords of Algol-like  programming languages in bold while transparently  editing them in all-capital letters ("upper stropping"),  which is started with entering only one capital letter. Implicitly enabled on file name suffix .a68 (disable with -ZZ).

+Z_

Underline strop style: use underlined instead of bold for stropping. To activate virtual underline stropping, use both options: +ZZZ_.

-LN

(N is a number) Define mouse wheel movement to scroll  by N lines (default 3). Ctrl-mouse-wheel always scrolls by 1 line. Shift-mouse-wheel scrolls by 1 page. Mouse-wheel on the scrollbar scrolls by half a page.

+M:

→New→  Enable file tabs header display (above menu line which  is also enabled).

-M:

→New→  Disable file tabs header display.

-M

Suppress display of menu header line (including flags). Pull-down and pop-up menus can still be opened with  keyboard commands. Mouse control remains enabled.

-MM

Suppress display of menu header line (including flags)  and disable quick menu (right-click on text). Pull-down and pop-up menus can still be opened with  keyboard commands, the quick menu can still be opened with  Alt-space or ESC space.

-MM+M

Disable quick menu but leave menu header and flags line enabled.

+*

Enable enhanced mouse control: Menu items can be navigated with the mouse without  button pressed. Enabled by default for mintty, xterm, gnome-terminal, cygwin console.

-*

Disable enhanced mouse control (if enabled by default  or by previous option), otherwise disable mouse support  altogether.

-**

Disable mouse support altogether.

-oN

Select scrollbar display mode. N=0 disables the scrollbar (may speed up editing on  slow remote lines), N=1 enables cell-grained  scrollbar display, N=2 (default) enables finer-grained  scrollbar display on a UTF-8 terminal.

-oo

Selects old (until 2000.14) left/right click behaviour on scrollbar.

-o

Disables the scrollbar.

+o

Enables the scrollbar.

-p

Enables distinguished display of line ends and  paragraph ends with different symbols.

-X

Disables display of the filename in the window title bar.

-s

Stay with cursor in top line after page down  or bottom line after page up instead of center line.

-S

Use scrolling for page up/down.

-dN

Apply delay between lines of page output to achieve  visually effective display build-up which may help to quickly  focus on the new cursor position (the screen output is  displayed starting from the cursor position, proceeding  to the screen edges).
If N lies between '0' and '9', the respective number of  milliseconds is applied between display of two lines. If N='0', still an output flush is performed. If N='-', no delay at all is applied though still the order  of display output is from cursor position to edges.
Default: '-'; configuration is currently disabled  in the Unix version as 'usleep' doesn't seem to be very  portable.

+p

Enables support for proportional display fonts.  This does not really work, however, with e.g. xterm or  SunOS shelltool as they do not reliably position characters  after using control sequences.

All options are also looked for in the environment variable  MINEDOPT (or MINED for compatibility).
On the command line, options containing wildcard characters ("?", "*")  may need to be quoted (if matching files starting with "-" or "+" exist).

Editing text with mined

Mined is always in insert mode. Commands are single control  characters, double key commands starting with ESCAPE, and a  collection of function keys (for various types of keyboards and  terminals). As a specialty, note the prefixing 'HOP KEY' which  amplifies or expands the effect of certain commands "just as  you would expect"; this provides for more command flexibility  without having to remember too many keys. It is described in a  separate section below.

Keypad layout

Control key layout for basic movement functions is topographic  on the left-hand side of the keyboard (an idea originating  from early editors, when keyboards didn't have cursor keypads). (Although using a cursor block is more comfortable, a simple  set of control key assignments is useful as a fallback on  terminals or remote connections with reduced functionality.)

The right-hand cursor block of typical keyboards is assigned  the most important movement and paste buffer functions.

Keypad assignment features:
  • Mined optimizes keypad usage for most frequently used functions,  especially paste buffer functions in addition to  navigation functions, by making them easily accessible on  the keypad.

    • For this purpose, mined distinguished between  Home/End keys on the numeric keypad and on the small  keypad (whenever possible with the terminal) in order  to avoid the waste of resources by the usually redundant  mapping of these two keypad blocks.
    • Note: this means that on the big ("numeric") keypad  the mined keypad function assignment for Home/End deviates  from their more usual meanings. This is deliberately designed to enhance support of  quick copy/paste with these easily reachable keys,  while line movement can also easily be achieved with  HOP cursor-left or HOP cursor-right, respectively.
      This keypad function assignment gives you the  best benefit of keypad usage and is thus considered  much more useful than the "standard assignment".
    • The Del and Backarrow keys perform their usual  dual-mode function; if a visual selection is active,  they delete the selection (with a Cut to the paste  buffer), if there is no visual selection, they delete  the next or previous character, respectively.

small ("editing") keypad and big ("numeric") keypad:

+-------+-------+-------+    +-------+-------+-------+
| Insert| Home  | PgUp  |    | (7)   |  (8)  | (9)   |
| Paste |LineBeg|       |    | Mark  |   ↑   | PgUp  |
+-------+-------+-------+    +-------+-------+-------+
| Delete| End   | PgDn  |    | (4)   |  (5)  | (6)   |
|Del/Cut|LineEnd|       |    |  ←    |  HOP  |  →    |
+-------+-------+-------+    +-------+-------+-------+
                            | (1)   |  (2)  | (3)   |
                            | Copy  |   ↓   | PgDn  |
                            +-------+-------+-------+
                            | (0)           | (.)   |
                            | Paste         |Del/Cut|
                            +-------+-------+-------+

  • The centrally placed HOP key is a prefix modifier  that can be used for intuitive modification of navigation  functions and for useful alternatives of paste buffer functions.

big ("numeric") keypad after HOP:

                            +-------+-------+-------+
                            | (7)   |  (8)  | (9)   |
                            |go Mark|Scr top|FileBeg|
                            +-------+-------+-------+
                            | (4)   |  (5)  | (6)   |
                            |LineBeg|       |LineEnd|
                            +-------+-------+-------+
                            | (1)   |  (2)  | (3)   |
                            |Append |Scr bot|FileEnd|
                            +-------+-------+-------+
                            | (0)           | (.)   |
                            |Cross-paste    |+Append|
                            +-------+-------+-------+

See The HOP function below for alternative keys to trigger it.
·

Mined offers additional function mappings for modified  keypad keys, both for providing unambiguous mappings in any  case and to handle the deviation of its benefit-optimized  Home/End keypad mapping from frequent expectations, and an  option to customize Home/End:

  • Alt-Home/End are mapped to the Home/End functions  of the other keypad, respectively. So by default, on  the numeric keypad they invoke the line navigation  functions.
  • The -k option exchanges  Home/End functions of the small and numeric keypads   with each other, and switches Alt-Home/End to also  invoke the "other" function, respectively: keypad function assignments:
  • (cf Windows keypad mode below)  Ctrl-Del is always mapped to character deletion,  while Shift-Del is mapped to the paste buffer Cut function,  regardless of the visual selection.
  • (cf Windows keypad mode below)  Ctrl-Home/End are always mapped to line  navigation, while Shift-Home/End are mapped to the  paste buffer functions Mark/Copy, regardless of the  -k option.
  • Alt-Del is mapped to the respective "other" function,  depending on visual selection.
  • Note: Keypad function assignments as  described depend on terminal support to distinguish  all involved keys and modifiers which is unfortunately  not always the case.
    Terminal support for proper distinction of  different keypads and modified keys may be enhanced by  appropriate terminal configuration, see the section  on Keypad configuration.
    →New→  With xterm since 280, all desired distinctions between  different keypads as well as modified keypad keys are  achieved (by using the modifyKeyboard resource mode in  combination with VT220 Keyboard and Application Keypad modes).
·

Two Keypad modes (see below) change the  function assignment of the keypads.

  • In Shift-select mode (option -kS),  Shift-modified keypad keys activate or extend a visual text selection; also Shift-5 (on keypad) performs Copy to paste buffer.
  • In Windows keypad mode (option -kw),  additionally non-shifted keypad keys are changed to perform the  more common functions, at the price of losing the easy Home/End  assignment to invoke Mark/Copy to paste buffer (which can however  be overridden with options -kc and -kC). See Keypad modes below for an overview.

The HOP function

This function, triggered by any of the HOP keys, amplifies or  expands functions as listed below. To achieve the combined  function, first press any key that is assigned the HOP function,  then any key assigned the base function from the table below.
Note: To enable using the HOP function also on  keyboards that do not support the keypad "5" or "*" keys (e.g.  small notebooks without numeric keypad), a few alternative HOP  keys are provided: Control-Q, Shift-TAB, the Menu or Windows keys (if running Linux),  or (providing a dual-mode function) the Control-G and ESC keys.

HOP char left

move cursor to beginning of current line

HOP char right

move cursor to end of current line

HOP line up

move cursor to top of screen

HOP line down

move cursor to bottom of screen

HOP scroll up

scroll half a screen up

HOP scroll down

scroll half a screen down

HOP page up

move to beginning of file

HOP page down

move to end of file

HOP word left

move cursor to previous ";" or "."

HOP word right

move cursor to next ";" or "."

HOP delete tail of line/line end

delete whole line

HOP delete whole line

delete tail of line

HOP delete previous character

delete beginning of line

HOP set mark

go to mark

HOP search

search for current identifier

HOP search next

repeat previous (last but one) search

HOP copy/cut

copy or cut, but append to buffer

HOP save buffer

save buffer, but append to file

HOP paste buffer

paste "inter-window buffer",  which is the last saved buffer by any invocation  of mined on the same machine by the same user.

HOP edit next file

edit last file

HOP edit previous file

edit first file

HOP exit current file

exit mined

HOP suspend

suspend without writing file

HOP show status line

toggle permanent status line

HOP enter HTML tag

embed copy area in HTML tags

While a pull-down or pop-up menu is open, any HOP key or the  Space key or the middle mouse button toggles the HOP  amplifier/expander for a function subsequently invoked in the  menu; the menu redisplays with function names changed where  applicable.

Character-oriented navigation and editing

From the traditional restriction of Unix tools to the line as a  unit of operation, other editors are stuck in a line-oriented  movement and insertion paradigm which implies some weird and  counter-intuitive behaviour.
Mined handles the end-of-line position like any ordinary  character during movement and editing operations. Also search and replacement strings can contain line ends.

Mouse control and menus

All versions of mined (Unix, DOS/Windows) support mouse operation.
Mouse control operates on pull-down and pop-up menus, flags,  the text area, the bottom line, and the scroll bar,  in order to provide the most useful functions and menu-driven  command selection at hand.

Summary of mouse functions:

In text area:
  • left click moves the text cursor to the mouse position
  • Shift-left click (works in mintty) extends the selection
  • left click-drag-release selects a text area and (with option  auto-copy) copies it to the paste buffer; →New→  using Alt while dragging (moving the mouse)  toggles rectangular selection
  • double-click (actually click on current position) →New→  word selection (→New→  within timeout)
  • middle click display the text status line or,  if permanent file status is enabled,  display character information
  • right click pops up the quick menu
  • mouse wheel scroll scrolls by N lines (default 3, adjust  with option -L) Ctrl-mouse-wheel always scrolls by 1 line. Shift-mouse-wheel scrolls by 1 page. Note: Mouse-wheel on the scrollbar scrolls by half a page.
On scroll-bar:
  • left click moves one page towards the mouse position (as seen  from the current scrollbar position marker)
    or (with option -oo) moves one page down
  • middle click moves to text position in file corresponding to  relative mouse position on scrollbar
  • left click-drag moves text position in file by moving relative  mouse position on scrollbar
  • right click moves one page away from the mouse position (as seen  from the current scrollbar position marker)
    or (with option -oo) moves one page up
  • mouse wheel scroll scrolls by half a page
On bottom line (status line):
  • left click moves one page down
  • middle click displays the text status line or,  if permanent file status is enabled,  display character information
  • right click moves one page up
On pull-down menu header (in left menu area of upper line):
  • left or right click or mouse wheel scroll opens menu
  • middle click opens menu with HOP-modified functions
On flag indication (in right flag area of upper line):
  • middle click toggles flag
  • left click opens flag menu if menu is open: toggles flag (effectively allowing double-click to toggle)
  • right click or mouse wheel scroll opens flag menu
On open menu
  • mouse wheel scroll navigates in menu
  • mouse movement (without holding button) navigates in menu - enabled by default in mintty, xterm,  gnome-terminal, cygwin console; may be controlled with -*  / +* command line options mouse movement right/left (well beyond menu border) navigates to neighbour menu mouse movement right (a few positions) on submenu item opens submenu
  • left click invokes menu item pointed to with the mouse
  • left or right drag (holding button down after opening the menu) navigates in menu
  • left or right release (after mouse dragging) invokes selected menu item
  • middle click toggles HOP modifier
  • Ctrl-mouse-wheel switches to next or previous menu

Configuration hint: To enable mouse operation in a  Windows console window, deactivate "QuickEdit mode" in the  properties menu.

Menus

Mined provides three kinds of menus, all can be opened with  either mouse clicks or commands. The menus offer the most important editing functions (apart  from simple movement). Some menus have their items grouped into sections, some of which  have subtitles.
The HOP flag can be toggled while a menu is open with any  of the HOP key, ^G, Space, or the middle mouse button. When a pull-down menu is opened with the middle mouse button,  the HOP variation is initially triggered, offering the HOP  variations of the menu items.
The three menu groups are used as follows:

  • A pull-down menu is opened by clicking the mouse  on the menu header (in the left part of the top screen line)  or scrolling the mouse wheel on this header.
    Shortcut: Each pull-down menu can also be opened  with ESC or Alt and the small initial letter of the menu  header (Alt-f or ESC f for the file menu etc.).
  • A flag menu is opened by clicking the  right mouse button on a flag indication in the flags area  (right part of the top screen line)  or scrolling the mouse wheel on it. The flag menus have optional markers in front of each item  showing which items are currently active.
    Shortcut: The Info menu, Input Method (Keyboard  Mapping) menu, Smart Quotes menu, Encoding menu can also be  opened with Alt-F10, Alt-I, Alt-K, Alt-Q, or Alt-E, respectively  (or use an ESC prefix instead of an Alt- modifier respectively).
  • The pop-up menu is placed above the text area and  can be opened with a right-click or Alt-Space (ESC Space).

Menu navigation

When a menu is open, the cursor-left or cursor-right keys  cycle through the pull-down and flag menus. Alt-cursor-left and Alt-cursor-right navigate quickly between  the two sets of menus (pull-down or flag menus).
When a submenu is open, cursor-left goes back to the  parent menu, cursor-right opens its next menu to the right.

There are three methods to navigate within a menu:

  • With the keyboard: open menu as described above, navigate  with cursor keys or by typing the first letter of the desired  menu item (which cycles through all items starting with that  letter, or containing a word starting with that letter); activate menu item with Enter key.
  • With mouse clicks: open menu with click (and release)  mouse button, switch to other menu with another click, click  on item to activate it. The mouse wheel may be used to navigate  menu items.
  • With mouse dragging: open menu with mouse button (left or  right), browse menus and items with button held down, activate  selected item with releasing mouse button.

Methods may be mixed, e.g. open a menu with either mouse click  or keyboard, navigate with mouse wheel, then select with Enter.

When selecting a menu item, in most cases the associated function  is carried out and the menu closed afterwards. In some cases, an option is toggled and the menu stays open  (esp. in Info menu: Han info pronunciation selection,  character information "with" attributes selection).

Scrollable menus: In a low-height terminal (e.g. 24 lines),  longer menus (especially the Encoding menu and the Input Method  menu) may not fit on the terminal. All menus are scrollable  with cursor keys, including Page Down/Up, Home, End keys.
When the window size is changed, open menus are closed in  order to prevent resizing and repositioning problems; this is  planned to be enhanced in a future version.

Hints

Note: Your mouse driver or Windows system may be  configured to generate multiple (e.g. 3) mouse wheel events on  one mouse wheel movement (e.g. with Windows). An option  -L1 could compensate for that  scaling (as mined applies a mouse wheel factor by itself which  is 3 by default).

Layout configuration: See Menu  display below for configuration of menu appearance.

Configuration hint: On Unix, in order to make Alt work  as a modifier, set the xterm resource metaSendsEscape to true  and the rxvt resource meta8 to false as suggested in the  example file Xdefaults.mined in the  Mined runtime support library. (With older versions of xterm, setting eightBitInput to false  may be required instead; this xterm option doesn't actually  disable 8 bit input as its name might suggest.) With xterm, this setting can also be enforced dynamically with  the +D option.

Interoperable and multiple paste buffers

System paste buffer / Clipboard

→New→  In the Windows/cygwin version, Shift-Ins inserts the Windows  clipboard rather than the mined paste buffer. Copy to paste  buffer always fills paste buffer and the clipboard, too. →New→  In this case, the lineend type is not copied from the clipboard  (i.e. typically CRLF) but adapted to the current line.

Inter-window paste buffer

Mined can perform copy/paste operations within different  editing sessions (parallel or subsequent invocations of mined):  The command HOP Ins (e.g. ^G ^P) will insert the most  recent paste buffer copied or cut in any of the user's mined  sessions. This can also work remotely in a network; to configure this  features, see  Common paste buffer configuration.

Multiple paste buffers

Mined provides emacs-style multiple paste buffers that  are organised as a buffer ring. Every buffer cut or copy  operation (that places the text between the marked and the  current position to the buffer) creates a new buffer and  stacks it to the list of buffers. If the feature "deleted word/line appends to buffer" is enabled  (+VV) the commands delete-end-of-line  (^K), delete-word (^T) and delete-end-of-sentence (currently  emacs mode only) append to the top buffer (disabled with the  option -VV).
To paste a non-top-most buffer, paste the most recent buffer  first as usual, then use the buffer-ring command  (Alt-Ins or Ctrl-F4, or M-y in emacs mode) to  exchange the pasted text with the previous buffer. This  can be repeated, going down the stack of buffers, and at  its bottom, starting over from the top again.

Keypad modes and Visual selection

Mined highlights text selection visually, with both  mouse selection and keyboard selection.

Keypad modes

·

In Shift-select mode (enabled with option -kS),  Shift-modified keypad keys start or extend visual text selection; otherwise the keypad functions are not modified, so that e.g.  the useful quick Mark/Copy selection with Home/End keys can  still be used.
Note: terminal support to report Shift-modified  cursor keys is required to enable this feature.
The option adjusts some other interactive responses as well  to match common selection practice:

  • auto-copy (after click-and-drag) is disabled
  • Shift-mouse-left-click extends the selection (if supported by terminal)
  • mouse-right-click does not extend the selection  before opening the menu
  • in addition, Shift-HOP is mapped to the Copy function

Shift selection keypad functions are as follows:

Shift-Left

select character left

Shift-Right

select character right

Shift-Control-Left

select word left

Shift-Control-Right

select word right

Shift-Up

select line up

Shift-Down

select line down

Shift-Control-Up

select to previous beginning of paragraph

Shift-Control-Down

select to next beginning of paragraph

Shift-Home

select to beginning of line

Shift-End

select to end of line

Shift-Control-Home

select to beginning of text

Shift-Control-End

select to end of text

Shift-PgUp

select to previous page

Shift-PgDn

select to next page

Shift-5 (on keypad)

copy selected text to paste buffer

·

In Windows keypad mode  (enabled with option -kw, also  implied by Windows emulation option +ew), additionally non-shifted keypad keys are changed to perform the  more common functions, at the price of losing the easy Home/End  assignment to invoke Mark/Copy to paste buffer (which can however  be overridden with options -kc for the  small ("editing") keypad and -kC for the  big ("numeric") keypad). Also, some Control-modified keys change their function  assignment to match more common usage.
Keypad functions include the Shift selection functions above  and add the following functions:

Home

move cursor to previous beginning of line

End

move cursor to next end of line

Control-Left

move cursor to previous beginning of word

Control-Right

move cursor to next end of word

Control-Up

move cursor to previous beginning of paragraph

Control-Down

move cursor to next beginning of paragraph

Control-Home

move cursor to beginning of text

Control-End

move cursor to end of text

Control-Backarrow

delete word left

Control-Del

delete word right

HOP Control-Backarrow

delete to beginning of line

HOP Control-Del

delete to end of line

Shift-select mode (-kS)  may become the default in a future version.

Visual selection is toggled by the following actions:

  • Start visual selection highlighting:

    • mouse click (then drag)
    • Mark command (Home key, Control-space, or Mark/Select from quick menu or Edit menu)
    • (in Shift-select mode) Shift-cursor keys
  • Extend visual selection highlighting:

    • mouse drag
    • keyboard navigation
    • (in Shift-select mode) Shift-cursor keys
    • mouse click
    • (in Shift-select mode) Shift-mouse-click
  • Hide visual selection highlighting:

    • modify text
    • (unless in Windows keypad mode) Copy (End key or from quick menu or Edit menu)
    • Mark twice (e.g. press Home Home)
    • (unless in Windows keypad mode) mouse release (after drag, with auto-copy option)
    • Find (except Find matching parenthesis) (except with "keep on search" option)
    • Goto text position
    • Open file
  • Re-enable selection highlighting and continue previous selection:

    • "continue Select" from menu
    • (in Shift-select mode) Shift-cursor keys
    • (in Shift-select mode) Shift-mouse-click

Selection behaviour can be tuned with a few options in the  Paste buffer menu.

Note: The actual behaviour of the paste buffer functions  acting on the text selection (Copy, Cut) are not affected by the  visual selection; they work alike even if the selection is hidden.
The Delete key is the only function  that is actually modified by visual selection, following a  dual-mode behaviour consistent with most contemporary text editors: if a non-empty visual selection is active, it deletes the  selected area (Cut to paste buffer), otherwise, it deletes the next character.

Rectangular copy/paste

Rectangular copy/paste area mode can be toggled on the  Paste buffer flag (see also description of  Quick Options (Mode indication) flags),  in the Paste buffer menu, with HOP Mark while already on marked position,  or preselected with the option +[.
→New→  Rectangular selection can also be toggled temporarily by using  Alt with the left mouse button while moving the mouse for  drag-selection. Note, however, that a subsequent paste will apply the untoggled mode.
Note: Rectangular area is a property of the  copy/paste function, not of the paste buffer.
Note: The result of rectangular paste may not be  quite as expected in these cases:

  • The paste buffer contains lines of different length.
  • The border of the paste area (in either the text or the  paste buffer) contains characters of different width, like  TAB, double-width, or isolated combining characters, or even  incomplete character codes.

Text position markers

A default marker for quick use and additional  →New→  16 numbered text markers are available.
Marker 0 has a special function: 1. it is set when opening a  file at the memorized position, 2. whenever a new current  marker is set, the previous one is pushed to marker 0.
For keyboard commands to set and move to markers,  see Text marker navigation in the Command reference below.

Text position marker stack

In addition to the explicit text markers,  mined implicitly maintains a marker stack to support navigation  and orientation when browsing files. Whenever a command moves the position by a far distance  (Go to marker, Go to line, Go to file beginning/end,  Go to next/previous file, Search functions including Search  identifier definition across files, Replace with confirm), the  current position is first pushed to this stack. Later, in order to return to the previous position, use  the command ESC Enter (Alt-Enter) to move along the positions  in the marker stack. The command HOP ESC Enter (HOP Alt-Enter) moves again forward  along the stack.

Paragraph justification / word wrap

Manual paragraph line/word wrap is invoked with the  justify command (ESC j or ESC J); it justifies the current  paragraph (wraps its lines/words) according to the effective  margins and paragraph termination mode.
Clever justification: With ESC j, mined automatically  determines left margins depending on the current paragraph and  line contents. Heuristic detection of numbered items will trigger  automatic indentation.
Normal justification: With ESC J, mined justifies  strictly according to the margin values currently configured.
See commands listing below "ESC j"  for margin setting commands.

Paragraph termination modes: Two different definitions of paragraph end are available.

  • The primary mode is to add a space at the end of each line  when the paragraph continues and to end the line without  space where the paragraph ends. This seems an intuitive  way and as a big advantage over other approaches, it is  transparent with respect to visual formatting, i.e. no  text property is required that would affect visual layout  of the text.
    Note: Additional visual support of paragraph end  detection is available with the mined option -p that  distinguishes paragraph/line end display.
  • The other word-wrap mode is to add an empty (blank-only)  line after each paragraph. Obviously this imposes more  additional requirements on text formatting discipline and  reduces freedom of text layout.

The mode in effect is indicated in the Quick Options (Mode indication) flags display;  see description of Quick Options (Mode indication) flags.

Auto indentation

By default, mined acts in auto-indent mode: When you enter a  newline, the following line will be filled with the same  prefix of space characters (Space or Tab) as the current one. This option can be toggled from the Options menu. A new line without auto indentation can be entered  with the ^O command.

Auto indentation is automatically suppressed if text is entered  very fast (by heuristic detection of input speed) in order to  allow unmodified copy and paste using terminal mouse functions.

→New→

Advanced list support (bullet and numbered lists) A new paragraph (according to the currently selected  paragraph end mode, or considering Unicode paragraph separators)  after a bullet or numbered item will clone the bullet or  auto-increment the numbering. The undent function (smart Backspace) considers list bullets  or numberings, removing the last level.
Note: An item paragraph is considered to start at  a bullet or numbering even if the previous line does not  terminate a paragraph.

Structure input commands

A pair of parentheses with matched indentation can be entered  by prefixing a parenthesis character with HOP. For example, HOP "{" would enter a pair of "{" "}", both  auto-indented on their respective new line. Other pairs are  "(" ")", "[" "]", "<" ">".
HOP "/" enters an indented Javadoc comment frame.

Back-Tab (Undent function / reverse indent)

Smart backspacing: A Backarrow key from a position that is  only preceded by white space on the line and on the line above  will revert the input position to the previous matching  indentation level. To avoid auto-undentation ("Delete single"), use  Ctrl-Backarrow or F5 Backarrow to delete only one character left,  or toggle auto-indentation off from the Options menu.
Note: In xterm, Ctrl-Backarrow only works if configured  in your X configuration, see the example configuration file  Xdefaults.mined in the  Mined runtime support library.
Note:→New→  Configuration option plain_BS (command line  option +Bp) switches the Backarrow key  from smart backspacing to plain backspacing, i.e. no auto-undent  and only delete one combining character of a combined character. Use Shift-Control-Backarrow to perform smart backspacing then.

Tab expansion

With one of the options -+8,  -+4, -+2,  a Tab key input will be expanded to an appropriate number of  Space characters instead of inserting a Tab character. You can  still insert a literal Tab character with Ctrl-V Tab.

Search and replace multiple lines

Mined has overcome the typical Unix tool limitation of line  orientation in search operations. Search and replacement patterns can contain embedded newlines.  Enter a newline (linefeed character) in the search string with  ^V^J or \n (or \r to match CRLF newlines). (In some cases there are still display problems; then update  the screen with the ESC "." command.)

Header line underlining

The command HOP "-" (e.g. Ctrl-G -) underlines the  header line before the cursor position with as many "-"  characters as needed; it applies to the current line unless  the cursor is at a line beginning in which case it applies to  the previous line.

Automatic backspace mode adaptation

There is much confusion about what character codes are delivered  by the Backarrow and Del keyboard keys in different  operating environments and configurations. For proper operation, the "stty erase CHAR" configuration should  generally be set correctly to reflect the actual code emitted  by the terminal. Mined detects this setting and adjusts its handling accordingly,  so that the "Backarrow" key should normally work as expected  (delete a character left).

Overview: input support features

Character input

Mined provides several methods to support input of special  characters that may not be easily available on the keyboard.

  • Accented and mnemonic input support defines Accent prefix keys  to compose accent combinations with subsequently entered characters.
  • It also provides  Character input mnemonics for  easily memorisable input of a wide range of characters,  including most composed Unicode characters.
  • Input support commands  include a quick shortcut for two-character mnemonics.
  • Input support commands  also provide for character input by hexadecimal / octal / decimal  character code or Unicode value, including support for  subsequent entry of multiple numeric characters according to  ISO 14755.
  • Keyboard mapping switching the keyboard  to support another script. This feature also provides CJK input methods.

Structured input

  • HTML tag input (starting/closing or embedding marked text).
  • Auto indentation and Back-Tab.
  • Structure input commands:  Input of indented matching parentheses and Javadoc frames.
  • Paragraph justification (line/word wrap).
  • Header line underlining

Special features

  • Smart quotes automatic transformation of entered straight quote marks into  typographic quotation marks (style can be selected in flags area)  or apostrophe, separate accents as appropriate typographic symbols,  as well as smart dashes and other smart text replacements.
  • Right-to-left script input support.

Handling files with mined

Tags file support / Identifier and file lookup

The ESC t command moves to the definition of an identifier  (on which the cursor should be placed) using the tags file  (generated by the ctags command).  HOP ESC t prompts for an identifier. (Also available from  search or popup menu.) If a new file is opened for this purpose, the current  file is saved automatically.
As a special function, if ESC t is typed on an include statement  (line beginning with "#include" or "include"),  the included file will be opened.
Note: Like with a number of positioning commands,  ESC t places the current position on the position marker stack  before going to the location of the identifier definition. The  command ESC Enter (Alt-Enter) moves back to that position,  also saving the current file if needed first.

→New→

Encrypted files Mined edits encrypted files transparently.
For reading or writing an encrypted file, a respective filter is  used as configured in the runtime configuration file  $HOME/.minedrc. See the sample configuration  file in the Mined runtime support library  for details. It contains pre-configured entries for using  GnuPG (for files ending with ".gpg" or  ".pgp") or openssl (for files ending with  ".ssl").
Mined does not currently provide handling for passwords or  passphrases for file encryption. Therefore, any passwords or  passphrases needed for encrypted file access will either have to be  entered on every access, or password or passphrase files may be  used as offered by the respective decryption and encryption commands  of GnuPG and openssl. See the sample configuration file for examples.
Note: If manual password input is used with openssl,  be careful to remember the password which is newly assigned every  time the file is written.
Note: When editing an encrypted file, the backup file  will be encrypted, too. Decrypted content is exchanged with the  filters using pipes, so no intermediate decrypted version is stored  on the file system. Copy/paste text blocks are not encrypted, though,  but they are readable for the current user only anyway (on any  nontrivial file system). The same applies for a recovery file  that mined writes in emergency cases to save the edited text.

Data safety and security

Mined has a robust and defensive concept of handling edited  text and file contents in case of any kind of program or  system errors.

Backup files

With command line option(s) +b,  mined saves a backup copy of any file being overwritten  (like saving the file being edited, saving to a different file,  copying the paste buffer to a file). It supports three backup file name conventions and a few  combined modes to select among them:

+b-

no backup files

+bs

simple backup files: filename~

+be

emacs style numbered backup files: filename.~N~ where N are increasing version numbers

+bv

Vms style numbered backup files: filename;N (using the original notation of the Vms operating system) where N are increasing version numbers

+bn

numbered backup files, either emacs or Vms syntax,  whichever already exists (with a higher version number)

+ba

automatic backup files, either numbered if numbered  backups (either style) already exist, or simple

Note: In order to preserve possibly existing hard links  to the file being edited, it is actually copied, not just  renamed for the backup version  (like with joe, vim, or emacs with option backup-by-copying). Note: In mined 2011.19,  +ba (automatic simple/numbered backup) is the default, and +b is a shortcut for +ba. This is subject to change in a future version, however. Note: To select your preference, use the  runtime configuration file $HOME/.minedrc,  or include the respective option in the environment variable  MINEDOPT, or set the environment variable  VERSION_CONTROL (compatible with usage  by emacs and cp), with the following mapping:

VERSION_CONTROL

$HOME/.minedrc command line option

none or off

backup_mode - +b- - no backups

numbered or t

backup_mode e +be - emacs style numbered backups

existing or nil

backup_mode a +ba - automatic backup mode

simple or never

backup_mode s +bs - simple backups

backup_mode n

+bn - numbered backups (automatic style)

backup_mode v

+bv - Vms style numbered backups

Note: To place backup files in a different directory  than the original file, use the environment variable  BACKUP_DIRECTORY or BACKUPDIR. It can be either an absolute pathname (e.g.  $HOME/.backups) or a relative pathname  (e.g. .~) in which case backup files  are stored relative to the respective working directory of  mined. Note: On Vms, backup options are ignored as Vms handles  backup files natively.

File locking

Mined checks and maintains interoperable lock files, which are  symbolic links mentioning the user and machine currently  editing the file (not on MSDOS and Vms). If the user tries to modify the text of a file locked by somebody  else, mined informs the user and changes editing mode to view-only. The lock can be overridden (removed or ignored) from the File menu.
Mined implements workarounds for network file systems that do  not support handling lock files or symbolic links properly:  cygwin symbolic links that appear as plain text files on  Samba/CIFS mounted file shares, →New→  and lock files that could be created but cannot be deleted due  to weird permission configuration of a network file share.

Edited text / Recovery files

Every care has been taken to prevent loss of the edited text  in case of save errors or accidental quit commands etc; mined  always prompts before discarding any modified text, even when  editing without an associated filename (in which case other  popular editors ignore loss of edited text).
There are three cases, however, in which edited text would be lost:

  • if the user explicitly discards edited text (e.g. ESQ q and  not answering the "Save?" question with "y")
  • if mined is sent an external terminating signal (e.g. on terminal I/O error); two exceptions are the SIGKILL signal  (which cannot be caught by a program) and SIGTERM (see below)
  • in the rare case that mined should fail with an internal signal (e.g. if out of memory)

In these cases, mined can save the edited text in a recovery file  dir/#name# (when editing file  dir/name); in the explicit case, this  is only done if the answer to the "Save?" question is "r"  (to "recover later"). If the edited file is later opened, and a recovery file still  exists (which is newer than the file being opened), mined will  display a notice. In the File menu, there is the option to  recover the text from the recovery file. Note: The recovery file is interoperable with emacs  (as are the use cases); however, mined is superior here  because emacs mangles non-ASCII characters in recovery files. Mind, though, that interoperability with respect to recognising  recovery files depends on consistent configuration of their  location; see the directory configuration option below. Note: If mined is sent an explicit SIGTERM signal  it tries to terminate normally instead, writing modified text  to the file being edited, including interactive handling if needed. Note: After catching a signal, mined also tries an  emergency save of the edited text into a "panic file"  in one of the directories $TMPDIR,  $TMP, $TEMP,  /usr/tmp, or /tmp  (whichever variable is defined first and directory is writable  in this order; or similar directories under Vms or MSDOS). The file contains the edited text, identical to the recovery file. It is written first, before the recovery file, to provide a quick  save attempt e.g. if the system is crashing and the file system  of the edited file is no longer available. Note: If possible, mined also tries to continue  normally after panic handling (unless multiple external signals  are nested). Note: To place recovery files in a different directory  than the original file, use the environment variable  AUTO_SAVE_DIRECTORY or AUTOSAVEDIR  or BACKUP_DIRECTORY or BACKUPDIR  as described for backup files above.

Overwriting files and →NEW→

Change monitoring If any command is issued to write to a file not previously  read in (after change of file name or working directory, or  with a Copy to file command), mined prompts for confirmation.
→New→  Also, if mined detects that the file being edited has been changed,  it displays a notice and asks for confirmation before saving. To this aim, mined checks the modification time,  →New→ file size,  device and inode (in case the file got replaced by  rename/move/mount operations). This is checked if mined is notified of refocussing the window  (if supported by the terminal), and after shell commands  (ESC !, ESC c, ESC z).

File access permissions

When creating a new file, its access permissions are set  according to the default behaviour set in the user  environment (umask setting in Unix). However, when cloning a file (with Save As / Set Name / ESC n  / ESC d), file access permissions of the originally opened file  are preserved and cloned.
The +x command line option adds  executable permission to newly created files but only to those users that are also given read permission  by the rules above.

Special file types

Character or block device files

→New→  Mined rejects reading from or writing to a device file in order  to prevent being blocked. Exception: /dev/clipboard on cygwin.

FIFO files

Mined can edit a FIFO file (named pipe) like any other file. Before mined can finish loading from the pipe, another process  needs to have written to it and then close it. Before mined can finish saving to the pipe, another process  needs to have opened it for reading.

Pipe input

When invoked within a pipe, redirecting input, mined loads its  text buffer from standard input. →New→  Mined does not manipulate the screen mode before data is available  from the pipe, so to some extent it can interwork even with  screen programs providing its input.

Pipe output

In the "Editing for standard output" mode (i.e. when invoked  within a pipe, redirecting output), only one "file save"  operation can be performed writing to standard output. If more than one such operations are issued (e.g. using the  ESC w / F2 , F3, or suspend command) only the first one  will write the text buffer to standard output; any subsequent  one is treated as usual (with empty file name). →New→  If mined exits after writing to a pipe, it does not manipulate  the screen mode after beginning to write, so to some extent it  can interwork even with screen programs taking its output.

Line end modes and binary-transparent editing

Mined is binary transparent. It can handle all types of  line ends (Unix (LF), DOS (CRLF), Mac (CR, with option  +R),  →New→  ISO 8859/EBCDIC Next Line (NL, not after auto-detection of  text encoding), and Unicode separators (LS, PS))  simultaneously in the same editing session. They are indicated  by different visible line end indications. Files without  trailing line end can be edited and created (using the delete  character right function on the last line end). NUL characters  are handled as virtual line ends. Lines too long for internal  handling are split transparently (with a "none" virtual  line end).
Character codes that are illegal in the currently selected  text encoding are maintained transparently and are clearly  indicated (e.g. illegal UTF-8 sequences in Unicode text).
Files with mixed encoding (e.g. UTF-8 / 8 bit sections) can  be edited comfortably.
Input: To enter a NUL character, use ^V # 0 or  ^V < NUL or Ctrl-Space > (if the keyboard supports Ctrl-Space).

File info: Memory of file position and editing style parameters

On every file saving command, mined remembers the last text position,  paragraph justification margins (only if automatic paragraph  justification is active), selected Smart Quotes style and  Input Method (Keyboard Mapping), and TAB display width. File info memory is relative to the working directory,  using a hidden file info file (.@mined - mined also handles its DOS short name @MINED~1  where it occurs, to provide some interoperability with the DOS  version of mined); previously used file marker files  (@mined.mar) will be migrated and  cleared from duplicate entries.

Note: File information is stored every time the user  invokes a command to save the file (even if no write is  performed because the text has not been edited). When editing that file again (from the same working  directory), mined will automatically move to that position  (and set text marker 0 to it).

File info grooming

Mined checks and removes duplicate entries (from previous versions)  in the file info file. With option +@, mined also  checks whether file info entries correspond to actual files  that exist and are visible to the user;  it will otherwise remove such entries. Mined can be called with this option alone and will then exit after  file info grooming. Mind, however, that files may be invisible  only temporarily (e.g. due to unmounted file systems, or unplugged  USB drives), and will get their info entries removed then, too.

File chooser

To select a filename for a file operation (e.g. open, save, insert,  write buffer), mined opens an interactive file chooser that presents  a listing of files and directories in the current directory  (for the change directory command, only directories are shown). The list can be navigated and manipulated in these ways:

  • cursor keys (including page down/up, end/begin)
  • mouse movement and scroll
  • entering a filename prefix which navigates to the first file  matching it
  • TAB will usually copy the current filename into the editing  field (if it was partially matching a file name, it is thus  completed, similar to file completion on the command line but  case-insensitively)
  • TAB on a directory will navigate the file chooser into it
  • TAB or HOP while the filename editing field is containing  wildcards interprets the entered file name as a pattern and  switches to a filtered file listing (recognising "*", "?",  "[abc-x]", "[^abc-x]"  wildcard expressions, no escapes)
  • Enter on a directory will navigate the file chooser into it  (unless for the ESC d command in which case it is selected)
  • Enter on a selected (or entered) filename will choose the name

Also, a filename can be typed in directly (being interpreted as  a filename prefix interactively). The filename or prefix is  displayed in the title bar of the popup file chooser menu. When entering file or directory names, the leading ~ notation  to refer to one's home directory is accepted. Note: The full path name of the currently displayed  directory is shown as the first entry in the file chooser menu. Note: A few sorting options are offered in the  "Options" - "File sort options..." submenu. They can also be preselected with the command line option  +zX. See the  file chooser options for details. Note: In the file chooser, filenames are interpreted  in Unicode (UTF-8 encoding) while file name parameters given on the  command line are interpreted in the terminal encoding. This may  lead to inconsistent handling of non-ASCII filenames. Use the  ESC ? command to display the file name using native encoding. Note: On some file systems, retrieving directory  information can be slow. →New→ Mined handles  this and provides feedback about delayed operation, retrieves  directory information lazy by page being displayed, and flushes  display of the file chooser by line to provide visual feedback  about the file information being retrieved.

→New→

File tabs Mined provides virtual file tabs above the header line, listing  file names as opened via command line or file chooser. By clicking  a file name in the file tabs panel, or hold-and-move the mouse  over them, you can change the file being edited. If the current  file has been modified it will be saved first.

File switcher

The File switcher presents a list of active files to select from,  comprising files supplied on the command line, and files  opened or saved later. Invoke the File switcher with Alt-# or ESC #, or Alt-F3 or ESC F3,  or from the File menu. The Close file command (from the File menu)  closes the current file and removes its name from the list. The list can be navigated and manipulated in these ways:

  • cursor keys (including page down/up, end/begin)
  • mouse movement and scroll
  • entering a filename prefix which navigates to the first file  matching it
  • Enter on a selected (or entered) filename will choose the name

To reload the current file and stay (approximately) at the  current position, use ESC Enter (Alt-Enter) after reloading.

Page length

The command ESC P sets the number of lines that mined assumes  to be on a page. So the status line can contain the page  number to make finding the current position in a print-out  easy. Also the Goto Line/% command (^G etc.) accepts a final
'p' or 'P' in which cases it positions to the top of the given  page. This information will be associated and stored with the file  name if file position memory is enabled; see  File info: Memory of file position and editing style parameters above.

Restricted mode (tool mode)

Restricted mode is triggered with
<code>mined -- [ filenames ... ]
or (if installed)
<code>rmined [ filenames ... ]
In restricted mode, only the file opened when mined was started can  be edited, no commands changing file name reference, involving other  files (copy/paste), or escaping to a shell command will be allowed.

Version control integration

From the File menu, checkout and checkin commands are  available that invoke "co" or "ci" scripts, respectively  (which must reside in the user's command search path). This offers a gateway to ClearCase or other version control  systems; mined applies automatic save or screen update  as appropriate.

Printing

From the File menu, a print command is available that  prints the text currently being edited. If the script uprint is installed and configured  properly, printing works in any selected character encoding. See Printing configuration for further  details.

In Windows, mined uses notepad /p for printing.
Note: The font size interactively configured in  notepad also affects the print size; with a  fixed-width font, a font size of not more than 10pt gives you  at least 80 characters per line; if 72 characters per line are  enough, you can use 11pt font size.

Working with mined

Quick Options (Mode indication) flags

The right side of the top menu bar displays a number of  one-letter or two-letter indications for certain modes;  the associated flag menus can be opened from here with a  mouse right-click, or the modes can be toggled quickly with  a middle-click. (Keyboard shortcuts for handling flags and menus are also  available.)

·

Information display mode

  • "?": this flag menu offers options  for permanent File info, Char info, or  Han character information display. For Char info and Han info, further options  can be selected to configure the information shown.
    (Note that in extreme situations, permanent  File info display might cause swappping (when  editing a file that does not fit completely in  memory, e.g. large file on old system). In  that case, disable the feature.)
·

(In non-Latin-1 text and terminal mode only)  Input Method (Keyboard Mapping)

  • "--": no keyboard mapping  is active.
  • "...": a two-letter  input method tag indicates that an according  keyboard mapping is active,  mapping keyboard input to characters of  the selected Unicode script range, or  using a more complex CJK input method involving  "pick list" selection menus. See Keyboard Mapping and Input  Methods below.
  • Right mouse button on this indication opens a  menu for selection of the desired keyboard mapping.
  • Left mouse button on this indication toggles between  the current and the previous selected keyboard mapping.
Note: In the open Input method menu,

the last column indicates the source of the input method  with a short tag as follows:

  • "U": generated from Unicode data file UnicodeData.txt
  • "H": generated from Unihan database Unihan.txt
  • "C": transformed from cxterm input table
  • "M": transformed from input method of the m17n project
  • "Y": transformed from yudit keyboard mapping file
  • "V": transformed from vim keymap file
  • "X": transformed from X keyboard mapping file
·

Smart Quotes

  • Two quote marks are displayed that act as  automatic "smart quotes": When you type a «"»  or «'» character (straight double or single quote),  it is replaced by an opening or closing typographic  quote mark (double or single, respectively),  depending on the text context.
  • Right mouse button on these indications opens a  menu for selection of the desired quotation  marks style.
  • Left mouse button on this indication toggles  between the current and the previous style  selected with the menu.
·

Character encoding (used for text interpretation)

  • A two-letter character encoding tag indicates  the text encoding currently assumed for display. Changing the encoding changes the interpretation  of the text which is otherwise handled  transparently; it does not recode the text.
  • Right mouse button on these indications opens  a menu for selection of the desired quotation  marks style.
  • Left mouse button on this indication toggles  between the current and the previous selected  encoding.
Note: See

Character encoding support below for a list of  encodings that are auto-detected.

Note: For hints on preselecting preferred

text encoding (as well as terminal encoding) and a note  on adjusting the available encodings and configuring  the Encoding menu, see  Locale configuration.

  • "U8":  Unicode/ISO 10646 character set / UTF-8 encoding
  • "16" or "61":  Unicode character set / UTF-16 encoding (big-endian or little-endian, respectively)
    In contrast to the other encodings, UTF-16  has no separate entry in the Character encoding  menu as its internal handling is UTF-8 and  cannot be switched while editing; these two  flag values only indicate that the file being  edited was found to be encoded and will be  saved in UTF-16.
  • "L1": Western  "Latin-1" character set / ISO 8859-1
  • "WL":  Windows Latin character set / "codepage" 1252  (superset of Latin-1)
  • "L9": Western  "Latin-9" character set (with Euro sign) / ISO 8859-15
  • "Cy":  Cyrillic character set / KOI8-RU encoding (Russian, Ukrainian, Byelorussian)

submenu more NE Eurasian:

  • "Ru":  Cyrillic / Russian KOI8-R encoding; used if locale environment indicates this as  terminal encoding, not in menu, use  "Cy" instead  which combines KOI8-R and KOI8-U
  • "Uk":  Cyrillic / Ukrainian KOI8-U encoding; used if locale environment indicates this as  terminal encoding, not in menu, use  "Cy" instead  which combines KOI8-R and KOI8-U
  • "I5":  Cyrillic / ISO 8859-5 encoding
  • "WC":  Cyrillic / Windows Cyrillic encoding
  • "Tj":  Cyrillic / Tadjikistan encoding
  • "Kz":  Cyrillic / Kazachstan encoding
  • "GP":  Georgian character set (not Cyrillic) /  Georgian-PS encoding
  • "AR":  →New→  Armenian character set / ARMSCII encoding

submenu Greek/Semitic:

  • "I7":  Greek / ISO 8859-7 encoding
  • "I6":  Arabic / ISO 8859-6 encoding
  • "Ar":  Arabic / MacArabic encoding (superset of ISO 8859-6)
  • "I8":  Hebrew / ISO 8859-8 encoding
  • "He":  Hebrew / Windows codepage 1255 (superset of ISO 8859-8)

submenu more Latin:

  • "MR":  Mac-Roman character encoding
  • "PC":  PC DOS character encoding ("codepage 437")
  • "PL":  PC Latin character encoding ("codepage 850")
  • "LN" where N is 2..8 or "0": Latin-N or Latin-10 encodings / ISO 8859-2/3/4/9/10/13/14/16

CJK encodings:

  • "B5":  Traditional Chinese character set /  Big5 encoding with HKSCS extensions, extends CP950
  • "GB":  Simplified Chinese character set /  GB18030 encoding, extends CP936, includes GBK encoding,  includes GB 2312 / EUC-CN encoding
  • "CN":  Traditional Chinese character set /  CNS / EUC-TW encoding (including 4-byte code points)
  • "JP":  Japanese character set /  EUC-JP encoding (including 3-byte code points)
  • "JX":  →New→  Japanese character set /  EUC-JIS-2004 (X 0213) encoding
  • "32":  →New→  Japanese character set /  Windows "Shift_JIS" encoding / CP932 (including single-byte mappings to Halfwidth Forms)
  • "SX":  →New→  Japanese character set /  Shift_JIS-2004 (X 0213) encoding
  • "KR":  Korean Unified Hangul character set /  UHC encoding / CP949,  includes KS C 5601 / KS X 1001 / EUC-KR encoding
  • "Jh":  Korean Johab character set and encoding

Further Asian encodings:

  • "VI":  Vietnamese character set / VISCII encoding
  • "TV":  Vietnamese character set / TCVN encoding
  • "WV":  →New→  Vietnamese character set / CP1258 encoding
  • "TI":  Thai character set / TIS-620 encoding
·

Combining display (available only if the current text encoding  contains combining characters)

  • "ç": combined display mode
  • "`": separated display mode: combining characters are separated from their  base character and displayed with coloured background
·

HOP key active

  • "H": HOP applies to next command
  • "h": HOP not active
·

Edit mode vs. View only mode

  • "E": text is being edited
  • "V": text is being viewed (modification inhibited)
  • Note: this is not related to a file being  read-only; if you "edit" and modify the text  of a read-only file, you will have to save  to a different file name (or discard)
·

Paste buffer (double flag)

  • "%": normal copy/paste mode
  • "[": rectangular copy/paste mode
  • "=": cut/copy replaces (overwrites) paste buffer
  • "+": cut/copy appends to paste buffer
  • "%" or "[", "=" or "+": as above, and indicates Unicode paste buffer mode (in non-Unicode text encoding)
·

Auto-indent mode

  • "»": auto-indentation enabled: entering a newline  indents the following line like the current one
  • "¦": auto-indentation disabled
·

TAB expand mode and TAB width →New→

  • "N": (where N is 2 or 4 or 8) TAB is inserted literally, TAB width is as indicated
  • "N": (where N is 2 or 4 or 8) TAB is expanded to spaces, TAB width is as indicated
·

Automatic paragraph justification levels

  • "j": justification only on request (ESC j command)
  • "j": justification is performed whenever  text is entered beyond the right margin
  • "J": justification is performed whenever  text is inserted and the line exceeds the  right margin (slightly buggy)
·

Paragraph termination definition effective for justification

  • " ": non-blank line end terminates  paragraph (blank space at line end continues paragraph)
  • "«": empty line terminates paragraph

Scrollbar

By default, mined displays a scrollbar at the right side. It  may be used for position indication within the text and for  relative or absolute positioning with the three mouse buttons.
In a UTF-8 terminal, mined uses Unicode character cell  vertical eighths characters U+2581..U+2587 for a fine-grained  scrollbar display. If your Unicode font doesn't include those  block characters, you may switch to the cell-grained scrollbar  with the -o1 option.

Text position marker stack

On commands that jump away from the current position (HOP Mark,  File Begin/End, Search, Search identifier definition, Search  current character, Goto Line/%, Goto Next/Previous File),  the current position is remembered in a position stack.  The command ESC Enter goes backward, HOP ESC Enter forward  in this "stack", even if this means switching the file  being edited.

Structured editing support

HTML support: syntax highlighting and tag entry/matching

HTML tag entry: With the ESC H commands, opening and closing HTML tags can be entered or (with HOP) a  marked area can be enclosed into HTML tags.
Syntax highlighting: HTML tags and comments,  →New→  attributes and values can be highlighted, or dimmed to set  them back from the actual text contents; if mined detects a  dark terminal background (works with xterm and mintty), it  adds a highlighting background to improve the contrast. Other highlighting modes apply to HTML comments and JSP code. This option is activated if the file name suffix is one of .html, .htm, .xhtml, .shtml, .mhtml, .sgml,   .xml, .xul, .xsd, .xsl, .xslt, .wsdl, .dtd; it can be toggled from the Options menu. Additional highlighting of embedded server-side scripting is  activated if the file name suffix is one of  .jsp, .php, .asp, .aspx.
HTML/XML syntax highlighting can be enabled with option  +H or using  Preference configuration per file-type.
HTML tag matching: With the ESC ( or ESC ) command,  mined searches for the opening / closing HTML tag  corresponding to the current one.
Note: While you edit within a line and change its HTML  ending status (by entering or deleting '<' or '>'), the  display status of subsequent lines is not changed. (You may  refresh the display with ESC ".")
Configuration hint: The colour used for displaying HTML  tags can be configured with the environment variable MINEDHTML  using an ANSI sequence, e.g. MINEDHTML=34 (the default).

Search structure match

With the ESC ( or ESC ) commands, mined searches for a matching  end of various structures, like opening/closing HTML/XML tags  (see above), matching parentheses or brackets, matching  comments (/* */), matching conditional macros (#if...),  mail messages (in a mailbox file), MIME attachments. See the ESC ( command in the command  reference for details.

Structure input

A structure template with opening and closing ends can be  inserted with the structured input feature. HOP followed by  one of { , ( , [ , < enters a corresponding bracket pair,  HOP / enters a Javadoc comment frame. HOP - enters an  underlining line matching the previous line.

Visual structure input is supported by  Auto indentation

Password hiding

With the option -P, mined hides  one word (separated by white space) behind the string  "assword" in a line (to accommodate for "password" or  "Password") and displays reverse "*" instead. Password hiding can be disabled with +P.
By default (without any P option),  password hiding is activated when editing a file whose  file name starts with "." (Unix "hidden" file convention).

Virtual bold/underline stropping

With the option +ZZ, mined displays  all-capital words in bold lower-case and supports their input  using only a first capital letter, then small letters to input  a word in all-upper-case. This is to support editing computer programs in Algol-like  languages in their typical publication look. Use +Z_ for underline stropping, disable with -ZZ. Enabled by default  if the filename ends with ".a68".

Long line splitting

Mined has an internal line length limit (> ca. 1024 characters). When opening a file, longer lines are split. This is handled  transparently as virtual "none" line ends are used and indicated. When saving the file, lines will be joined again.

Visible indication of line contents and display

Various options are available to indicate line control characters  (Tab and line-feed) as well as shifted line display (of lines  longer than the screen width).  (So you can see how many dummy blank spaces there are before the  line ends or how many superfluous blank spaces precede a Tab  character.)
Environment variables can be used to modify these indications.  See Display layout for details.
Default indications and according configuration variables:

«

/ ⏎ LF (Unix-type line end)
customize indication with MINEDRET or MINEDUTFRET  (may contain up to 3 characters to configure different  appearance behind the line end)

«

/ ⏎ CRLF (MSDOS-type two-character line end)
(µ on black and white terminals)
customize indication with MINEDDOSRET or MINEDUTFDOSRET

«

/ ⏎ CR (Mac-type line end)
(@ on black and white terminals)
customize indication with MINEDMACRET or MINEDUTFMACRET
transparently handled and displayed with  +R command line option

º

NUL character (pseudo line end)

¬

"none" line end (virtual line end as used to split  input lines too long for internal handling; will be  joined into a single line when saving the file)

«

→New→  NL (U+0085, ISO 8859/EBCDIC Next Line)

«

/ ⏎ LS (U+2028, Unicode line separator)

PS (U+2029, Unicode paragraph separator)
customize indication with MINEDPARA or MINEDUTFPARA

end of paragraph (if enabled by -p)
customize indication with MINEDPARA or MINEDUTFPARA

·

no-break space (Unicode character U+00A0)

»

line extending the end of the screen line
(move cursor right to shift line display)
customize indication with MINEDSHIFT or MINEDUTFSHIFT

«

line shifted out left of the screen line
(move cursor left to shift line display back)
customize indication with MINEDSHIFT or MINEDUTFSHIFT

·

position spanned by Tab character
customize indication with MINEDTAB or MINEDUTFTAB  (may contain up to 3 characters to configure different  appearance within the Tab span)

Configuration: Display colour of the indications is  by default red or a dimmed foreground colour; this can be changed  with the environment variable MINEDDIM,  display colour for Unicode line end indications and other  special (esp. invalid) character indications with <span  class=env>MINEDSPECIAL. Their values should be the  numeric part of an ANSI terminal control sequence, e.g. 31 for  red, "33;44" for yellow text on blue background. MINEDDIM can also be set to an integer  percentage value (e.g. MINEDIM="50%")  to have mined apply dim colour to the indications; the colour  value is computed from the current foreground and background  colours (if the terminal supports their detection).
For more details and recommended settings see the example  script file profile.mined in the  Mined runtime support library. Default values are compiled in and can be overridden by setting  the variables to empty values.

Note: With the -F option,  mined limits usage of special characters for line indication  and suppresses the interpretation of the MINEDUTF* environment  variables.

Function key help bars

For quick reference of functions attached to function keys,  modified function keys, and other modified keys (as used for  accent prefix functions), a number of help bars can be  displayed in the bottom line.
F1 followed by another F1, optionally modified by a combination  of Control/Shift/Alt, displays a help line with function  attachments to the respectively modified function keys; F1 followed  by Ctrl-1/Alt-1/Alt-Ctrl-1 or Control with a punctuation key  (e.g. Ctrl-,) displays a help line for the respective accent  prefix functions attached. See the F1 help bars command reference for details.

Menu display

Menu borders are displayed using Unicode Box Drawing characters  in a UTF-8 terminal, using VT100-mode graphics characters if  they are detected to be available, or using ASCII graphics otherwise.
Configuration hint: The menu style option  -Q is available to configure your  style preference; see also  Terminal interworking problems for configuration hints  to deal terminal-related graphics display trouble. Alternatively, the option -f reduces  font assumptions and adjusts usage of special characters accordingly.
In addition to round or rectangular corners, also fancy  item selection display style can be selected  (-Q).
With a non-UTF-8 terminal, if your system's  termcap/terminfo database does not indicate the VT100 graphics  capability for the terminal you use but you know (or want to  try if) your terminal has that capability, use of graphical  borders can be enforced with the -Qv  command line option.
Configuration hint: The colour of menu borders can be  changed with the environment variable MINEDBORDER. The marker of selected items in flag menus can be changed with  the environment variable MINEDMENUMARKER.
→New→  The apperance of the menu background and borders can be configured  in the runtime configuration file $HOME/.minedrc.

Language support

Most of the information in this chapter is redundant. It  collects language-specific features described in the other  chapters in a more technical context, here assorted by  languages / scripts for more convenient quick reference.
Language-specific typographic quotation marks are  supported by the Smart quotes feature. See Quotation Marks Styles  on the mined web site for a listing of locale-specific styles. <!p>

Latin-script languages

Character sets

In addition to Unicode, mined supports Latin-1 (ISO 8859-1),  Latin-9 (ISO 8859-15),  Mac-Roman, Windows (CP1252) and DOS (CP437, CP850) Western  character sets, as well as further ISO character sets for  Central European (Latin-2, ISO 8859-2), South European  (Latin-3, ISO 8859-3), Turkish (Latin-5, ISO 8859-9),  Nordic (Latin-6, ISO 8859-10), Baltic (Latin-7, ISO 8859-13),  Celtic (Latin-8, ISO 8859-14), Romanian (Latin-10, ISO 8859-16),  →New→  and EBCDIC (CP1047). To view and edit a file in one of these encodings, select it  from the Encoding menu (section "8 Bit" for Western, or  submenu "more Latin"), or use the respective command line parameter. See Character encoding flags for details.
Terminal: If your terminal runs any of these encodings,  mined can detect this by proper setting of environment variables  (LC_* or LANG, and TERM). See Terminal environment for details.

Character input support

For input of accented characters, mined provides an extensive  set of accent prefix functions, covering Western accents as well as

  • Macron (Latvian, Lithuanian, Polynesian languages)
  • Breve (Romanian, Turkish)
  • Dot above (Lithuanian, Polish)
  • Ogonek (Lithuanian, Polish)
  • Caron/Háček (Croatian, Czech, Lithuanian, Latvian, Estonian, Slovenian, Slovak)
  • Stroke (Croatian, Maltese, Polish, Vietnamese)
  • and others

For other characters and ligatures, mined provides mnemonic input.
See Character input support  for more details.

Language-specific mnemonic conversion support

The generic mnemonic transformation command ESC _ (which  transforms a mnemonic transcription in the text into its  accented or ligature character) has a few national variants,  using keys available on the respective keyboards as commands:

  • German: ESC ö etc. transforms ae to ä, oe to ö
  • French: ESC é etc. transforms ae to æ, oe to oe ligature
  • Scandinavian: ESC å etc. transforms ae to æ, oe to ø
  • →New→  Italian: ESC ì etc. transforms 'e or ´e to è rather than é etc.
  • →New→  East European> ESC < accented letter typical on East European  keyboard > (like l with stroke, u with ring, o with double acute,  s with caron, etc) transforms ,e to e with ogonek (rather than cedilla) etc.,  and -d to d with stroke

(See mnemonic character substitution  commands in the Command reference for details.)

Language-specific case conversion

(The following rules apply if the respective language is  indicated by the language tag as extracted from one of the  environment variables  →New→ LANGUAGE,  TEXTLANG, LC_ALL,  LC_CTYPE, LANG.)

Lithuanian: (If language tag begins with "lt") Proper case conversion of accented i with retained i dot.

Turkish, Azeri, Tatar, Bashkir: (If language tag begins with "tr" or "az" →New→  or "crh" or "tt" or "ba") Proper case conversion of i<->I with dot above / dotless i<->I.

→New→  Dutch: (If language tag begins with "nl") Title case conversion with Shift-F3 supports "IJ" pseudo ligature  like in "IJsselmeer". <!p>

Esperanto

Character sets

In addition to Unicode, mined supports the Latin-3 character set  (ISO 8859-3), and the DOS codepage CP853 (especially as terminal encoding). To view and edit a file in Latin-3 encoding, select it from the  Encoding menu (submenu "more Latin"), or use the command line  parameter -E3. To tell mined it runs a CP853  DOS setting, use a LC_CTYPE variable setting (.CP853) or  the option +E=CP853. See Character encoding flags for details.
Terminal: If your terminal runs this encoding, make  sure to indicate this properly with an environment variable  (LC_* / LANG). See Terminal environment for details.

Input method

Mined supports a built-in input method for Esperanto,  using the "x-system", plus "Sm" for the Spesmilo sign. Select it from the Input method menu.

Accented character input support

Instead of the input method, also the following accent prefix  functions can be used:

Ctrl-F6
Ctrl-^

circumflex

Alt-Shift-F5
Ctrl-(

breve

<!p>

Hawai'ian

Accented character and 'okina input support

The following shortcuts and accent prefix functions can be used:

HOP ` (grave accent)

glottal stop / 'okina (U+02BB)

Alt-Ctrl-F6
Ctrl-- (Ctrl-minus)

macron (long vowel)

Note: In smart quotes mode,  the grave accent (or backquote) ` alone enters a glottal stop as well. <!p>

Russian, Ukrainian, other Cyrillic-script languages

Character sets

In addition to Unicode, mined supports ISO Cyrillic (ISO 8859-5),  Windows Cyrillic (CP1251), and KOI8-RU which is a convenient  merge of KOI8-R (Russian) and KOI8-U (Ukrainian) (which are  also supported separately but not included in the menu),  →New→  and DOS Ukrainian (CP1125 and CP1131). To view and edit a file in one of these encodings, select it  from the Encoding menu ("Cyrillic" or submenu "more NE Eurasian"),  or use the respective command line parameter. See Character encoding flags for details.
Terminal: If your terminal runs any of these  encodings, make sure to indicate this properly with an  environment variable (LC_* / LANG). See Terminal environment for details.

Input method

Mined supports a built-in input method for Cyrillic. Select it from the Input method menu.

Accented character input support

In combination with a Cyrillic input method or keyboard,  mined provides accent prefix support for Cyrillic accented  letters. Accent prefix functions for Latin letters are reused  for Cyrillic accents, see the following table:

F5
Ctrl-:

diaeresis

Alt-Ctrl-F6
Ctrl--

descender / macron

Alt-F5
Ctrl-/

stroke

Ctrl-&

hook

Ctrl-- Ctrl-&

middle hook

Alt-Shift-F5
Ctrl-(

breve

Ctrl-;

tail / tick / upturn

F6
Ctrl-'
Ctrl-´

vertical stroke

Shift-F6
Ctrl-`

grave

Shift-F5
Ctrl-~

titlo

acute acute

double acute

grave grave

double grave

See Character input support  for more details.

Script highlighting

To distinguish some Cyrillic letters from Latin look-alikes,  Cyrillic is by default displayed with colour highlighting. <!p>

Tadjik

Character sets

In addition to Unicode, mined supports KOI8-T. To view and edit a file in this Tadjik encoding, select it  from the Encoding menu (submenu "more NE Eurasian"),  or use the respective command line parameter  -E:Tj. See Character encoding flags for details.
Terminal: If your terminal runs this encoding, make  sure to indicate this properly with an environment variable  (LC_* / LANG). See Terminal environment for details.

Input method

Mined supports a built-in input method for Cyrillic. Select it from the Input method menu.

Accented character input support

See above for Cyrillic accented input support.

Script highlighting

Cyrillic is by default displayed with colour highlighting. <!p>

Kazakh

Character sets

In addition to Unicode, mined supports PT154. To view and edit a file in this Kazakh encoding, select it  from the Encoding menu (submenu "more NE Eurasian"),  or use the respective command line parameter  -E:Kz. See Character encoding flags for details.
Terminal: If your terminal runs this encoding, make  sure to indicate this properly with an environment variable  (LC_* / LANG). See Terminal environment for details.

Input method

Mined supports a built-in input method for Kazakh. Select it from the Input method menu.

Accented character input support

See above for Cyrillic accented input support.

Script highlighting

Cyrillic is by default displayed with colour highlighting. <!p>

Georgian

Character sets

In addition to Unicode, mined supports Georgian-PS. To view and edit a file in this encoding, select it from the  Encoding menu (submenu "more NE Eurasian"),  or use the respective command line parameter  -E:GP. See Character encoding flags for details.
Terminal: If your terminal runs this encoding, make  sure to indicate this properly with an environment variable  (LC_* / LANG). See Terminal environment for details. <!p>

Armenian

Character sets

→New→  In addition to Unicode, mined supports ARMSCII. To view and edit a file in this encoding, select it from the  Encoding menu (submenu "more NE Eurasian", tell me if that's not  suitable), or use the respective command line parameter  -E:AR. See Character encoding flags for details.
Terminal: If your terminal runs this encoding, make  sure to indicate this properly with an environment variable  (LC_* / LANG). See Terminal environment for details. <!p>

Greek

Character sets

In addition to Unicode, mined supports ISO Greek (ISO 8859-7). To view and edit a file in this encoding, select it from the  Encoding menu (submenu "Greek/Semitic"), or use the respective  command line parameter -E:I7. See Character encoding flags for details.
Terminal: If your terminal runs this encoding, make  sure to indicate this properly with an environment variable  (LC_* / LANG). See Terminal environment for details.

Input method

Mined supports a built-in input method for Greek. Select it from the Input method menu.

Accented character input support

In combination with a Greek input method or keyboard,  mined provides accent prefix support for both monotonic Greek  and polytonic Greek.
Monotonic Greek uses only one accent, the tonos which  looks like acute and can be entered with the F6 or Ctrl-'  prefix function.
Polytonic Greek uses - among many others -  the oxia accent which is nowadays considered identical and looks  like the monotonic tonos. However, for historic reasons, there  are two sets of Greek accented letters with this accent in  Unicode, one with tonos and one with oxia. While this may be  considered a design flaw of Unicode, in fact both kinds of  characters exist and mined provides support for both accents. The choice of usage is up to the user. Note, e.g. that

F6 < alpha >

enters the Greek letter alpha with tonos

Ctrl-F6 < alpha >

enters the Greek letter alpha with oxia

Likewise, with mnemonic input

^V ' < alpha > (using the apostrophe key)

enters the Greek letter alpha with tonos

^V ´ < alpha > (using the acute accent key)

In these examples, < alpha > indicates the Greek letter  alpha, which may e.g. be entered by selecting the Greek input  method and typing the a key.

Accent prefix functions for Latin letters are reused for Greek  accents, see the following table:

F5
Ctrl-:
Ctrl-"

dialytika

Shift-F5
Ctrl-~

perispomeni

Ctrl-F5
Ctrl-,

iota (ypogegrammeni)

Ctrl-Shift-F5
Ctrl-;

prosgegrammeni

Alt-Shift-F5
Ctrl-(

vrachy

F6
Ctrl-'

(Ctrl-apostrophe) tonos

Ctrl-F6
Ctrl-´

(Ctrl-acute)

Ctrl-^

oxia

Shift-F6
Ctrl-`

(Ctrl-grave) varia

Alt-F6
Ctrl-<

psili

Alt-Shift-F6
Ctrl-.

dasia

Ctrl-Shift-F6

macron

Alt-6

psili and oxia

Ctrl-Alt-6

dasia and oxia

Alt-7

psili and varia

Ctrl-Alt-7

dasia and varia

Alt-8

psili and perispomeni

Ctrl-Alt-8

dasia and perispomeni

For polytonic Greek, 2 or 3 accents can be combined by  applying the respective accent prefix functions in sequence. For convenience, the most frequent combinations of 2 accents  are also available as dedicated accent prefix keys as listed  above. Also, modified Ctrl-/Alt-/Alt-Ctrl- digit keys are used for  polytonic Greek accent prefix functions. See Character input support  for more details.

Script highlighting

To distinguish some Greek letters from Latin look-alikes,  Greek is by default displayed with colour highlighting.

Script-specific case conversion

Case conversion of final sigma is handled properly. <!p>

Amharic

Input method

Mined supports two built-in input methods for Amharic,  one is called "Ethiopic" (source: yudit), the other is called  "Amharic" and was generated from Unicode character names  (preferable according to user feedback). Select your preferred input method from the Input method menu. <!p>

Arabic

Character sets

In addition to Unicode, mined supports ISO Arabic (ISO 8859-6),  MacArabic and DOS Arabic (CP720). To view and edit a file in one of these encodings, select it  from the Encoding menu (submenu "Greek/Semitic"), or use the  respective command line parameter -E:I6  or -EA. See Character encoding flags for details.
Terminal: If your terminal runs ISO Arabic, make  sure to indicate this properly with an environment variable  (LC_* / LANG). See Terminal environment for details.

Input method

Mined supports a built-in input method for Arabic. Select it from the Input method menu.

Accented character input support

Not yet implemented. Tell me if you have a proposal or preference  for assignment of accent prefix functions to the keyboard.

Bidi support

Mined has implicit primitive support for visual right-to-left  input which is however not the preferred storage method as  complete right-to-left text should be stored in logical order.
Mined auto-detects and cooperates with a bidi terminal (mlterm)  in which case visual right-to-left input is disabled.
A full context-aware bidi display and editing technique would  still have to be integrated into mined. Tell me if you are  interested. <!p>

Hebrew

Character sets

In addition to Unicode, mined supports ISO Hebrew (ISO 8859-8) and  Windows Hebrew (CP1255). To view and edit a file in one of these encodings, select it  from the Encoding menu (submenu "Greek/Semitic"), or use the  respective command line parameter -E:I8  or -EE. See Character encoding flags for details.
Terminal: If your terminal runs this encoding, make  sure to indicate this properly with an environment variable  (LC_* / LANG). See Terminal environment for details.

Input method

Mined supports a built-in input method for Hebrew. Select it from the Input method menu.

Accented character input support

Not yet implemented. Tell me if you have a proposal or preference  for assignment of accent prefix functions to the keyboard.

Bidi support

Mined has implicit primitive support for visual right-to-left  input which is however not the preferred storage method as  complete right-to-left text should be stored in logical order.
Mined auto-detects and cooperates with a bidi terminal (mlterm)  in which case visual right-to-left input is disabled.
A full context-aware bidi display and editing technique would  still have to be integrated into mined. Tell me if you are  interested.

Smart replacement

As a special case of smart dash input replacement (enabled  together with smart quotes), mined inserts Hebrew Maqaf as  a dash in the context of Hebrew letters. <!p>

Chinese

Character sets

In addition to Unicode, mined supports Big5 with HKSCS extension  (extending CP950),  GB18030 (extending CP936, extending GKB, including EUC-CN),  and CNS (EUC-TW) multi-byte character sets. To view and edit a file in one of these encodings, select it  from the Encoding menu (section "Chinese"), or use the  respective command line parameter -EB  or -EG or -EC. See Character encoding flags for details.
Auto-detection: Big5 and GB18030 text encoding are  also auto-detected when opening a file (with a certain  success rate). Set the environment variable MINEDDETECT="BG"  to constrain auto-detection to Big5 and GB18030 encodings. See Mined configuration for details.
Terminal: Mined supports native CJK terminals;  make sure to indicate this properly with an environment variable  (LC_* / LANG). See Terminal encodings support  for details on detection and handling of CJK terminal features.

Input method

Mined provides the following built-in input methods for Chinese: Pinyin, Cangjie, WuBi, 4Corner, Boshiamy, and special support  for a Radical/Stroke lookup input method. Select the input method of your preference from the Input method menu.

Han character information display

Mined provides special support for display of Han character  information according to the Unihan database. It comprises  semantic information and Mandarin, Cantonese, Hanyu Pinlu,  Hanyu Pinyin, XHC Hanyu pinyin, and Tang dynasty pronunciation.

Accented character input support

For Latin-based Pinyin transcription of Chinese, the usual  accent prefix functionality is available. <!p>

Japanese

Character sets

In addition to Unicode, mined supports JIS character sets  in EUC-JP or Shift_JIS (CP932) multi-byte encoding  →New→  and EUC-JIS-2004 (X 0213) or Shift_JIS-2004 (X 0213) encoding. To view and edit a file in one of these encodings, select it  from the Encoding menu (section "Japanese"), or use the  respective command line parameter -EJ  or -ES. See Character encoding flags for details.
Auto-detection: EUC-JP/-JIS and Shift_JIS text  encodings are also auto-detected when opening a file (with a  certain success rate). Set the environment variable MINEDDETECT="JS"  to constrain auto-detection to EUC-JP and Shift_JIS encodings,  →New→  or MINEDDETECT="Xx" to constrain  auto-detection to EUC-JIS X 0213 and Shift_JIS X 0213 encodings. See Mined configuration for details.
Terminal: Mined supports native CJK terminals;  make sure to indicate this properly with an environment variable  (LC_* / LANG). See Terminal encodings support  for details on detection and handling of CJK terminal features.

Input method

Mined provides the following built-in input methods for Japanese: Hiragana, Katakana, TUT roma, and special support for a  Radical/Stroke lookup input method. Select the input method of your preference from the Input method menu.
Mined does not implement, however, advanced Japanese input  methods that provide semantics-based Hanja input; for these, you  will have to set up or use an external input method with your  operating environment, which is then handled by the terminal which  delivers ready-composed characters transparently to the application.

Han character information display

Mined provides special support for display of Han character  information according to the Unihan database. It comprises  semantic information and Japanese and Sino-Japanese pronunciation.

Accented character input support

For Latin-based Romaji transcription of Japanese, the usual  accent prefix functionality is available. <!p>

Korean

Character sets

In addition to Unicode, mined supports UHC (CP949, including EUC-KR)  and Johab multi-byte character sets. To view and edit a file in one of these encodings, select it  from the Encoding menu (section "Korean"), or use the  respective command line parameter -EK  or -EH. See Character encoding flags for details.
Auto-detection: UHC text encoding is  also auto-detected when opening a file (with a certain  success rate). Set the environment variable MINEDDETECT="K"  to constrain auto-detection to UHC encoding. See Mined configuration for details.
Terminal: Mined supports native CJK terminals;  make sure to indicate this properly with an environment variable  (LC_* / LANG). See Terminal encodings support  for details on detection and handling of CJK terminal features.

Input method

Mined provides the following built-in input methods for Korean: Hangul, Hanja, and special support for a Radical/Stroke lookup  input method. Select the input method of your preference from the Input method menu.

Han character information display

Mined provides special support for display of Han character  information according to the Unihan database. It comprises  semantic information and Hangul and Korean pronunciation. <!p>

Vietnamese

Character sets

In addition to Unicode, mined supports VISCII, TCVN and  →New→  Windows Vietnamese (CP1258) character sets. To view and edit a file in one of these encodings, select it  from the Encoding menu (section "Vietnamese"), or use the  respective command line parameter -EV  or -EN. See Character encoding flags for details.
Auto-detection: VISCII text encoding is  also auto-detected when opening a file (with a certain  success rate). Set the environment variable MINEDDETECT="V"  to constrain auto-detection to VISCII encoding. See Mined configuration for details.
Terminal: If your terminal runs this encoding, make  sure to indicate this properly with an environment variable  (LC_* / LANG). See Terminal environment for details.

Input method

Mined provides the following built-in input methods for Vietnamese: VNI and VIQR. Select the input method of your preference from the Input method menu.
It may be more convenient, however, to use the extensive  accented character input support provided by mined together with  a normal Latin-based keyboard (so without a keyboard-mapping input  method), see Character input support for Vietnamese below.

Character input support

Mined provides input support for multiple accented characters  as used in Vietnamese, as well as convenient accent prefix  functions for combinations of two Vietnamese accents. Modified Ctrl-/Alt-/Alt-Ctrl- digit keys are used for  Vietnamese accent prefix functions. Alternatively, mnemonic character input can be used. See Accented and mnemonic input support  for details, and see below for some introducing comments.

An accent prefix can either be applied to the plain Latin base  letter, or to a precomposed Vietnamese letter which already has  one of the accents. These are:

U+00C2  LATIN CAPITAL LETTER A WITH CIRCUMFLEX

U+00E2  LATIN SMALL LETTER A WITH CIRCUMFLEX

U+00CA  LATIN CAPITAL LETTER E WITH CIRCUMFLEX

U+00EA  LATIN SMALL LETTER E WITH CIRCUMFLEX

U+00D4  LATIN CAPITAL LETTER O WITH CIRCUMFLEX

U+00F4  LATIN SMALL LETTER O WITH CIRCUMFLEX

U+0102  LATIN CAPITAL LETTER A WITH BREVE

U+0103  LATIN SMALL LETTER A WITH BREVE

U+01A0  LATIN CAPITAL LETTER O WITH HORN

U+01A1  LATIN SMALL LETTER O WITH HORN

U+01AF  LATIN CAPITAL LETTER U WITH HORN

U+01B0  LATIN SMALL LETTER U WITH HORN

Examples: Suppose your keyboard is mapped to have  Vietnamese characters like A with circumflex available. Then:

^V Â ' (Ctrl-V A-circumflex apostrophe)

enters the composite character U+1EA4 (A with circumflex and acute)

^V ~ Ô (Ctrl-V O-circumflex tilde)

enters the composite character U+1ED6 (O with circumflex and tilde)

Ctrl-6 A

enters U+00C2 (A with circumflex)

Alt-4 A

enters U+1EAA (A with circumflex and tilde)

Ctrl-Alt-3 A

enters U+1EB2 (A with breve and hook above)

Ctrl-Alt-3 O

enters U+1EDE (O with horn and hook above)

Note: Using composite base characters in mined  character mnemonics or accent prefix combinations as just  described also works in non-UTF-8 text encoding mode (e.g. in  VISCII or TCVN encoding). <!p>

Thai

Character sets

In addition to Unicode, mined supports the TIS-620 character  set (with CP874 extensions). To view and edit a file in this encoding, select it from the  Encoding menu (section "Thai"), or use the respective command  line parameter -ET. See Character encoding flags for details.
Terminal: If your terminal runs this encoding, make  sure to indicate this properly with an environment variable  (LC_* / LANG). See Terminal environment for details.

Input method

Mined provides a built-in Thai input method. Select the input method from the Input method menu.

Accented character input support

Not yet implemented. Tell me if you have a proposal or preference  for assignment of accent prefix functions to the keyboard.

Character handling support

This chapter describes mined features for character  manipulation and display of characters and character  properties. Unicode and CJK specific features are described  in the respective chapters. Character input support is  described separately in the subsequent chapter.

Script highlighting

It may be desirable to distinguish characters in different  script by displaying their glyphs in different colours. (This especially allows to distinguish easier between  similar glyphs as they occur in Latin/Greek/Cyrillic scripts.)
Script highlighting is currently pre-configured for  Greek and Cyrillic. It uses the terminal's 256-colour mode  if available.
The scripts to highlight and the colour values to use  can be configured at compile-time. See Mined configuration below.

Combining characters

When editing text in Unicode or any encoding that contains  combining characters, mined supports display and editing of  combining and combined characters.

(Note: Terminal support for combining characters is  auto-detected; additional command line options are available  in case this fails.)
If mined operates on a terminal that handles combining  characters, it offers two editing modes: combined or separated. They can be toggled by clicking the Combining display flag  in the Quick Options (Mode indication) flags  area (right part of the top screen line), or by the menu entry  "Options - Combined display"; separated display mode can also be selected by the command  line option -c.

Combined display and editing mode (Combining display flag ç)

Combined characters are displayed as intended (i.e., combined).

·

Micro movement into combined characters:

  • The cursor can be moved into a combined character with  Ctrl-cursor-left and Ctrl-cursor-right,  or ^V cursor-left and ^V cursor-right.
  • You can determine the exact position of the cursor if  permanent character info is switched on (by HOP ESC u or  with HOP "Toggle Char info" in the Options menu).
·

Partially editing combined characters:

  • If the cursor is on a combined character, delete next character  (e.g. Del on small keypad) will delete the whole  combined character, with all combining accents.
  • If the cursor is on a combined character, Ctrl-Del  will delete only the base character, leaving combining  accents which may then be combined with the previous  character.
  • If the cursor is within a combined character, delete next  character will delete the current combining accent only.
  • Smart backspacing: Ctrl-Backarrow or F5 Backarrow  ("Delete single") behind or within a combined character  will only delete the rightmost combining accent  (preceding the cursor position) while Backarrow would  delete the whole combined character.
    Note:→New→  Configuration option plain_BS  (command line option +Bp)  switches the Backarrow key from smart backspacing to  plain backspacing, i.e. no auto-undent and only delete  one combining character of a combined character. Use Shift-Control-Backarrow to perform smart backspacing then.
  • You can also position the cursor as described above and use  copy-and-paste operations.

Note: Ctrl-cursor-left and Ctrl-cursor-right  only work if these keys are configured to emit  distinguished escape sequences with Control key held down. With xterm, this works by default. With rxvt, use the small keypad cursor keys, or enable Control  on the right keypad with the sample configuration  file Xdefaults.mined in the Mined runtime support library. With mlterm, enable this with the sample configuration  file mlterm/key in the Mined runtime support library. Ctrl-Backarrow can also be configured to work with xterm  but doesn't appear to work with rxvt or mlterm,  use F5 Backarrow instead.

Separated display and editing mode (Combining display flag `)

Combined characters are separated into base character and  combining character(s) for display and editing. Combining  characters are indicated with coloured background.

  • In separated display mode, all cursor and text modification  operations work on the combining parts as displayed.
Input support: For input of Unicode combining characters,

see Combining character input below.

Note: Unicode combining characters (according to the

most recent version of Unicode known to mined) that are not  handled as combining characters by the terminal (which might  implement an older version of Unicode)  are always displayed like in separated display mode.

Note: Isolated combining characters, i.e. those

appearing at a line beginning or after a TAB character, are  always displayed like in separated display mode.

Character information display

The command ESC u displays character encoding information in the  bottom status line (conforming to ISO 14755); it displays the  character code in the selected encoding (UTF-8 byte sequence  in UTF-8 mode) and the ISO-10646 (Unicode) value of the  current character, as well as Unicode script range and  character category, width, and combining information. The Unicode value is displayed with 4 hexadecimal digits if  the character is in the Unicode BMP (Basic Multilingual Plane,  16 bit), with 6 digits if it is a Unicode character outside of  the BMP, and 8 digits if it is an ISO-10646 character outside  of the Unicode range. The information displayed also indicates all kinds of  encoding irregularities.
For the Unicode data version used for character properties  see the mined change log.

Permanent display of character information is toggled  with HOP ESC u or by selecting "Char info" in the Info menu  (or with HOP "Toggle Char info" in the Options menu).

In the Info menu, attributes that are shown with the character  information can be selected: Unicode script name, Unicode character name, →New→  Unicode named sequence,  Unicode character decomposition, list of input mnemonics. Note that Unicode named sequence information only applies to a  small number of named sequences, otherwise normal character  information is shown instead; also, it is only shown in combined  display mode, so normal information can be quickly toggled by  switching to separated display mode (middle-click on  ç flag).

Character information display can be selected with the  +?c command line parameter (see  parameter description for further options). To preselect continuous character information display, append  +?c to the environment variable MINEDOPT  or enable option "display_charinfo" in the runtime configuration file  $HOME/.minedrc.

Han character information display

CJK-specific character information (semantic and pronuciation  hints) is described below in section  Han character information display.

Character conversion features

Case conversion

The case conversion functions (ESC C, HOP ESC C, F11, HOP F11,  Shift-F3) cover the full Unicode range. They also handle special cases like Greek final sigma,  optionally Turkish "i", case mapping to multiple characters,  and Lithuanian special conditions. Japanese characters are toggled between Hiragana and Katakana  by the same functions.
Shift-F3 cycles casing of a word between all small, title case  (beginning capital), and all capitals. It handles title casing,  using Unicode title case characters for the first character  when appropriate. For Japanese script, it toggles the word between Hiragana and  Katakana.
The case mapping is based on the most recent Unicode  version compiled into mined (for the actual version see the  mined change log and the Options menu About command). It is applicable in all text encodings.

Line end type conversion

In the Options menu, a submenu "Lineend type..." offers functions  to convert the line end of the current line to LF or CRLF,  or to convert the line end type of all lines that do not have  a special line end to LF or CRLF.

Numeric conversion

Commands are available to insert characters corresponding to  a hexadecimal character code or hexadecimal/octal/decimal  Unicode value contained in the text, to insert a  respective value corresponding to the current character, or  to toggle the preceding character and its hexadecimal Unicode value (Alt-x). For details, see the section  Code conversion in the Command reference.

Numeric entity (HTML/URL) conversion

HTML numeric character entities (e.g. &#x40; or &#64; for @) or  URL escape notation (e.g. %20 for space, %C3%86 for Æ)  can be converted into unescaped characters. Use one of the  Mnemonic character substitution commands  (ESC _ or national variants) described below.

Mnemonic conversion

A character mnemonic at the cursor position can be replaced with  its associated character. Use one of the  Mnemonic character substitution commands  (ESC _ or national variants) described below.

Encoding conversion support

A special feature offers interactive conversion to or from  Unicode character encoding, see  Encoding conversion support in  chapter Unicode support below.

Unicode Copy/Paste buffer

The Copy/Paste buffer can be operated in Unicode mode in  which case it converts between text edited in different  character encodings. See Unicode Copy/Paste buffer conversion  below.

Smart quotes

In Smart quotes mode, straight (double or single) quote  characters «"» or «'» are automatically substituted with an  opening or closing typographic quotation mark, depending on  the text context, or an apostrophe where appropriate. Also, an acute accent key enters a typographic apostrophe. →New→  Alt-" or Alt-' enter the respective quotation marks of the  previous or standby style (see below).
Quote marks style selection:

  • Select the quotation marks style to be applied from the  Smart Quotes selection menu (open with ESC Q or Alt-Q or  right-click on the smart quotes indication in the flags area  in the top screen line).
  • To toggle between the current and the previous smart quotes style,  middle-click or double-click the smart quotes flag or select  "standby" from the menu.
  • →New→  To select the smart quotes style suitable for the current locale,  select "by locale" from the menu. This is also achieved with the  configuration option smart_quotes or  the command line option -q.

Quotation marks style can be preselected by either of the  mechanisms described below.

The smart quotes left/right selection algorithm considers both  the text context and the state (whether an open quote was  inserted before) to automatically support smart quotes also in  CJK text, and to try to distinguish an apostrophe from a quote mark. →New→  At a line beginning, always a left (opening) quotation mark is  chosen, supporting the habit in some languages to repeat  opening quote marks for each new paragraph inside a quotation.
French quotation marks spacing is automatically applied (using  no-break space U+00A0) if French style has been selected from  the menu or by locale.
A typographic apostrophe can also be inserted with HOP ' (^G ')  or with HOP ´ (acute accent), regardless of smart quotes mode. In smart quotes mode, a typographic apostrophe is also inserted on  input of ´ (acute accent).
Straight quotes or accent marks (" ' ` ´) can be inserted with  mnemonic compose pairs (^V ^ " or ^V ^ '  or ^V ^ ` or ^V ^ ´, or ^V"#  or ^V'# or ^V`# or ^V´#  respectively).
Smart quotes are applicable in all text encodings provided  the desired quote marks are contained in the selected encoding.

When a file is loaded, mined tries to determine the applicable  quotation marks style in two ways: With file position memory (see  File info: Memory of file position and editing style parameters above), mined also remembers the last selected smart quotes  mode for the file. If that information is not available, mined auto-detects  existing quotation marks in the file and adjusts its smart  quotes mode accordingly. The option -q  overrides this detection.

→New→  With command-line option -q alone,  quotation marks style is derived from locale information  (environment variables  →New→ LANGUAGE,  TEXTLANG, LC_ALL,  LC_CTYPE, LANG), or from a locale  value given with the option as -q=locale. For some languages, two styles are predefined, using the primary  style as active smart quotes style, and the secondary or alternate  style as standby style, for quick toggling with a middle mouse click  on the Quotes flag  (or using the standby entry from the Quote marks menu). The active quote marks style can also be derived explicitly  from the locale with the Quotes menu option "by locale".
Option +q exchanges primary and  alternate quotation marks style, setting the alternate style active.
Without an option -q, the primary  locale-derived quote marks style is always set as standby style  to be quickly available.
Note: Language-dependent quotations marks styles  are determined using the compile-time configuration file  quotes.cfg. See Quotation Marks Styles  on the mined web site for a listing.
Note:  Smart quotes style can also be preselected giving the desired  quotation marks directly, either as command line option like  -q="«»" or with the environment  variable MINEDQUOTES  (see under Environment configuration hints below); this overrides both auto-detection and the preference  saved with the cursor position.

Smart text replacements: apostrophe, smart dashes, arrows and glottal stop

If smart quotes are active, some other smart input text  replacements are applied to respective characters being entered. (Replacement of subsequent character input sequences is suppressed  during a repeat command entering multiple characters.)

--

if preceded by a Space character: en dash (U+2013)
otherwise: em dash (U+2014)

-  or -TAB

→New→  if leading a line (only white space before): en dash (U+2013)

-

→New→  if embedded in spaces: minus sign (U+2212)

-

if an adjacent character is in the Hebrew  script range: Hebrew hyphen mark Maqaf (U+05BE)

<-

leftwards arrow (U+2190)

->

rightwards arrow (U+2192)

<>

left right arrow (U+2194)

´

apostrophe (U+2019 right single quotation mark)

`

glottal stop (U+02BB modifier letter turned comma)

Note: →New→  Mined smartly avoids inappropriate placement of smart replacements  as well as double spaces by redundant combination of smart spaces  and explicitly entered spaces, so you can seamlessly type either  "bonjour" or " bonjour "  to enter « bonjour » with French quotes, or  a -- b to enter an en dash although a space is  initially inserted after it.

Character input support

Some character input support features support international  scripts (especially with Keyboard Mapping and  Input Methods), others mainly address composite characters. For the latter, it is useful to explain a few notions:

Combining character:

A character (usually in Unicode) that is defined to combine  with the previous character into a combined character, to be  displayed as a single glyph (visual unit).

Combined character:

The glyph combination of a Unicode character (base character)  with one or more Unicode combining characters.

Composed character (or composite character):

A character that has one or more accents composed  into it, or is otherwise composed of components, like the ae  ligature, to be displayed as a single glyph. It can be a  single Unicode character or a Unicode combined character  consisting of a Unicode base character and one or two Unicode  combining characters.

Accented character (or diacritic character):

A special case of a composite character where a letter is  composed with one or more accents.

Compose key:

A number of system and keyboard vendors have equipped  their keyboards with a "Compose" or "Combine" key. This key -  when configured and interpreted properly by the operating  environment - produces a composed character which is then  provided as input to the application.

Accented and mnemonic input support

Function keys or character mnemonics can be used to  enter accented or other composite characters. (This is also known as digraph function with some editors.)
These character composition functions also work on the prompt line.
(Any composite character configured on your keyboard can of  course also be entered directly or using the Compose/Combine  key of your keyboard.)

Note that mnemonic input and accent prefix keys can be

combined in flexible ways, e.g.

^V ' Ctrl-F6 e

or

F6 ^V e ^

which both enter U+1EBF (e with circumflex and acute)

Mnemonic input can be applied recursively to compose a character

for further composition, e.g.

^V ' ^V a e

enters U+01FD (æ with acute)

Accent prefix keys can use an already precomposed base

character for further composition; if this does not match an  explicitly known mnemonic, the base character is decomposed  first to find a match, e.g.

F6 ü

or

F5 ú

which both enter U+01D8 (u with diaeresis and acute)

Up to three accent prefix keys can be combined by entering

them in sequence in order to compose characters with multiple  accents, e.g.

F5 F6 u

enters U+01D8 (u with diaeresis and acute)

Ctrl-2 Ctrl-7 a

enters U+1EB1 (a with grave and breve)

Ctrl-- Ctrl-: u

enters U+1E7B (u with macron and diaeresis)

Ctrl-, Ctrl-( e

enters U+1E1D (e with cedilla and breve)

Alt-7 Ctrl-, < alpha >
Alt-F6 Shift-F6 Ctrl-, < alpha >
Ctrl-< Ctrl-` Ctrl-, < alpha >

all enter U+1F82 (alpha with psili and varia and ypogegrammeni) where < alpha > indicates the Greek letter  alpha, which may e.g. be entered by selecting the  Greek input method and typing the "a" key

Accent prefix keys

General notes on using keys with Control, Shift, Alt modifiers:

Especially for accented character input, mined makes use of  key combinations modified with Control, Shift, Alt, or a  combination of them. Some of these key combinations may be limited by local  environment, especially the window system, or may need  extra configuration to be enabled.

·

Hint on input of Alt/Ctrl-modified function keys: These are often intercepted by window systems for special  functions.

  • Alt: Alternatively to using the Alt key,  the ESC key can be used as a prefix to a function key to achieve  the same modified function, e.g. ESC F6 instead of Alt-F6. Note, however, that there is an ESCAPE delay (default 450 ms)  during which the subsequent function key should be pressed.
  • Control: Alternatively to using the Control key,  Ctrl-V can be used as a prefix to a function key to achieve  the same modified function, e.g. Ctrl-V F6 instead of Ctrl-F6.

Specific advice:

Window system

suppresses
remedy

KDE

Ctrl-Fn, Ctrl-Shift-Fn, Alt-Fn
press the "Window key" additionally at the same time,  e.g. Window-Alt-F6 or use ESC or Ctrl-V prefixes,  e.g. ESC F6 (be fast!), Ctrl-V Shift-F5

gnome-wm

Alt-F5
Window-Alt-F5 or ESC F5 (be fast!)

fvwm2

Alt-Fn
ESC Fn (be fast!)

Exceed

Alt-Fn, Alt-Shift-Fn
ESC Fn, ESC Shift-Fn (be fast!)
or: configure ("Tools - Configuration... - Keyboard Input") "Windows Modifier Behavior - Alt Key:" and select "To X"

·

Modified digit keys (e.g. Alt-2) as well as  Ctrl-modified punctuation keys (e.g. Ctrl-;)  are used as extended and intuitive accent prefix keys. To enable them, either use a recent version of xterm (216) or  configure them with your terminal.
Configuration instructions for older versions of xterm and  for rxvt can be found in the sample file  Xdefaults.mined in the Mined  runtime support library.

·

Note: In rxvt, Ctrl-modified and shifted punctuation keys  (if enabled by configuration following the hint above)  interfere with ISO 14755 input mode of rxvt; if the following  key is entered twice, that mode is aborted and the modified  punctuation key becomes effective as an accent prefix in mined.

·

Warning: The Alt-F4 key combination should not  accidently be hit as many window managers use it to kill  the terminal window!

The following table lists the accent prefix keys:

F5

(Sun: R4/-) diaeresis (umlaut) / dialytika

Shift-F5

(Sun: R5/÷) tilde / perispomeni

Ctrl-F5

(Sun: R6/×) ring / cedilla / iota (ypogegrammeni)

Alt-F5

stroke

Ctrl-Shift-F5

ogonek / prosgegrammeni

Alt-Shift-F5

breve / vrachy

F6

(Sun: R3) acute (accent d'aigu) / tonos

Shift-F6

(Sun: R1) grave / varia

Ctrl-F6

(Sun: R2) circumflex / oxia

Alt-F6

caron / psili

Ctrl-Shift-F6

macron / descender

Alt-Shift-F6

dot above / dasia

Ctrl-1

acute

Ctrl-2

grave

Ctrl-3

hook above

Ctrl-4

tilde

Ctrl-5

dot below

Ctrl-6

circumflex

Ctrl-7

breve

Ctrl-8

horn

Ctrl-9

stroke

Ctrl-0

ring / cedilla

Alt-1

circumflex and acute

Alt-2

circumflex and grave

Alt-3

circumflex and hook above

Alt-4

circumflex and tilde

Alt-5

circumflex and dot below

Ctrl-Alt-1

breve/horn and acute (composes following A/a with breve and acute, or  following O/o or U/u with horn and acute)

Ctrl-Alt-2

breve/horn and grave

Ctrl-Alt-3

breve/horn and hook above

Ctrl-Alt-4

breve/horn and tilde

Ctrl-Alt-5

breve/horn and dot below

Alt-6

psili and oxia

Ctrl-Alt-6

dasia and oxia

Alt-7

psili and varia

Ctrl-Alt-7

dasia and varia

Alt-8

psili and perispomeni

Ctrl-Alt-8

dasia and perispomeni

Ctrl-'

(Ctrl-apostrophe) acute (d'aigu) / tonos

Ctrl-´

(Ctrl-acute) acute (d'aigu) / oxia

Ctrl-`

(Ctrl-grave) grave / varia

Ctrl-^

circumflex / oxia

Ctrl-~

tilde / perispomeni / titlo

Ctrl-:

diaeresis (umlaut) / dialytika

Ctrl-"

diaeresis (umlaut) / dialytika

Ctrl-,

cedilla / ring / iota (ypogegrammeni)

Ctrl-/

stroke

Ctrl--

(Ctrl-minus) macron / descender

Ctrl-<

caron / psili

Ctrl-.

dot above / dasia (with i or j: dotless)

Ctrl-(

breve / vrachy

Ctrl-;

ogonek / prosgegrammeni / tail / tick / upturn

Ctrl-)

inverted breve

Ctrl-&

hook

Ctrl-- Ctrl-&

middle hook

Note: If your keyboard assignment provides its own  accent prefix keys ("dead keys"), pressing the key twice usually  delivers the corresponding spacing character which can then be  used for the extended accent prefix functionality of mined;  e.g. hold Control, then press ´ (acute key) twice, to invoke  the acute/oxia prefix function of mined.

Note: For combining multiple accents, in most

cases their order does not matter. As an exception, to combine  dot above and macron, enter prefix keys in this order, as s macron and dot above will be interpreted as dot below.

dot macron

e.g. Ctrl-. Ctrl-- dot above and macron (on A or O)

macron dot

e.g. Ctrl-- Ctrl-. dot below

Note: For the sake of accepting Ctrl--

intuitively both as an accent prefix for macron as well as an  accent modifier to place an accent below a letter, the  macron accent prefix combined with another accent prefix key  is also interpreted as applying that accent below. As a  workaround to ambiguous cases, it has to be applied twice with  diaeris for diaeresis below (U), and three times for line below.

macron macron diaeresis

e.g. Ctrl-- Ctrl-- Ctrl-: diaeresis below

macron diaeresis

e.g. Ctrl-- Ctrl-: macron and diaeresis

diaeresis macron

e.g. Ctrl-: Ctrl-- diaeresis and macron

macron macron macron

e.g. Ctrl-- Ctrl-- Ctrl-- line below

Note: Some accent prefix keys, when applied twice in

sequence, are mapped to a single accent as follows:

acute acute

e.g. F6 F6 double acute accent

grave grave

e.g. Shift-F6 Shift-F6 double grave accent

macron macron

e.g. Ctrl-- Ctrl-- bar/topbar

cedilla cedilla

e.g. Ctrl-, Ctrl-, psili/comma below

Combining character input

Unicode combining characters can be entered

by applying accent prefix keys to the Tab key. They will be  visually combined with the previous character by rules of Unicode  (and by terminal implementation). Examples:

Ctrl-, Tab

combining cedilla

F6 F6 Tab

combining double acute accent

Special character input shortcuts

Typographic quotation marks can be entered

by applying accent prefix keys to the space key as follows,  or using certain input mnemonics or shifted combinations (see below):

(twice) grave space

(double) left quotation mark

(twice) acute space

(double) right quotation mark

acute space

e.g. F6 space or Ctrl-' space also serves for input of typographic apostrophe (or HOP ')

(twice) cedilla space

(double) low-9 quotation mark

(twice) dot above space

(double) high-reversed-9 quotation mark

^V < < or ^V > >

double angle quotation marks « »

^V < space or ^V > space

single angle quotation marks

" or '

outer or inner quotation mark of selected quote marks style

Alt-" or Alt-'

→New→  outer or inner quotation mark of previous/standby quote marks style

Some characters are specifically mapped to special key

combinations or specific applications of accent prefix keys  for convenience or for Windows compatibility:

Ctrl-Shift-space

no-break space (U+00A0)

Ctrl-@ a/A

å/Å

Ctrl-& a/A

æ/Æ

Ctrl-& o/O

oe/OE ligature

Ctrl-& s

ß

Ctrl-?

¿

Ctrl-!

¡

As with modified keys in general, these shortcuts may depend on  proper terminal configuration according to the sample files in  the Mined runtime support library.

Line ends

Key combinations are available to enter specific kinds of line ends

(works in xterm and mintty):

Ctrl-Alt-Enter

DOS or Unix line end (if editing Unix or DOS file, respectively)

Ctrl-Shift-Alt-Enter

Mac line end

Ctrl-Enter

Unicode line separator (if editing Unicode text)

Shift-Enter or HOP Enter

Unicode paragraph separator (if editing Unicode text)

→NEW→ Control-Shift-Enter

ISO 8859 Next Line (if editing Unicode or ISO 8859 text)

Also, the line end type of a line can be changed from a submenu

of the Options menu.

Character input mnemonics

The enter-control-code prefix (^V by default, ^Q in emacs  keyboard mode, ^_ in Windows and pico keyboard modes, ^P in  WordStar keyboard mode) can be used for mnemonic character  composition. This covers accented characters and other mnemonics. The available mnemonics include RFC1345 mnemonics (extended  to provide generic accent mnemonics for Unicode characters),  mnemonics known from HTML and TeX, →New→  groff glyphs (roff special characters), and useful supplementary mnemonics. See Character Mnemos reference on  the mined web site for a listing.
Supplementary character mnemonics are consistent with generic  RFC1345 mnemonics; scripts covered are Latin, Greek, Cyrillic.

For accent compositions, mnemonic patterns  (generic accent mnemonics) are listed in the following table; the respective letter to place the accent(s) on is indicated  with an "x" below.

For Greek and Cyrillic accented characters, mnemonics combining  accents with Greek or Cyrillic base characters are generated  automatically from the UnicodeData.txt database.
Greek and Cyrillic accent prefix keys reuse those for  Latin accents and are listed in the sections on Greek and Cyrillic  script support (see Language support).

generic mnemonic

accent placed on the base character ("x")

x: or "x

diaeresis (umlaut)

x' or ´x

acute (accent d'aigu)

x! or `x

grave

x> or ^x

circumflex

x? or ~x

tilde

x0 or °x

ring above

x,

cedilla

x-

macron

x(

breve

x.

dot above / middle dot

x_ or _x

line below

x/

stroke

x" or x''

double acute

x;

ogonek

x<

caron

x2

hook above

x9

horn

x-> or >x

circumflex below

x-. or .x

dot below

x--. or .x-

dot below and macron

x.-. or .x.

dot below and dot above

x7 or x.-

dot above and macron

x~- or x?-

tilde and macron

x;-

ogonek and macron

x:-

diaeresis and macron

x-:

macron and diaeresis

x-'

macron and acute

x-!

macron and grave

-x or x--

topbar

--x or x--

bar

,x or x-,

comma below / left hook

x# or x!!

double grave

x)

inverted breve

x&

hook

%x

retroflex hook

x,,

palatal hook

x~~

middle tilde

x}

curl

x-? or ?x

tilde below

x--: or :x

diaeresis below

x-0 or ox

ring below

x-( or (x

breve below

x(-. or .x(

breve and dot below

x>-. or .x>

circumflex and dot below

x9-. or .x9

horn and dot below

x'.

acute and dot above

x('

breve and acute

x(!

breve and grave

x(2

breve and hook above

x(?

breve and tilde

x<.

caron and dot above

x,'

cedilla and acute

x,(

cedilla and breve

x>'

circumflex and acute

x>!

circumflex and grave

x>2

circumflex and hook above

x>?

circumflex and tilde

x:'

diaeresis and acute

x:<

diaeresis and caron

x:!

diaeresis and grave

x9'

horn and acute

x9!

horn and grave

x92

horn and hook above

x9?

horn and tilde

x0'

ring above and acute

x/'

stroke and acute

x?'

tilde and acute

x?:

tilde and diaeresis

See also the description of the  ^V function below for more  input options.
Two-letter mnemonics can also be entered in reverse order if  this is unambiguous. Detection of reverse order mnemomics (two letters or one letter  and multiple accents) as well as the generic accent mnemonics  " ^ ` ~ ¨ ¯ ´ ¸ ° works with both short mnemonic  entry (two-letter "^Vxy") and full mnemonic entry  ("^V xy... ").

Mnemonic character substitution commands  (ESC _ and national variants) replace characters at the cursor  position with the respective character described by them. The following substitute descriptions are detected:

  • Two-character mnemonic
  • HTML character mnemonic
  • HTML numeric character entity
  • URL escape notation (bytewise hexadecimal with % prefixes)

Keyboard Mapping and Input Methods

Mined supports optional keyboard mapping which is especially  useful for Unicode or CJK editing. When a keyboard mapping is selected, input characters or  sequences are transformed to other characters or sequences,  typically of a certain Unicode script range.
Keyboard mappings for Greek, Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic, and  major CJK input methods are preconfigured (they have been  ordered in the Input Method menu according to the order of  their respective basic ranges in the Unicode character set, or  to the order of the letters of the usual abbreviation CJKV for  East Asian text processing - Chinese, Japanese, Korean,  Vietnamese). The Radical/Stroke input  method provides additional functionality as a special case.
Mined provides compile-time configuration of additional input  methods; for this aim, further mappings can be generated using the  mkkbmap script (from tables  in various formats as used by other editors or supplied by the  m17n multilingualization package) and then compiled into mined. See Mined configuration below for details.

Keyboard mapping works as follows: You enter a key sequence  that is mapped to a character sequence in the selected  keyboard mapping table. The transformed character sequence is  used as input.
As some typical keyboard mappings contain ambigous key  sequences where one may be a prefix of another, a short delay  is applied in these cases to allow recognition of any such  sequence to be mapped. After a timeout, the shorter sequence  already matching will be used; the timeout can be cut short by  typing a Space key, the Space character itself will then be  discarded. (The timeout value is 900 ms by default and can be  configured with the environment variable MAPDELAY.)

Pick lists

Some keyboard mappings, especially for CJK input methods,  contain multiple choice mappings. In these cases, a selection  menu is displayed that offers a "pick list" to select a  character from. A character can be picked with a mouse click,  or by navigation to the desired choice with the cursor keys  (down/up, right/left, page down/up) or the '<'/'>' keys , or  by just selecting the menu row first (cursor-up/down), then  typing a digit 1-9 or 0 to select the numbered character.
The Space key can be configured to either navigate to the  next choice, the next row, or to select the current choice;  see option -K. If the pick list is too large to fit on the screen,  the menu will be scrollable or pageable (using cursor keys).

While navigating through the pick list, the line and the  selected item in the line are highlighted accordingly; if  the current item is a CJK character, also its character  information (description and optionally pronunciations as  configured with the Han info option of  the '?' information flag menu) is displayed on the status  line. If the item is a word comprising multiple CJK characters,  the information for only the first of them is shown. The  available information is derived from the Unihan database.

Keyboard mapping data are based on Unicode. So in CJK text  mode, the selection menu (the pick list) may contain symbols  that are not mapped to the active CJK text encoding. In a  UTF-8 terminal, these will still be displayed but cannot be  inserted. In a CJK terminal, some characters may not be  displayed; an empty entry is shown instead. (In a non-Unicode,  when editing text in a different encoding, there may even  be characters that cannot be displayed in the selection menu  but can be inserted.)

Input method selection

An active and a standby input method (keyboard mapping) are  maintained. They can be toggled quickly for text input, also  on the prompt line.
The current mapping is indicated as the Input Method flag  by its two-letter script tag in the flags area, showing "--" if no mapping is active.

The active mapping can be selected in the following ways:

ESC k or Alt-k or Ctrl-Alt-F12 or left click on Input Method flag

toggles between current (active) and previously  selected (standby) input method (keyboard mapping)
(Alt- toggle functions also work on prompt line)

HOP ESC k (or HOP Alt-k)

clears input method, i.e. resets keyboard mapping  to none (unmapped input)

ESC I or Alt-I or ESC K or Alt-K or Ctrl-F12

opens the Input Method (Keyboard Mapping) selection menu
(Alt-I or Alt-K or Ctrl-F12 also work on prompt line)

right click on Input Method flag

opens the Input Method selection menu

HOP ESC K or HOP Alt-K

cycles through available input methods / keyboard mappings

If file position memory is enabled (see  File info: Memory of file position and editing style parameters above), mined also remembers the last selected input method  for the file.

Note: For preselecting the active or standby input method  by environment configuration, see about usage of the  environment variable MINEDKEYMAP below.

Note: Keyboard mapping is implicitly suppressed temporarily  where it is not useful: during mnemonic character input, HTML  marker input, command letter entry, help selection, yes/no prompting.

Character encoding support

A character encoding for interpretation and handling of text  is selected in one of the following ways:

Auto-detected character encodings

The following encodings are auto-detected unless  overridden with a -E command line  option (or -l or -u); the preceding one-letter tag can be used for auto-detection  configuration with the environment variable MINEDDETECT:

-

UTF-8

-

UTF-16 encoding (big or little endian) with or  without BOM (byte order marker)

8

any 8 bit encoding; this is auto-detected in a  generic way; the actual 8 bit encoding assumed  corresponds to the terminal encoding if it is an 8 bit  terminal; otherwise, Latin-1 is assumed; using "8" in the environment variable MINEDDETECT  excludes all CJK encodings from auto-detection (but not UTF-8),  and adds all 8 bit encodings that are not included by default

L

Latin-1 (ISO 8859-1)

W

Windows Western ("ANSI", CP1252)

P

PC Latin-1 (CP850)

M

MacRoman

-

CJK encoding (with unspecified mapping) is  pre-auto-detected in a generic way; usually the actual  CJK encoding is determined, too

G

GB18030 (including CP936)

B

Big5 (including CP950)

J

EUC-JP

X

→New→  EUC-JIS-2004 / EUC-JIS X 0213

S

Shift_JIS / CP932

x

→New→  Shift_JIS-2004 / Shift_JIS X 0213

K

UHC / CP949 (including EUC-KR)

V

VISCII

Note: For new files, the text encoding is derived from  the locale environment. →New→  With command line option -E- or  -E auto-detection is disabled and  text encoding is always derived from the locale environment.

CJK and mapped 8 bit encoding support

Mined supports major CJK encodings as well as mapped  8 bit encodings ("character sets"). Mined has built-in support for a large number of 8 bit encodings  which appear to be in use or unique for a region. The Encoding  menu has been structured with submenus to provide a concise  menu selection feature.

→New→

EBCDIC support Mined supports EBCDIC encoded files (transparently transforming  them for internal handling) in the "bracket" codepage CP1047 as  used by the Unix System Services (USS) on IBM z/OS. CP1047 is selected with command line option  -E=cp1047 or  -E.EBCDIC or  -E:47. The character encoding flag indicates EBCDIC with  "47".
New files in EBCDIC encoding will by default use Next Line  as line separators; add option -r  to prefer LF.
New lines can be added selecting LF or NL lineend type  explicitly with Ctrl-Enter or Shift-Enter.

Combining characters

In all character encodings handled by mined that contain  combining characters, mined handles them and provides partial  editing and an optional separated display mode as described  above in section  Combining characters. (CJK encodings EUC-JIS-2004, Shift_JIS-2004 and GB18030,  Vietnamese TCVN and Windows Vietnamese (CP1258), Thai TIS-620,  ISO Arabic, Mac Arabic, DOS Arabic, ISO Hebrew, Windows Hebrew). Handling of combining text characters is properly coordinated  with the set of combining characters supported by the terminal.

For Japanese X 0213 encodings, the character codes that map to  two Unicode characters are supported.

Terminal environment for CJK encoding support

Mined supports handling of CJK text encoding in any terminal  (see Terminal encoding support below). However, proper display of a wide range of CJK characters can  obviously only work in either a Unicode terminal (recommended)  or in a native CJK terminal that runs the same encoding as the  selected text encoding.

CJK terminals: For terminals that support native CJK encodings  (e.g. cxterm, kterm, hanterm), the terminal encoding assumed by  mined can be specified with a command line option or by proper  locale indication in one of the environment variables LC_ALL,  LC_CTYPE or LANG. For available encodings, see Quick Options (Mode indication) flags. For usage of the +E options, see the  description of the Terminal  encoding options above. For usage of the locale environment variables, see  Locale configuration.

Note: In native CJK terminals, it is often troublesome  to find a working encoding configuration and font setup, and  the locale environment is not automatically set by the terminals. A collection of wrapper scripts is available  ( http://towo.net/mined/terminals.tar.gz) to help with this  setup problem and demonstrate the invocation of a number of  different CJK and 8 bit encoded terminal windows, along with  selection of suitable fonts and proper locale environment  setting.

Note: Native CJK terminals have a different  assumption of the range of character codes supported in an  encoding family, e.g. Big5 / Big5 with HKSCS, GB2312 / GBK /  GB18030, EUC-KR / UHC, EUC-JP without/with 3 byte codes. For compact handling, mined always assumes the largest superset  of these encoding families. It does, however, have some features  to prevent display garbage in most cases when a terminal supports  a smaller character set: By default, mined does not display the following CJK  character codes in a native CJK terminal, i.e. it displays a  substitute indication for them (see CJK character display above):

  • Unknown characters: CJK characters that have no defined  mapping to a valid Unicode character. Use the +C option to override this  display suppression and enforce transparent display of unknown  characters in a CJK terminal.
  • Invalid characters: CJK characters that do not match the  encoding scheme (e.g. wrt. to specified byte ranges) of the  selected encoding. Use the +CC option to override this  display suppression and enforce transparent display of invalid  character codes in a CJK terminal.
  • Extended characters: CJK characters encoded with 3 or  4 bytes. Use the +CCC option to override this  display suppression and enforce transparent display of extended  character codes in a CJK terminal.

Regardless of all these features and options, it may not  always be possible to prevent display garbage, especially  if the font used by the terminal does not cover the needed  character range. To avoid these problems in general, it is recommended to use  a Unicode terminal for editing CJK encoded files.

See also Terminal interworking  problems for special hints about certain terminals.

VT100 special graphics character set display support

→New→  Mined can display and edit files containing codes for  VT100 line drawing graphics characters, showing corresponding  small letters as their respective graphic symbol. This option can be toggled from the Options menu and will  be cleared also on an explicit screen redraw command (ESC .).

Unicode support

Introduction: handling Unicode encodings

Mined interprets UTF-8 which is a multi-byte character  encoding of the ISO-10646 character set, part of which is also  known as Unicode. When reading a file, it detects UTF-8 encoding automatically  (unless overridden by explicitly selecting a text encoding with  a command line option -u or  -l or -E...). It can also edit UTF-16 encoded Unicode files (UTF-16 can  represent the complete 21 bit Unicode subset of ISO-10646). UTF-16 big or little endian with or without BOM (byte order  mark U+FEFF) is auto-detected or can be selected with a  command-line option (see  notes under Locale configuration below).
UTF-16 is maintained transparently, i.e. a UTF-16 encoded file  is written back in UTF-16, and if it was beginning with a BOM  this is maintained. No explicit UTF-16 entry exists, however, in the Encoding menu  since the text is internally handled in UTF-8. However, the  character encoding flag indicates UTF-16 file encoding with either  "16" (big endian) or  "61" (little endian).

UTF-8 internal representation, transparent handling of other text

Mined handles UTF-8 representation internally and also edits  and keeps illegal UTF-8 sequences. This way, if you  happen to open a Latin-1 or CJK or any other encoded file  in UTF-8 mode, or switch encoding while editing, or edit a  file with mixed encoding, the text contents can still be  edited and you will not loose any file contents information.

Character encoding indication

The upper-right flags area has a character encoding indication  which shows "U8" if UTF-8  text interpretation is selected. For Latin-1 text interpretation  "L1" is shown, for others see  Quick Options (Mode indication) flags. You may click on the indication flag to toggle between the  current and the previous selected encoding.

Character information display

The Character information display  command ESC u is described above; character information display  can also be preselected by environment configuration. In UTF-8 mode, information shown includes the UTF-8 encoding  byte sequence.

Character input support

With ^V, mined's special character input support is invoked  (both while editing text and entering text on the prompt line,  e.g. as a search expression). With this feature, (in addition to plain control characters)  a composite character can be entered by its accent combination  or other mnemonic character description; a more-than-two letter character mnemonics would be embedded  in space characters after the ^V. In addition, numeric character codes or values can be entered  with leading ^V#, octal/decimal with ^V##/^V#=, Unicode with  optional u/U/+. (For examples, see description of the ^V function below.) With numeric character input, mined supports successive  multiple character entry according to ISO 14755; if the  numeric code is terminated by a Space key, another numeric  character can be entered subsequently; an Enter key  terminates numeric character input.

See also the generic section  Character input support above  for input support for accented characters and keyboard mapping.

Encoding conversion support

Two functions support interactive character encoding conversion  (Latin-1 to UTF-8 or UTF-8 to current encoding)  to partially fix files with mixed encoding. In either text encoding mode, the search function looks for  characters encoded in UTF-8 (when not editing in UTF-8 mode)  or not (when editing in UTF-8 mode); the command is  HOP ESC ( or Alt-F11 . Then, convert the character with ESC _ or its national variant  (see mnemonic character substitution  commands in the Command reference).
For repeated interactive conversion, both functions can be  combined into Alt-Shift-F11 (convert current character, then  search next).

Unicode Copy/Paste buffer conversion

For the Copy/Paste buffer, Unicode mode can be selected which  maintains its contents always in Unicode, so that Copy/Paste  of text works between differently encoded files (or sections  of a file, if encoding is switched while editing) with automatic  character code conversion. This mode is only effective while editing with non-Unicode  encoded text interpretation.
Select this mode with the command line option  -Eu or in the Paste buffer menu  (righ-click on the Buffer mode flag "=" or  "+") and select "Unicode".
Unicode buffer mode is indicated by cyan background of the  Paste buffer flag (then "=" or  "+"), except in Unicode text mode.

Smart quotes and dashes

If smart quotes mode is enabled (see the Quotes style menu under  the Quotes flag left to the Encoding flag and menu), quote mark  keys will enter typographic smart quotes instead. Smart dashes  also apply. See Smart quotes above for more details.

Bidirectional terminal support

A bidirectional terminal (such as mlterm) will probably  also apply Arabic LAM/ALEF ligature joining. Mined auto-detects  this feature and enables bidi terminal handling automatically. Otherwise, bidi terminal handling can be configured with the  option +UU.
In this mode, when displaying a menu, underlying text  lines that contain right-to-left characters are cleared first  in order to prevent display confusion between the terminal's  bidi algorithm and the menu position.
Also, with bidi terminal handling enabled, mined assumes  that the terminal applies Arabic LAM/ALEF ligature joining  and properly accounts for this feature in display position  handling.
In separated display mode, the joining part of the ligature  is indicated similar to the handling of combining characters.

Input support for right-to-left scripts (“poor man's bidi” mode)

This support feature for input of right-to-left text pieces  is enabled by default unless the terminal is detected to be  in bidi mode itself (e.g. mlterm).
"Poor man's bidi" mode is suitable to insert small pieces of  right-to-left text (words, phrases) within left-to-right text,  it stores right-to-left text in visual order (see below)  and works as follows:
After entering a right-to-left Unicode character, the cursor  position is moved left of it, so subsequent characters will be  appended left and the text shifted right. Characters are  stored in visual order while input support is implicit, based  on the characters being typed. Entering a left-to-right  character will automatically skip behind the previously  entered right-to-left text on the line  and switch to left-to-right direction; this behaviour  optimizes inserting small pieces of right-to-left text into  basically left-to-right text; this priority is justified by  the assumption that this mode (with visual storing order) is  only useful for inserting small right-to-left quotations into  left-to-right text and not for editing right-to-left documents  (which should be stored in logical order).
Newline, Space, Tab, and combining characters attempt to  behave well according to what was entered before; however,  intermediate cursor movement is not considered.
Note: For proper support of right-to-left text  editing stored in logical order, please use mined in a  right-to-left terminal (mintty, mlterm). Adding a feature for  advanced bidi support in all terminals is being considered.
Note: Poor man's bidi mode also works in non-Unicode text encodings.
Note: Poor man's bidi mode is similar to the "revins"  (reverse insert) option of vim.

Unicode line ends

Mined detects and handles Unicode line separators and  paragraph separators (unless disabled with  +u-u). They are displayed as shown above. Interpretation of these characters as line ends is disabled if  a file is explicitly opened in non-Unicode encoding (but not  if non-Unicode encoding is just auto-detected).
If editing Unicode text, HOP Enter will insert a Unicode  paragraph separator, Enter in a line that already has a  Unicode line end will insert a Unicode line separator. Also, the keys Shift-Enter or Ctrl-Enter insert a paragraph  separator or line separator respectively.
Configuration: In order to enable shift and control  with the Enter keys, xterm or rxvt must be configured as shown  in the example configuration file Xdefaults.mined  in the Mined runtime support library.

Unicode display

In UTF-8 terminal mode, mined displays all Unicode characters  if they are contained in the font used by the terminal. Fonts usually have a substitute glyph to indicate characters  not contained in the font. Wide characters (double-width glyphs) are displayed in a  double-width character cell of the terminal. Combining characters are displayed either combined or  separated (see Combining characters below).

Illegal UTF-8 sequences are displayed with highlighted  background, using the following indications. Furthermore, control characters encoded as a UTF-8 sequence  and control characters in the "C1" range (values 0x80..0x9F)  will be displayed similar to normal control characters but  with coloured highlighting.

8

for an unexpected UTF-8 continuation byte (range 80-BF)

4

for a 0xFE (254) byte

5

for a 0xFF (255) byte

«

for a too short UTF-8 sequence if followed by a  single-byte character (00..7F)

»

for a too short UTF-8 sequence if followed by a  multi-byte character (C0..FF)

Illegal or non-Unicode characters are indicated with the following replacements:

(or ? or []) a character code ending with FFFE or FFFF (override substitution for transparent display with  +C)

(or ? or []) a surrogate code point (override substitution for transparent display with  +CC)

(or ? or []) a code point outside the defined Unicode range (override substitution for transparent display with  +CCC)

Character substitution display

Legal characters (in the effective text encoding) that cannot  be displayed in a non-Unicode terminal are indicated with the  following replacements:

¤ or

¤  (if wide) a non-combining Unicode character that cannot be displayed

% or

%  (if wide) (if the terminal cannot display ¤) a non-combining Unicode character that cannot be displayed

` (or wide)

a Unicode combining character that cannot be displayed

" or

' (or wide) a double or single quotation mark character (typographic quote mark)

- or

~ or = (or wide) a dash or hyphen character

e, ê,

etc a combined or other character that cannot be displayed  which is based on the displayed character by its  Unicode decomposition

E

the Euro sign € U+20AC

V,

X,  Z the check mark ✓ U+2713, ballot X ✗ U+2717 , zigzag arrow ↯ U+21AF

'

glottal stop 'okina ʻ U+02BB

0 ..9 ,

A ..Z  etc a corresponding fullwidth ASCII character

Configuration: Display colour of special or illegal  UTF-8 indications can be changed with the environment variable  MINEDUNI, the value should be the numeric part of an ANSI  terminal control sequence; optionally, the value can be  preceded by a character to be used for Unicode character  indication in non-Unicode terminal mode.
(The default configuration value is "¤ 46").

Combining and joining characters

Mined supports handling of combining characters,  featuring optional separate display and partial editing,  as described above in section  Combining  characters.

Joining characters

If mined assumes that the terminal applies LAM/ALEF ligature  joining (either configured with the +UU  right-to-left display option or auto-detected; correct native  support is known of mlterm), the joined character width will  be handled correctly in cooperation with the terminal. In all other terminals mined will apply LAM/ALEF joining itself.
Mined supports ligature joining in both combining character  display modes:

  • In combined display mode, the screen position is accounted  properly. Also, when deleting a character, a joined ligature is deleted  together with the base character, just like combining characters.
  • In separated display mode, the joining part of the ligature  is indicated using the appropriate isolated form, highlighted with  Unicode special indication background colour (similar to the  handling of combining characters).

Search expression limitations

Unicode search ranges can not be very large as all  included characters are listed in an internal buffer which is  limited to ca. 1 KB.

UTF-8 preservation and byte-transparent editing

When splitting lines that are too long for internal handling,  consistency of UTF-8 sequences is preserved (they are not split);  combining characters may get split off their base characters,  however, they will join seemlessly as lines are joined again  (e.g. when saving the file). Note that isolated combining characters, e.g. at the beginning of  a line, are always displayed as if in separated display mode.

Terminal environment

Unicode text can be edited in any terminal encoding (UTF-8,  8 bit, CJK), however, a UTF-8 terminal is preferable. UTF-8 terminal operation can be configured in either of these ways:

  • Auto-detection: If the terminal emits cursor position reports,  mined can uniquely recognise UTF-8 terminal encoding and further  UTF-8 features  (see Terminal encoding support below).
  • Environment: By proper environment variable settings.  For more details, see Locale configuration.
    Note: In general, it is advisable to start a  terminal window using a wrapper script that sets a suitable  locale environment at the same time, in order to support all  kinds of applications that are more dependent on proper  environment setting than mined is. The mined installation also provides the script  uterm for this purpose, with its own manual page. (In case uterm is not installed, it is also  included in the Mined runtime support library.)
  • Parameter: +EU selects UTF-8 terminal mode.
See also Terminal interworking

problems for special hints about certain terminals.

CJK support (Chinese/Japanese/Korean Han character features)

Mined provides CJK support features uniformly in Unicode  and in major CJK encodings. For information relating to  CJK character encoding see  Character encoding support below.

CJK input method support

Input methods for CJK characters are supported with  the keyboard mapping feature. A number of popular input methods for CJK text input  are pre-configured, others can be added at compile-time  with the mkkbmap script.

Radical/Stroke input method

Mined provides a Radical/Stroke input method for CJK  characters with specific functionality in addition to keyboard  mapping; it works at two-levels, selecting a radical first,  then a character from a list sorted by stroke count. If this input method is active, a selection menu for the 214  CJK radicals is displayed (without prior keyboard input). The menu displays all variations of each radical. After  selecting a radical from this menu, a second-level menu  is displayed, showing all CJK characters based on the  selected radical, sorted by the number of strokes. Many of these menus will not fit on the screen and can be  scrolled. Pressing Escape here would return to the radical menu;  pressing Escape there would disable the input method. To enter a non-mapped character (e.g. a line end), you  need to disable Radical/Stroke input method temporarily;  just toggle it back on with Alt-k (or Esc k) or Ctrl-Alt-F12 and  the radical menu will be displayed again for continued input.
For the Unicode version used as the character data source,  see the Options - About information or the mined change log.

CJK character display

Combining characters (in both JIS X 0213 encodings and GB18030)  are handled and the combined characters are displayed properly  in either combined or separated display mode in a UTF-8  terminal (like for UTF-8 encoded text). The following special CJK character indications apply:

¤  or

¤ CJK character that cannot be displayed in the terminal

%  or

% (if the terminal cannot display ¤) CJK character that cannot be displayed in the terminal

` or

`  CJK combining character that cannot be  displayed in the terminal

? or

?  CJK character code that has no known mapping to Unicode
(to enforce display on CJK terminal use option +C)

# or

#  invalid CJK character code that is outside of the  code range assigned to the encoding scheme
(to enforce display on CJK terminal use option +CC)

#

CJK character in extended code range  (esp. 3 and 4 byte codes, or codes with 0x80...0x9F  byte range) that cannot be displayed on CJK terminal  due to terminal capability limitations
(to enforce display on CJK terminal use option +CCC)

<

incomplete or otherwise illegal CJK code

Han character information display

When the cursor is on a Han character and either descriptive  or pronunciation information about this character is available  in the Unihan database (from unicode.org), mined can  optionally display this information, with a selection of  display details which may include semantic information and  various pronunciations.
To enable Han info, select it in the Info menu. To open the Info menu, type Alt-F10 or right-click the  "?" flag. The information can optionally be shown on the status line  (where it may be truncated if too long) or in a pop-up menu next  to the character.
Pronunciation information to be displayed can be selected  in the Info menu. While selecting multiple pronunciation options, the menu stays open.

The same information is always shown while you are browsing  an input method pick list (then on the status line).

Han character information display can be selected with the  +?h command line parameter (or  +?x for short display on the  status line). To preselect continuous Han character information display,  append this parameter to the environment variable MINEDOPT.

The information includes the character code (in CJK encoding,  both CJK code and corresponding Unicode value are shown). The amount of descriptive information (from the Unihan  database) to be shown can also be preconfigured with the  environment variable MINEDHANINFO;  see Han info configuration below.
(For the Unicode version used for the Unihan data source,  see the Options - About information or the mined change log.)

Terminal encoding support

Mined supports UTF-8 terminals, CJK terminals, Latin-1 and  other 8-bit encoded terminals.

Terminal feature detection

Mined performs auto-detection of a number of terminal  features:

  • For UTF-8 terminals, mined performs auto-detection of  terminal features (detection of UTF-8 terminal, different  width data and combining data versions, handling of  double-width, combining and joining characters).
  • For CJK terminals, mined performs some auto-detection of  specific CJK terminal features (handling of non-EUC code  points, handling of extended code range, GB18030, 3-byte and  4-byte encodings, detection of kterm JIS encoding, detection  of rxvt emulating CJK encoded terminal, special CJK width  properties, and terminal support of combining characters).
  • For mapped 8-bit terminals, mined performs auto-detection  of terminal support of combining characters.
  • For the Unicode version used for width and combining  character properties, see the Options - About information or the  mined change log.
  • CJK terminals cannot always be distinguished from 8-bit  terminals by auto-detection. Neither can the encoding of either  CJK or 8-bit terminals be auto-detected. It is thus advisable to setup proper settings of locale  environment variables (LC_ALL, LC_CTYPE, LANG). Alternatively, the effective terminal encoding can be indicated  to mined with a command line option (+EX). For configuration details, see  Locale configuration below.

Specific terminal properties

For more specific configuration hints (especially for PC-based  terminals), see the Terminal environment  configuration hints below.
For interworking issues with specific terminals see also  the listing of  Terminal interworking problems.

Mined Command reference (command and key function assignments)

General note on using keys with Control, Shift, Alt modifiers: Mined makes use of many key combinations modified with  Control, Shift, Alt, or a combination of them, as a resource  for invoking a larger number of specific functions, providing  modified functionality as well as accented character input  support. Some of these key combinations may be limited by local  environment, especially the window system, or may need  extra configuration to be enabled.
Especially modified function keys are often intercepted by  window systems for special functions.
In general, mined interprets an ESC prefix as an alternative  for an Alt-key combination. For further advice and window system  specific hints on further remedies, as well as configuration hints,  to enable modified key input see the  hint box under Accent prefix keys above.

Generic command modifiers (esp. HOP key)

^Q or ^G or "5" (on keypad) or Menu (in Linux) or * (on keypad) or Shift-TAB

HOP key (except ^G followed by a digit).
In order to enable the "5" key to invoke the HOP function, or  assign the HOP function to another key (e.g. on laptops which  lack the numeric keypad), some configuration may be necessary; see Keypad configuration below.

ESC

Prefix for subsequent "letter commands".
Also: Generic prefix for "Alt" modified command (to  apply to a subsequent command for which the terminal does not  support the Alt key).

^V

(Prefix for control character input, but also:)
Generic prefix for "Control" modified command (to apply to  a subsequent command for which the terminal does not support  the Control key).

Ctrl-< punctuation key >

(Set of accent prefix keys to enter composed characters.)

Cursor and screen motion

^E or cursor-up

Move cursor 1 line up.

... with HOP:

Go to top of page.

^X or cursor-down

Move cursor 1 line down.

... with HOP:

Go to bottom of page.

^S or cursor-left

Move cursor 1 character left.

... with HOP or Ctrl-Home

Go to beginning of line.

^D or cursor-right

Move cursor 1 character right.

... with HOP or Ctrl-End

Go to end of line.

^A or Shift-cursor-left (on small keypad)

Move word left (to preceding beginning of a word).

... with HOP:

Go to beginning of sentence.

^F or Shift-cursor-right (on small keypad)

Move word right (to beginning of next word).

... with HOP:

Go to end of sentence.

Ctrl-Shift-cursor-up

Move backward to previous beginning of paragraph.

Ctrl-Shift-cursor-down

Move forward to next beginning of paragraph.

Shift-cursor-up (on small keypad)

Go to top of page.

Shift-cursor-down (on small keypad)

Go to bottom of page.

^R or PgUp or PrevScreen (VT100)

Scroll backward 1 page (Top line becomes bottom line).

... with HOP:

Go to beginning of text.

^C or PgDn or NextScreen (VT100)

Scroll forward 1 page (Bottom line becomes top line).

... with HOP:

Go to end of text.

Home (on small keypad)

Move to beginning of line. If already there, move to beginning of previous line. Only if keyboard is configured to emit different  control sequences for the two keypads, see Keypad configuration hints below.

Ctrl-Home (on small keypad)

Move to beginning of line.

End (on small keypad)

Move to end of line. If already there, move to end of next line. Only if keyboard is configured to emit different  control sequences for the two keypads, see Keypad configuration hints below.

Ctrl-End (on small keypad)

Move to end of line.

→NEW→ HOP ESC .

Center current position vertically on screen.

Navigation support for combined Unicode characters

Enabling partial editing of base character and combining  characters (accents) in combined display mode.

Ctrl-cursor-right or ^V cursor-right

Micro movement:  Move partial character right into Unicode combined character.

Ctrl-cursor-left or ^V cursor-left

Micro movement:  Move partial character left over Unicode combining character.

^W or Ctrl-PgUp or keypad-Minus (if supported by terminal)

Scroll screen backward 1 line.

... with HOP:

Scroll backward half a screen.

^Z or Ctrl-PgDn or keypad-Plus (if supported by terminal)

Scroll screen forward 1 line.

... with HOP:

Scroll forward half a screen.

^G nn Enteror ESC g nn Enter

Move to a line (prompts for line number). (Terminate command with Enter or Space.)

^G nn % or ESC g nn %

Move to position in text determined by percentage.

^G nn p or ESC g nn p

Move to page in text (set page length with ESC P).

^G < command > or ESC g < command >

If not immediately followed by a digit, the  positioning command works as an alternative HOP key.

Text marker navigation

^G N , or ESC g N ,

(N=0..15) Set marker N. (Final "m" or "," may be used.)

^G N . or ESC g N .

(N=0..15) Go to marker N. (Final "'" or "g" or "." may be used.)

ESC m N

(N=0..9/a..f) Set marker N.

ESC ' N (deprecated)

(N=0..9/a..f) Go to marker N.

HOP Home or ^G ^@ or ^G ^] or HOP ESC ^

Move to the position previously marked by Home/^@/^]/ESC ^

ESC Enter or Alt-Enter (Alt-Return) *

Return backward to the previous position marked in the position stack.

HOP ESC Enter or HOP Alt-Enter (HOP Alt-Return) *

Return forward to the next position marked in the position stack. * Note that depending on Window system or terminal,  Alt-Enter may be captured as a function to maximize the window.

left mouse button

Move cursor to position.

Entering text

To enable combinations of Control and Shift with the Enter key, terminal configuration may be needed (see  Unicode line ends).

< printable char >

Insert the character at cursor position.

< Enter > or < LF Linefeed char > or < CR Return char >

Insert a newline at cursor position, clone  line end type. Apply auto-indentation if enabled.

Ctrl-Enter (if editing Unicode text)

Make a new line by inserting a Unicode line separator at  cursor position (unless disabled with +u-u).

Shift-Enter (if editing Unicode text)

Make a new line by inserting a Unicode paragraph separator  at cursor position  (unless disabled with +u-u).

→NEW→

Control-Shift-Enter (if editing Unicode or ISO 8859 text) Make a new line by inserting a Next Line character (U+0085).

Ctrl-Alt-Enter

Make a new line by inserting a DOS or Unix line end at  cursor position (if editing Unix or DOS file, respectively).

Ctrl-Shift-Alt-Enter

Make a new line by inserting a Mac line end at cursor position.

< Tab char >

Insert a Tab character at cursor position. with option -+8  or -+4 or -+2: Tab expansion; insert as many space characters as needed to  fill line up to the next Tab position.

^V < Tab char >

Insert a Tab character (even in Tab expansion mode).

HOP {, HOP (, HOP [, HOP <

Enter indented pair of matching parentheses.

HOP /

Enter an indented Javadoc comment frame.

HOP ' or HOP ´ (acute accent)

Enter an apostrophe (U+2019). Note: In smart quotes mode,  ´ alone also enters an apostrophe.

HOP ` (grave accent)

Enter a glottal stop / 'okina (U+02BB). Note: In smart quotes mode,  ` alone also enters a glottal stop.

HOP -

Underline the line that starts before the cursor position.

^O

Make new line at current position. If the current line is terminated by a Unicode  paragraph separator, a line separator is inserted.
Auto-indentation is not applied.

HOP ^O

Split a line in two binary-transparently, i.e.  enter a "NONE" virtual line end.

Accented character input support by accent prefix keys

Mined defines a number of function keys, modified function keys,  modifed digit keys, and modified punctuation keys for single  and multiple accent composition with a subsequently entered  character; for a detailed listing and description, see  Accent prefix function keys above.
Up to three accent prefix keys can be combined by entering  them in sequence in order to compose characters with multiple  accents. These functions also work on the prompt line (e.g.  to enter search expressions).

F5 < character >

Compose character with diaeresis (umlaut accent),  e.g. a » ä

Shift-F5 < character >

Compose character with tilde, e.g. a » ã

Ctrl-F5 < character >

Compose character with ring or with cedilla, e.g. a » å , c » ç

Ctrl-Shift-F5 < character >

Compose character with ogonek.

Alt-Shift-F5 < character >

Compose character with breve.

F6 < character >

Compose character with acute accent (accent d'aigu), e.g. a » á

Shift-F6 < character >

Compose character with grave accent, e.g. a » à

Ctrl-F6 < character >

Compose character with circumflex accent, e.g. a » â

Ctrl-Shift-F6 < character >

Compose character with macron.

Alt-Shift-F6 < character >

Compose character with dot above.

Ctrl-0 ... Ctrl-9

Compose character with accent, esp. for Vietnamese  accented characters.

(Ctrl-)Alt-1 ... (Ctrl-)Alt-5

Compose character with two accents, esp. for Vietnamese  double accented characters.

(Ctrl-)Alt-6 ... (Ctrl-)Alt-8

Compose character with two accents for Greek multiple  accented characters.

Ctrl-< punctuation key >

Compose character with accent (looking similar to the  modified punctuation character, e.g. Ctrl-, composes  with cedilla, Ctrl-: with diaeresis, Ctrl-minus  with macron, Ctrl-( with breve, Ctrl-< with caron,  Ctrl-/ with stroke, Ctrl-; with ogonek, etc; see  Accent prefix function keys  above for details).

Input support commands

Ctrl-V special input support

These functions also work on the prompt line (e.g.  to enter search expressions).

^V < control character >

Enter control character.

^V [ or ^V \ or ^V ]

Enter one of the control characters ^[, ^\, ^].

^V ^ ^ or ^V _ _

Enter one of the control characters ^^, ^_.

^V ^ ' or ^V ^ "

→New→  or ^V ^ ` or ^V ^ ´ Enter one of the straight quote marks ' or " or plain accents  (needed in smart quotes mode)

^V < accent > < character >

Compose accented character.

^V # xxxx < Space or Enter >

Enter character defined by a hexadecimal number being input  (depending on applicable encoding, byte value, Unicode  value, or valid CJK code is required).

^V # # xxxxxx < Space or Enter >

Like ^V # but using an octal number.

^V # = xxxxx < Space or Enter >

Like ^V # but using a decimal number.

^V # u or U or +

(followed by a numeric input as described above, with optional  # or = for octal or decimal input) interprets the input as a  numeric Unicode value which is converted into the current  text encoding.

^V # ... Space ...

With numeric character input, mined supports successive  multiple character entry according to ISO 14755 if the  numeric code is terminated by a Space key.

^V < function key >

This is not an input support function but rather the  function key is invoked as if pressed together with the  control key.

Mnemonic character input support

Mnemonics recognised include the following:

  • RFC 1345 mnemos (except mappings to Unicode private use areas);  in ambiguous cases, the RFC 1345 mnemos must be entered in  long mnemonic input mode, e.g. with "^V pi " rather than "^Vpi"
  • HTML mnemos; in ambiguous cases, the HTML mnemos  must be prepended with a "&"
  • TeX mnemos (macros) and substitutes, leaving out any "\"
  • →New→  groff glyphs (roff special characters), mnemonics beginning with "("
  • Supplementary mnemos as listed on the  mined character mnemos page

Unless there is an ambiguous mapping, all two-letter mnemonics  can also be entered in reverse order.

^V < Space > < name > < Space or Enter >

Lookup character mnemonic and enter character. RFC 1345  mnemonics take precedence in ambiguous cases.

^V < character > < character >

Compose two characters. Non-RFC 1345 mnemonics take  precedence in ambiguous cases.

Note: A number of mnemonics are defined with already precomposed base  characters (especially for Vietnamese input) which can be used  for further composition.
^V can be applied recursively to compose a character  for further composition.
See examples with æ below for both cases.

Examples:

^V^A

Enter Ctrl-A.

^V^[ or ^V[

Enter the escape character.

^V__

Enter Ctrl-_.

^V'e

Enter é (e with accent d'aigu).

^Vae

Enter æ (the ae ligature).

^V ae'  (terminated by Space or Enter)

Enter U+01FD (æ with acute).

^Væ'

Enter U+01FD (æ with acute).

^V ^Vae'  (terminated by Space or Enter)

Enter U+01FD (æ with acute).

^V'^Vae

Enter U+01FD (æ with acute).

^VOK or ^Vcm

Enter the check mark ✓ (U+2713)

^Vzz or ^V zigzag (terminated by Space or Enter)

Enter the downwards zigzag arrow ↯ (U+21AF)

^V-,

Enter ¬ (the negation symbol).

^V neg  (terminated by Space or Enter)

Enter ¬ (the negation symbol).

^Va* or ^V a*  (terminated by Space or Enter)

Enter the Greek small letter alpha.

^V ae'  (terminated by Space or Enter)

Enter the Latin ligature ae with acute accent.

^V euro (terminated by Space or Enter)

Enter the Euro character.

^V#20ac (terminated by Space or Enter)

Enter the character with hexadecimal value 20AC  (which is the Euro character in UTF-8 encoding).

^V#U20ac (terminated by Space or Enter)

Enter the Euro character (which has the hexadecimal  Unicode value 20AC) encoded in the currently selected  text encoding.

^V#+20ac < Space > +20ac < Enter >

Enter two Euro characters in  successive multiple character entry mode (ISO 14755).

Input method (Keyboard mapping) selection

ESC k or Ctrl-Alt-F12 or middle-click on Input Method flag

Toggle between current and previously selected input method (or initially the configured standby input method). Note: Alt-k or Ctrl-Alt-F12 also works on prompt line.

HOP ESC k

Clear input method, i.e. resets keyboard mapping to none (unmapped input).

ESC I or ESC K or Ctrl-F12 or right click on Input Method flag (mapping indication in flags area)

Open the Input Method selection menu. Note: (Alt-I or Alt-K or Ctrl-F12 also works on prompt line)

HOP ESC K

Cycle through available keyboard mappings / input methods.

Modifying text

Note on the Home and End keys

Sometimes people expect the "Home" and "End" keys to move the  cursor to the beginning or end of line, respectively. In the keyboard usage approach of mined, these functions can  easily and quite intuitively be invoked with "HOP left" and  "HOP right", i.e. by pressing the keypad keys "5 4" or "5 6"  in sequence. So there is enough room left for mapping the most frequent  paste-buffer functions to the keypad as described above which  is considered much more useful. Use Ctrl-Home and Ctrl-End for the line positioning  functions, depending on terminal support and configuration; or  use the -k option if preferred to  switch keypad key function assignments for the Home and End keys. See Keypad layout above for a  motivating overview of the mined keypad assignment features  and options.

Backarrow or ^H

Dual-mode function:
If a visual selection is active: Cut selected area to paste buffer.
Otherwise: Delete character left.
Smart backspacing: If there is only blank  space before the current position in the current line  and the line above and auto-indentation is enabled,  the auto-undent function (Back-Tab) is performed  instead, deleting multiple spaces back to the previous  level of indentation. Note: Mined tries to map this function to  the Backarrow key on the keyboard whether it is  assigned to the Backspace or DEL control characters,  by inspecting the setting of the terminal interface,  see Automatic backspace  mode adaptation. Note:→New→  Configuration option plain_BS  (command line option +Bp)  switches the Backarrow key from smart backspacing to  plain backspacing, i.e. no auto-undent and only delete  one combining character of a combined character. Use Shift-Control-Backarrow to perform smart backspacing then.

Ctrl-Backarrow (if key properly configured) or F5 Backarrow

"Delete single": Delete only right-most combining accent  of combined character left of cursor position. If not next to a combined character: delete character left,  avoiding auto-undent function.

→NEW→ Shift-Ctrl-Backarrow (if key properly configured) or Shift-F5 Backarrow

"Delete smart": Smart backspacing function as described above  as default behaviour of the Backarrow key.

Del (on keypad)

Dual-mode function:
If a visual selection is active: Cut selected area to paste buffer.
Otherwise: Delete next character right, including any combining characters.

Ctrl-Del (on keypads, if key properly configured)

Delete character right, excluding any combining characters.

Shift-Del (on small keypad, if key properly configured)

Cut selected area to paste buffer.

DEL (ASCII character)

If detected to be attached to the keyboard Backarrow key: Delete left. (Or delete visual selection, see above.) (Enforce with option -B.)
Otherwise: Delete right.

HOP Backarrow

Delete beginning of line (left of current position).

^B

Delete character right (next character).

^T

Delete next word.

^^ (overridden when used as accent prefix, e.g. with newer xterm)

Delete previous word.

^K

Delete tail of line (from current position to line-end);  if at end of line, delete line end (joining lines).

HOP ^K

Delete whole line.

Code conversion

ESC X

Insert hexadecimal representation of current character code. (In UTF-8 mode, this is the UTF-8 byte sequence  of the character in hexadecimal notation.)

... with HOP:

Insert character with hexadecimal code  scanned from text at current position.

ESC U

Insert (hexadecimal) Unicode value of current character (with either 4/6/8 hexadecimal digits, depending on the  value); in CJK or mapped 8 bit encoding mode, the  value is transformed from the current text encoding  into Unicode.

... with HOP or Ctrl-Shift-F11

Insert character with hexadecimal Unicode value  scanned from text at current position; in CJK or  mapped 8 bit encoding mode, the value is transformed  from Unicode into the current text encoding.

ESC A

Like ESC U but inserting an octal Unicode value.

... with HOP:

Like HOP ESC U but scanning an octal Unicode value.

ESC D

Like ESC U but inserting a decimal Unicode value.

... with HOP:

Like HOP ESC U but scanning a decimal Unicode value.

Alt-x

Toggle the preceding character and its hexadecimal Unicode value. The command detects a 2 to 6 hex digit character code with  a valid Unicode value, or a non-digit Unicode character,  respectively.

Case conversion

ESC C or F11

Exchange case (low/capital) of character under cursor. Case mapping is based on Unicode (but applicable in  all text encodings). Special handling is applied for:

  • Greek final s
  • Turkish "i" if the effective locale value  (environment variables →New→  LANGUAGE,  TEXTLANG, LC_ALL,  LC_CTYPE, LANG)  begins with "tr" or "az"  →New→  or "crh" or "tt" or "ba"
  • case mappings to multiple characters
  • Lithuanian special conditions (locale value begins with "lt")
  • →New→  Dutch "IJsselmeer" title casing with Shift-F3  (if the locale value begins with "nl")
  • Japanese characters are toggled between Hiragana and Katakana.
... with HOP or Shift-F11

Apply case conversion to word from cursor.

Shift-F3

Cycle casing of a word between all small, title case,  and all capitals (title case means the first letter is either  capital or actually a Unicode title case, the following letters  are small). For Japanese script, it toggles the word between  Hiragana and Katakana.

Mnemonic and special conversion

ESC _ or Ctrl-F11

Mnemonic character substitution replaces the two characters  at the cursor position with a suitable composite  character (e.g. accented character) if possible. With Ctrl-F11, transformations are the same as with  the ^V two-letter character input mnemonics. With ESC _, language-dependent preferences may take  precedence (see variations below)  according to the current locale environment.
Example: ae → æ

Special conversion features

  • If the text at the cursor position contains an HTML  character tag (starting with "&" and optionally  ending with ";"), it is replaced with the actual  character it represents.
    Example: &not; → ¬
  • If the text at the cursor position contains an  HTML numeric character entity (starting with "&#"  and optionally ending with ";"), it is replaced with  the respective character it denotes.
    Example: &#x40; → @
    &#64; → @
  • If the text at the cursor position contains a URL  numeric escape notation (starting with "%") it is  replaced with the actual character it represents.
    Example: %40 → @
    %C3%86 → Æ (while in UTF-8 text encoding)
  • The command also transforms between Latin-1 and UTF-8  encoded characters if an accordingly encoded character  is found at the current position; the current  character encoding mode is used to determine the  target character set.
    Example: æ (Latin-1 encoding) → æ (current UTF-8 encoding) or
    æ (UTF-8 encoding) → æ (current encoding)

As variations of ESC _, there are some commands ESC LETTER  using national letters that occur on respective national keyboards. They apply basically the same transformations but with  some national preferences taking precedence:

ESC ä or ESC ö or ESC ü or ESC ß

Similar to ESC _, but with German transformation preferences.
example: ae → ä, oe → ö

ESC é or ESC è or ESC à or ESC ù or ESC ç

Similar to ESC _, but with French transformation preferences.
example: oe → œ (oe ligature U+0153)

ESC æ or ESC å or ESC ø

Similar to ESC _, but with Danish transformation preferences.
example: ae → æ, oe → ø

→NEW→ ESC ì or ESC ò

Similar to ESC _, but with Italian accent preferences (è rather than é).

→NEW→ ESC < accented letter typical on East European keyboard >

(like l with stroke, u with ring, o with double acute, s with caron, etc) Similar to ESC _, but with East European accent preferences:  ogonek rather than cedilla, -d becomes d with stroke

→NEW→ ESC < special key typical on South European keyboard >

(like n with tilde, g with breve, dotless i) Like ESC _.

Encoding conversion

HOP ESC ( or Alt-F11

Search for a character encoded in the "wrong encoding",  i.e. a UTF-8 character in non-UTF-8 text mode, or a Latin-1  character in UTF-8 text mode.

ESC _ or ESC ö etc.

If invoked on a non-ASCII character,  UTF-8 / non-UTF-8 character encoding conversion is applied: If the character is not encoded in the current text encoding  it is converted into the current text encoding (from UTF-8 or  from Latin-1).

Alt-Shift-F11

Convert Latin-1 / UTF-8, then search for the next  "wrong encoded" character.

Paragraph formatting

ESC j

("Clever Justify") Format paragraph by word-wrapping  according to the currently set right margin value; left margins are derived from the contents of the  paragraph and line. Heuristic detection of numbered  items automatically triggers appropriate indentation.
End-of-paragraph is a line without trailing blank space.

... with HOP:

Same, but end-of-paragraph is considered to be a blank line.

ESC J

("Normal Justify") Format paragraph by word-wrapping  according to the currently set left and right margin values.
End-of-paragraph is a line without trailing blank space.

... with HOP:

Same, but end-of-paragraph is a blank line.

ESC <

Set left margin for justification.

ESC ;

Set left margin of first line of paragraph only.

ESC :

Set left margin of next lines of paragraph only.

ESC >

Set right margin for justification.

HTML support

ESC H (every first time)

Enter HTML tag (and remember for subsequent ESC H). (Note that Alt-Shift-H will do the same thing if your terminal  is configured appropriately - see the example configuration file  Xdefaults.mined in the  Mined runtime support library.) The tag can be entered with attributes and values; these  will not be repeated in the closing tag (see next entry  on ESC H).

ESC H (every second time)

Enter closing HTML tag. Any tag attributes and values entered with the tag (see previous  entry on ESC H) will be left out.

HOP ESC H

Put text between mark and current position in HTML tags. The "A" tag gets special treatment.

Text block and buffer operations

Note on the Home and End keys

Sometimes people expect the "Home" and "End" keys to move the  cursor to the beginning or end of line, respectively. In the keyboard usage approach of mined, these functions can  easily and quite intuitively be invoked with "HOP left" and  "HOP right", i.e. by pressing the keypad keys "5 4" or "5 6"  in sequence. So there is enough room left for mapping the most frequent  paste-buffer functions to the keypad as described above which  is considered much more useful. Use Ctrl-Home and Ctrl-End for the line positioning  functions, depending on terminal support and configuration; or  use the -k option if preferred to  switch keypad key function assignments for the Home and End keys. See Keypad layout above for a  motivating overview of the mined keypad assignment features  and options.

^@ (Ctrl-Space)

or Home (on right keypad) or Shift-Home
or ^] or ESC @ or ESC ^
or Stop (sun)or Select (VT100) Set mark (to remember the current location).

... with HOP:

Goto mark or: (if on already marked position) Toggle rectangular selection.

^Y

or End (on right keypad) or Shift-End
or Copy (sun) or Do (VT100) Copy selected text (between mark and current position)  to paste buffer. If rectangular copy/paste mode is selected: Copy rectangular area  spanned by mark and current position to paste buffer.

... with HOP:

Append to buffer.

^U

or Del (with visual selection) or Shift-Del (small keypad)
or Cut (sun) or Remove (VT100) Cut selected text (between mark and current position)  to paste buffer. If rectangular copy/paste mode is selected: Cut rectangular area  spanned by mark and current position to paste buffer.

... with HOP:

Append to buffer.

^P or Ins or Ctrl-Ins

or Paste (sun) or InsertHere (VT100) Paste contents of paste buffer to current position. If rectangular copy/paste mode is selected: Paste contents of paste buffer  as rectangular area to current position and corresponding positions  of subsequent lines. With ^P or Ctrl-Ins, the cursor is placed before the pasted region. With Ins, the cursor is placed behind the pasted region  unless the option -V was used.
In rxvt, with Ins on the left keypad, the cursor is placed  before (left of) the pasted region.

... with HOP: (e.g. HOP Ins or ^G^P)

Paste from inter-window buffer. Thus you can quickly copy text from one invocation  of mined to another.

→NEW→ Shift-Ins (Windows/cygwin version)

Insert text from Windows clipboard, adapting lineend types. →New→  With Ctrl-Shift-Ins, the cursor is also placed before the pasted region.

Alt-Ins or Ctrl-F4

Replace text just pasted with preceding paste buffer. This command uses a ring of paste buffers (like emacs "yank ring").

ESC b or Shift-F4

Copy contents of paste buffer into a file.

... with HOP:

Append to file.

ESC i or F4

Insert file at current position.

Print from File menu

Print text being edited (to default printer).

HOP ESC ! or (deprecated) ESC c

Invoke operating system command (prompted for) with paste buffer as input.

Search expressions: Special functions

matches any character
^

(at begin of pattern) restricts match to the begin of a line

$

(at end of pattern) restricts match to the end of a line

[< character set >]

matches any one of a set of characters; the set may be given by listing elements, denoting a range < c1 >...< c2 >, or negating the whole set [^< character set >]

\< character >

matches the character literally (except n or r)

< pattern >*

(a star appended to a plain character of any of the  patterns above) matches a repetition of this pattern (zero or more times); not applicable to line end patterns

^V^J (a literal linefeed character, entered with ^V prefix)

searches for any real newline (to be used embedded in the search pattern, does not match on last line)

\n→NEW→

searches for a Unix newline (LF) (to be used embedded in the search pattern, does not match on last line)

\r

searches for DOS/Windows newline (CRLF) (to be used embedded in the search pattern, does not match on last line)

\R→NEW→

searches for Mac newline (CR) (to be used embedded in the search pattern, does not match on last line)

\0→NEW→

searches for NUL character, represented as a pseudo line end

^V^M

searches for CR (carriage return) character  embedded in a line

Replacement strings: Special functions

&

is replaced by the matched pattern to be replaced

^V^J or \n

(a linefeed character) embeds a newline  (LF character) in the replacement string

\r

(a carriage return character) embeds a CR  character in the replacement string

To change the line end type of a line or all lines, use  "Lineend type..." from the Options menu.

File operations

ESC w or F2

Save (write back) current text to file (only if modified). Save file information (editing position etc),  create file info file if needed.

... with HOP:

Save current file position and other editing information  in file info file, so that subsequent editing sessions will  start at the current position and remember formatting parameters.

ESC W or Shift-F2

Save (write back) current text to file (unconditionally). Also enable memory for file positions in current directory  (creates file info file).

Alt-F2

Save As; save current text to file with different name; file permissions (access modes) are preserved and cloned.

Ctrl-Shift-F2 or HOP Shift-F2

Save to file, and enable memory for file positions in  current directory (creates file info file).

F3

Edit another file (prompt for save if current text changed).

Ctrl-F3 or ESC v

View another file (prompt for save if current text changed).

ESC V

Toggle between edit mode and view only mode.

ESC q

Quit the editor (prompt for save if current text changed).

ESC ESC or Ctrl-F2

Exit editing current text (save first if changed), continue  with the next file (from the File switcher list); exit mined if there is no subsequent file to edit. Note: If a file name occurs on the command line multiple  times (explicitly or by wildcard expansion), file list navigation  is not linear. Note: There is a small delay after typing ESC ESC. (This is in order to enable recognition of Alt-function key  combinations which are implemented by some terminals or  terminal modes by prefixing ESC to the function key escape  sequence.) This delay can be avoided by using Ctrl-F2.

ESC +

Edit the next file (from the File switcher list) Note: If a file name occurs on the command line multiple  times (explicitly or by wildcard expansion), file list navigation  is not linear.

... with HOP:

Edit the last file.

ESC -

Edit the previous file (from the File switcher list)

... with HOP:

Edit the first file.

ESC #

Ask for index into the list of files and edit that file.

^G N # or ESC g N #

Edit Nth file. (^G N f also works.)

ESC # #

Reload file currently being edited.

Menu

ESC Space or Alt-Space or Shift-F10

Open Popup menu.

ESC F10 or Alt-F10 or Ctrl-F10

Open first flag menu (Info menu).

ESC f or Alt-f or F10

Open File menu.

ESC < letter > or Alt-< letter >

Open menu.

ESC I or Alt-I or ESC K or Alt-K or Ctrl-F12

Open the Input Method selection menu. (Alt-I/Alt-K/Ctrl-F12 also works on prompt line)

ESC Q or Alt-Q

Open the Smart Quotes selection menu.

ESC E or Alt-E

Open the Encoding selection menu.

Miscellaneous

ESC = < count >

Repeat a command < count > times (prompts for count). Example: ESC=7< cursor down > moves the cursor  7 lines down. Note: If the function to be repeated is a character  to be inserted and the input is keyboard mapped to a  multi-character sequence, only the first character of the  sequence is inserted repeatedly.

ESC < count >

Repeat a command < count > times (prompts for rest of count); this short form is only accepted, however, if the repeat count  consists of at least two digits (this is to avoid confusion with  function key escape sequences of certain terminals). Example: ESC77. enters a line of 77 dots,  ESC07x enters "xxxxxxx".

^V < function key >

Invoke function as if pressed together with the control key. E.g. ^V < cursor-left > moves left into the parts of a  combined character just like Ctrl-cursor-left would do  (the latter may depend on proper terminal setup).

^\

Abort current command, e.g. while on prompt line.

ESC ?

Show the current status of the file (name, whether modified,  current line, number of lines, characters, and bytes).

... with HOP:

Toggle permanent display of text status line. Note that when editing a file that does not fit completely in  memory (e.g. large file on old system), this option may cause  considerable swapping. In that case, do not use the feature.

ESC u

Display the character code of the current character  in the bottom status line. (In UTF-8 encoded text mode, both the UTF-8 byte  sequence and the Unicode value are displayed; in CJK  or mapped 8 bit encoded text mode, Han or 8 bit  character values and corresponding Unicode values are  displayed when applicable.) In non-Latin-1 encoded text mode, additional Unicode  information is included, indicating the script,  character category, width, combining, and surrogate  properties of the character.

... with HOP:

Toggle permanent character code display.

ESC T

Toggle Tab width. Alternates the width interpretation of Tab characters  between 2-4-8.

... with HOP:

Toggle Tab expansion (input substitution with spaces).

ESC P

Set page length (number of lines that mined assumes to  be on a page). (Useful for status display.)

ESC a

Toggle append mode (append to text buffer/file instead of  overwriting).

ESC d

Show current directory / change to another one  (also change drive in MSDOS version).
The assumed (relative) file path name  as well as file permissions (access modes) are preserved.

ESC n or Set Name... from File menu

Change the file name associated with the text being edited; the file is not actually saved yet but only the new  file name is used for saving the next time. The text is detached from the file previously loaded  which is not affected.
All current text editing properties (assumed  encoding, smart quotes style, margins, ...)  as well as file permissions (access modes) are preserved.

ESC .

Redraw the screen.

→NEW→ Alt-F12

(In terminals that support an alternate screen view:)
Switch to normal screen (to view command line history and possibly  mouse-copy/paste) until next input.

ESC l

Make screen lower (decrease number of screen lines).

ESC L

Make screen higher (increase number of screen lines).

ESC %

Make screen smaller (decrease screen size).

ESC &

Make screen bigger (increase screen size).

Shift-keypad-Minus

Make font smaller. (Works in mintty and natively in xterm.)

Shift-keypad-Plus

Make font bigger. (Works in mintty and natively in xterm.)

ESC z

Suspend editor process; first write back file if modified (no write if HOPped or given empty file name on prompting). Mined detects (by checking process and group IDs and terminals)  whether it is safe to suspend and rejects it otherwise (e.g. if it  is run embedded within a terminal, without underlying shell,  or from a shell script).

ESC !

Fork off a shell and wait for it to finish.

... with HOP:

Invoke operating system command (prompted for) with paste buffer as input.

F1 or Help or Alt-h or ESC h

Interactive help function. Selection of help topics is offered and prompted;  after entering the initial letter, the respective  help section is shown.
If another (modified) F1 key, a modified digit key,  or a Ctrl-modified punctuation key is entered,  a corresponding key assignment help bar is displayed  (see F1 F1 etc. below).
The help file mined.hlp is  installed with the Mined runtime support library. If  this is not installed in one of the standard locations,  the environment variable MINEDDIR should be set to  point to the directory so mined can find its help file.

F1 F1 or Shift-F1 or Ctrl-F1 or Alt-F1 or Ctrl-Shift-F1 or Alt-Shift-F1

Display a help bar (in the bottom status line) with short  indications of the functions assigned to the function keys  F2... in the corresponding modified mode (i.e. with Control,  Shift, and Alt as requested for the help bar).

... with HOP:

Toggle permanent help bar display.

F1 Ctrl-1 or F1 Alt-1 or F1 Alt-Ctrl-1

Display a help bar (in the bottom status line) with short  indications of the accent prefix functions assigned to the  digit keys 1..9, 0 in the corresponding modified mode  (i.e. with Control and Alt as requested for the help bar).

... with HOP:

Toggle permanent help bar display.

F1 Ctrl-< punctuation key > e.g. F1 Ctrl-,

Display a help bar (in the bottom status line) with short  indications of the accent prefix functions assigned to the  Ctrl-modified punctuation keys.

... with HOP:

Toggle permanent help bar display.

ESC

While a command is active and prompting (e.g. for a search  expression), ESC aborts the current command.

ESC Space

Do nothing, so the Space key aborts the ESC command.

MSDOS keyboard functions

Ctrl-Alt-Space

Set mark (to remember the current location).

Alt-TAB (not in Windows)

HOP / Go to.

Ctrl-* (on keypad)

HOP / Go to.

Ctrl-/ (on keypad)

Search forward.

Alt-/ (on keypad)

Search backward.

Screen size change functions

MSDOS screen size changes depend on a table of common  VGA video modes (dosvideo.t).
In the presence of a TSR driver which can change fonts and  screen modes while running a program (e.g. the  excellent VGAMAX), the actual change effective may  occasionally be unexpected. Mined recognises such changes  after the next character input and adjusts to them.

Alt-- (on keypad)

Change video lines mode to the mode with the next smaller  number of lines but same number of columns. (The number of lines is first tried to be decreased  within the current video mode. If it is already  the lowest, the next video mode is chosen.)

Alt-+ (on keypad)

Change video lines mode to the mode with the next higher  number of lines but same number of columns.

Ctrl-- (on keypad)

Change video mode to the mode with the next smaller  total resolution (lines * columns).

Ctrl-+ (on keypad)

Change video mode to the mode with the next higher  total resolution.

HOP Ctrl-/Alt- +/- (on keypad)

Several other video mode settings are prompted for  (experimental).

<!p>

Emacs mode

Mined emulates emacs keyboard layout and some specific functions if  invoked with the option -e or with the  command name alias minmacs.
In emacs mode, emacs command key assignments to control keys,  ESC (Meta commands) and ^X (C-X commands) are configured. In addition, the following emacs-compatible changes apply:

  • The mined ESC commands can be reached via M-x. (Function keys remain unaffected.)
  • The Del key (on the small keypad) is configured to  delete the previous character.
  • The control key insertion prefix is ^Q.
  • The quit character (e.g. for the prompt line) is ^G.
  • The emacs multiple buffer ring is fully enabled.
  • Paragraph justification mode is set to consider an empty line  as paragraph separation by default.
  • Mined ESC commands can be reached via M-x (Alt-X).
  • ^\ (Ctrl-\) is interpreted as an additional HOP key.
  • Keyboard mapping (input method) can be toggled with Ctrl-Alt-F12

Command overview:

^A, ^B, ^E, ^F, ^N, ^P, ^V, M-v, M-b, M-f, M-a, M-e, M-< , M->, ^X[, ^X]

cursor and screen movement

^D

delete character

^O

insert new line

^Q

insert literal character

^@

mark position

^W / M-w

cut / copy to buffer

^K

delete to end of line / delete line end, and append to buffer

M-d / M-k

delete word / delete end of sentence, and append to buffer

^Y

paste buffer

M-y

paste previous buffer, replacing text just pasted

M-u

transform word upper-case

M-l

transform word lower-case

M-c

transform word capitalised (initial upper-case)

^S, ^R

search forward / reverse

M-%

replace with confirmation

M-.

search for identifier definition (using tags file)

^X^S, ^Xs

save file

^X^W

save file as (using different name)

^X^F

edit other file (prompts for name)

^X^B

edit previous file (among those listed on command line)

^X^C

quit editor, prompt for saving text first

^Xk

discard current edit buffer (after confirmation), open new one

^Xi

insert file

^X=

display file statistics

^L

refresh display

^U, ^X^[

repeat (not as generic numeric command parameter)

^H

help

^Z, M-z, ^X^Z

suspend editor

^\ (mined add-on)

HOP (generic function amplifier / expander)

M-x (Deprecated mined add-on)

invoke mined ESC command

ESC ESC (mined add-on)

invoke mined ESC command

<!p>

Windows keyboard mode

Mined emulates typical Windows control key functions if  invoked with the option +ew;  this is enabled automatically when invoking mined via the  wined.bat script or from the Windows explorer  context menu of a text file.
The usual Escape commands and function key assignments of mined  also apply in Windows keyboard mode. Also, ^@ and ^_ are included  to provide the respective functionality.

^@

mark position

^C

copy selected text area (between marked and current position)

^F

search

^G

goto

^H

replace (with confirm)

^O

open other file

^P

print

^Q

quit

^S

save file

^V

paste

^W

close file

^X

cut selected text area (between mark and current position)

^_

insert control character

<!p>

WordStar mode

Mined emulates WordStar keyboard layout and some specific functions if  invoked with the option -W or with the  command name alias mstar.
The usual Escape commands and function key assignments of mined  also apply in WordStar mode.
In prefixed two-key commands, the control state and case of the second  key does not matter, e.g. ^K^B, ^KB and ^Kb are identical.

^S, ^D, ^E, ^X, ^A, ^F, ^R, ^C, ^W, ^Z, ^H

cursor and screen movement

^G

delete character

^T

delete word

^Y

delete line

^Q^Y

delete to end of line

^N

insert new line

^P

insert control character

^Q^W, ^Q^Z

scroll multiple screen lines

^Q^F

find

^Q^A

find and replace (with HOP: with confirm)

^L

repeat last search

^Q

HOP key

^Q, ^K, ^O

two-key command prefixes

^Q^Q

repeat following command

^B

paragraph justification (word wrap)

^OL

set left margins

^OG

set left margin for first line of paragraph

^OR

set right margin

^KB

set marker

^QB

goto marker

^Kn

(n=0..9) set marker n

^Qn

(n=0..9) goto marker n

^KK

copy between here and marker (not exactly WS function)

^KC

copy (paste) saved text here (not exactly WS function)

^KY

delete between here and marker (not exactly WS function)

^KV

copy (paste) saved text here (not exactly WS function)

^KW

write paste buffer to file

^KR

read (insert) file here

^KS

write (save) edited text to file

^KD

write (save) edited text to file, edit next file

^KX

exit (and save)

^KQ

quit (don't save)

^KL

change current directory

→NEW→ Configuration of user preferences

User preferences can be configured in a runtime configuration file  $HOME/.minedrc. (On Windows systems,  if the environment variable %HOME% is not set,  %USERPROFILE%\.minedrc will be used.) →New→  It is possible to configure conditional preferences based on  file type (filename pattern) or terminal type.
A documented sample file is included in the Mined runtime  support library as conf_user/minedrc  or in the web documentation.
→New→  Volatile preferences when editing multiple files:
Note that options relating to editing features (such as tabwidth)  will be re-established on each file opened, while options relating to interactive behaviour or display features  (such as file_chooser sorting options) will remain changed after they  are toggled interactively (e.g. from the Options menu), so the preference selected here is volatile for them.

Environment interworking and configuration hints

A number of configuration options have already been addressed  throughout the manual page. A few more configuration features  are mentioned here. For more details, examples, and other  display settings see the example script  conf_user/profile.mined in the Mined runtime  support library.

Mined runtime support library

The mined distribution provides a collection of runtime support  files (in subdirectory usrshare); if  mined is installed into standard locations, they are copied to  one of the directories /usr/share/mined,  /usr/share/lib/mined,  /usr/local/share/mined,  /opt/mined/share,  $HOME/opt/mined/share (depending on  operating system and installation options).

Mined runtime support includes:

·

Package documentation

package_doc/*

mined package overview, introduction, change log, license

·

Web documentation

doc_user/*

copy of the web documentation including the HTML version of the mined manual page

·

Interactive help

help/mined.hlp

help file (for F1 commands)

·

Configuration example files

conf_user/minedrc

user preferences configuration sample file; to be copied to $HOME/.minedrc (on Windows systems,  if the environment variable %HOME% is not used,  copy the sample file to %USERPROFILE%\.minedrc)

conf_user/profile.mined

shell commands to set environment variables for mined,  template for inclusion in $HOME/.profile

conf_user/Xdefaults.mined

xterm configuration entries suitable for mined, template  for inclusion in $HOME/.Xdefaults  or $HOME/.Xresources

conf_user/xinitrc.mined

shell commands to activate Xdefaults.mined,  template for inclusion in $HOME/.profile

conf_user/kp5

shell script to assign the X key symbol Menu  to the middle keypad key ("5") as a remedy to the  inability of the KDE konsole terminal to recognise that  key (due to a deficieny in the QT framework), thus enabling the HOP key in konsole

conf_user/mlterm/main

mlterm configuration to enable Alt-key detection, for inclusion in $HOME/.mlterm/main

conf_user/mlterm/key

mlterm configuration for modified (shifted etc) function keys, for inclusion in $HOME/.mlterm/key

conf_user/konsole/xterm-modified.keytab

KDE konsole keyboard configuration providing  a terminal (called "xterm with key modifiers" in the  konsole menu) with modified (shifted etc) function keys

conf_user/terminator/options

option to be added for the Terminator Java terminal  to enable Alt-letter functions

conf_user/MINED-VMS.COM

commands to define mined commands and set up help for DCL on Vms

·

Scripts to be used at runtime

bin/uprint

script for printing a Unicode file, using either  paps or uniprint for formatting;  under Windows, it can also use notepad /p  for printing

·

Scripts to start mined

bin/uterm

script to invoke xterm in UTF-8 mode; it should also  be installed into the system binary path and has its  own manual page

bin/mterm

script to invoke mlterm with suitable options (for bidi support)

bin/umined

script to start mined in a separate xterm window,  using UTF-8 mode with most recent version of Unicode  width data (specifying wide and combining characters)  as built-in to xterm

bin/xmined

script to start mined in a separate xterm window,  using same encoding mode as currently set

bin/wined

(on Windows) cygwin script to start mined in a window  (using the mintty terminal, applying Windows look-and-feel)

bin/wined.bat

(on Windows) command script to start a mined window  in Windows keyboard emulation mode

·

Files to setup a mined installation

setup_install/mined.desktop

KDE desktop entry to start mined in an xterm  from a menu entry, using the uterm script

setup_install/mined.ico

Cygwin/X desktop icon for adding mined to the  Cygwin-X Editors section in the Windows Start menu

·

Scripts to configure an environment for mined

setup_install/bin/configure-xterm

sample configuration script to build xterm with recommended configuration options

setup_install/bin/makeprint

script to search for or retrieve and build the  uniprint program from the yudit package

setup_install/bin/installfonts

script for downloading the Unicode-enhanced X screen  fonts and installing them with your X server

setup_install/bin/bdf18to20

script to transform an 18x18 pixel double-width screen font  into a corresponding 20x20 pixel font matching the  10x20 single-width font (which is much nicer than the 9x18)

setup_install/cyg/*

optional postinstallation (not in use) for cygwin  to install mined with the Windows desktop and the Cygwin/X menu

setup_install/win/*

installation of the Windows stand-alone version

PC versions

For Windows with a cygwin system  (http://cygwin.com/),  mined is available as a cygwin package.
Two other versions are available for DOS/Windows systems:

  • Stand-alone Windows version, compiled with cygwin. It runs  in a Windows console, Windows terminal (e.g. mintty), or X terminal. It is packaged together with mintty. Its installation registers its invocation (in mintty) from the  Windows context menu for text files.
  • DOS version, compiled with djgpp. It runs on plain DOS (with  some special support of FreeDOS codepage configuration) or in a  Windows console window (DOS command window) but not in a  typical terminal application like mintty or xterm. It supports long file names in Windows 98/2000/XP/... (not NT4.0).

See the mined web site  http://towo.net/mined/  for download.

For hints on PC-specific terminal configuration issues,  see PC terminals below.

VMS version

Mined runs on OpenVMS, with a number of specific adaptations  especially in file handling.

  • Options containing capital letters need to be quoted, e.g. MINED "-Qa" [-]*.com. Mined options can also be passed in the symbol MINED$OPT.
  • Filename wildcard expansion is applied, accepting both Unix-like  and VMS-native subdirectory notations.
  • File versions can optionally be specified and are handled  properly; for example, an explicit version opened for editing  can be saved and will be the most recent version as expected.
    Note: To combine wildcards with version specifications,  use VMS-native pathname notation  (and do not use a final ";" without version specification), e.g.: []x*;* to edit all versions of all files x* [.cmd]x*;1 to edit version 1 of all files cmd/x*
  • The file chooser accepts Unix-like or VMS-style directory  notations for navigation. Switching to the current directory (TAB or Enter) which is the  first entry of the file chooser list, displayed in Vms style,  turns the file list into VMS-style listing of all file versions.
    Logical names can be used for direct navigation if a final  ":" is included (like SYS$LOGIN:).
  • Note that opening the file chooser may be slow on  large directories.
  • If the terminal window is resized while mined is running, mined  will notice and adjust after an explicit refresh (ESC .). The  system, however, is not notified of the changed window size in  this case. Please resize (again) when back on the command line.
  • The capability to accept terminal copy-paste is limited by the  Vms 80 character input buffer (not limited on emulated Vms, e.g.  on "Personal Alpha"). For some remote terminals (mintty, rxvt),  full Unicode data version detection is disabled to reduce  start-up delay.
  • The file info memory files are called .$mined instead of .@mined, recovery files are called $name$ instead of #name#.
  • In the VAX version, CJK character encodings, Han character  information, and Unicode character information tables are not  included by default. Alpha and IA64 versions include all  Unicode and character encoding features.
  • For hints related to the DECterm window, see below.

See the template script MINED-VMS.COM in the  conf_user subdirectory of the  Mined runtime support library or the file  README.vms  (MINED.README in the Vms binary package)  for installation hints.

Android version

There are a number of deviations from typical Linux systems; mined provides workarounds where necessary. Mined runs on Android with these Apps installed:

  • C4droid (needed as container for gcc)
  • GCC for C4droid (to compile mined)
  • Better Terminal (recommended, for shell and terminal)
  • UniversalAndroot (to access gcc from terminal shell) for Android < 4

Terminal environment

For terminal-specific hints, see  Terminal interworking problems below

On Unix, the terminal type is determined from the environment  variable TERM. The termcap/terminfo mechanism  is used to derive the actual properties of the terminal; for  some terminals (cygwin, xterm, rxvt, vt*), this information is  also built-in as a fallback in case terminal information is  not available on a system (this is especially useful for the  cygwin stand-alone version).

Recognition of some special terminal features or restrictions  is associated with the setting of TERM  (xterm, linux, vt100, sun*, cygwin, rxvt, *ansi*, 9780*, hp*,  xterm-hp, superbee*, sb*, microb*, scoansi*, xterm-sco, cons*,  att605-pc, ti_ansi, mgterm). Non-trivial screen features (like scroll reverse, add/delete line,  erase multiple characters) are used if their support is indicated  in the termcap/terminfo description of the terminal unless other  information is available (e.g. after terminal version detection,  an older xterm is supposed not to support erase characters). Since colour support is often not configured within terminfo but  modern terminals do support it, mined always tries to apply  colour attributes (if the terminal at least supports ANSI  control sequences). A number of other "best practice" approaches  are taken to optimize the usage of terminal capabilities, esp.  covering different methods of graphics display support (for  menu borders).

For detection of function keys and cursor keys,  the escape sequences being used by terminals are often  not known to an operating system environment because they  are poorly and incompletely configured. Because this does  usually not work as expected (see this bug report just for an example), mined does not rely on  the termcap/terminfo configuration of function key codes alone  (which it considers however since mined 2000.14);  rather it always accepts a wide variety of typical codes. A few ambiguous codes are resolved according to the  TERM variable.

In an xterm, window headline and icon text are set to the  current filename and "(*)" is added if the text has been  modified.

Locale configuration

The locale mechanism as implemented on modern systems has a  number of design problems, one being that there is  no explicit distinction between text encoding and terminal  encoding although this is obviously a very different thing and  mixed combinations of both may occur and are actually supported  by mined.
For this reason, mined extends the locale environment variable  mechanism with the variable TEXTLANG which is  only considered for assumed text encoding (with precedence  over the standard locale variables),  →New→ and also considers  LANGUAGE with precedence.
→New→  If one of these additional locale variables  (LANGUAGE or TEXTLANG) is used,  mined also implicitly enables smart quotes.
Also mined provides command line parameters to explicit override  either text or terminal encoding (UTF-8 terminal encoding, however,  is always auto-detected if the terminal provides the information).

  • For text encoding, mined checks the variables  →New→ LANGUAGE,  TEXTLANG, LC_ALL,  LC_CTYPE, LANG in this order.
  • For terminal encoding, mined checks the variables  LC_ALL, LC_CTYPE, LANG in this order.
  • Explicit command line parameters are available to specify  either terminal encoding (+E)  or text encoding (-E). They override  environment variable settings.
  • UTF-8 terminal auto-detection overrides other terminal  encoding settings.
  • Text encoding auto-detection overrides environment  settings but not command line settings.
  • Assumed text encoding can be switched while editing.

For encoding recognition from locale environment variables,  mined recognises locale specifications typically found in  system installations, including those which do not include an  explicit encoding suffix. Known character encoding suffixes  ("codeset" component of locale name, starting with ".") are  recognised regardless of whether the given locale is installed  or not. Other encodings are recognised by region suffix  (starting with "_") or full locale name or alias.
In addition to hard-coded locale recognition (especially for CJK),  locale values and associated encodings are configured in the  compile-time configuration file locales.cfg  which especially lists locale names that do not have an  explicit encoding suffix. You can use these settings (known locale name or generic  locale name suffix) even on legacy systems without locale  support to indicate the terminal environment properly to mined. For encoding recognition from command-line parameters,  mined provides the following options:

  • -EX or +EX with a single-letter encoding tag as listed with the description  of the  -E options; further encoding tags are configured in the compile-time  configuration file charmaps.cfg.
  • -E=charmap or +E=charmap with a character encoding name (as reported by the  locale charmap command).
  • -E.suffix or +E.suffix with a character encoding suffix ("codeset" of locale name).
  • -E:flag or +E:flag with a 2-letter indication used by mined to indicate the  respective text encoding in the Encoding flag.
  • →New→  -E- or -E disables text encoding auto-detection which is then  derived from the locale environment.
In these options, -E specifies

text encoding while +E would specify  terminal encoding to be assumed.

The following table lists encodings and major codepages  that are recognised by a generic locale suffix or country code; in addition (as mentioned above), a large number of locale names  without encoding suffix as found on various systems is known to mined  and will cause it to assume the corresponding terminal encoding.

Unicode: UTF-8

suffixes: .UTF-8 / .utf8

Traditional Chinese (Hongkong): Big5 with HKSCS (includes CP950)

suffixes: .BIG5* / .Big5* / .big5* / _HK / _TW (_TW ambiguous, following encoding overrides)

Simplified Chinese: GB18030 (includes CP936, GBK and GB2312)

suffixes: .GB* / .gb* / .EUC-CN / .euccn / _CN.EUC / _CN

Traditional Chinese (Taiwan): CNS (EUC-TW)

suffixes: .EUC-TW / .euctw / .eucTW / _TW.EUC

Japanese: EUC-JP

suffixes: .EUC-JP / .eucjp / .eucJP / .ujis / _JP.EUC / _JP / .euc (.euc ambiguous, more specific string overrides)

Japanese: Shift_JIS / CP932

suffixes: .Shift_JIS / .shiftjis / .sjis / .SJIS

Korean Unified Hangul: UHC / CP949 (includes EUC-KR)

suffixes: .UHC / .EUC-KR / .euckr / .eucKR / _KR.EUC / _KR

Korean: Johab

suffixes: .JOHAB

Vietnamese: VISCII

suffixes: .viscii

Vietnamese: TCVN

suffixes: .tcvn

Thai: TIS-620

suffixes: .tis* / .TIS* / _TH / .iso8859[-]11 / .ISO8859[-]11

Latin-9: ISO 8859-15

suffixes: @euro / .iso8859[-]15 / .ISO8859[-]15

Cyrillic: ISO 8859-5

suffixes: @cyrillic (unless preceded by uz_UZ which indicates UTF-8)

Latin or other: ISO 8859 encodings

suffixes: .iso8859[-]N / .ISO8859[-]N (with number N)

Russian Cyrillic: KOI8-R

suffixes: .koi8r

Ukrainian Cyrillic: KOI8-U

suffixes: .koi8u

Tadjikistan Cyrillic: KOI8-T

suffixes: .koi8t

Russian, Ukrainian, Byelorussian Cyrillic: KOI8-RU

suffixes: .koi

MacRoman:

suffixes: .roman

Windows Latin: CP1252

suffixes: .cp1252

Windows Cyrillic: CP1251

suffixes: .cp1251

PC Latin: CP850

suffixes: .cp850

Windows Hebrew: CP1255

suffixes: .cp1255

Georgian: Georgian-PS

suffixes: .georgianps

Armenian: ARMSCII

suffixes: .ARMSCII-8

Kazachstan Cyrillic: PT154

suffixes: .pt154

Examples: To indicate that mined is running in a  UTF-8 terminal (normally auto-detected, included here for  demonstration) and should assume GB18030 text encoding by  default, invoke either of:

LC_ALL=whatever.UTF-8 TEXTLANG=zh_CN.gbk mined

LC_CTYPE=whatever.UTF-8 LANGUAGE=chinese mined

LANG=whatever.UTF-8 mined -EG

LC_ALL=en_IN mined -E.gbk

mined +EU -E.EUC-CN

mined +EU -E=GB18030

mined +EU -E:GB

Selecting UTF-16 text mode: To tell mined to  interpret a file (or make a new file) in UTF-16 encoding, use  the following command line options (first two little endian,  then big endian):

mined -E:61

mined -E=UTF-16LE

mined -E:16

mined -E=UTF-16BE

mined -E=UTF-16

Selecting ASCII terminal mode: To tell mined to  assume that a terminal cannot display anything but ASCII  characters, use the command line option  +E:AS. Mined implicitly assumes this setting if the environment  variable TERM indicates a VT52 terminal.

PC terminals

Character encoding of PC terminals is an even greater mess  than on Unix systems. Mined provides heuristic best-guess  assumptions about terminal encoding, supporting both local  invocation as well as remote login from a PC (e.g. to a Unix  machine).

The following assumptions are made based on environment variables  or command-line parameters:

encoding ("codepage")

environment
option
examples

CP850 (PC mapping of Latin-1 character set)

TERM=ansi, ansi-nt, pcansi*, hpansi*, interix* or TERM=cygwin  and CYGWIN contains "codepage:oem" or LC_*/LANG indicates ".CP850"
+EP

·

Windows console (DOS prompt) window

·

Windows console mode telnet (even if called from cygwin  console, sets TERM=ansi)

CP437 (IBM PC VGA encoding)

TERM=nansi*, ansi.*, opennt*, *-emx* or LC_*/LANG indicates ".CP437"
+Ep

·

plain DOS

CP1252 (Windows ANSI extension of Latin-1)

TERM=cygwin  (unless LC_*/LANG or CYGWIN indicates other  encoding)
+EW

·

cygwin 1.5 console or application

·

older Windows GUI telnet (sets TERM=ansi)

UTF-8

LC_*/LANG indicates ".UTF-8" or  (for cygwin 1.7 beta) TERM=cygwin  and CYGWIN contains "codepage:utf8"
+U

·

cygwin 1.7 console or application configured for UTF-8 mode

  • Note: Windows console in UTF-8 mode provides extended Unicode  font support if you select "Lucida Console" TrueType font from its  Properties menu.
other codepages

LC_*/LANG indicates codepage, e.g. ".CP1250" or ".CP858"
or triggered by DOS codepage information (djgpp version, see note)
+E=CP1250 or other codepage, or respective shortcut

·

cygwin 1.7 console or application configured for  respective codepage

Note: It is not unlikely that the assumption about the terminal  encoding taken by mined does not match the actual terminal  encoding (e.g. mined cannot determine the encoding based on  the ambiguous setting TERM=ansi). Environment variables that  indicate the character encoding are unfortunately not maintained  through telnet or remote login.
Explicitly setting TERM to a suitable value after remote login  may help but may not always work (e.g. pcansi is not a  known terminal on SunOS). Explicitly setting locale variables, e.g. LC_CTYPE,  may indicate the encoding to mined but may cause trouble otherwise;  some systems like SunOS are dogmatic about interpreting locale  variables and strictly ask corresponding locale data to be installed  or they will flood you with bogus error messages. Also not all encodings, esp. PC "codepages", are known as a  "locale charmap" on other systems.
In these cases, you can use the explicit +E  option to force mined to assume a specific terminal encoding;  see the option values listed above for the main DOS encodings.

Note: The encoding emulated by cygwin (as configured, or by default  typically CP1252 for cygwin 1.5, UTF-8 for cygwin 1.7) is not the  encoding natively applied by the Windows console window (by  default typically the DOS codepage CP850). This means that the effective encoding may be different if you  invoke the cygwin-compiled mined version and the  djgpp-compiled mined version alternatingly; you may notice this  by a different range of characters that can be displayed when  opening the same file with the two mined versions.
Some Windows Latin characters are poorly displayed by the  Windows console in default configuration; cygwin 1.7 can  display all characters properly if the Windows console font is  configured to "Lucida Console" rather than "Raster Fonts".
In a cygwin console on a non-cygwin system (after remote login),  mined assumes ASCII as the terminal encoding by default unless  properly indicated by environment variables.

Note: The following DOS codepages are supported; they are mainly provided  as terminal codepages, they do not appear in the Encoding menu.  However, if you need, you can ask mined to use them as either  the assumed terminal encoding (e.g. +E=CP1250 or +E:WE) or  even text encoding (e.g. -E=CP1250 or -E:WE) using the names  or shortcuts from the list:

CP437

PC
DOS US

CP720

DA
→New→ DOS Arabic

CP737

37
DOS Greek

CP775

75
DOS Baltic

CP850

PL
DOS Western European

CP852

52
DOS Central European

CP853

53
South European, Esperanto

CP855

55
DOS Cyrillic

CP857

57
DOS Turkish

CP858

58
DOS Western, CP850 with Euro symbol

CP860

60
DOS Portuguese

CP861

61
DOS Icelandic

CP862

62
DOS Hebrew

CP863

63
DOS French Canadian

CP864E

64
DOS Arabic (CP864E, variant of AR864 (superset of CP864))

CP865

65
DOS Nordic

CP866

66
DOS Russian

CP869

69
DOS Modern Greek

CP874

TI
Windows Thai, superset of ISO-8859-11/TIS-620

CP1125

25
DOS Ukraine

CP1131

31
→New→ DOS Byelorussian/Ukrainian

CP1250

WE
Windows Central European

CP1251

WC
Windows Cyrillic

CP1252

WL
Windows Western European

CP1253

WG
Windows Greek

CP1254

WT
Windows Turkish

CP1255

He
Windows Hebrew

CP1256

WA
Windows Arabic

CP1257

WB
Windows Baltic

CP1258

WV
→New→ Windows Vietnamese

Note: For the djgpp version of mined, even the font chosen for the  Windows console window may affect the effective display encoding. Configure "Raster Fonts" (except of size "10 x 20"!), not  "Lucida Console" in order to make sure the effective visual  codepage is the same as the one selected with the respective  DOS tools (e.g. chcp) and assumed by mined.

Note: Mined (djgpp) tries to determine the DOS/Windows codepage  using the DOS API; this can only work if the codepage was  properly configured with DOS means (e.g. with CP858 using  CHCP 858 or MODE CON CP SELECT=858,  maybe enabled by DEVICE=...\DISPLAY.SYS CON=(EGA,858)  on old DOS, or MODE CON CP PREP=((codepage list) ...\ega.cpi));  if only the font is switched to a differently encoded one,  there is no way to detect this - in this case you can still  use environment setting or the +E  option as described above to indicate the terminal encoding.

Note: To enable mouse operation in a Windows console  window, deactivate "QuickEdit mode" in the properties menu.

Note: If the DOS screen size is changed by a TSR  (e.g. VGAMAX using a hotkey), mined does not notice this  immediately; in that case, mined adjusts its screen display  only after the next key is typed.

Note: Running mined (djgpp) in a dosemu session (DOS emulator on Linux)  works fine, even in an xterm-embedded session although not  perfectly in that case: ^S and ^Q are interpreted for flow  control (thus ^S will hold all output until ^Q is entered),  and the mined option -Qa should be  used to tune menu borders right.

Terminal setup and configuration

The Mined runtime support library  includes a number of configuration files providing settings that  should be applied to various terminals for proper operation of  several features as described throughout this manual:

  • Xdefaults.mined for major X Windows terminals:  xterm, rxvt, some CJK xterm derivates (cxterm, kterm). The script xinitrc.mined (and optionally kp5)  can be used to establish the suggested settings.
  • konsole/xterm-modified.keytab for  KDE konsole keyboard definitions
  • mlterm/key and mlterm/main  for mlterm keyboard definitions
  • terminator/options for terminator keyboard definitions

In some terminals, the cursor may not be well visible or not  visible at all if the cursor is on a character  with reverse background (control character, occurs e.g. in xterm)  or highlighted background (invalid character code, occurs e.g.  in xterm and rxvt). See the X resource parameters for "cursorColor" in the example  configuration file Xdefaults.mined for remedy.

If mouse wheel movement moves more than expected, especially  if it cannot move by single items in a menu, this is probably  a configuration issue with your mouse driver. You are probably running a Windows-based X server which is  (often by default) configured to generate multiple mouse  wheel events on each actual mouse wheel movement. Often not even in the Control Panel mouse section, but only  in a configuration menu of mouse-specific setup software  (e.g. "Browser Mouse Settings"), configure the scroll unit to 1.

Terminal interworking problems

With some terminals, problems are known due to missing terminal  features or terminal bugs:

any terminal: menu border display

  • If the borders of mined menus appear as letters rather  than graphic borders, the terminal can unexpectedly not handle  VT100 graphics. Use the option -Qa to switch to ASCII  borders, or -fff to limit font assumptions.
    In a UTF-8 terminal, mined uses Unicode Box Drawing  characters by default. If they don't display they are missing in the font used by the  terminal. Use the option -Qv to switch to  VT100 graphics or -Qa to switch to  ASCII graphics. If borders are visible but without corners, use  -Qs to switch to simple rectangular borders.

any terminal: slow terminal feature auto-detection

  • On a slow remote terminal connection, escape sequences from the  terminal (sent for function keys or requested terminal responses)  may get delayed and split up. Mined tries to handle delayed parts of escape sequences  graciously (→New→  improved again);  however, this is limited as the explicit ESC key shall also be  recognised.
    If messages like "Late screen mode response - ..."  (after startup), "...awaiting slow terminal response" (esp.  after startup), "...awaiting slow key code sequence" or  "...absorbing delayed terminal..." occur, escape sequence detection  may be adjusted by setting the environment variable ESCDELAY to a value of 2000 or 3000. (Delay during startup may apparently also be caused by  on-demand font loading of rxvt or mlterm, however, mined applies  special handling for this case.)
  • If proper terminal detection fails for delay reasons, mined  may especially not be aware of the terminal encoding (and  display line markers as blocks). In this case,  exiting and restarting mined should resolve the issue.

xterm

  • To enable proper Alt-letter command input (for opening and  navigating menus), set the xterm resource metaSendsEscape to true  (or with older versions of xterm, set eightBitInput to false)  in your X configuration (usually $HOME/.Xdefaults  or $HOME/.Xresources) as suggested in  the example file Xdefaults.mined in  the Mined runtime support library.
  • Although it is a waste of keyboard resources to have two  indistinguishable sets of keypad keys, most terminals provide  no means of distinguish them towards the applications, at least  not by default. Especially for a text editor, it is highly  desirable to distinguish them in order to have a rich intuitive  function key mapping at disposition which mined tries to achieve.
    One approach to improve mapping of useful key functions  would be actual keyboard remapping (applicable on some terminals);  this is a delicate approach, though, because it may create  incompatibilities with other programs that rely strictly on  installed terminfo information. Mined provides remapping  recommendations for shifted keypad keys (with Shift, Control,  Alt and combinations of them) in the configuration sample files  Xdefaults.mined (for xterm),  konsole/xterm-modified.keytab (for KDE konsole),  mlterm/key (for mlterm),  in the Mined runtime support library.
    Due to the compatibility limitations mentioned above, however,  the two Ins keys remain indistinguishable, and the two Del keys  are only distinguishable if the xterm configuration resource  *VT100*deleteIsDEL is set. Also, keypad and function key  modification with the Alt is ensured with the xterm resource  *VT100*metaSendsEscape. Both resources are set to true in the  configuration sample file just mentioned.
    These two resources can also be set dynamically with xterm.  Mined can be told to do so with the command line option  +D. (Unfortunately this handling cannot be enabled by default as  it cannot be undone because the previous state cannot be  detected.)
  • Mined determines the xterm version in order to apply  certain workarounds conditionally.
  • If you run xterm in VT220 keyboard mode (using xterm option  -kt vt220 or setting the configuration resource *keyboardType:  vt220) you should make sure to also set the environment  variable TERM=vt220 (e.g. using the xterm option -tn vt220 or  setting the configuration resource *termName: vt220) so mined  can properly set up the keypad functions.
  • If you run xterm with the resource modifyCursorKeys or  modifyFunctionKeys set to value 1, mined will recognise the  according keyboard sequences with the environment variable  setting TERM=xterm-sco.

xterm on cygwin

  • On cygwin, as on other systems, the script uterm  is recommended to invoke an xterm that is properly configured  to run UTF-8, and also to use a best choice of fonts for optimal  Unicode coverage. See README.cygwin for more detailed advice.

xterm legacy CJK width mode

  • Mined auto-detects and supports xterm legacy CJK width  compatibility mode (xterm -cjk_width); character  width and menu border layout are properly adjusted, stylish  menu borders (-QQ) and fine-grained  scroll bar display are disabled by default. (Note: In this mode, combining characters could unexpectedly  change the width of a character by being substituted with its  wide precomposed form (e.g. 'a' combined with U+0300) -  which an application can hardly handle; this bug was fixed in  xterm 224 with a patch contributed by the mined author.)

rxvt

  • When starting mined in a fresh rxvt terminal, and maybe  even after starting your X server, some display (font?)  initialization may take extremely long. If this results in an  error message, restart mined to ensure proper terminal  properties auto-detection.
  • Rxvt does not distinguish between Shift-F1 and F11 /  Shift-F2 and F12 / Ctrl-Shift-F1 and Ctrl-F11 / Ctrl-Shift-F2  and Ctrl-F12, so that the F1 and F2 keys modified with Shift  cannot be recognised in rxvt by default. They can however be enabled with the keysym definitions in  the file Xdefaults.mined in the Mined runtime support library.
  • In rxvt, the two keypad Del keys (small keypad, numeric  keypad) are automatically distinguished from each other and  invoke the Delete character (small keypad) and Cut (numeric  keypad) functions, respectively (Ctrl-/Shift-/Alt-  alternatives are supported as described in this manual). This works, however, only if mined can recognise rxvt; it is  generally a bad idea to set TERM=xterm in rxvt, see also  hint below.
  • Also in rxvt, the two keypad Ins keys (small keypad left,  numeric keypad right) are distinguished. The left Ins key  positions the cursor left of the pasted region, the right Ins  key positions it right.
  • By setting rxvt in the mode that enables distinction between  the two keypads, it can unfortunately not distinguish the  right keypad modified with Ctrl- anymore, so Ctrl-Home/End/Del  cannot work as desired.
  • Ctrl-modified punctuation keys can be enabled by  following the configuration samples of the file  Xdefaults.mined in the Mined  runtime support library.
    Note: Ctrl-modified and shifted punctuation keys  interfere with ISO 14755 input mode of rxvt; if the following  key is entered twice, that mode is aborted and the modified  punctuation key becomes effective as an accent prefix in mined.
  • To enable proper Alt-letter command input (for opening and  navigating menus), set the rxvt resource meta8 to false in your  X configuration (usually $HOME/.Xdefaults  or $HOME/.Xresources) as suggested in  the example file Xdefaults.mined in  the Mined runtime support library.
  • Later rxvt-unicode provides a CJK terminal emulation. CJK display is buggy for characters that rxvt thinks cannot be  displayed, especially for GB18030  (LC_CTYPE=zh_CN.gb18030 rxvt) but also  e.g. for EUC-JP (LC_CTYPE=ja_JP.eucjp rxvt); single bytes are then interpreted instead which amounts to an  unpredictable screen width and cannot be correctly handled. (This applies mainly to character codes that are not mapped to  Unicode but also to many that are mapped.)
    Moreover, CJK width handling is inconsistent for many  characters in rxvt CJK mode (rxvt claims to adhere to the  locale mechanism in this respect but that's not the case here -  character widths are inconsistent with the locale, too).
    Remedy: Don't use rxvt in CJK-encoded mode; mined  CJK terminal support is tailored to native CJK terminals (such  as cxterm, kterm, hanterm) where it works fine - if you use a  UTF-8-capable terminal, use it in UTF-8 mode! Mined can edit  CJK-encoded files well in a UTF-8-encoded terminal.
  • In rxvt, Unicode characters that are Not Assigned are  always displayed as a single-width replacement character. This  is not consistent with xterm behaviour which would display  them as a double-width replacement if they are located within  a double-width Unicode range (which sounds reasonable). This  would cause display positioning inconsistencies. Mined has a  workaround for some of these cases (assuming that rxvt runs  the most recent Unicode width data version available; or  actually the same as mined assumes - handling of multiple  auto-detected terminal Unicode versions does not cover this  special case).
  • If the X windows servers has duplicate fonts installed under  a common name (e.g. if it comes with a 10x20 non-Unicode font and  you install a 10x20 Unicode font in addition), rxvt seems to use  the wrong (i.e., non-Unicode) version of the font and does not  find special characters like the default marker used in the flags  menus (this was observed since rxvt 7.5, rxvt 5.8 was finding the  proper font). Use the mined option -F to  adapt mined to limited font usage, or fix the X server installation. Or use the script uterm to start rxvt-unicode. To  start rxvt-unicode from an xterm, use uterm -rx.
  • Due to the scrollbar display workaround for hanterm (see  above), the scrollbar position may be shown as blank space  instead of coloured (only in rxvt CJK mode with Korean encoding  and if you explicitly set TERM=xterm which you shouldn't  anyway in rxvt). In this case, coloured scrollbar foreground can be enabled  with the environment variable MINEDSCROLLFG="44;36" or  MINEDSCROLLFG="38;5;45".
  • As a workaround for an xterm bug on cygwin, mined applies  terminal size re-adjustment. This may confuse rxvt (being  resized to an unexpectedly large window) if it pretends to be xterm.
    Remedy: in rxvt, make sure that the environment  variable TERM=rxvt (or rxvt-unicode); the according X resource  (Rxvt.termName: rxvt) is also listed in the file  Xdefaults.mined in the Mined runtime support library.
  • Mined determines the rxvt version in order to use certain  features conditionally.
  • CJK-mode rxvt: rxvt has some character width bugs when running  in CJK encoding; e.g. when running rxvt in Big5 terminal encoding  (locale zh_TW), U+FA18 is displayed with wrong screen width  while in older version U+FFED was display with wrong screen width; when running rxvt in Shift_JIS terminal encoding, a number of  character width bugs occur. Mined does not implement workarounds  for those; in general UTF-8 terminal encoding is advisable to be  on the safe side.

urxvt

  • This is rxvt-unicode as packaged for cygwin. Invoke it with  a proper locale environment variable set to enable UTF-8. See also README.cygwin for more detailed hints.

mlterm

  • Bidirectional display handling of mlterm is based on the  final display, not regarding any context (such as positioning  control, that's why mined implements a workaround for menu  display on mlterm). Since version 3.0.7, mlterm supports  logical order mouse positioning over right-to-left lines.
  • For Shift selection, use the small keypad.
  • Recent mlterm before version 3.1.3 has a problem with  colour control that may render text unreadable.
  • In recent mlterm versions, Control-function keys cannot  be used in mined since they are captured as mlterm hotkeys. Use a Control-V prefix as a workaround.
  • (Not essential anymore with recent mlterm versions)  The Mined runtime support library  includes a configuration file mlterm/key which  defines enhanced escape sequences for function keys and  other modified keys in order to enable the functionality  described in this manual. (It also enables the keypad on systems  lacking its configuration for mlterm.) It is essential to use this configuration especially for the  HOP key (keypad "5") which is oppressed by mlterm by default,  and also for Control-punctuation accent prefix functions, and  some others.
  • In old versions of mlterm, mouse wheel scroll navigation  in menus did not work seamlessly due to incorrect escape sequences.
  • Do not use mlterm option -n ! It may produce display garbage  on unknown and other characters.

cxterm

  • Proper configuration is needed to ensure cxterm uses a  non-CJK font of appropriate size to avoid ragged display: parameter  -fn "-misc-fixed-medium-r-normal--18-*-*-*-*-*-*-*"  or X resource  cxterm*font: -misc-fixed-medium-r-normal--18-*-*-*-*-*-*-*.
  • EUC-JP half-width characters (8EA1-8EDF) are not properly  displayed by cxterm in EUC-JP mode (cxterm -JIS, not available  in "classic" cxterm).
  • Due to the scrollbar display workaround for hanterm (see  above), the scrollbar position may be shown as blank space  instead of coloured (only in Korean encoding mode which is  probably rarely used with cxterm anyway). In this case, coloured scrollbar foreground can be enabled  with the environment variable MINEDSCROLLFG="44;36" or  MINEDSCROLLFG="38;5;45".
  • Note: The configuration sample file  Xefaults.mined in the  Mined runtime support library includes a  section to fix some missing keypad assignments, especially the  HOP key (keypad "5") which is ignored by cxterm by default,  and the Home and End keys of the numeric keypad.

kterm

  • Auto-detection of kterm as a CJK terminal works if the  environment variable TERM indicates "kterm"; otherwise mined  has to be told that it runs in a CJK terminal and which  encoding to use:
    For kterm -km sjis, set LC_CTYPE=ja_JP.sjis (or invoke mined +ES).
    For kterm -km euc, set LC_CTYPE=ja_JP.eucjp (or invoke mined +EJ).
  • Note:The configuration sample file  Xefaults.mined in the  Mined runtime support library includes a  section to fix some missing keypad assignments, especially the  HOP key (keypad "5") which is ignored by kterm by default, and  the Home and End keys of both keypads.
  • Note: Mouse wheel scroll navigation in menus  does not work seamlessly in kterm because kterm sends incorrect  escape sequences on mouse wheel scrolling.
  • Note: By default (i.e., without explicit -km  option or corresponding *vt100.kanjiMode resource configured),  kterm runs in ISO 2022 mode (yes, it does indeed) which is not  supported by mined.

hanterm

  • CJK display is buggy at the line beginning or after a Tab,  often only the second byte of the character code is displayed  as an ASCII character instead of displaying the complete CJK  character.
  • Character attributes in hanterm used to be all mapped to reverse,  so there was a workaround to enable a visible position in the  scrollbar which is displayed as blank space. The criteria for  this workaround to apply are: CJK terminal (detected or  configured), TERM=xterm, Korean encoding (UHC or Johab)  configured with parameter or locale. Replaced to enable nicer  colours in scrollbar. To reactivate workaround for older hanterm,  set environment variable MINEDSCROLLFG="0".

KDE konsole

  • Due to the lack of decent Unicode font support in the default  configuration of the KDE konsole terminal, menu appearance  options -QQ and  -Qr should not be used; rounded  borders are disabled by default.
  • The Mined runtime support library  includes a configuration file konsole/xterm-modified.keytab  which defines enhanced escape sequences for function keys and  other modified keys in order to enable the functionality  described in this manual. Unfortunately, the qt framework  used by konsole inhibits the use of some keys and many key  combinations.
  • It is especially irritating that konsole disregards  the middle keypad key ("5" in application mode) completely;  so the mined HOP function has to be invoked by alternative means.
    As a remedy, the HOP function is also assigned to the  "Menu" key (next to the "Windows" key on PC keyboards) by the  configuration sample file konsole/xterm-modified.keytab; follow the installation instruction in that file and select the  keyboard type it defines ("xterm with key modifiers") in konsole,  "Settings" - "Keyboard" menu.
    Another remedy is to reassign the middle keypad key to the  X key symbol Menu (using xmodmap); the script kp5 in the  Mined runtime support library does this.

gnome-terminal

  • The gnome-terminal uses right mouse click for its own  terminal menu. To open a mined menu, use Ctrl-right-mouse-click.
  • The gnome-terminal does not support modified keys (e.g.  shifted keypad keys).
  • The gnome-terminal captures a number of Alt-letter key  combinations for its own menu access (which can however also  be controlled with the mouse). To disable this unpleasant capturing, so e.g. mined can open  its own menus with Alt-letter, configure gnome-terminal as follows:
    Open menu "Edit" - "Keyboard Shortcuts..." and  check "Disable all menu access keys". Even then, however, F1 and  Ctrl-F1 are suppressed by this quirky terminal.
  • Mined implicitly assumes its -f  option (for limited font usage with respect to graphic  characters) when detecting gnome-terminal.

Mac OS X Terminal and others

  • The Mac OS X Terminal app does not support mouse escape sequences. Preferably, use xterm or iTerm 2.
  • In iTerm 2, enable mouse reporting in the settings menu  Preferences - Profile - Terminal.
  • If any Mac terminal (Terminal, xterm, iTerm 2) does not respond  to the ESC key, it is likely to be captured by Speech Recognition. Disable Speech Recognition or try Ctrl-ESC.

Linux console

  • Mined detects F11, F12, Shift-F1...Shift-F8 properly (handling the shift of 2 applied by the Linux console to  shifted function key codes compared with other terminals); further modified function keys are apparently not supported in  the Linux console.

screen

Screen, like luit (see below), is a middle layer between the

actual terminal and the user terminal environment.
Running screen in a cygwin console produces initial garbage  input in mined.
[Applies to older screen before version 4: Unfortunately,  screen does not pass character width handling of its host  terminal transparently to the application but apparently it  maintains cursor position information with reference to the  system-installed locale data. Which, however, does not always  reflect the terminal properties! Yet mined detects the proper width properties of the host terminal  (by using pass-through escape sequences of "screen") but  only if the environment variable is set to "screen" (the default  of "screen").]
Worse, however, screen apparently transforms cursor positioning  commands from the application into relative cursor positioning  towards the host terminal, which results in grossly incorrect  display positionining if e.g. screen runs in a UTF-8 terminal but  assumes an 8 bit terminal. Also, it interprets certain UTF-8  continuation bytes as control characters, so even using a workaround  it is not possible to fix display for all cases. Mined applies a workaround to fix text positioning and menu display  problems with screen. Another workaround fixes many cases of UTF-8 character display but  cannot fix all (since screen captures the output of the 0x9C byte). It is recommended to invoke screen only with properly configured  locale environment variables to match the actual terminal encoding.

mintty ("Cygwin Terminal")

Mintty is a Windows-based (non-X) terminal running with cygwin.

Mined auto-detects mintty and adjusts certain properties and  features accordingly.

·

Mined detects font changes that change the CJK ambiguous  character width properties of the terminal when notified by  mintty if running in UTF-8 mode.

·

For good coverage of Unicode characters, recommended fonts  for use with mintty are DejaVu Sans Mono, Lucida Console,  Courier New, Andale Mono, Everson Mono, SimSun. Discouraged  are Lucida Sans Typewriter, Letter Gothic, Courier, Monaco,  and older MS CJK fonts, at least for their lack of (proper)  graphic characters (for menu borders). Mined uses the glyph detection feature of mintty (since 0.9.9)  to configure a nice set of useful line markers and menu graphics.

·

If break interruption (Control-\ key) does not work on  international keyboards (if AltGr is involved), use the  special Control-Break keyboard function instead.

·

Note: For right-to-left text editing, the bidi feature of  mintty interferes with the scrollbar of mined; you may disable  the scrollbar with -o to reduce visual  confusion. (Context-dependent scrollbar display is planned for a later version.)

·

Note: With the command scripts wined or  wined.bat, mined is invoked in a separate Windows  terminal session, using mintty if available.

·

Note: On some systems, mouse wheel scrolling does not work in mintty  if the mintty scrollbar is enabled. It can be disabled in the mintty  "Options..." menu, section "Window".

·

Note: Mined temporarily disables mintty shortcut keys for  Windows functions (like Alt-function keys, Alt-space, Alt-Enter)  in order to use them itself. To toggle mintty full-screen  mode, open the mintty menu with Shift-right mouse button, item  "Fullscreen".
(With mintty versions before 0.5.1, for proper usage of  Unix-like keyboards functions, the following settings are recommended: In Options - Keys, disable the Shortcuts "Window commands"  and "Copy and paste". In Options - Text, disable "Show bold as bright".)

Cygwin console

  • The cygwin console terminal emulation does not support  Shift-F1, Shift-F2 (which cannot be distinguished from F11, F12),  Shift-F11, Shift-F12; Control or Alt modified function keys are  supported beginning cygwin 1.7.2.
  • Mined detects UTF-8 mode of cygwin 1.7 console (by LC_*/LANG setting  or for cygwin 1.7 beta by CYGWIN containing "codepage:utf8").
    Note: After rlogin from this console, UTF-8 indication has  to be ensured explicitly, e.g. by environment setting, or by  mined option +U.
  • Note: Cygwin console in UTF-8 mode provides extended Unicode  font support if you select "Lucida Console" or another  TrueType font from its Properties menu.
  • If the Windows program chcp.com is used within  cygwin, and the console window is set up to use "Raster Fonts",  non-ASCII characters may be mangled.
  • Mouse coordinates are not properly reported with wheel scrolling  in the cygwin console; for that reason, opening a menu with mouse  scrolling does not work.
  • See also README.cygwin for more detailed hints on weird  details about the Windows console in different modes.
  • See also PC terminals above.

Windows console window (DOS command prompt)

  • The Windows console window is normally configured to run  in CP850 encoding or other legacy encodings (depending on  localized Windows configuration), it may also turn out to use CP437. Non-displayable characters are replaced as usual. The configured font may also affect the effective display  character set.
  • However, if running a cygwin application (like  the cygwin version of mined) from a Windows console, the  cygwin emulated terminal encoding applies instead, e.g. UTF-8.
  • Note: The (djgpp-compiled) DOS version of mined  automatically adjusts to the selected console codepage (e.g. using  the chcp command), it is advisable to set up the console windows  to use "Raster Fonts" if this is used. With the cygwin-compiled version, on the other hand, using a  TrueType font is more stable with respect to character set problems.
  • With the djgpp-compiled version apparently there is a  Ctrl-C problem on older Windows versions. Every first  Ctrl-C will display ^C on the screen at the current position  without mined noticing it, while every second Ctrl-C will  be passed to mined. This problem does not occur on Windows XP. It does occur on Windows ME in a Windows console window. It does not occur with the cygwin-compiled version.
  • See also PC terminals above.

Windows PowerShell

  • →New→  Mined detects a Windows PowerShell window and adjusts to its limitations.

Poderosa

  • This Windows terminal emulator can be used for UTF-8 editing. To ensure proper function, do not use Terminal Type "kterm"  or Encoding "euc-jp" or "shift-jis"
  • Mined auto-detection and terminal initialization can cause  Poderosa to display warning popups. To avoid them, Select  Tools - Options... - Terminal; for "Behavior in case of  unexpected chars", disable "Display a message box". If you get a notice "Failed to decode characters by the  current encoding utf-8.", click "Do not display this message  from next time".
  • Poderosa does not provide mouse support for applications.

Terminator

  • In Edit - Preferences, enable "Use alt key as meta key".
  • Terminator does not provide mouse support for applications.

PuTTY

  • This Windows terminal emulation for remote login provides  various keyboard (esp. keypad and function key) assignment  emulations. In SCO mode, shifted function keys are different  from those of xterm SCO function key emulation; both are  supported.

Better Terminal and Terminal Emulator (Android)

  • There are lots of deficiencies in screen control;  mined adapts to Better Terminal.
  • There are lots of deficiencies in using a real keyboard.
  • To use a real keyboard, in the terminal settings, map  Control to Left Alt key.

luit

  • The locale support add-on for text terminals luit which  applies encoding transformations (e.g. with LC_ALL=zh_CN.gb18030)  often maps characters incorrectly, including using the wrong  cell width.

DECterm

On a VMS system, a DECterm window should be started with:

CREATE /TERMINAL /DETACH

·

Mined cannot disable flow control option (terminal using  ^S and ^Q characters) despite its handling of the TTSYNC and  HOSTSYNC terminal driver options. To make them usable, DECterm  needs to be configured manually: Options menu - Keyboard... -  disable Ctrl-Q, Ctrl-S = Hold; then Options - Save Options.

·

On a remote DECterm, numeric keypad and function keys may not  work properly without additional X configuration (xmodmap). Also the  AltGr key does not work, making some characters unreachable on  international keyboards.

·

For VT100 graphics characters (used for menu borders), the  DECtech fonts (X fonts with -DEC-DECtech encoding) need to be  installed on the X server. If the Cygwin/X server is used, the  font-bitstream-dpi* packages should be installed to this aim.

dtterm

  • With the SCO default font, dtterm does not display non-ASCII  characters and even worse, they corrupt further display. Mined does not, however, set its screen encoding assumption  to ASCII as dtterm behaves properly with all other fonts  (e.g. 10x20, lucidasanstypewriter, courier).
  • Home/End, PgUp/PgDn, and HOP keys need to be used with Shift.

SCO Caldera Linux (konsole and xterm)

  • Window size change signals don't seem to be supported.

Haiku Terminal

For a number of deficiencies of the Haiku Terminal application,

it is preferable to use xterm instead. Most notable are display problems with the VT Gothic font; use DejaVu Sans Mono instead.

·

No wide characters and combining characters.

·

No Alt-letter escape sequences.

·

No modified function and cursor keys.

·

Ignorance of middle keypad key.

·

Cursor visibility problems (cursor colour vs. reverse mode).

·

Wrong Control-space key (sends Control-C).

·

No mouse controls for wheel scrolling.

·

Unconforming mouse mode handling.

Work-around support to enable 8-bit character set on weird terminals

There exist some exceptionally weird 7 bit terminals that  have an alternative character set containing composed characters  which can be displayed simultaneously with the default character  set. For those there is optional output translation which  embeds non-ASCII characters into the respective code switching  sequences. To enable output character transformation, set the  environment variable MINEDOUT to contain the upper half (with  respect to an 8 bit character set) of the translation table  into the terminal's alternate character set. (Character set switching will be done as specified in the  termcap (as/ae) or terminfo (smacs/rmacs) entry.) An example setting of MINEDOUT is included in the environment  sample file profile.mined in the  Mined runtime support library  for Siemens 9780x terminals.

Concerning some especially stupid terminal drivers

There used to be terminal drivers which make use of the  soft handshake mechanism by exchange of ^S and ^Q characters but  yet pass them through to application programs which is quite stupid. If it is necessary to ignore such hazardous ^S and ^Q keys,  the environment variable NoCtrlSQ or NoControlSQ must be set.  Mined will then not disable the tty channel soft handshake  setting either.

Keyboard mapping / Input method preselection

With the environment variable MINEDKEYMAP the active or  standby mapping or both can be preselected. The value is a  two-letter script tag to set the active mapping, or it is  prepended with "-" to set the standby mapping, or a combination.
Example: export MINEDKEYMAP=-gr will set Greek keyboard mapping standby. export MINEDKEYMAP=py-rs will set Pinyin input method active and Radical/Stroke  input method standby.
The respective tags attached to the keyboard mappings can be  looked up in the Input Method flag menu; the HOP function  toggles between display of the full input method name and its tag.

Smart Quotes style configuration

Smart quotes style can also be preselected with the environment  variable MINEDQUOTES  (in addition to command line option -q=...,  standard locale environment variables, or additional locale  environment variables LANGUAGE or  TEXTLANG which also implicitly set smart quotes mode).
The value of MINEDQUOTES should contain  the opening/closing quote pair (or just the opening quote  mark, double or single quotes) and must be UTF-8 encoded. It  can optionally append a space and an inner quotation mark (as  used for nested quotations) for more specific selection. It  can also indicate French spacing as shown in the example.
Examples (for values of -q parameter or MINEDQUOTES variable): » sets »Danish« quotes style and corresponding single smart quotes. »» sets »Finnish» quotes style and corresponding single smart quotes. «» '' (where '' denotes a  left double quotation mark U+201C) sets «Spanish» quotes style with English style inner quotation marks. « » sets « French » quotes style with embedded spacing.
See Smart Quotes for more options.

Han info configuration

With the environment variable MINEDHANINFO, the information  shown for Han characters can be preselected. If the variable is defined, Han info mode is enabled. It may contain letters to select description, pronunciation  information, and display mode to be used:

M

show Mandarin pronunciation

C

show Cantonese pronunciation

J

show Japanese pronunciation

S

show Sino-Japanese pronunciation

H

show Hangul pronunciation

K

show Korean pronunciation

V

show Vietnamese pronunciation

P

show Hanyu Pinlu pronunciation

Y

show Hanyu Pinyin pronunciation

X

show XHC Hanyu Pinyin pronunciation

T

show Tang pronunciation

D

show character description

F

display full information (in popup-menu form);  without F, the information will be shown on the status line  where it is subject to truncation

Common paste buffer configuration

The paste buffers, used for cut/copy/paste operations, as well as  the inter-window paste buffer, are located in a temporary  directory, using system conventions by default. To maintain the inter-window paste functionality even remotely,  mined uses the environement variables MINEDTMP and MINEDUSER  which, in combination, point to a user-defined temporary directory  and file name pattern to be used for buffer files:

  • Set MINEDTMP to refer to a common mounted network directory  on all machines which means that the value of $MINEDTMP may have  to be different to reflect different mount points across the network. (On Vms, use SYS$MINEDTMP).
  • Set MINEDUSER to the same name within the network even if  using different user name accounts.

For details, see also the Files section below.

Keypad configuration

Some X configuration may have to be applied to enable keyboard  input features as used by mined:

  • Alt key modifier for quicker entry of "ESC" commands.
  • Assignment of the HOP function to the middle keypad key ("5").
  • Assignment of the HOP function to other keys  (especially for convenience on laptops which do not have the  numeric keypad), e.g. the Pause or Scroll Lock key.
  • Distinguish "Home" and "End" keys of the two keypads  in order to make use of this redundancy of typical keyboard layout  (which is actually a waste of physical resources, causing  unnecessary wrist strain because it increase the distance to  be moved over for reaching to the mouse).
  • Enable control and shift modifiers for keypad and function keys.
  • Enable control and shift modifiers for digit keys (for use  as accent prefix).
  • Enable control modifier for punctuation keys (for use  as accent prefix).

See the example file Xdefaults.mined in the  Mined runtime support library for suggestions.

Printing configuration

Mined uses the script uprint from the  Mined runtime support library  to print the current contents of the text being edited  in any selected encoding (unless the environment variable  MINEDPRINT is set to direct mined to use a different print command).
If the support library is not installed in one of its  standard locations (system-dependent), it should be made  available in the usual command search path.
The script offers a choice of configured printers to select  one (using either Windows registry  or →New→ CUPS lpstat).
The script uses either paps or  uniprint for actual formatting (print preprocessing). Under Windows (cygwin/stand-alone/djgpp versions),  mined also considers printing with notepad /p.
paps is available at  http://paps.sourceforge.net/ and uses the Pango layout  engine for formatting. uniprint is part of the yudit distribution; if  you don't have it installed on your system, there is another  script makeprint in the support library which can be  used to download and build the needed uniprint program. The mined print script (uprint) prefers  paps if it is available as it has more capabilities  for printing a wide range of Unicode characters, and it does  right-to-left formatting.
The font to be used with uprint can be configured with  the environment variables FONT, FONTPATH, FONTSIZE. It is recommended to put a sufficient font in the directories of  $FONTPATH, e.g. DroidSansMono,  LucidaTypewriterRegular, Bitstream Cyberbit.
The preferred printer can be configured as usual with  the environment variable PRINTER. In addition, uprint checks an environment  variable LPR for an alternative for the  system printing command (lpr/lp) if that is needed.
Note: If printing with uprint fails for  some reason, mined tries to print with either the print  command configured in the environment variable  LPR as a fallback, or with lp/lpr as a last  resort. Working character encoding support cannot be expected  in this case, however.
See Environment variables to configure Printing  for further details.

Display layout

Some of the special indication characters (that substitute  non-displayable contents) and some of the colours used by mined  for special indications and interactive elements may be  configured to the user's preference.
Note: For the configurable character indications, two  environment variables exist each, to configure an 8 bit value  (Latin-1 encoded) and to configure a Unicode value (UTF-8 encoded). The UTF-8 encoded values (e.g. MINEDUTFRET) take precedence  in a UTF-8 terminal. In an 8 bit terminal, or if the respective  UTF-8 variable is not configured, the Latin-1 encoded value applies. See the example script profile.mined  in the Mined runtime support library for  more details and for a number of suggestions of suitable values. Mined does not apply any default non-Latin-1 indications in order  to avoid display problems with fonts that do not support them. Depending on your visual preference, there are a number of suitable  Unicode characters for use as indications especially in the Unicode  ranges of Arrows, Geometric Shapes and Symbols (U+2190-U+2BFF).
Note: For the Latin-1 encoded configured indication  markers (variables MINEDRET etc, not MINEDUTFRET etc), if the  configured character is in the small letters range (actually
'`'...DEL) the alternate character set is used for display.  This works also in a UTF-8 terminal, provided that the  corresponding UTF-8-encoded indication configuration variable  is not set, e.g. MINEDRET=j MINEDUTFRET= (or not defined)  would indicate line-ends by displaying a graphic lower right  corner, MINEDTAB='`' MINEDUTFTAB= (or not defined) would indicate  Tab characters with VT100 graphics lozenge rhombs.
Note: For the UTF-8-encoded configured indication  markers (variables MINEDUTFRET etc), if the marker is a  double-width character, a replacement will be displayed instead.
Note: Mined reduces its assumptions about available  graphic and special characters for display purposes with the  options -f or -F. The -F option also suppresses the  interpretation of the MINEDUTF* environment variables.

Line ends

Line ends are usually marked by a "«" double left angle character. This visual indication can be changed with the environment variable  MINEDRET (8 bit terminals) or MINEDUTFRET (UTF-8 terminals). The default or configured marker is used as an indicator at  the end of every text line on screen (so you can see how many  blank spaces there are).
Multi-character markers: If a second character is configured,  it is used to fill the rest of the screen line, a third  configured character would terminate the indication at the end  of the screen line. ("··«" is a nice setting for people who  used to work at Siemens terminals.) Pattern:
<span>MINEDRET=123 # line end displays as 122222223
Suggestion for a nice line end on UTF-8 mode terminals  (check if character is included in your font, however!):
<span>MINEDUTFRET=⏎ # U+23CE

The indication of DOS line ends (CRLF) and Mac line ends (CR)  may be configured with the variables MINEDDOSRET or MINEDUTFDOSRET,  and MINEDMACRET or MINEDUTFMACRET, respectively. They are also distinguished by different colours.

Paragraph ends

With the option -p, mined displays  distinct indicators for line ends and paragraph ends. A paragraph is defined to continue while lines end with white  space (space or Tab character). The default paragraph marker is "¶" and is also used to indicate  a line ending with a Unicode Paragraph Separator. It can be  changed with the environment variable MINEDPARA or MINEDUTFPARA.

Tab characters

Tab characters are usually indicated by a sequence of '·'  (middle dot) characters. This can be changed with the environment variable MINEDTAB  (8 bit terminal) or MINEDUTFTAB (UTF-8 terminals).
Multi-character markers: If two characters are configured,  the second is used to mark the middle of the Tab span. If three  characters are configured, the first and last are used to mark  the beginning and end of the Tab span. Pattern:
<span>MINEDTAB=123 # Tab displays as 12222223
<span>MINEDTAB=12 # Tab displays as 11112111

Long lines

Lines which are too long for the screen are usually indicated  by a '»' double right angle (guillemot) character. If the current  position is behind the screen margin, the line is shifted out left  which is indicated by a '«' double left angle. These markers can be changed with the environment variable  MINEDSHIFT or MINEDUTFSHIFT. The first character is used to  indicate a line continued to the left of the screen, the second  character is used to indicate a line continued to the right of  the screen.

Unicode characters

For a description of special display indications in UTF-8 text  editing mode see "Unicode display" above. The indication and highlighting mode of a non-displayable Unicode  character (typically a UTF-8 character in a Latin-1 terminal),  as well as the highlighting mode (colour) of the indication of  illegal UTF-8 sequences, can be configured with the variable  MINEDUNI.

Display mode of indicators

It is recommended to display these indicator characters in a dim  display mode to prevent distraction from the text contents. The  default is a red colour which is a moderate dark red in xterm. The display mode can be used by placing the code part of an ANSI  display control sequence in the environment variable MINEDDIM. E.g., MINEDDIM=31 would select the default mode, red foreground; in xterm only, MINEDDIM="38;5;83;38;5;245" gives a moderate gray  in either 88 or 256 color mode; in rxvt only, MINEDDIM="38;5;83" gives a moderate gray.
MINEDDIM can also be set to an  integer percentage value (e.g. MINEDIM="50%")  to have mined apply dim colour to the indications; the colour  value is computed from the current foreground and background  colours (works in xterm, or mintty from version 404). The ANSI  colour 7 (white) is temporarily redefined for this purpose and  restored when mined exits.

Display mode of menu borders

The display colour of menu borders and menu headers can be  configured with the environment variable MINEDBORDER. Suitable values are "35" (magenta), "34" (blue) and "31" (default).

Status line highlighting

Highlighted parts of status line messages (e.g. initial letters  for help selection after F1) can be configured with the  environment variable MINEDEMPH, using foreground ANSI modes. The default is "31" (effectively red background).

Scrollbar colour

The foreground and background colours of the scrollbar can  be configured with MINEDSCROLLFG and MINEDSCROLLBG, respectively,  using ANSI modes; if only the background is configured,  the foreground is the reverse of it. In general, to support  fine-grained scrollbar display in UTF-8 terminals, the  foreground and background colour settings should be the  reverse of each other. The default for the background is "46;34;48;5;45" if  use of 256 colour mode is enabled, or "46;34" if it is disabled. The default for the foreground is "", meaning that the reverse  background is used, with a workaround for hanterm (see above).

Menu colour and border style

The highlighting background colour of the selected menu item  can be configured with MINEDSEL, using reverse ANSI modes (i.e.  using foreground parameters for the background) and MINEDSELFG  for the foreground, using reverse ANSI modes. The default values  are MINEDSELFG="43" and MINEDSEL="34", giving yellow on blue. If selected menu items appear too dark (which mined tries to  avoid, depending on the terminal), try one of the workarounds  MINEDSEL="34;1" or MINEDSELFG="43;1".
Menu border styles can be selected with the option  -Q. For a nice selection bar that extends from left to right menu  border, the setting -QQ is  recommended (this is the default unless the terminal is  assumed not to provide sufficient font configuration for this  option; it depends on certain graphic Unicode characters being  included in the terminal font and can be disabled with  -Qq).

Combining character display

The highlighting background colour of combining characters  displayed in separated mode can be configured with  MINEDCOMBINING, using ANSI background modes. The default value is MINEDCOMBINING=46, to change colour e.g.  to yellow background, use MINEDCOMBINING=43.

Interactive Help access

Mined looks for its help file in a number of typical directories  for installation of the Mined runtime support library. If it is placed in a non-standard location, the environment  variable MINEDDIR should point to the directory. (Mined also tries to find the help file in the directory  where it was started from; this is especially useful for the  DOS/Windows version.)

Mined compile-time configuration

Script highlighting

The the mined distribution contains a file  src/colours.cfg; it contains entries with the  script name (as listed in the Unicode data file  Scripts.txt), blank space, and a colour index  into the xterm 256-colour mode. (To make good use of 256  colour mode, the terminal program should be compiled with 256  colour support enabled. Configure xterm with  configure --enable-256-color .)
Edit colours.cfg before building mined to  adapt coloured script display to your preferences.

Encodings and Encoding menu

The mined distribution contains a file src/charmaps.cfg  which defines the character encodings that mined knows and how  they are presented in the Encoding menu, together with flags for  indication in the Encoding flag and tags for use with the  -E and +E  options (and the MINEDDETECT environment variable).
The configuration file allows the definition of submenus in the  Encoding menu.
Each character encoding entry charmap-name must  correspond to an existing character mapping file  charmaps/charmap-name.map. Additional character mappings can be generated with the script  mkchrmap.

Encodings recognised by locale names

The mined distribution contains a file src/locales.cfg  which maps locale names to associated character encodings. While this list contains mainly locale names without explicit  encoding suffix, mined also checks generic locale name suffix  values and assumes the corresponding terminal encoding. Thus the given names or suffixes can be used even on legacy  systems without locale support to indicate the terminal  environment and preferred text encoding properly to mined.

Keyboard mapping (Input method)

The mined distribution contains a file src/keymaps.cfg  and a script mkkbmap; go into the  src directory and use the script to generate  additional keyboard mappings: The parameter to the mkkbmap script can be one of

path.../name.mim

a keyboard mapping file of the m17n-db multilingualization package

path.../name.kmap

a keyboard mapping file of the yudit text editor

path.../name.vim

a keyboard mapping file of the vim text editor

path.../name.cit

an input method mapping file of the cxterm terminal,  binary form; only works if the cxterm binary/text  conversion utility cit2tit is accessible

path.../name.tit

an input method mapping file of the cxterm terminal,  text form; only works if the character set  conversion utility iconv is accessible and  works on the mapping file

path.../name.utf

an input method mapping file of the cxterm terminal,  already converted to UTF-8 encoding (e.g. with iconv)

Cangjie [ < HKSCS Changjie table file name > ]

with this tag, a keyboard mapping for the Cangjie input method  will be generated, taking information from the Unihan database (unicode.org);
with a second parameter, a Big5-encoded table of HKSCS  Changjie input codes will be merged in,  the parameter is either the file name or a +  sign which is implicitly expanded to the relative path name etc/charmaps/hkscs/hkscs-2004-cj.txt; the HKSCS input codes file should be taken from  http://info.gov.hk/digital21/eng/hkscs/

MainlandTelegraph , TaiwanTelegraph

with one of these tags, a keyboard mapping will be generated  using one of these telegraph codes as an input method, taking information from the Unihan database (unicode.org)

Cantonese , HanyuPinlu , Mandarin , Tang

with one of these tags, a keyboard mapping will be generated  using the according Chinese pronunciation as an input method, taking information from the Unihan database (unicode.org)

JapaneseKun , JapaneseOn

with one of these tags, a keyboard mapping will be generated  using Japanese or Sino-Japanese pronunciation as an input method, taking information from the Unihan database (unicode.org)

Korean , Vietnamese

with one of these tags, a keyboard mapping will be generated  using Korean or Vietnamese pronunciation as an input method, taking information from the Unihan database (unicode.org)

VIQR , VNI , Vtelex

with one of these tags, a keyboard mapping will be generated  for the respective Vietnamese input methods, taking character information from the Unicode database (unicode.org)

script tag

for many scripts listed in the UnicodeData.txt database,  character names listed there can build a useful  keyboard mapping;  mkkbmap will then generate an according  keyboard mapping file, e.g. for Bopomofo

Each successful generation of a mapping table adds an entry  to the configuration file keymaps.cfg; the  entry is however initially disabled as it usually needs manual  adjustment: edit the configuration file; enable the new  entry by removing the leading '#' character, check the first  element which will be the name of the mapping to appear in the  Input Method menu, check the last element of the entry  which is a two-letter shortcut and must be unique for all  mappings, then move the entry to the position where you want  it to appear in the menu. You can also group mappings by  adding "-" lines in this configuration file.
For the Unicode data version used for included keyboard mappings,  see the mined change log.
For the keyboard mappings generated from Unihan data,  characters are sorted according to the priorities of their  Unicode ranges (assigning lower priority to "Supplement" and  "Extension" and "Compatibility" ranges). So for some input mnemos, the "pick list" for the Cangjie  input method is displayed more in order of relevance.
For keyboard mappings for CJK encodings, mkkbmap will add  appropriate punctuation mapping entries for Chinese, Japanese,  Korean, respectively, in addition to the entries derived from  the respective data source.

Environment Variables

Environment variables for configuration of mined are listed  in the script file profile.mined  in the Mined runtime support library  together with explanations and suggested values.
Further variables used by mined in the usual meaning are:

HOME
USER
SHELL
MINEDOPT
LC_ALL, LC_CTYPE, LANG

Locale variables affect assumed terminal encoding,  default text encoding, and language-related features (such as quote style).

LANGUAGE

Affects language-related features. Affects assumed text encoding  only if it has an explicit encoding suffix (like .UTF-8). Does not affect assumed terminal encoding.

TEXTLANG

Deprecated: like LANGUAGE.

CYGWIN
TMPDIR
TMP
TEMP (MSDOS)
SYS$SCRATCH (VMS)
TERM

Terminal type to be assumed.

ESCDELAY

Delay after an ESCAPE character that mined waits for  recognition of a function key control sequence. Default is 450 ms.

MAPDELAY (non-standard)

Similar delay that mined applies to wait for subsequent  input characters when applying keyboard mapping for an  input method. Default is 900 ms.

LINES, COLUMNS (MSDOS ANSI mode only)

Line / column count of terminal to be assumed.

windir

Used to determine if it runs under MS Windows and set some  defaults (screen output delay) accordingly.

Environment variables to configure Printing

MINEDPRINT

Print command to use instead of uprint; the value  must contain the string '%s'  (quoting recommended) to insert the file name.

FONT

Name of a font file, e.g. LucidaBrightRegular or bodoni.ttf  for use with uprint/uniprint  (the file must reside in the configured font path), or name of  a font as specified with fontconfig (in  $HOME/.fonts.conf or  /etc/fonts/fonts.conf) for use with  uprint/paps.

FONTPATH

Directory search path (separate directory names with ":")  for use with uprint/uniprint which uses Truetype fonts.

FONTSIZE

Font size to be used with uprint (paps or uniprint).

LPR

Print spooling command to be used by uprint (or  mined itself if uprint does not work) instead of the  system-specific print spooling command (e.g. lpr).

PRINTER

Name of printer to spool to.

Files

Unix

$MINEDDIR

directory in which the Mined runtime support library is  installed, including the help file mined.hlp  and the printing script uprint

mined.hlp

help file for interactive hints (F1 commands); mined looks for the file in $MINEDDIR/help, $0, and a number of other typical directories  where program support files are installed on various systems

$MINEDTMP

directory for auxiliary files, first attempt Using this variable and $MINEDUSER (see below), you can  establish copy and paste among machines that share network  directories but are normally configured to use separate  (usually local) temporary directories.

$TMPDIR

directory for auxiliary files, next attempt

$TMP

directory for auxiliary files, next attempt

$TEMP

directory for auxiliary files, next attempt

/usr/tmp

directory for auxiliary files, next attempt

/tmp

directory for auxiliary files, next attempt

Note: $MINEDUSER

user name assumed instead of $USER for building  auxiliary file names; using this, common copy-and-paste buffers  can be used on a network file system from different machines  where the user possibly has different user names

$HOME/.fonts.conf

fonts configuration file for use with  uprint/paps; for description, see  http://fontconfig.org/fontconfig-user.html  or man fonts.conf

minedbuf.< USER >.< PID >.< NN >

temporary file for paste buffer;  USER is either $MINEDUSER or $USER

minedbuf.< USER >

file for inter-window paste buffer;  USER is either $MINEDUSER or $USER;  see descriptions of $MINEDTMP and  $MINEDUSER above for how to set up a common  inter-window paste buffer in a heterogeneous network

minedrecover.< USER >.< PID >

panic file to rescue text in case of crash or external signal caught

Vms

SYS$MINEDTMP:$MINED$user_BUF.pid_nn

paste buffer

SYS$MINEDTMP:$MINEDBUF$user

inter-window paste buffer

SYS$SCRATCH:$MINEDRECOVER$user$pid

panic file

SYS$SCRATCH:$MINEDPRINT$user$pid$n.lis

print spool file

MINED$HELP

help file (may be configured as a logical name)

If SYS$MINEDTMP is not available,

SYS$SCRATCH is used instead. If SYS$SCRATCH is not available,  SYS$LOGIN is used instead.

MSDOS / Windows

%MINEDDIR%\help\mined.hlp

help file, first attempt (to find it)

mined.hlp (in mined program directory)

help file, next attempt

%MINEDTMP%\minedbuf.nn

paste buffer

%MINEDTMP%\minedbuf

inter-window paste buffer

%MINEDTMP%\minedbuf.%MINEDUSER%

inter-window paste buffer, as configured to use the same  file as other mined versions in a heterogeneous network;  note, however, that %MINEDUSER% will be  shortened to 3 characters in pure DOS

%MINEDTMP%\minedsv_.*

panic file

If %MINEDTMP% is not available,

%TEMP% or %TMP% or \ are used.

Diagnostics

In all cases where it is considered sensible, the appropriate  message of a system error occurred is displayed (instead of  printing numerical hieroglyphs or indistinguished commonplace  messages as many other Unix tools do).

Bugs

In an extremely narrow terminal window (less than 8 characters),  if lines are shifted out of the display, moving the cursor around  may cause positioning errors and display garbage.

(MSDOS, Windows:) With non-cygwin versions (djgpp), piped  editing from standard input does not work for unknown reason.

(Windows:) Non-cygwin versions (djgpp) do not work in xterm,  rxvt, or mintty.

Author and Acknowledgements

Long ago, the initial version of mined was written for the Minix  educational operating system by Michiel Huisjes. It was adapted to Unix by Achim Müller who added termcap support. Mined was later debugged, partly rewritten and enhanced and  is now maintained by Thomas Wolff.
Please send comments, suggestions, bug reports to  mined@towo.net.

Mailing list

Mined is also hosted as a  sourceforge project (sf.net/projects/mined) where a  mailing list is available. To subscribe for information about  updates, or discussion, error reports, and feature requests,  or to send a mail, please go to the  Mined mailing list page.

Acknowledgements

  • Thanks to Nadim Shaikli < shaikli @ yahoo.com > for discussion  of right-to-left issues and interworking with mlterm.
  • Thanks to Mike Fabian < mfabian @ suse.de >  for making the RPM package included in the SuSE distribution.
  • Thanks to Ziying Sherwin < sherwin @ nlm.nih.gov >  and R. P. Channing Rodgers < rodgers @ nlm.nih.gov >  for suggestions and information about CJK input method support  and multiple choice handling (pick lists).
  • Thanks to Tobias Ernst < tobias_ernst @ eml.cc > for  providing a Mac OS X makefile and suggestion and information  to implement Emacs command mode.
  • Thanks to 吴咏炜 (Wu Yongwei)  < yongwei @ eastday.com >  for suggestions and information about Pinyin input methods,  for discussion about keyboard mappings for CJK punctuation,  and for further maintaining the Pinyin input method.
  • Thanks to Ramakrishnan Muthukrishnan < rkrishnan @ debian.org >  for making the Debian package.
  • Thanks to Thierry Thomas < thierry @ FreeBSD.org >  for making the FreeBSD package.
  • Thanks to Tobias Nygren < tnn @ NetBSD.org >  for making the NetBSD package.
  • Thanks to Jim Breen for suggesting better overview of input  methods and more language-specific advice for non-techy  persons which led to the new chapter on Language support.

Referenced By

The man pages minmacs(1), mpico(1), mstar(1), umined(1) and xmined(1) are aliases of mined(1).

March 2015 mined 2015.25 Unicode text editor