ls man page

ls — list directory contents

TL;DR

ls -1

ls -a

ls -la

ls -lh

ls -lS

ls -ltr

Synopsis

ls [OPTION]... [FILE]...

Description

List information about the FILEs (the current directory by default). Sort entries alphabetically if none of -cftuvSUX nor --sort is specified.

Mandatory arguments to long options are mandatory for short options too.

-a, --all
do not ignore entries starting with .
-A, --almost-all
do not list implied . and ..
--author
with -l, print the author of each file
-b, --escape
print C-style escapes for nongraphic characters
--block-size=SIZE
scale sizes by SIZE before printing them; e.g., '--block-size=M' prints sizes in units of 1,048,576 bytes; see SIZE format below
-B, --ignore-backups
do not list implied entries ending with ~
-c
with -lt: sort by, and show, ctime (time of last modification of file status information); with -l: show ctime and sort by name; otherwise: sort by ctime, newest first
-C
list entries by columns
--color[=WHEN]
colorize the output; WHEN can be 'always' (default if omitted), 'auto', or 'never'; more info below
-d, --directory
list directories themselves, not their contents
-D, --dired
generate output designed for Emacs' dired mode
-f
do not sort, enable -aU, disable -ls --color
-F, --classify
append indicator (one of */=>@|) to entries
--file-type
likewise, except do not append '*'
--format=WORD
across -x, commas -m, horizontal -x, long -l, single-column -1, verbose -l, vertical -C
--full-time
like -l --time-style=full-iso
-g
like -l, but do not list owner
--group-directories-first

group directories before files;

can be augmented with a --sort option, but any use of --sort=none (-U) disables grouping

-G, --no-group
in a long listing, don't print group names
-h, --human-readable
with -l and/or -s, print human readable sizes (e.g., 1K 234M 2G)
--si
likewise, but use powers of 1000 not 1024
-H, --dereference-command-line
follow symbolic links listed on the command line
--dereference-command-line-symlink-to-dir

follow each command line symbolic link

that points to a directory

--hide=PATTERN
do not list implied entries matching shell PATTERN (overridden by -a or -A)
--indicator-style=WORD
append indicator with style WORD to entry names: none (default), slash (-p), file-type (--file-type), classify (-F)
-i, --inode
print the index number of each file
-I, --ignore=PATTERN
do not list implied entries matching shell PATTERN
-k, --kibibytes
default to 1024-byte blocks for disk usage
-l
use a long listing format
-L, --dereference
when showing file information for a symbolic link, show information for the file the link references rather than for the link itself
-m
fill width with a comma separated list of entries
-n, --numeric-uid-gid
like -l, but list numeric user and group IDs
-N, --literal
print raw entry names (don't treat e.g. control characters specially)
-o
like -l, but do not list group information
-p, --indicator-style=slash
append / indicator to directories
-q, --hide-control-chars
print ? instead of nongraphic characters
--show-control-chars
show nongraphic characters as-is (the default, unless program is 'ls' and output is a terminal)
-Q, --quote-name
enclose entry names in double quotes
--quoting-style=WORD
use quoting style WORD for entry names: literal, locale, shell, shell-always, shell-escape, shell-escape-always, c, escape
-r, --reverse
reverse order while sorting
-R, --recursive
list subdirectories recursively
-s, --size
print the allocated size of each file, in blocks
-S
sort by file size, largest first
--sort=WORD
sort by WORD instead of name: none (-U), size (-S), time (-t), version (-v), extension (-X)
--time=WORD
with -l, show time as WORD instead of default modification time: atime or access or use (-u); ctime or status (-c); also use specified time as sort key if --sort=time (newest first)
--time-style=STYLE
with -l, show times using style STYLE: full-iso, long-iso, iso, locale, or +FORMAT; FORMAT is interpreted like in 'date'; if FORMAT is FORMAT1<newline>FORMAT2, then FORMAT1 applies to non-recent files and FORMAT2 to recent files; if STYLE is prefixed with 'posix-', STYLE takes effect only outside the POSIX locale
-t
sort by modification time, newest first
-T, --tabsize=COLS
assume tab stops at each COLS instead of 8
-u
with -lt: sort by, and show, access time; with -l: show access time and sort by name; otherwise: sort by access time, newest first
-U
do not sort; list entries in directory order
-v
natural sort of (version) numbers within text
-w, --width=COLS
set output width to COLS. 0 means no limit
-x
list entries by lines instead of by columns
-X
sort alphabetically by entry extension
-Z, --context
print any security context of each file
-1
list one file per line. Avoid '\n' with -q or -b
--help
display this help and exit
--version
output version information and exit

The SIZE argument is an integer and optional unit (example: 10K is 10*1024). Units are K,M,G,T,P,E,Z,Y (powers of 1024) or KB,MB,... (powers of 1000).

Using color to distinguish file types is disabled both by default and with --color=never. With --color=auto, ls emits color codes only when standard output is connected to a terminal. The LS_COLORS environment variable can change the settings. Use the dircolors command to set it.

Exit status

0
if OK,
1
if minor problems (e.g., cannot access subdirectory),
2
if serious trouble (e.g., cannot access command-line argument).

Author

Written by Richard M. Stallman and David MacKenzie.

Reporting Bugs

GNU coreutils online help: <http://www.gnu.org/software/coreutils/>
Report ls translation bugs to <http://translationproject.org/team/>

See Also

Full documentation at: <http://www.gnu.org/software/coreutils/ls>
or available locally via: info '(coreutils) ls invocation'

Referenced By

acl(5), amd.conf(5), archive_entry_perms(3), augenrules(8), bsdtar(1), bup-index(1), column(1), ctags(1), dir_colors(5), ecryptfs-find(1), feh(1), file(1), filefuncs.3am(3), find(1), getbsize(3), gio(1), glob(3), groff_mdoc(7), heimdal-ftpd(8), lsblk(8), lsof(1), mdoc.samples(7), mksh(1), mq_overview(7), namei(1), obnam(1), opax(1), opendmarc-importstats(8), passwd(5), perlipc(1), procenv(1), pseudolog(1), pure-ftpd(8), qcmd(1), quot(8), rc(1), richacl(7), richaclex(7), ronn(1), ronn-format(7), rtbl(3), scpio(1), setfiles(8), sftp(1), shtool-mdate(1), sl(1), spax(1), sphinx-all-3.5(1), stat(2), strverscmp(3), symlink(7), tarsnap(1), tcsh(1), tmpwatch(8), tree(1), vifm-convert-dircolors(1), virt-ls(1), zipinfo(1), zshmodules(1).

January 2016 GNU coreutils 8.25 User Commands